Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.
Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…
Williams, Gabrielle J; Craig, Jonathan C; Carapetis, Jonathan R
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, causes them considerable discomfort, as well as distress to parents and has a tendency to recur. Approximately 20% of those children who experience one infection will have a repeat episode. Since 1975, 11 trials of long-term antibiotics compared with placebo or no treatment in 1,550 children have been published. Results have been heterogeneous, but the largest trial demonstrated a small reduction (6% absolute risk reduction, risk ratio 0.65) in the risk of repeat symptomatic UTI over 12 months of treatment. This effect was consistent across sub groups of children based upon age, gender, vesicoureteric reflux status and number of prior infections. Trials involving re-implantation surgery (and antibiotics compared with antibiotics alone) for the sub-group of children with vesicoureteric reflux have not shown a reduction in repeat UTI, with the possible exception of a very small benefit for febrile UTI. Systematic reviews have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of repeat infection but 111 circumcisions would need to be performed to prevent one UTI in unpredisposed boys. Given the need for anaesthesia and the risk of surgical complication, net clinical benefit is probably restricted to those who are predisposed (such as those with recurrent infection). Many small trials in complementary therapies have been published and many suggest some benefit, however inclusion of children is limited. Only three trials involving 394 children for cranberry products, two trials with a total of 252 children for probiotics and one trial with 24 children for vitamin A are published. Estimates of efficacy vary widely and imprecision is evident. Multiple interventions to prevent UTI in children exist. Of those, long-term low dose antibiotics has the strongest evidence base, but the benefit is small. Circumcision in boys reduces the risk substantially, but should be restricted to those at risk. There is little evidence of benefit of
Jørgensen, Mette Rose; pqd956, pqd956; Twetman, Svante
PURPOSE: This review summarized the available literature on the prevention of childhood caries through biofilm engineering with probiotic bacteria in early childhood. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip) were searched through January, 2016 for randomized controlled trials...
Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.
Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…
Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence related to self-applied and professionally applied fluorides, antimicrobial agents, fissure sealants, temporary restorations, and restorative care for the prevention and management of early childhood caries (E...
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Joventino, Emanuella Silva; Ximenes, Lorena Barbosa; da Penha, Jardeliny Corrêa; Andrade, Lucilande Cordeiro de Oliveira; de Almeida, Paulo César
Diarrhoea is responsible for high rates of infant morbidity and mortality. It is multifactorial, manifested by socioeconomic, hygienic, and maternal factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an educational video on maternal self-efficacy for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea. This was a randomized trial conducted in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Participants were 2 groups (comparison and intervention), composed of mothers of children under 5 years of age. Group membership was allocated by cluster randomization. Outcomes were maternal self-efficacy measured using the Maternal Self-efficacy Scale for Prevention of Early Childhood Diarrhoea; outcome data collectors were blinded to group allocation. Ninety participants were randomized to each group; 83 intervention group and 80 comparison group members were contained in the final analysis. Maternal self-efficacy in preventing childhood diarrhoea increased in both groups, but average scores of the intervention group were higher at all time than those of the comparison group. The educational video had a significant effect on maternal self-efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jennifer D. Zwicker; Carolyn Dudley; J.C. Herbert Emery
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a serious disease that is about much more than cavities on baby teeth. In Canada, it is a growing public health problem with adverse long-term effects on children's physical, emotional and intellectual well-being. The failure to invest in preventive care has resulted in reactive, rather than proactive, measures against this disease. These measures are expensive and a needless drain on costs in the public health-care system. Children with severe ECC end up in ho...
Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...
Sanders, Lee M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L
Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician-parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment
Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan
Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.
Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984
Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I
Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.
Adair, Linda S
Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Luis Lefio Celedón
Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.
Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K
This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.
Bartz, Sarah; Freemark, Michael
Among the factors predisposing to type 2 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults, the health and behavior of both the mother and father are critical. Prevention and treatment of parental nutritional disorders (including obesity and malnutrition), promotion of breastfeeding, and avoidance of overfeeding of young children are essential for childhood health and metabolic function. Focusing research and policy on parental influences on childhood health should reduce the risks of obesity and type 2 diabetes in future generations.
Adams, Sally H; Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A
The objective of this study was to determine caregiver treatment acceptability and preferences for five preventive dental treatments for early childhood caries in young Hispanic children. We interviewed 211 parents/caregivers of Hispanic children attending Head Start programs regarding their acceptability of, and preferences for, five standard preventive dental treatments for young children. Treatments assessed were toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish, and xylitol in food for children, and xylitol gum and chlorhexidine rinse for mothers. The interview assessment included presentation of illustrated cards with verbal description of treatment, photograph/video clip, and treatment samples. Parents rated the acceptability of each treatment (1-5 scale) and treatment preferences within each of 10 possible pairs. Individual treatment preferences were summed to create overall preference scores (range 0-4). All treatments were rated as highly acceptable, however, there were differences (range 4.6-4.9; Friedman chi-square = 23.4, P treatment preferences revealed greater variability (means ranged 1.4-2.6; Friedman chi-square = 128.2, P treatments were highly acceptable, however, when choosing among treatments overall, fluoride varnish and toothbrushing were favored over other treatments.
Jennifer D. Zwicker
Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a serious disease that is about much more than cavities on baby teeth. In Canada, it is a growing public health problem with adverse long-term effects on children's physical, emotional and intellectual well-being. The failure to invest in preventive care has resulted in reactive, rather than proactive, measures against this disease. These measures are expensive and a needless drain on costs in the public health-care system. Children with severe ECC end up in hospital; in fact, in Canada, this disease is the most common reason children undergo day surgery. From 2010 to 2012, one in 100 children under age five required day surgery for ECC, with approximately 19,000 of these surgeries performed each year on children under age six. Canadian hospital costs for ECC day surgery in children aged one to five ranged from $1,271 to $1,963 per child, totalling $21.2 million between 2010 and 2012. Children from low-income families, along with aboriginal, immigrant and refugee children are disproportionately affected by dental disease, with between 50 per cent and 90 per cent of suffering from some form of ECC. This compares to an average of 57 per cent of children affected in the general population. A recent Alberta study indicates that when municipalities cease fluoridating their water supplies, children suffer increased levels of tooth decay. This has reignited the discussion around whether municipalities should add fluoride to the drinking water, or reinstate it in places where the water used to be fluoridated. While fluoridation can be an effective prevention strategy, this study also shows that fluoride alone is not enough. To reduce the costs and developmental consequences associated with severe ECC and improve well-being, oral health policies focused on disease prevention and health promotion are still necessary. This briefing paper provides background on the etiology, risk factors and prevalence of ECC in Canada to
Daniels, Lynne Allison; Mallan, Kimberley Margaret; Nicholson, Jan Maree; Battistutta, Diana; Magarey, Anthea
The goal of this study was to evaluate outcomes of a universal intervention to promote protective feeding practices that commenced in infancy and aimed to prevent childhood obesity. The NOURISH randomized controlled trial enrolled 698 first-time mothers (mean ± SD age: 30.1 ± 5.3 years) with healthy term infants (51% female) aged 4.3 ± 1.0 months at baseline. Mothers were randomly allocated to self-directed access to usual care or to attend two 6-session interactive group education modules that provided anticipatory guidance on early feeding practices. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after completion of the second information module, 20 months from baseline and when the children were 2 years old. Maternal feeding practices were self-reported by using validated questionnaires and study-developed items. Study-measured child height and weight were used to calculate BMI z scores. Retention at follow-up was 78%. Mothers in the intervention group reported using responsive feeding more frequently on 6 of 9 subscales and 8 of 8 items (all, P ≤ .03) and overall less controlling feeding practices (P feeding practices (3 of 4 items; all, P feeding, tailored to developmental stage, increased use by first-time mothers of "protective" feeding practices that potentially support the development of healthy eating and growth patterns in young children.
Chi, Donald L.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Milgrom, Peter
Purpose We assessed the efficacy of supervised toothbrushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and to reduce mutans streptococci (MS). Methods In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 4 Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400ppm/31% fluoride-xylitol (Epic Dental, Provo, UT) or 1,450ppm fluoride-sorbitol toothpaste (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY) (N=196 children, ages 4–5 yrs). We hypothesized no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was primary molar d2-3mfs increment after 6 mos. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children) and 2 classrooms to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. Results There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d2-3mfs. The mean d2-3mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d2-3mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% CI:−0.17, 2.37;P=0.07). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion After 6 mos, brushing with a low strength xylitol/fluoride toothpaste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride only toothpaste in a high caries risk child population. PMID:24709430
Chi, Donald L; Tut, Ohnmar; Milgrom, Peter
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of supervised tooth-brushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and reduce mutans streptococci. In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 196 four- to five-year-old children in four Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400 ppm/31 percent fluoride xylitol or 1,450 ppm fluoride sorbitol toothpaste. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was the surface-level primary molar caries increment (d(2-3)mfs) after six months. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children), and two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d(2-3)mfs. The mean d(2-3)mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d(2-3)mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% confidence interval: -0.17, 2.37; P=.07). No adverse effects were reported. After six months, brushing with a low-strength xylitol/fluoride tooth-paste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride-only toothpaste in a high caries-risk child population.
Movin, Maria; Garden, Frances L; Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Svensdotter, Frida; Andersson, David; Kruse, Andreas; Cowell, Chris T; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina
Understanding the associations between childhood asthma and growth in early adolescence by accounting for the heterogeneity of growth during puberty has been largely unexplored. The objective was to identify sex-specific classes of growth trajectories during early adolescence, using a method which takes the heterogeneity of growth into account and to evaluate the association between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories in adolescence. Our longitudinal study included participants with a family history of asthma born during 1997-1999 in Sydney, Australia. Hence, all participants were at high risk for asthma. Asthma status was ascertained at 8 years of age using data from questionnaires and lung function tests. Growth trajectories between 11 and 14 years of age were classified using a latent basis growth mixture model. Multinomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between asthma and the categorized classes of growth trajectories. In total, 316 participants (51.6% boys), representing 51.3% of the entire cohort, were included. Sex-specific classes of growth trajectories were defined. Among boys, asthma was not associated with the classes of growth trajectories. Girls with asthma were more likely than girls without asthma to belong to a class with later growth (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.84). Excluding participants using inhaled corticosteroids or adjusting for confounders did not significantly change the results for either sex. We identified sex-specific heterogeneous classes of growth using growth mixture modelling. Associations between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories were found for girls only. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Feldman, Amy S.; He, Yuan; Moore, Martin L.; Hershenson, Marc B.
A first step in primary disease prevention is identifying common, modifiable risk factors that contribute to a significant proportion of disease development. Infant respiratory viral infection and childhood asthma are the most common acute and chronic diseases of childhood, respectively. Common clinical features and links between these diseases have long been recognized, with early-life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) being strongly associated with increased asthma risk. However, there has long been debate over the role of these respiratory viruses in asthma inception. In this article, we systematically review the evidence linking early-life RSV and RV LRTIs with asthma inception and whether they could therefore be targets for primary prevention efforts. PMID:25369458
Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; Degroot, Julie; Carsley, Sarah; Thorpe, Kevin E; Mamdani, Muhammad; Parkin, Patricia C
OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of modifiable dietary intake variables (current vitamin D supplementation and daily cow's milk intake) on 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in early childhood and to evaluate the relationship between these modifiable dietary factors and other largely nonmodifiable determinants of vitamin D status including skin pigmentation and season. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Primary care pediatric and family medicine practices participating in the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS From December 2008 to June 2011, healthy children 1 to 5 years of age were recruited during a routine physician's visit. INTERVENTIONS Survey, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory data were collected. A multivariable linear regression model was developed to examine the independent effects of vitamin D supplementation and daily volume of cow's milk on 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES 25-Hydroxyvitamin D level. RESULTS Blood was obtained in 1898 children. Two modifiable dietary intake variables, vitamin D supplementation and cow's milk, increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D level by 3.4 ng/mL (95% CI, 2-4 ng/mL) and 1.6 ng/mL per 250-mL cup per day (95% CI, 1-2 ng/mL), respectively. Two nonmodifiable variables reflecting cutaneous vitamin D synthesis (skin pigmentation and season) were also strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D status but accounted for a much smaller proportion of the explained variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. The effect of vitamin D supplementation and milk intake on 25-hydroxyvitamin D level appeared similar regardless of skin pigmentation or season. CONCLUSION Two modifiable dietary intake variables (vitamin D supplementation and cow's milk intake) are the most important determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in early childhood.
Akilah Dulin Keita
Full Text Available Background. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children’s health behaviors. Methods. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. Results. 39 (78% parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P=0.001 and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P=0.036. Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P<0.01 and also reduced weekend TV time. In addition, the number of homes with TV sets in the child’s bedroom also decreased (P<0.0013. Conclusions. The findings indicate that a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children.
Full Text Available BackgroundChildhood obesity is a major clinical and economic health concern. Alongside the clinical understanding of obesity, there is a growing interest in designing and implementing interventions that are worth their money given the scarce resources in the health care sector. This study is one of the first efforts to provide evidence by assessing the effects and costs of a population-based primary prevention intervention targeting pre-school children attending child health centers in Sweden.MethodsThe economic evaluation is based on the PRIMROSE cluster-randomized controlled trial aiming to establish healthy eating and physical activity among pre-school children (9–48 months of age through motivational interviewing applied by trained nurses at child health centers. The cost-effectiveness is assessed over the trial period from a societal perspective. The primary outcome was BMI at age 4. Cost data was prospectively collected alongside the trial. Scenario analyses were carried out to identify uncertainty.ResultsThe estimated additional mean total costs of the PRIMROSE intervention were 342 Euro (95% CI: 334; 348 per child. During pre-school years direct costs mainly consist of training costs and costs for the additional time used by nurses to implement the intervention compared to usual care. Early indirect costs mainly consist of parents’ absence from work due to their participation in the intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case analysis was 3,109 Euro per 1 BMI unit prevented.ConclusionWe cannot provide evidence that the PRIMROSE intervention is cost-effective, given the uncertainty in the effect measure. Until further evidence is provided, we recommend resources to be spent elsewhere within the field of obesity prevention. Furthermore, to achieve valid and reliable cost-effectiveness results, the economic evaluation of obesity prevention programs in early childhood should incorporate the life time
Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.
Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co
Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes
In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010
Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…
Beyerlein, Andreas; Kusian, Dennis; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele; Schaffrath-Rosario, Angelika; von Kries, Rüdiger
Whether specific combinations of risk factors in very early life might allow identification of high-risk target groups for overweight prevention programs was examined. Data of n = 8981 children from the German KiGGS study were analyzed. Using a classification tree approach, predictive risk factor combinations were assessed for overweight in 3-6, 7-10, and 11-17-year-old children. In preschool children, the subgroup with the highest overweight risk were migrant children with at least one obese parent, with a prevalence of 36.6 (95% confidence interval or CI: 22.9, 50.4)%, compared to an overall prevalence of 10.0 (8.9, 11.2)%. The prevalence of overweight increased from 18.3 (16.8, 19.8)% to 57.9 (46.6, 69.3)% in 7-10-year-old children, if at least one parent was obese and the child had been born large-for-gestational-age. In 11-17-year-olds, the overweight risk increased from 20.1 (18.9, 21.3)% to 63.0 (46.4, 79.7)% in the highest risk group. However, high prevalence ratios were found only in small subgroups, containing <10% of all overweight cases in the respective age group. Our results indicate only a limited potential for early targeted preventions against overweight in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups
Early and rapid growth in infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social ...
Miller, Margaret; Hearn, Lydia; van der Pligt, Paige; Wilcox, Jane; Campbell, Karen J
Almost half of Australian women of child-bearing age are overweight or obese, with a rate of 30-50% reported in early pregnancy. Maternal adiposity is a costly challenge for Australian obstetric care, with associated serious maternal and neonatal complications. Excess gestational weight gain is an important predictor of offspring adiposity into adulthood and higher maternal weight later in life. Current public health and perinatal care approaches in Australia do not adequately address excess perinatal maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This paper argues that the failure of primary health-care providers to offer systematic advice and support regarding women's weight and related lifestyle behaviours in child-bearing years is an outstanding 'missed opportunity' for prevention of inter-generational overweight and obesity. Barriers to action could be addressed through greater attention to: clinical guidelines for maternal weight management for the perinatal period, training and support of maternal health-care providers to develop skills and confidence in raising weight issues with women, a variety of weight management programs provided by state maternal health services, and clear referral pathways to them. Attention is also required to service systems that clearly define roles in maternal weight management and ensure consistency and continuity of support across the perinatal period.
Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea; Battistutta, Diana; Nicholson, Jan M; Farrell, Ann; Davidson, Geoffrey; Cleghorn, Geoffrey
Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) and include responses (eg coercion) to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal). There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods), food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self-reported maternal feeding practices and parenting
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self
Basir, Leila; Rasteh, Bita; Montazeri, Ali; Araban, Marzieh
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children's primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10) consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received "standard well baby care". The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children's teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p 0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001), health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01), oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01), and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001). This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion for evidence-based decision-making processes regarding ECCs
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood caries (ECC is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children’s primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. Method The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10 consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received “standard well baby care”. The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children’s teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p 0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001, health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01, oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01, and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001. Conclusion This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion
Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.
The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…
Validity and reliability of the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS) to assess health beliefs related to early childhood caries prevention among primary caregivers of children under 5 years of age.
Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Shaw, Bret R; Tanasukarn, Chanuantong; Vatanasomboon, Paranee
Primary caregivers' child oral health care beliefs and practices are major factors in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries (ECC). This study assessed the validity and reliability of a newly-developed scale--the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS)--used to measure beliefs regarding ECC preventive practices among primary caregivers of young children. The ECCPS was developed based on the Health Belief Model. The construct validity and reliability of the ECCPS were examined among 254 low-socioeconomic status primary caregivers with children under five years old, recruifed from 4 Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Health Centers and a kindergarten school. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a four-factor structure. The four factors were labeled as Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers. Internal consistency measured by the Cronbach's coefficient alpha for those four factors were 0.897, 0.971, 0.975 and 0.789, respectively. The ECCPS demonstrated satisfactory levels of reliability and validity for assessing the health beliefs related to ECC prevention among low-socioeconomic primary caregivers.
Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.
In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…
Heller, Lauren R
Upward trends in the relative proportions of slum residents in developing countries have led to widespread concern regarding the impact of slum residency on health behaviors. Measurement of these impacts requires recognizing that unobservable household characteristics that affect the location decision may also affect health care choices and outcomes. To address the potential for bias, this paper models the location decision and the household's demand for maternal and child health services simultaneously using a flexible, semi-parametric approach. It uses a unique urban data set from Bangladesh that incorporates sophisticated geographical mapping techniques to carefully delineate between slum and non-slum areas at a particular point in time. The results suggest that accounting for the endogenous location decision of a family substantially reduces bias in estimated marginal effects of slum residence on preventive care demand. While community infrastructure variables appear correlated with preventive care demand, the causal effect of the availability of primary health care facilities is indistinguishable from zero when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account. The findings suggest that improvements in community infrastructure in urban areas of developing countries are a more favorable health policy solution at the margin than the construction of additional health care facilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barclay, Lisa K.
Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)
Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema
This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…
Döring, Nora; Ghaderi, Ata; Bohman, Benjamin
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate a manualized theory-driven primary preventive intervention aimed at early childhood obesity. The intervention was embedded in Swedish child health services, starting when eligible children were 9 to 10 months of age and continuing until the children reached...... 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics....
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank; Reijneveld, Menno
Purpose: A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status.
road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major ... hugely on childhood health in terms of disability and, depending on their cause ... SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds, although this ...
Tanrikulu, Meryem A; Agirbasli, Mehmet; Berenson, Gerald
Fetal life and childhood are important in the development of cardiometabolic risk and later clinical disease of atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Molecular and environmental conditions leading to cardiometabolic risk in early life bring us a challenge to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk in children and later disease. It is important that prevention strategies begin at an early age to reduce future CV morbidity and mortality. Pioneering work from longitudinal studies such as Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS), the Finnish Youth Study and other programs provide an awareness of the need for public and health services to begin primordial prevention. The impending CV risk beginning in childhood has a significant socioeconomic burden. Directions to achieve primordial prevention of cardiometabolic risk in children have been developed by prior longitudinal studies. Based on those studies that show risk factors in childhood as precursors of adult CV risk, implementation of primordial prevention will have effects at broad levels. Considering the epidemic of obesity, the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiometabolic risk, prevention early in life is valuable. Comprehensive health education, such as 'Health Ahead/Heart Smart', for all elementary school age children is one approach to begin primordial prevention and can be included in public education beginning in kindergarten along with the traditional education subject matter.
Karen J. Campbell
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. Methods/Design The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement, version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. Discussion This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. Trial registration ACTRN12611000386932 . Registered 13 April 2011.
Browne, Charlyn Harper
The national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood (QIC-eC) funded four research and demonstration projects that tested child maltreatment prevention approaches. The projects were guided by several key perspectives: the importance of increasing protective factors in addition to decreasing risk factors in child maltreatment prevention…
de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, Andrew C; Kremer, Peter; Park, Janet; Demajo, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Sharp, Sharon; Nichols, Melanie; Carpenter, Lauren; Boak, Rachel; Swinburn, Boyd
The Romp & Chomp controlled trial, which aimed to prevent obesity in preschool Australian children, was recently found to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and improve children's dietary patterns. The intervention focused on capacity building and policy implementation within various early childhood settings. This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of this trial and the lessons learned from this complex community intervention. Process data was collected throughout and audits capturing nutrition and physical activity-related environments and practices were completed postintervention by directors of Long Day Care (LDC) centers (n = 10) and preschools (n = 41) in intervention and comparison (n = 161 LDC and n = 347 preschool) groups. The environmental audits demonstrated positive impacts in both settings on policy, nutrition, physical activity opportunities, and staff capacity and practices, although results varied across settings and were more substantial in the preschool settings. Important lessons were learned in relation to implementation of such community-based interventions, including the significant barriers to implementing health-promotion interventions in early childhood settings, lack of engagement of for-profit LDC centers in the evaluation, and an inability to attribute direct intervention impacts when the intervention components were delivered as part of a health-promotion package integrated with other programs. These results provide confidence that obesity prevention interventions in children's settings can be effective; however, significant efforts must be directed toward developing context-specific strategies that invest in policies, capacity building, staff support, and parent engagement. Recognition by funders and reviewers of the difficulties involved in implementing and evaluating such complex interventions is also critical to strengthening the evidence base on the effectiveness of such public health
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane
With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…
This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…
Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja
This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…
Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura
This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…
Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…
Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.
This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…
Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka
This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…
This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…
A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…
Mann, Courtney M; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Long Vidal, Lenita J; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Østbye, Truls
Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework to the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for FCCHs Following the IM protocol, six steps were completed in the planning and development of an intervention targeting FCCHs: needs assessment, formulation of change objectives matrices, selection of theory-based methods and strategies, creation of intervention components and materials, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning Application of the IM process resulted in the creation of the Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes program (Keys), which includes three modules: Healthy You, Healthy Home, and Healthy Business. Delivery of each module includes a workshop, educational binder and tool-kit resources, and four coaching contacts. Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory helped guide development of change objective matrices, selection of behavior change strategies, and identification of outcome measures. The Keys program is currently being evaluated through a cluster-randomized controlled trial The IM process, while time-consuming, enabled rigorous and systematic development of intervention components that are directly tied to behavior change theory and may increase the potential for behavior change within the FCCHs.
Schroth, Robert J; Edwards, Jeanette M; Brothwell, Douglas J; Yakiwchuk, Carol A; Bertone, Mary F; Mellon, Bernadette; Ward, Jennifer; Ellis, Marion; Hai-Santiago, Khalida; Lawrence, Herenia P; Moffatt, Michael E
To determine the effectiveness of the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) project, a community-developed initiative promoting early childhood oral health in Manitoba, Canada. Specific aims were to assess improvements in caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours relating to early childhood oral health, and the burden of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC). A serial cross-sectional study design was selected to contrast findings following the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) campaign in four communities with the previous baseline data. One community was a remote First Nation in northern Manitoba and another was a rural First Nation in southern Manitoba. The other two communities were urban centres, one of which was located in northern Manitoba. A community-development approach was adopted for the project to foster community solutions to address ECC. Goals of the HSHC program were to promote the project in each community, use existing community-based programs and services to deliver the oral health promotion and ECC prevention activities, and recruit and train natural leaders to assist in program development and to deliver the ECC prevention program. The HSHC coordinator worked with communities to develop a comprehensive list of potential strategies to address ECC. Numerous activities occurred in each community to engage members and increase their knowledge of early childhood oral health and ultimately lead them to adopt preventive oral health practices for their young children. Children under 71 months of age and their primary caregivers participated in this follow-up study. A -value ≤0.05 was statistically significant. 319 children (mean age 38.2±18.6 months) and their primary caregivers participated. Significant improvements in caregiver knowledge and attitudes were observed following the HSHC campaign, including that baby teeth are important (98.8%), that decay involving primary teeth can impact on health (94.3%), and the importance of a dental
Dima, Shinechimeg; Chang, Wei-Jen; Chen, Jung-Wei; Teng, Nai-Chia
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention and implementation of medical setting-based caries prevention among pediatricians and dentists in Taiwan. Data were collected from currently practicing pediatricians and general and pediatric dentists using self-administered questionnaires. A total of 301 questionnaires were completed by the pediatricians ( n = 105), general dentists ( n = 117), and pediatric dentists ( n = 79). The pediatric dentists obtained significantly higher knowledge and practice scores than the general dentists and pediatricians ( p < 0.0001). The pediatricians' attitude score related to engaging physicians in medical office-based caries prevention was significantly higher than the attitude scores of the general and pediatric dentists ( p < 0.05). A Spearman rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between knowledge and practice among the general dentists (r s = 0.271, p < 0.01) and pediatricians (r s = 0.262, p < 0.01). The correlation between knowledge and attitude among the pediatricians was significantly positive (r s = 0.242, p < 0.05). Attitude and practice among the pediatricians were significantly positively correlated (r s = 0.271, p < 0.01). Pediatricians lacked ECC-related knowledge; however, they had a more positive attitude toward medical office-based prevention when they had a higher level of knowledge. Oral health-related education for pediatricians is necessary if such medical office-based caries prevention programs are to be implemented in Taiwan.
Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K
Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that a proportion of children as young as two years are already overweight. This indicates that obesity prevention programs that commence as early as possible and are family-focused are needed. This Healthy Beginnings Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT of a home visiting intervention in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. The intervention will be conducted over the first two years of life to increase healthy feeding behaviours and physical activity, decrease physical inactivity, enhance parent-child interaction, and hence reduce overweight and obesity among children at 2 and 5 years of age in the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Sydney, Australia. Methods/design This RCT will be conducted with a consecutive sample of 782 first time mothers with their newborn children. Pregnant women who are expecting their first child, and who are between weeks 24 and 34 of their pregnancy, will be invited to participate in the trial at the antenatal clinic. Informed consent will be obtained and participants will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or the control group. The allocation will be concealed by sequentially numbered, sealed opaque envelopes containing a computer generated random number. The intervention comprises eight home visits from a specially trained community nurse over two years and pro-active telephone support between the visits. Main outcomes include a duration of breastfeeding measured at 6 and 12 months, b introduction of solids measured at 4 and 6 months, c nutrition, physical activity and television viewing measured at 24 months, and d overweight/obesity status at age 2 and 5 years. Discussion The results of this trial will ascertain whether the home based early intervention is effective in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. If proved to be effective, it
Suma Sogi, H P; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M
The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of "oral health care" in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of "good" practices and "bad" practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.
A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…
Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John
Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother's diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility trial.
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.
Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…
This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…
This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…
This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...
In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…
Herman-Smith, Robert L.
Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…
Mian, Nicholas D; Godoy, Leandra; Eisenhower, Abbey S; Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S
Dissemination of prevention programs targeting young children is impeded by challenges with parent engagement. Matching program characteristics to parent preferences is associated with increased retention in clinical/intervention settings, but little is known about the types of prevention programs that interest parents. The objectives of this study were to better understand parents' preferences for services designed to prevent externalizing and anxiety disorders and to identify factors associated with preferences. Ethnically diverse, low-income caregivers (n = 485) of young children (11-60 months) completed surveys on child anxiety and externalizing symptoms, parental worry about their children, parent anxiety symptoms, and preferences for prevention group topics. Parents were more likely to prefer a group targeting externalizing behaviors compared to anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of children: low symptoms, moderate anxiety-low externalizing, moderate externalizing-low anxiety, and high anxiety and externalizing. Parents' preferences varied according to co-occurrence of child anxiety and externalizing symptoms; interest in a program targeting externalizing problems was associated with elevated externalizing problems (regardless of anxiety symptom level), parent anxiety symptoms, and parent worry about their child. Only parent anxiety symptoms predicted parents' interest in an anxiety-focused program, and preference for an anxiety-focused program was actually reduced if children had co-occurring anxiety and externalizing symptoms versus only anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that parents' interest in a program to prevent externalizing problems was well-aligned with the presenting problem, whereas preferences for anxiety programming suggest a more complex interplay among factors. Parent preferences for targeted programming are discussed within a broader framework of parent engagement.
Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.
Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Seidell, J.C.; Visscher, T.L.S.
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multistakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for
Cook, V V; Hurley, J S
The incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in the past decade in Pima (Akimel O'odham) children, aged 5-17 years, living in the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC). As a result, a diabetes primary prevention program called Quest was implemented in 1996 at an elementary school in the GRIC for students in kindergarten and grades 1-2. The Quest program has four components: (1) biochemical and anthropometric assessments, (2) classroom instruction about diabetes, (3) increased daily physical activity at school, and (4) a structured school breakfast and lunch program. Preliminary results of the program indicate that the school provides a stable environment for behavior change and interventions that slow weight gain in early childhood.
... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...
Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva
Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.
The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... a subtype of disease where skin barrier dysfunction leads to early eczema, early asthma symptoms and later sensitization. Future FLG-targeted research has the potential of improving understanding prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in childhood....
Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan; Arheart, Kris L
To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a child's healthy lifestyle curriculum, and (3) an adult (teacher- and parent-focused) healthy lifestyle role-modeling curriculum. Control centers (N = 16) received an attention control safety curriculum. Nutrition and physical activity data were collected at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the school year. Exploratory factor analysis identified positive and negative nutrition and physical activity practices by children, parents, and teachers. Intervention parents' baseline (β = .52, p consumption (β = .47, p consumption of fruits/vegetables from T1 to T2. Intervention parents significantly influenced a decrease in children's junk food consumption (β = -.04, p junk food consumption (β = .60, p junk food consumption (β = .11, p = .01) and sedentary behavior (β = .09, p consumption of fruits/vegetables, junk food, and level of sedentary behavior. Future obesity prevention intervention efforts targeting this age group should include parents as healthy lifestyle role models for their children.
Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary
Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large
Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka
Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.
Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808
Full Text Available Background: The fourth survey of the surveillance system named ′′childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult non-communicable disease′′ (CASPIAN-IV study, was conducted among a national representative sample of Iranian students. This paper describes the methods and early findings of this survey. Methods: This nationwide school-based study was conducted in 2011-2012 in 30 provinces of Iran among 13,486 students, 6-18 years (6640 girls, 75.6% from urban areas and one of their parents. Results: Mean age of students was 12.5 years. Based on the World Health Organization growth curves, 12.2% were underweight, 9.7% overweight and 11.9% were obese. Abdominal obesity was observed in 19.1% of students. The dominant type of cooking oil in urban families was liquid oil and hydrogenated fat (39% and 32%, most rural families used hydrogenated fat (53%, respectively. A total of 18% of students had at least 30 min of daily physical activity; 41% of students used computer in weekdays and 44% used it in weekends. Almost 34.5% of students reported to have at least one cigarette smoker and 21.5% reported to have a waterpipe smoker in their relatives. Moreover, 20.3% of students reported that they had suffered an injury needing the help of school health providers during the year prior to the study. Conclusions: Current evidence on the health risky behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents confirms the importance of conducting comprehensive surveillance surveys to identify health risk behaviors. Data of this survey and the trend of variables provide necessary information for health policy makers to implement action-oriented interventions.
Isabel Samacá Bohórquez
Full Text Available Play and fun are key elements in the pedagogical work with five-year school children, since the teacher is required to carry out a hermeneutical and phenomenological exercise coming from the interaction among the different languages used by children to communicate their thoughts, emotions and ideas. In order to reflect about the scientific spirit in early childhood, it is necessary firstly to think about how its logic develops and operates and about the need to recognize in the sociocultural environment the possibilities to stimulate talents or the limitations demarcating their development, secondly, teaching practice must be thought in order to establish dialogue forums with students to know their needs and interests and guide their searches. To meet other is possible for children to the extent that the dialogical principle of knowledge interaction is recognized and the discovery of tensions and meeting points around the educational praxis, as an approach to infant’s rationality and his/her ways of learning, towards the social construction of boy and girl gender identity in our society.
America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011
America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.
Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)
World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...
E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on asthma symptoms in early childhood. From a public health perspective, we aim to improve health and health-related quality of life through the prevention of asthma symptoms and by signaling, counselling or management of children who are at a high
Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W
This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.
This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…
Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.
Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less…
Stone, Janet I.
Maintains that early childhood teachers should provide young children with creative, stimulating, and manipulative (hands-on) experiences rather than workbook pages in early mathematics programs. Presents reasons and corresponding counterpositions for using workbooks and suggests sample activities which teachers can use to make mathematics more…
Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.
Ariza, Carles; Ortega-Rodríguez, Eduard; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Valmayor, Sara; Juárez, Olga; Pasarín, M Isabel
The percentage of failure and relapse in the treatment of obesity is high. Where possible, the preferred strategy for preventing obesity is to modify eating habits and lifestyles. This article aims to provide a framework for evidence on the most effective interventions for addressing childhood obesity, both from a prevention point of view, as well as reducing it, when it is already established. After a review of the scientific literature, the issues that must be considered both in the universal and selective prevention of childhood obesity are presented. Also, in light of the controversy over the tools for measuring and controlling the problem, some clarification is provided on the criteria. Finally, the approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity with a community perspective is separated, with two short protocols being offered with diagrams of the basic procedure to follow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Baglama, Basak; Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli
Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with…
Scherbaum, Veronika; Srour, M Leila
Breastfeeding has an important role in the prevention of different forms of childhood malnutrition, including wasting, stunting, over- and underweight and micronutrient deficiencies. This chapter reviews research that demonstrates how improved breastfeeding rates have the potential to improve childhood nutrition, with associated impacts on infectious and noninfectious disease prevention. The unique composition of breastmilk, the importance of breastfeeding in infectious disease prevention, the iron status of breastfed infants, and breastfeeding's protective effect on overweight and obesity are discussed based on currently available research. Early and tailored dietary counseling is needed to improve maternal diets, which can affect the nutritional status of breastmilk. Promotion and support of breastfeeding are important to prevent childhood morbidity and mortality. A review of the literature reveals key factors shown to be effective in improving breastfeeding rates, especially including legislation to control the marketing of breastmilk substitutes. In conclusion, breastfeeding is shown to be the best natural resource to improve childhood nutrition throughout the world. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Abstract Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with special needs or children who are at risk to have sufficient knowledge about early childhood intervention and be competent in this area. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the views of preservice special education teachers about early childhood intervention. This study used quantitative research method and a questionnaire form was used to collect the data. The results are discussed in detail with reference to relevant literature. Implications and recommendations for further research are also provided in order to improve the quality of education policies, programs and practices related with early childhood intervention and increase awareness and knowledge related with early childhood interventions among teacher candidates.
Pradeep Kumar Mishra
Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology serves to reinforce the educational bedrock of any country. Technology has revolutionized the teaching learning process by integrating different source of knowledge - clearly visible from primary to post-tertiary level. This paper examines the introduction of ICT in early childhood years centred on the relationship of ICT with the cognitive, emotional and social development of children. The paper discusses various aspects of the ongoing debate around ICT usage in the early years and tries to answer some of the relevant issues namely, the rationale for early introduction of ICT, the perceived risks and benefits involved in its usage, the role of the parents, and fostering appropriate application of ICT in the early childhood classrooms.
Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann
Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…
Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani
This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…
Robinson, Kerry H.
This paper explores heteronormativity and argues for the "queerying" of gender in early childhood education. The author argues, utilising Butler's theory of performativity and heterosexual matrix, that the construction of gender in young children's lives requires an analysis of the normalising practices in which gendered identities are…
Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa
Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…
Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann
Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…
Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)
This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…
Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra
This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social…
Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen
This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…
Ziv, Haggith Gor
This article discusses the theory and practice of applying critical feminist pedagogy in a teacher's training college. It is based on an analysis of the education of students in an early childhood teaching program (BEd) that seeks to promote social justice through education. This article discusses the areas of the student's education that…
Levinowitz, Lili M.
Surveys some of the research in music education that validates the inclusion of music for its own sake in models for early childhood learning. Focuses on topics that include, but are not limited to, child and vocal development, the importance of movement for children, and adult involvement in music education. (CMK)
Gunaratne, Anoja W; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T
supplementation during pregnancy did not show increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage or early childhood infections. Overall, there is limited evidence to support maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation for reducing allergic disease in children. Few differences in childhood allergic disease were seen between women who were supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA and those who were not.
Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development.
This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…
Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...
Rudnicka, Alicja R; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Wathern, Andrea K; Logan, Nicola S; Gilmartin, Bernard; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Christopher G
The aim of this review was to quantify the global variation in childhood myopia prevalence over time taking account of demographic and study design factors. A systematic review identified population-based surveys with estimates of childhood myopia prevalence published by February 2015. Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log odds of myopia was used to examine the association with age, gender, urban versus rural setting and survey year, among populations of different ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. 143 published articles (42 countries, 374 349 subjects aged 1-18 years, 74 847 myopia cases) were included. Increase in myopia prevalence with age varied by ethnicity. East Asians showed the highest prevalence, reaching 69% (95% credible intervals (CrI) 61% to 77%) at 15 years of age (86% among Singaporean-Chinese). Blacks in Africa had the lowest prevalence; 5.5% at 15 years (95% CrI 3% to 9%). Time trends in myopia prevalence over the last decade were small in whites, increased by 23% in East Asians, with a weaker increase among South Asians. Children from urban environments have 2.6 times the odds of myopia compared with those from rural environments. In whites and East Asians sex differences emerge at about 9 years of age; by late adolescence girls are twice as likely as boys to be myopic. Marked ethnic differences in age-specific prevalence of myopia exist. Rapid increases in myopia prevalence over time, particularly in East Asians, combined with a universally higher risk of myopia in urban settings, suggest that environmental factors play an important role in myopia development, which may offer scope for prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri
Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...
Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C
The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association. Multiple databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Google Scholar) were used in the search as well as a "snowball" search strategy. All study designs were included. Early life stress and adverse childhood experiences are associated with obesity and overweight in adults. Evidence is less consistent in children. Studies vary in the nature of the stress examined (e.g., chronic vs. acute), sample characteristics, and study designs. Longitudinal studies are needed, as the effects of early life stress exposure may not emerge until later in the life-span. Early life stress exposure is associated with biological and behavioral pathways that may increase risk for childhood obesity. There is evidence that early life stress is associated with multiple biological and behavioral pathways in children that may increase risk for later obesity. Little work has detailed the interconnections among these mechanisms across development or identified potential moderators of the association. Mapping the mechanisms connecting early life stress exposure to obesity risk in young children longitudinally should be a priority for obesity researchers. Recommendations for developmentally sensitive approaches to research that can inform obesity prevention strategies are presented. © 2018 The Obesity Society.
Kemp, Coral R.
From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…
Ronzio Cynthia R
Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable reduction in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States, dental caries is still a highly prevalent disease among children who are socially disadvantaged (racial/ethnic minority, poor, rural, immigrants. Consequently, caries sequelae such as dental pain, need for dental treatment under general anesthesia, and future orthodontic treatment, are also concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged children. To make the situation more appalling, those children who need treatment the most are the ones least likely to visit the dentist. Low income children are less likely to visit the dentist in part because of family's competing needs for limited resources, shortage of pediatric dentists, and dentists not taking uninsured or publicly insured patients. In the same vein, if these children do not have access to dental care, they are deprived from effective caries preventive measures that are dentist-dependent such as sealants and professionally applied fluoride. Dentistry has done well at devising caries preventive and treatment strategies; but these strategies have missed the most needed segment of society: disadvantaged children. The challenge now is to develop innovative strategies to reach these children.
Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K
A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki
Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cypern....... Undersøgelsen fokuserede på indsamling af Good practice inden for 5 specifikke kategorier af daglig praksis i børnehaver og børnehaveklasser. Plads og Inventar Personlige omsorgsrutiner Sprog - Tænkning Aktiviteter Interaktioner Struktur Projektet er støttet af Lifelong learning programme of the European Union...
Klára Horváth,1 Kim Plunkett2 12nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we eva...
John Cawley; C. Katharina Spiess
This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various measures of weight (including body mass index and obesity) controlling for a rich set of child, parent, and family characteristics. The findings indicate...
Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida
This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...
Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.
Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A
Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.
Imdad, Aamer; Sadiq, Kamran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Childhood malnutrition is prevalent in developing countries and contributes to one-third of all deaths in these countries. There have been advances in prevention of childhood malnutrition and the purpose of this article was to review the current evidence in the field. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements during pregnancy reduce the incidence of maternal anemia and small for gestational-age babies. Recent evidence suggest that combined supplementation of MMNs with protein energy supplement is more effective than MMN supplementation alone. It is now recommended that HIV-infected mothers can exclusively breast-feed their infants for 6 months when the mother or infant is on effective antiretroviral therapy. Home fortification of complementary foods reduces the prevalence of anemia in infancy and combined supplementation of MMNs with lipid-based supplements improves growth in young children. Ready-to-use therapeutic foods have been successfully used to manage severe acute malnutrition in the community. Zinc supplementation is associated with a reduction in diarrhea and respiratory disease morbidity and improves linear growth. Vitamin A supplementation decreases the incidence of diarrhea and measles. Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are important for the prevention of malnutrition because of their direct impact on infectious disease. There is clear evidence on the causes and consequences of malnutrition as well as effective interventions to prevent undernutrition. The next step is to implement these packages of interventions at large scale. A global effort is required that should entail unified and compelling advocacy among governments, lead organizations, and institutions.
Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child′s food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child′s lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on ′junk′ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.
Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T. Rowan
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure near heterophoria in young children to determine the impact of early growth and development on the alignment of the eyes. Methods. Fifty young children (≥2 and accommodation responses, in the absence of optical correction, were measured using simultaneous Purkinje image tracking and photorefraction technology (MCS PowerRefractor, PR). The resulting heterophorias, and both accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) and convergence accommodation/convergence (CA/C) ratios were then computed as a function of age, refractive error, and an alternating cover test. Results. The mean heterophoria after approximately 60 seconds of dissociation at a 33-cm viewing distance was 5.0 prism diopters (pd) of exophoria (SD ± 3.7) in the children (78% of children > 2 pd exophoric) and 5.6 pd of exophoria (SD ± 4.7) in adults (69% of adults > 2pd exophoric; a nonsignificant difference), with no effect of age between 2 and 6 years. In these children, heterophoria was not significantly correlated with AC/A (r = 0.25), CA/C (r = 0.12), or refractive error (r = 0.21). The mean difference between heterophoria measurements from the PR and the clinical cover test was −2.4 pd (SD = ±3.4), with an exophoric bias in the PR measurements. Conclusions. Despite developmental maturation of interpupillary distance, refractive error, and AC/A, in a typical sample of young children the predominant dissociated position is one of exophoria. PMID:25634983
Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen
Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…
Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.
Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V.; Wathern, Andrea K.; Logan, Nicola S.; Gilmartin, Bernard; Whincup, Peter H.; Cook, Derek G.; Owen, Christopher G.
The aim of this review was to quantify the global variation in childhood myopia prevalence over time taking account of demographic and study design factors. A systematic review identified population-based surveys with estimates of childhood myopia prevalence published by February 2015. Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log odds of myopia was used to examine the association with age, gender, urban versus rural setting and survey year, among populations of different ethnic origins, adj...
The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... with production of specific IgE-antibodies against allergens. Sensitization may cause allergic symptoms, and sensitization early in life is a strong risk factor for later disease. Fetal and early postnatal life seems to be a critical period for development of atopic disease and may be an important “window...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...
Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.
The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745
This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...
Three children with renal disorders managed at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital are reported as case studies to underscore the need for preventive nephrology . The first case illustrates the inevitability of rapidly progressive renal failure when remedial management desired in the early stages of the nephropathy is ...
This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...... worldwide on 'initiatives by governments', this interest has centred on the school environment and institutions of higher education. Thus, despite increasing recognition of the significance of preschool and after-school-care, inclusion in these environments remains peripheral to the main debate....
Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais
Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.
Axton, J. H. M.
Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…
Full Text Available Klára Horváth,1 Kim Plunkett2 12nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development. Keywords: napping, children, infants, cognitive development, daytime sleep, memory, language development, sleep spindles
Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha
The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.
Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif
Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…
Laura E Pryor
Full Text Available Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence.To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories.Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010. Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases. Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years associated with each trajectory.Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %, "late-onset overweight" (16.6% and "never overweight" (72.5%. Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25, short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57, and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84 were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28 was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group.The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.
Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.
Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID
Cabaj, Jason L; McDonald, Sheila W; Tough, Suzanne C
Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children's health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother's health. Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase.
Tackett, Jennifer L; Slobodskaya, Helena R; Mar, Raymond A; Deal, James; Halverson, Charles F; Baker, Spencer R; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Besevegis, Elias
Childhood personality is a rapidly growing area of investigation within individual differences research. One understudied topic is the universality of the hierarchical structure of childhood personality. In the present investigation, parents rated the personality characteristics of 3,751 children from 5 countries and 4 age groups. The hierarchical structure of childhood personality was examined for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-factor models across country (Canada, China, Greece, Russia, and the United States) and age group (3-5, 6-8, 9-11, and 12-14 years of age). Many similarities were noted across both country and age. The Five-Factor Model was salient beginning in early childhood (ages 3-5). Deviations across groups and from adult findings are noted, including the prominent role of antagonism in childhood personality and the high covariation between Conscientiousness and intellect. Future directions, including the need for more explicit attempts to merge temperament and personality models, are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wilken, Lynne R; Novotny, Rachel; Fialkowski, Marie K; Boushey, Carol J; Nigg, Claudio; Paulino, Yvette; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Bersamin, Andrea; Vargo, Don; Kim, Jang; Deenik, Jonathan
Although surveillance data are limited in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii, existing data suggest that the prevalence of childhood obesity is similar to or in excess of other minority groups in the contiguous US. Strategies for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the region support the use of community-based, environmentally targeted interventions. The Children's Healthy Living Program is a partnership formed across institutions in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii to design a community randomized environmental intervention trial and a prevalence survey to address childhood obesity in the region through affecting the food and physical activity environment. The Children's Healthy Living Program community randomized trial is an environmental intervention trial in four matched-pair communities in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and Hawaii and two matched-pair communities in Alaska. A cross-sectional sample of children (goal n = 180) in each of the intervention trial communities is being assessed for outcomes at baseline and at 24 months (18 months post-intervention). In addition to the collection of the participant-based measures of anthropometry, diet, physical activity, sleep and acanthosis nigricans, community assessments are also being conducted in intervention trial communities. The Freely Associated States of Micronesia (Federated States of Micronesia, and Republics of Marshall Islands and Palau) is only conducting elements of the Children's Healthy Living Program sampling framework and similar measurements to provide prevalence data. In addition, anthropometry information will be collected for two additional communities in each of the 5 intervention jurisdictions to be included in the prevalence survey. The effectiveness of the environmental intervention trial is being assessed based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. The Children
Park, Sungok R.
Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…
Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia
This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…
Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet
Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…
This causal comparitive study examined the effect of early childhood education on social and emotional development in children ages 3-6 years old in Kwara State of Nigeria. Sixty children who were exposed to early childhood education were selected through cluster sampling from six different schools, that is, 30 boys and ...
Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.
Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…
Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie
While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
El-Beblawi, Viola F.
Early childhood education is rooted in the Arab culture. Of particular importance for the implementation of early childhood education is the academic psycho-educational movement in the Arab world (initiated by Tsmail El Kabani and Dr. Abel Aziz El Koussy), which began in the 1920s. This movement, combined with rapid social change (including the…
Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue
This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…
Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, vice president of The World Bank, introduces a World Bank report, "Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation". This report, which is a must for inclusion in every advocate's make the case for investing in early childhood services. It defines three arguments…
Early childhood, when young children are already capable of undergoing aesthetic experience, must be the starting point for aesthetic education. Despite increasing attention to the significant values of the arts in early childhood classrooms, no theoretical framework to support aesthetic education has been established. This article introduces the…
Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula
There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…
Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.
Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.
This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…
The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…
Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…
The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…
Swick, Kevin J.
Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.
This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…
Adamson, Peter C.
Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)
Garcia, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Dhar, Vineet
The 2014 Early Childhood Caries Conference encompassed evidence-based reviews on the state of the science regarding early childhood carries (ECC) epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and disease management. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the work presented at the conference and identify...... means to prevent and manage ECC. Analyses of studies indicate that some approaches, such as chlorhexidine, iodine, and remineralizing agents, have not shown consistent findings in preventing ECC. However, evidence exists to yield recommendations in some areas. There are useful risk assessment indicators...... opportunities in research, policy, and clinical management that may improve early childhood caries outcomes and lower costs of care. While great progress has been made since the 1997 ECC Conference, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials on what are the most effective...
Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.
Full Text Available Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (. However, there were no significant differences in children's reported general health. Conclusions. The data indicate a need to explore strategies that may assist single mothers and especially those in the workforce to prevent severe early childhood caries in their child.
Nicolae, Alexandra; Levin, Leo; Wong, Peter D; Dave, Malini G; Taras, Jillian; Mistry, Chetna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth L; Wong, Michele; Schroth, Robert J
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease affecting young children in Canada. ECC may lead to pain and infection, compromised general health, decreased quality of life and increased risk for dental caries in primary and permanent teeth. A multidisciplinary approach to prevent and identify dental disease is recommended by dental and medical national organizations. Young children visit primary care providers at regular intervals from an early age. These encounters provide an ideal opportunity for primary care providers to educate clients about their children's oral health and its importance for general health. We designed an office-based oral health screening guide to help primary care providers identify ECC, a dental referral form to facilitate dental care access and an oral health education resource to raise parental awareness. These resources were reviewed and trialled with a small number of primary care providers.
Elkind, David, Ed.
The introductory chapter in this book provides a historical overview of the family and schools in the premodern, modern, and postmodern eras in the United States. The introduction also reviews the contributions of several important figures in early childhood education and suggests that the battle in early childhood education in the postmodern…
W. Jansen (Wilma)
textabstractThis thesis presents studies on the prevention of childhood overweight. In this general introduction public health issues of childhood overweight will be addressed and a model of planned health education and health promotion will be introduced. Following the different steps of this
Childhood obesity is a serious challenge for public health. The problem begins early with most excess childhood weight gained before starting school. In 2016, the WHO estimated that 41 million children under 5 were overweight or obese. Once established, obesity is difficult to reverse, likely to persist into adult life and is associated with increased risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Preventing obesity is therefore of high importance. However, its development is multi-factorial and prevention is a complex challenge. Modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as diet and physical activity are the most well-known determinants of obesity. More recently, early-life factors have emerged as key influencers of obesity in childhood. Understanding risk factors and how they interact is important to inform interventions that aim to prevent obesity in early childhood. Available evidence supports multi-component interventions as effective in obesity prevention. However, relatively few interventions are available in the UK and only one, TrimTots, has been evaluated in randomised controlled trials and shown to be effective at reducing obesity risk in preschool children (age 1-5 years). BMI was lower in children immediately after completing TrimTots compared with waiting list controls and this effect was sustained at long-term follow-up, 2 years after completion. Developing and evaluating complex interventions for obesity prevention is a challenge for clinicians and researchers. In addition, parents encounter barriers engaging with interventions. This review considers early-life risk factors for obesity, highlights evidence for preventative interventions and discusses barriers and facilitators to their success.
Childhood obesity is a worldwide pandemic that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and multiple cancers, and reduces quality of life and functional ability. Fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable (FJV) intake, and physical activity (PA) are behaviors related to childhood obesit...
Mar 10, 2016 ... to households, health education on personal and food hygiene, childhood ... treatment of mal- nutrition will contribute to primary prevention of AKI ... maintaining steady state haemoglobin, and treating acute infections are ...
Childhood obesity prevention and improved nutrition through farm-to-school food ... Increased demand for healthy foods will be evaluated by comparing dietary ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...
Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine
Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha
Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (paccidents in childhood. PMID:27583061
Turney, Kristin; McLanahan, Sara
Social/emotional skills in early childhood are associated with education, labor market, and family formation outcomes throughout the life course. One explanation for these associations is that poor social/emotional skills in early childhood interfere with the development of cognitive skills. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2302) to examine how the timing of social/emotional skills-measured as internalizing, externalizing, and attention problem behaviors in early childhood-is associated with cognitive test scores in middle childhood. Results show that externalizing problems at age 3 and attention problems at age 5, as well as externalizing and attention problems at both ages 3 and 5, are associated with poor cognitive development in middle childhood, net of a wide array of control variables and prior test scores. Surprisingly, maternal engagement at age five does not mediate these associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…
Ali, N.; Rahim, A.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.H.
To compare the levels of vitamin D in children with early childhood caries and children with healthy sound dentition. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at Islamic International Medical College from September 2015 to March 2016. Material and Methods: Eighty children, between 2-8 years of age, were recruited after fulfilling a questionnaire from their parents or caregiver. The sample population was divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children suffering from dental caries and was comprised of 60 patients. Group 2 consisted of children with sound healthy teeth and was comprised of 20 children. Questions assessing ch s socioeconomic background, dietary habits particularly frequency of sweet and milk intake, outdoor activity and dental hygiene related behavior were included. The diagnosis of childhood caries was based on oral health diagnostic criteria defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Overall total caries score (decayed missing filled teeth index) was obtained. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was measured from serum samples of the children participating in this study using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlation analysis was done with Pearson correlation and t-test was applied. Results: Results have established association of Vitamin D levels in children with early childhood caries. Pearson correlation and t-test have revealed that total decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) caries score was also associated with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30ng/ml, decreased oral hygiene, lower monthly income, increased sugar consumption, decreased milk intake and decrease outdoor activities. This cross-sectional study showed that carries and lower serum vitamin D are closely related with each other. Conclusion: Data from this cross-sectional study showed that dental caries and lower serum vitamin D were closely related. Improving children's vitamins D status may be an
rhinoconjunctivitis. In one prospective observational study of a birth cohort of unselected infants we evaluated possible predictive/risk factors. In two prospective intervention studies including 1 yr birth cohorts of high-risk(HR) infants we investigated the effect of feeding HR infants exclusively breast milk (BM......The development and phenotypic expression of atopic diseases depends on a complex interaction between genetic factors, environmental exposure to allergens,and non-specific adjuvant factors, such as tobacco smoke, air pollution and infections. Preventive measures may include both exposure...... to allergens and adjuvant risk/protective factors and pharmacological treatment. These measures may address the general population, children at risk for development of atopic disease (high-risk infants), children with early symptoms of allergic disease or children with chronic disease. The objective...
Gerards, Sanne M P L; Sleddens, Ester F C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Observational studies increasingly emphasize the impact of general parenting on the development of childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of the current literature review was to provide an overview of interventions addressing general parenting in order to prevent or treat childhood obesity. Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies described four different general parenting programs, which were supplemented with lifestyle components (i.e., physical activity and nutrition). All studies showed significant small to moderate intervention effects on at least one weight-related outcome measure. The current review shows that despite the emerging observational evidence for the role of parenting in children's weight-related outcomes, few interventions have been developed that address general parenting in the prevention of childhood obesity. These interventions provide evidence that the promotion of authoritative parenting is an effective strategy for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.
Full Text Available Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Objective To evaluate an association between exclusive breastfeeding and childhood epilepsy. Methods A case-control study conducted from 1 May to 3 July 2013 involving children with epilepsy aged 6 months to 18 years who were attending pediatric outpatient clinic of Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta. Neurologically normal children, individually matched by age and sex, visiting the same clinic were considered as controls. Exclusion criteria were children with structural brain abnormality, history of epilepsy in family, and who had history of neonatal seizure, intracranial infection, febrile seizure, and head trauma before onset of epilepsy. History of breastfeeding was obtained by interviewing the parents. The difference of exclusively breastfeeding proportion between cases and controls was analyzed by McNemar test. Results The total number of participants was 68 cases and controls each. Subjects with epilepsy had lower proportion of exclusively breastfed (48.5% compared with controls (54.4%, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.541. Exclusively breastfeeding showed no statistical significance in decreasing risk of epilepsy (OR=0.71; 95%CI 0.32 to 1.61. Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months has no effect against childhood epilepsy.
Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra
This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.
The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.
Saudamini Girish More
Full Text Available The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC is increasing worldwide. Impaired oral health could have a negative impact on the overall health of infants. ECC can continue to deteriorate the growth and development of the child in preschool stage. Feeding practices largely influence the occurrence of ECC. Infant formula is commonly used as supplements or substitutes for breast milk up to the first 2 years of age. The dietary sugars such as lactose and sucrose, present in the infant formula, could act as a favorable substrate and change the oral microflora. Infant formula constitutes of various minerals which are known to affect tooth mineralization including iron, fluoride, and calcium. A number of in vitro, animal, and human studies have been conducted to understand their effect on oral environment and microbiota. Exploring the scientific literature for different types of infant formula and their role in the etiopathogenesis of dental caries could give us an insight into the cariogenic potential of infant formula. Furthermore, this could be source of information for health practitioners as they are the ones who are first sought by parents for advice related to infant feeding.
Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is a growing interest in the field of research translation, there are few published examples of public health interventions that have been effectively scaled up and implemented in the community. This paper provides a case study of the community-wide implementation of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT, an obesity prevention program for parents with infants aged 3–18 months. The study explored key factors influencing the translation of the Program into routine practice and the respective role of policy makers, researchers and implementers. Methods Case studies were conducted of five of the eight prevention areas in Victoria, Australia who implemented the Program. Cases were selected on the basis of having implemented the Program for 6 months or more. Data were collected from January to June 2015 and included 18 individual interviews, one focus group and observation of two meetings. A total of 28 individuals, including research staff (n = 4, policy makers (n = 2 and implementers (n = 22, contributed to the data collected. Thematic analysis was conducted using cross case comparisons and key themes were verified through member checking. Results Key facilitators of implementation included availability of a pre-packaged evidence based program addressing a community need, along with support and training provided by research staff to local implementers. Partnerships between researchers and policy makers facilitated initial program adoption, while local partnerships supported community implementation. Community partnerships were facilitated by local coordinators through alignment of program goals with existing policies and services. Workforce capacity for program delivery and administration was a challenge, largely overcome by embedding the Program into existing roles. Adapting the Program to fit local circumstance was critical for feasible and sustainable delivery, however
Full Text Available Meetings and Enchantment in Early Childhood Education, a work that brings us to the fantasy world of magic, without forgetting the commitment to the education of children aged 0 to 6 years.
Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Hart, Katie C.; Karch, Kathryn M.; Mullins, Adam D.; Ries, Emily E.
A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of…
Hafkam-de Groen, E.
This thesis focuses on asthma symptoms in early childhood. From a public health perspective, we aim to improve health and health-related quality of life through the prevention of asthma symptoms and by signaling, counselling or management of children who are at a high risk of developing asthma. The
Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua
Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional
Objective: The prevention of childhood blindness through the provision of preventive services at the community level, specialized surgical services in ophthalmic units and the provision of devices to correct low and services to children with established visual loss. Materials and methods: A series of free surgical cataract eye ...
Despite the plethora of studies regarding bullying worldwide, there are limited studies at the early childhood level. This article presents the results of a pilot study aiming at exploring preservice and in-service early childhood teachers' views on bullying in Greek early childhood settings. A total of 192 early childhood teachers completed a…
Newberry, Jan; Marpinjun, Sri
Based on research and activism on early childhood education and care in the area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, we argue that the Indonesian government's focus on early childhood has come at a cost to local women. Community-based early childhood programs are delivered by women whose work is unpaid or underpaid. Although early childhood education in the…
Okonkwo Kevin O
workers in subscribing to treatability of childhood autism, while working experience of less than 6 years among the healthcare workers significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare workers in admitting to believing in the preventability of childhood autism. Conclusion In designing policies and programs to change negative opinions or beliefs of healthcare workers about childhood autism, there is a need for baseline information such as this survey. Changing the negative opinions or beliefs of the healthcare workers about childhood autism should encourage appropriate help-seeking behavior among parents of children with ASD who may be seeking advice or information from the healthcare workers. This would encourage early interventions, which are essential to prognosis of childhood autism.
Waters, Elizabeth; Swinburn, Boyd A.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Uauy, Ricardo
Obesity is one of the biggest public health challenges in the 21st century. Devising effective policy and practice to combat childhood obesity is a high priority for many governments and health professionals internationally. This book brings together contributors from around the world and showcases
Evaluation of two educational interventions regarding prevention of early childhood caries on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-year-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia
(pamphlet and pamphlet along with reminder on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-years-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia was assessed. Thirty seven couples of children and mothers in two groups were randomly selected. Before and three months after interventions, a standard questionnaire regarding self-reported practice of mothers on prevention of early childhood caries was completed by respondents. Moreover, oral examination including Simplified oral hygiene index (S-OHI, dmft, and white spot lesions were rerecorded at the beginning and three months after interventions. At this time in one of the groups reminder phone calls were made every month. Finally, the answers were scored and data were statistically analyzed to be compared in pre- and post-test. Results: Comparing each of the groups before and after interventions showed that in both groups there were significant differences in mothers’ perception of perceived ability to make child brush his teeth twice a day (P=0.001, and child’s tooth brushing frequency more than once a day (P=0.03. S-OHI had no significant difference after the intervention between two groups. But each group had a significant decrease three months after intervention (P=0.003. Also the mean number of white spots showed a significant decrease before and after intervention in each groups. Regarding mothers’ self-reported practice no significant difference was observed between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Using pamphlets along with or without reminder as educational measures had similar enhancing effects on the mothers’ self-reported practice on oral health of children within three months.
Estela Gispert Abreu
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en 159 niños de 6 meses a 1 año de edad con el objetivo de analizar la influencia de la prevención indirecta en la incidencia bienal de caries en la primera infancia y la relación entre la afectación por caries y el grado de infección por Estreptococos mutans. Se formaron 2 grupos por el método aleatorio: T donde sus madres y familias convivientes con alta infección por E. mutans (Em recibieron barniz laca flúor al 2 % + clorhexidina al 1 % cada 3 meses, así como actividades educativas y curativas; y el grupo C que solo recibió estas 2 últimas actividades. Cuando los niños arribaron a los 3 años fueron examinados y se observó que la incidencia de caries dependió de forma significativa (X²=pA study was conducted among 159 children aged 6 months old -1 year old to analyse the influence of indirect prevention on the biennial incidence of dental caries in early childhood, and the relation between the affectation due to caries and the degree of infection caused by Streptococcus mutans. They were divided into groups at random: group T where their mothers and relatives living together with high E. mutans infection received fluorine shellac-varnish 2 % plus chlorhexidine 1 % every 3 months, in addition to educative and curative activities, and group C that participated only in the last two activities. The children were examined at the age of 3 and it was observed that the incidence of dental caries depended significantly (X²=p<0,001 y (t=p<0,001 on the E. mutans infection degree in the relatives, mainly in mothers, as well as on the treatment applied to them.
Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Gabay, Julie; Antoniolli, Pauline; Masle-Farquhar, Jeanne; Wolikow, Maryse
Vitamin D is an essential hormone for calcium gut absorption. It is also involved in child growth, cancer prevention, immune system responses, and tooth formation. Due to inadequate vitamin D intake and/or decreased sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced in developed countries despite known inexpensive and effective preventive methods. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets, a condition that affects bone development in children and that can have serious dental complications. Deficiency during pregnancy can cause enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth. Enamel regeneration is currently impossible; hypoplasia is therefore irreversible, and once affected, teeth are prone to fast caries development. Deficiency during early childhood can affect permanent teeth and ensuing caries can sometimes lead to tooth loss at a young age. Oral manifestations of rickets should be diagnosed early by both physicians and dentists to prevent severe dental complications. This case study presents 2 young girls with rickets in early childhood who suffered from subsequent serious tooth decay.
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri,. E-mail: ... Key words: childhood education, Differentiated instruction, teachers/ caregivers' practice ... differences in their readiness level, interests and learning profiles/styles (p. 940). Today's ...
Diamond, Karen E.; Justice, Laura M.; Siegler, Robert S.; Snyder, Patricia A.
A primary purpose of early childhood education and interventions is to promote children's acquisition of knowledge and skills linked to later social competence and academic success. In this report, special attention is given to summarizing what has been learned about early childhood classrooms as contexts for development and learning, the kinds of…
Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong
Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services.We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia.Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers.This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD
Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M.; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M. N.
Background Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers’ perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities’ participation in these services. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Results Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. Conclusion This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health
Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M N
Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services. We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD communities to ensure
Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui
Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.
Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia
Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…
Gialamas, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra
This paper regards a comparative study which investigates in-service and pre-service Greek early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. Views and intentions were investigated via a questionnaire administered to 240 in-service and 428 pre-service early childhood teachers.…
Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis
This paper discusses the compilation of an instrument in order to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. For the purpose of this study a questionnaire was compiled and administered to 258 pre-service early childhood teachers (PECTs), in Greece. A…
McNelly, Tracy A.
The effective use of e-books--now common in school libraries and classrooms--begins when teachers understand how to choose e-books that help to support emergent and early literacy skills for students in their early childhood classrooms.
Iowa State Department of Education, 2004
The purpose of this document is to facilitate discussion among decision makers at the Iowa Department of Education (DE), Area Education Agencies (AEAs) and local communities (including school districts) to establish early childhood priorities, and define the AEA role in the statewide efforts to build a strong early care, health, and education…
Dinehart, Laura H.
Early fine motor writing skills are quickly becoming recognized as an important school readiness skill associated with later academic success (Dinehart and Manfra, 2013; Grissmer et al., 2010; Son and Meisels, 2006). Yet, little is known about the development of handwriting, the extent to which it is of value in the early childhood classroom and…
Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca
The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…
Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.
State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…
Young, Jemimah L.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Dolzhenko, Inna N.; Ardrey, Tameka N.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the extant scholarship on quality in early childhood education and to emphasize the importance of extending the literature to explore the potential influence that a teachers' educational background may have on kindergarten readiness for African American children in urban early learning settings.…
Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.
Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…
Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.
The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…
Sommer, Dion; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Hundeide, Karsten
From research we know that there is no specific early childhood education programme that is superior to other approaches (National Research Council. 2001). At the same time, historically it looks like people think there is a specific programme that will solve all problems and guarantee a high quality in early years education, since different…
Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology and it most commonly affects young adults. Childhood sarcoidosis is relatively rare; older children usually present a picture similar to that of adults, with frequent hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary infiltration. Early-onset (<4 years of age childhood sarcoidosis is a unique disease and has a different presentation. It is characterized by arthritis, uveitis, and cutaneous involvement. The prognosis of early-onset childhood sarcoidosis varies in different studies due to the rarity of the disease. The treatment of choice in systemic involvement of childhood sarcoidosis is corticosteroids. Methotrexate can also be considered in the long-term treatment due to its safety, effectiveness, and steroid-sparing effect in children.
Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter
Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.
Man Wai Ng
Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.
Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Romano, Ana Regina; Dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio
This study's purpose was to assess mothers' knowledge and beliefs about early childhood caries (ECC) etiology and prevention. This cross-sectional study targeted mothers (N=277) of zero- to 12-month-olds visiting 12 public health care centers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Information on causes of and recommendations to prevent ECC, as well as socioeconomic and demographic variables, was collected. Chi-square, univariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (Pinfluence caries in their children. None reported the role of micro-organisms and lack of fluoride in the caries etiology. These findings highlight the importance of providing preventive orientation to the mothers regarding early childhood caries. Information on age of first dental visit should be emphasized, especially among mothers with more than one child and low-income families.
Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…
Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.
Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,
Wakschlag, Lauren S; Perlman, Susan B; Blair, R James; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Pine, Daniel S
The arrival of the Journal's 175th anniversary occurs at a time of recent advances in research, providing an ideal opportunity to present a neurodevelopmental roadmap for understanding, preventing, and treating psychiatric disorders. Such a roadmap is particularly relevant for early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental conditions, which emerge when experience-dependent neuroplasticity is at its peak. Employing a novel developmental specification approach, this review places recent neurodevelopmental research on early childhood disruptive behavior within the historical context of the Journal. The authors highlight irritability and callous behavior as two core exemplars of early disruptive behavior. Both phenotypes can be reliably differentiated from normative variation as early as the first years of life. Both link to discrete pathophysiology: irritability with disruptions in prefrontal regulation of emotion, and callous behavior with abnormal fear processing. Each phenotype also possesses clinical and predictive utility. Based on a nomologic net of evidence, the authors conclude that early disruptive behavior is neurodevelopmental in nature and should be reclassified as an early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition in DSM-5. Rapid translation from neurodevelopmental discovery to clinical application has transformative potential for psychiatric approaches of the millennium. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1938: Electroencephalographic Analyses of Behavior Problem Children Herbert Jasper and colleagues found that brain abnormalities revealed by EEG are a potential causal factor in childhood behavioral disorders. (Am J Psychiatry 1938; 95:641-658 )].
This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.
Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven
As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker…
Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy
This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the…
This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding. Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/2/2011.
Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S
Nearly one in four breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. This study follows the literature review methods and format. Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors is related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention.
Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.
Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413
Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda
Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205
Obesity in the United States and throughout the world remains highly prevalent, especially among children and adolescents. Innumerable child obesity prevention trials emphasizing diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and recently sleep have been designed, implemented, and evaluated with the b...
Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.
Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...
Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally
Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614
Blüher, S; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Graf, C; Grünewald-Funk, D; Widhalm, K; Korsten-Reck, U; Markert, J; Güssfeld, C; Müller, M J; Moss, A; Wabitsch, M; Wiegand, S
Current guidelines for the prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence are presented. A literature search was performed in Medline via PubMed, and appropriate studies were analysed. Programs to prevent childhood obesity were to date mainly school-based. Effects were limited to date. Analyses tailored to different age groups show that prevention programs have the best effects in younger children (adolescence, school-based interventions were most effective when adolescents were directly addressed. To date, obesity prevention programs have mainly focused on behavior oriented prevention. Recommendations for condition oriented prevention have been suggested by the German Alliance of Non-communicable Diseases and include one hour of physical activity at school, promotion of healthy food choices by taxing unhealthy foods, mandatory quality standards for meals at kindergarten and schools as well as a ban on unhealthy food advertisement addressing children. Behavior oriented prevention programs showed hardly any or only limited effects in the long term. Certain risk groups for the development of obesity are not reached effectively by available programs. Due to the heterogeneity of available studies, universally valid conclusions cannot be drawn. The combination with condition oriented prevention, which has to counteract on an obesogenic environment, is crucial for sustainable success of future obesity prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Broström, Stig; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid
and Women’s Liberation’ and ‘ECEC for All in an Internordic Perspective’, we describe the fact that almost all children in the Nordic countries attend preschool, which on the one hand can be described in the light of the participation of both mothers and fathers in the labour market and on the other hand......This chapter discusses a number of central dimensions and dilemmas of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In the two first sections, ‘Early Childhood Education and Care: An Integrated Part of the Welfare System, Democracy...
Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.
Alfonso Romero Díaz
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.
The aim of the current research was to disentangle four theoretically sound models of externalizing behavior etiology (i.e., attachment, language, inhibition, and parenting) by testing their relation with behavioral trajectories from early childhood to adolescence. The aim was achieved through a 10-year prospective longitudinal study conducted over five waves with 111 referred children aged 3 to 5 years at the onset of the study. Clinical referral was primarily based on externalizing behavior. A multimethod (questionnaires, testing, and observations) approach was used to estimate the four predictors in early childhood. In line with previous studies, the results show a significant decrease of externalizing behavior from early childhood to adolescence. The decline was negatively related to mothers' coercive parenting and positively related to attachment security in early childhood, but not related to inhibition and language. The study has implications for research into externalizing behavior etiology recommending to gather hypotheses from various theoretically sound models to put them into competition with one another. The study also has implications for clinical practice by providing clear indications for prevention and early intervention.
Tenkorang, Eric Y; Obeng Gyimah, Stephen
This study examined the relationship of physical abuse in early childhood and timing of first sexual intercourse among young South Africans aged 14 to 22 in Cape Town. Using the Cape area panel survey and applying log-normal models, time ratios were estimated to show how rapidly or slowly youth experience first sexual intercourse. Results indicated that boys who experienced physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Boys and girls with violent school environments had faster timing to first sex. Race moderated the effects of physical abuse. Compared to Blacks, Coloreds who experienced higher levels of physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Youth with greater knowledge about HIV/AIDS and those with greater risk perception of contracting HIV/AIDS delayed first sex. On the basis of these findings, policy makers are encouraged to consider the early childhood experiences of youth when designing policies toward HIV/AIDS prevention in South Africa.
Liverman, Catharyn T; Klopan, Jeffrey; Kraak, Vivica I
... for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Contract No. 200-2000-00629, T.O. #14 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; by Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, T.O. #126 with the National Institutes of Health; and by Grant No. 04...
Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam
At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.
Dattilo, Anne M
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity. Promising obesity prevention interventions include those beginning during the first 1,000 days, using a multicomponent approach, with roots in nutrition education theories or behavior change communication that can continue over time. However, the limited number of completed interventions to date (within pediatric clinics or in home-based or community settings) may not be scalable to the magnitude needed for sustainable obesity prevention. Scale-up interventions that can be maintained for the durations needed, addressing infant and young child feeding and other modifiable risk factors associated with childhood obesity are needed. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Background: Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. Aim: The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC and severe ECC (S-ECC. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3–5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Results: Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant (P < 0.001. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly correlated with amount of sugar in the diet and frequency of sugar consumption. Conclusions: Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly associated with S-ECC and ECC, followed by caries free group. In future, it can be used as a salivary marker for caries risk assesment.
Kitty Jieyi Chen
Full Text Available The latest national survey found that 70% of 5-year-old children in China had dental caries. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC may not only be attributed to poor oral hygiene and unhealthy diet, but also to limited access to and availability of dental care. The prevailing preventive measures adopted by industrialised countries for ECC management are neither practical nor affordable in China. Hence, an alternative approach to ECC management is necessary. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART has been advocated because the simple and short operative time renders ART affordable. However, the success rate of ART in restoring anterior primary teeth is unfavourable. Although there is no water fluoridation in China, topical fluorides may be used to manage ECC. Tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is effective for caries control, but not all toothpastes in China are fluoridated. Professionally applied fluorides such as sodium fluoride varnish can be a cost-effective treatment for managing the high prevalence of ECC in China. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF at 38% is suggested to be effective in arresting ECC in China. It can be a simple, non-invasive and low-cost treatment. However, it stains caries black. Children and their parents must be well informed before SDF treatment.
Tusek, Ivan; Carević, Momir; Tusek, Jasmina
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Backa area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and chi2 (p family (46.9%) and in part-time employed mothers (47.2%) who had only elementary education (59.3%) and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1%) of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%). The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.
Klesges, Lisa M; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E
The translation and dissemination of prevention intervention evidence into practice is needed to address significant public health issues such as childhood obesity. Increased attention to and reporting of external validity information in research publications would allow for better understanding of generalizability issues relevant to successful translation. To demonstrate this potential, recent reports of childhood obesity prevention interventions were evaluated on the extent to which external validity dimensions were reported. Childhood obesity prevention studies that were controlled, long-term research trials published between 1980 and 2004 that reported a behavioral target of physical activity and/or healthy eating along with at least one anthropometric outcome were identified in 2005. Studies were summarized between 2005 and 2006 using review criteria developed by Green and Glasgow in 2006. Nineteen publications met selection criteria. In general, all studies lacked full reporting on potential generalizability and dissemination elements. Median reporting over all elements was 34.5%; the mode was 0% with a range of 0% to 100%. Most infrequent were reports of setting level selection criteria and representativeness, characteristics regarding intervention staff, implementation of intervention content, costs, and program sustainability. The evidence base for future prevention interventions can be improved by enhancing the reporting of contextual and generalizability elements central to translational research. Such efforts face practical hurdles but could provide additional explanation for variability in intervention outcomes, insights into successful adaptations of interventions, and help guide policy decisions.
Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.
Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Stauffacher, Kirstin
The role of siblings ("N" = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and…
Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M
Objective: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating...
Hill, Martha S.; And Others
Identified a number of risk factors contributing to early household formation. Found that for girls, factors included mother's educational level and birth order; for boys, parental divorce at any stage of childhood. Risk factors common to boys and girls were age of mother at time of child's birth and race. (HTH)
Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers' understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori Early Childhood (ages three through six) teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.…
Flynn, Erin Elizabeth
This article highlights research exploring the benefits of small-group storytelling as a way to promote rich language in early childhood classrooms. Using the storytelling of children from a preschool classroom serving lower SES children, the author explores the collaborative affordances of story circles. Results show that small-group storytelling…
Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto
This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…
Nicholson, Julie; Maniates, Helen
Current interest in the development of leadership capacity within the early childhood profession provides an important opportunity to critically examine our field's conceptualizations of leadership. Modernist binary leader/follower conceptions are not reflective of contemporary scholarship describing identities as multiple, dynamic, socially…
Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian
Intraneural perineurioma is an uncommon benign neoplasm characterized by focal perineural cell proliferation. The typical course is indolent, with gradual onset and slow progression of motor loss. In early childhood, uncertainty concerning the time of onset can lead to difficulty in distinguishin...
Explains terminology related to the use of the Internet, describes how to find Web sites, and explains some of the sites designed for child-care professionals. The sites included are those related to health and nutrition, early-childhood and parenting organizations, children's television, reading and literature, sites for children, and regional…
Costello, Patrick J. M.
The central aim of this paper is to undertake a critical review of arguments which propose that chess should be taught in schools and other educational settings. In particular, I offer an answer to the question: "Should chess be taught in early childhood?" Many claims have been made about the educational benefits of chess instruction. In…
This article investigates the nutrition, health and safety status in Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes and its impact thereof on the quality of care and education in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The study is part of a larger study on assessing the quality of ...
Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah
This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…
Callister, Paul; And Others
This study examines the connections between work, families, and early childhood education, and analyzes international trends and perspectives on parental leave. Chapter 1, "Introduction," shows that the increase in paid work by mothers makes families, work, and education important research and policy issues, and surveys reasons for this…
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven
The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…
Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…
Dec 17, 2012 ... Key Words: Early childhood education; school-parents relations; parent ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2012 .... employed in positions with higher pay and power than those who do not ..... on Cognitive Development among East-African Pre-School Children A Flexibly.
McNaughton, Kathryn; Krentz, Caroline
The work of Malaguzzi (in Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; Fraser, 2006) has made the fundamentals of the preschools of Reggio Emilia familiar to many early childhood educators. The article describes an authentic project that enhanced undergraduate and postgraduate participants' understanding of the impact of collaboration, conversation, and…
Meyer, Grete Skjeggestad; Eilifsen, Margareth
Based on many years' work designing introductory, immersive, aesthetic experiences that lead to problem-based learning (PBL) tasks for student teachers (called "INTRO"), we problematize the concept of creativity and playfulness in Early Childhood Teacher Education (ECTE). The article reports on our analysis of students' experiences of…
The balance of the propensity score matching techniques was checked and found to be satisfied (P<0.01). Results: Early childhood stunting is significantly negatively associated with cognitive performance of .... linked to poorer cognitive attainment later in life (22). .... to the questionnaires and organization of the field work.
Early childhood care and education has been for many years in Ethiopia. However, these experiences were not systematized, reflected up on and, hence, efforts were not made to extract lessons and delineate future directions. This paper has made a modest attempt to bring to light developments registered, gaps noted and ...
Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel
Early childhood centres are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are integral to learning. Previous research has focused on teaching practices that support children's social-emotional learning; fewer studies have attended to relevant centre-level factors, such as the emotional leadership practices of the centre director. The…
Much of the debate about the desirability or otherwise, of attempting to address the gender imbalance in the early childhood teaching profession has been limited by a reliance on rhetoric rather than empirical evidence. The purpose of this article is to assist in shifting this debate to a more empirical basis by reporting findings from an…
Murakami, Christopher Daniel; Su-Russell, Chang; Manfra, Louis
Learning gardens can provide dynamic learning and developmental experiences for young children. This case study of 12 early childhood teachers explores how teachers describe (1) learning across numerous school readiness domains and (2) how to support this learning by promoting opportunities for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Participants…
This study examined how preservice teachers view the nature and role of creativity in light of the complexities of contemporary early childhood classrooms. A multiple methods approach was utilized and data were collected with the Questionnaire Examining Student Teachers' Beliefs about Creativity (Diakidoy & Kanari, 1999) survey instrument and…
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and awareness of early childhood caries (ECC) among attendees of a Reproductive and Child Health clinic at Mnazi Mmoja dispensary in Dar es Salaam. The parents or guardians were aged 16-55 years old, while the children were aged 6-36 months. Caries was ...
Basford, Jo; Bath, Caroline
Assessment and the documentation of learning is an international issue in early childhood education (ECE) and has increasingly become a way for governments to exercise direct control over the practitioners working with young children. This paper details recent statutory guidance about assessment and documentation for English ECE settings and…
In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...
McLaren, Elizabeth; Rutland, Julie Harp
National shortages of qualified personnel in the field of early childhood special education are well documented, with shortages magnified in regions characterized by poverty and rural geography. This article provides an overview of the challenges faced and innovations implemented by an alternate-track, personnel preparation program in Appalachian…
This article sketches out a philosophy and practice of open listening, linking open listening to Bergson's (1998) concept of creative evolution. I draw on examples of small children at play from a variety of sources, including Reggio-Emilia-inspired preschools in Sweden. The article offers a challenge to early childhood educators to listen and to…
This article considers drawing as a meaning-making activity that takes place in certain sociocultural contexts to find evidence for its communicative potentials as well as the relationship between thought and drawing in early childhood. The researcher challenges traditional views about young children's drawing that focus on the result of the…
Kremenitzer, Janet Pickard
A current interest in education is the growing awareness that the development of social and emotional skills in children is critical for the foundation of academic knowledge in the classroom. The early childhood educator is in a position to be a powerful nurturer of the social emotional development in young children. It is important, therefore, to…
Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.
Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…
Hewes, Dorothy W.
As the end of the century nears, it is important to reflect upon the history of early childhood education and what the future holds. Centuries before the Christian era began, Plato wrote that the welfare of children from birth onward was a responsibility of the entire community. In 1628, the first written guidance for out-of-home education of…
It is aimed to investigate perceptions and implementations of early childhood teachers on free play and their involvement in children's free play. Recent studies focused on that, although there is an increase in the amount of teacher involvement, the quality of this involvement should be clearly examined. Lev Vygotsky examined play as an…
Weitman, Catheryn J.; Humphries, Janie H.
Data were collected from elementary school principals and kindergarten teachers in Texas and Louisiana in an effort to identify qualities that are thought to be important for kindergarten teachers. A questionnaire listing 462 qualities of early childhood teachers was compiled from literature reviews. Subjects were asked to check a maximum of 50…
Petts, Richard J.
Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…
Shirvanian, Natalia; Michael, Tony
Because numerous studies show that early child-adult attachment significantly affects a child's socio-emotional and cognitive development, we propose that establishing attachment-based child care can contribute to a healthy and happy childhood. This proposition is part of a new theoretical and experimental field and, thus, research is limited.…
Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise
This article reports on the persistence and significance of notions of time and temporality in interviews with early childhood educators in Victoria and Queensland, Australia, in two studies designed to explore the concept of "pedagogical leadership". Interpretive analysis of the interview transcripts of the 19 participants identified…
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) describes caries experience on at least one primary tooth in children under six years of age. It is among the most common chronic diseases in young children and may develop as soon as the teeth erupt. Thus it presents a serious problem in pediatric dentistry not only because of ...
Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine
The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…
Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming
This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…
This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…
Rameka, Lesley Kay
Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…
Ledoux, Michael W.; Yoder, Noreen N.; Hanes, Barbara
Four early childhood education teachers, two veteran and two newer teachers, were asked to pilot the use of handheld Personal Data Assistants loaded with Childchart assessment software. The participants were observed in their use of the electronic devices for monitoring student performance and interviewed regarding the use of the devices and their…
Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…
This study examined pre-service teachers' understanding, attitudes, preparation and concerns regarding inclusion in early childhood education (ECE) in Zimbabwe. Entrenched within inclusive pedagogy, this descriptive study draws on a sample of 24 pre-service teachers purposively selected from the largest teachers' college with the oldest…
Swick, Kevin J.
This book provides early childhood educators with perspectives and tools that will enable them to strengthen parents and families during the child's earliest year of development. The 25 chapters are divided into 6 parts or themes. Part one focuses on understanding families as learners from an ecological and empathetic perspective, with the premise…
Hertzog, Nancy B.
Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…
This paper will illustrate how philosophical and pedagogical boundaries that are defined by diverse cultures and ideologies might be navigated in the practical implementation of an early childhood curriculum in postcolonial urban India. Findings from a qualitative naturalistic inquiry indicated that a complex, multifaceted curriculum shaped by…
Barton, Erin E.; Fuller, Elizabeth A.; Schnitz, Alana
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of performance feedback on preservice teachers' use of recommended practices within inclusive early childhood classrooms. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine the relation between performance feedback delivered via email and practicum students' use of target-recommended…
Bartik, Timothy J.
Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…
Ishimine, Karin; Tayler, Collette
Evaluating quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) service internationally is increasingly important. Research to date indicates that it is "high-quality" programmes that boost and sustain children's achievement outcomes over time. There is also growing interest in the accountability of public funds used for ECEC…
Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.
A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…
Culatta, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Black, Sharon
Purpose: This pilot project implemented and evaluated a theme-based unit designed to teach expository comprehension skills to young children in four preschool classrooms. Method: The program and the unit were collaborative efforts of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and early childhood educators. Within topically related units, 71 children ages…
The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)
This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According
Bernstein, Victor J.; Edwards, Renee C.
Reflective supervision is a relationship-based practice that supports the professional development of early childhood practitioners. Reflective supervision helps practitioners cope with the intense feelings and stress that are generated when working with at-risk children and families. It allows them to focus on the purpose and goals of the program…
Stellaccio, Cherie K.; McCarthy, Marie
Because intuitive aptitude for music stabilizes at about age 9 years, the early childhood years are critical to the development of children's potential for comprehending and producing music. This literature review centers on studies that have expanded knowledge of how young children perform, perceive, and create music and thus develop their…
Lyons, Catherine D.; Tredwell, Claire T.
Twenty-first-century preschool children, with and without disabilities, may be found using technology, including assistive technologies, on a daily basis in their homes, schools, and communities. Early childhood educators are exploring opportunities to integrate technology and interactive media into the present-day curriculum. The authors suggest…
Richards, A.; Sallafranque, R.
As early childhood educators who participated in the discussion of optimal scene management involving children and families in the event of a radiological/nuclear event, the authors would suggest consideration be given to the formal preparation for evacuation of educators and families and how to ensure that families are provided factual and updated information. (authors)
Nikolić, M.; Colonnesi, C.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.
Blushing has adaptive social functions. However, blushing is also assumed to be a hallmark of social anxiety and shyness. For the first time, blushing and its relation to the expressions of shyness and social anxiety was examined in early childhood. Four-and-a-half-year-old children (N = 102) were
This profile describes various facets of Saint Lucia's National Association of Early Childhood Educators (NAECE), whose mission is "to stand up for the rights of children." The profile first presents the association's 5-year action plan, which includes goals for: (1) technical assistance, for example scholarships for the poor to attend…
Edwards, Nicole Megan
This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley
Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…
Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.
In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…
Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan
Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…
Hu, Bi Ying; Zhou, Yisu; Li, Kejian
As consumers of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), Chinese parents play a crucial role in the ongoing process of monitoring, evaluating, and improving the quality of ECEC in China. This study used questionnaires to solicit parental feedback on the importance of, and their quality ratings for, aspects of ECEC. The researchers used a random…
Brown, Christopher P.
As policy-makers continue to implement early childhood education reforms that frame the field as a mechanism that is to ready children for elementary school success, questions arise as to how the multiple variables in the readiness equation, such as the child, family, and program, are affected by these policies. The instrumental case study…
Gomez, Grace Felix
The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…
Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.
As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…
Early childhood is one of the major stages in ones development in life. It is a period .... through the exploration of nature, the environment, art, music and playing with toys etc. .... systems have all increased the visibility of the movement. Various.
that it has been argued that the early childhood teacher should strive to develop in the young learner, the freedom to explore. The crux in this article ... story – telling, music, dramatic play, dance and visual arts. The focus in this ... with a general movement towards realistic representation of what they know of the world.
This research addressed the question of how the spiritual experience of young children might be supported in early childhood educational settings. Qualitative case study research took place in three different contexts: a Montessori casa, a Rudolf Steiner kindergarten and a private preschool. Children aged 2 1/2-6 years, their parents and teachers…
Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua
Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the...
Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K
A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or del...
Hirsch, Gary B.; Edelstein, Burton L.; Frosh, Marcy; Anselmo, Theresa
Introduction Early childhood caries (ECC) — tooth decay among children younger than 6 years — is prevalent and consequential, affecting nearly half of US 5-year-olds, despite being highly preventable. Various interventions have been explored to limit caries activity leading to cavities, but little is known about the long-term effects and costs of these interventions. We developed a system dynamics model to determine which interventions, singly and in combination, could have the greatest effec...
Baker, Harolyn W.; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E.; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Michael R.
Objectives. We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. Methods. We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. Results. High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions. Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning. PMID:23327265
Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar
Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.
Bjerregaard, Lise G; Jensen, Britt W; Ängquist, Lars
Background Childhood overweight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. We investigated whether remission of overweight before early adulthood reduces this risk. Methods We conducted a study involving 62,565 Danish men whose weights and heights had been measured at 7...... and 13 years of age and in early adulthood (17 to 26 years of age). Overweight was defined in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Data on type 2 diabetes status (at age ≥30 years, 6710 persons) were obtained from a national health registry. Results Overweight at 7 years.......14; 95% CI, 3.57 to 4.79). An increase in body-mass index between 7 years of age and early adulthood was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, even among men whose weight had been normal at 7 years of age. Conclusions Childhood overweight at 7 years of age was associated with increased...
Dehouske, Ellen J.
This article examines the concept of an early childhood teacher learning, in stages, a new method for integrating the arts into the early childhood curriculum. An early childhood graduate course, Aesthetics as Learning, is the learning ground. In this course, the graduate students discover the "Adult Within," the "Child Within," the "Teacher…
Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin
Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…
In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…
Bartik, Timothy J.
This book is the author's second book on preschool. His first book, "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" (2011), explored the connection between early childhood programs and the economic development of American states and metro areas, and compared early childhood programs with business tax…
... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and...
Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…
Arend, Lauren E.
Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…
Garner, Andrew S
Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors.
Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Brito, Albert; Kastello, Jennifer
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the infancy-related guidelines from the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2011) report “Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies” and highlight research studies that support their implementation in pediatric practice. Findings from recent studies of infant growth monitoring, feeding, sleep, and physical activity are presented. Research strategies that may be applied to today's clinical assessments and interventions are specified. Participation by pediatric nurses in the development of future multi-component interventions to prevent rapid infant weight gain is recommended.
Full Text Available Background: Community-based initiatives show promise for preventing childhood obesity. They are characterized by community leaders and members working together to address complex local drivers of energy balance. Objectives: To present a protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial in ten communities in the Great South Coast Region of Victoria, Australia to test whether it is possible to: (1 strengthen community action for childhood obesity prevention, and (2 measure the impact of increased action on risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods: The WHO STOPS intervention involves a facilitated community engagement process that: creates an agreed systems map of childhood obesity causes for a community; identifies intervention opportunities through leveraging the dynamic aspects of the system; and, converts these understandings into community-built, systems-oriented action plans. Ten communities will be randomized (1:1 to intervention or control in year one and all communities will be included by year three. The primary outcome is childhood obesity prevalence among grade two (ages 7–8 y, grade four (9–10 y and grade six (11–12 y students measured using our established community-led monitoring system (69% school and 93% student participation rate in government and independent schools. An additional group of 13 external communities from other regions of Victoria with no specific interventions will provide an external comparison. These communities will also allow us to assess diffusion of the intervention to control communities during the first three years of the trial. Conclusion: This trial will test effectiveness, over a five-year period, of community-owned, -supported and -led strategies designed to address complex and dynamic causes of childhood obesity.
Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain
.006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...
Gibbs, B G; Forste, R
Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…
Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.
Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)
Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung
We are living in a fast-changing, technology-driven world, where technology affects the daily lives of every person, directly or indirectly. While the importance of providing young children with technological knowledge and experience has been well-recognized, how the curriculum should be developed deserves greater study. Using early childhood…
Chaufan, Claudia; Yeh, Jarmin; Sigal, Byron
Nutritional practices develop over the life course. Developing healthy habits at an early age can contribute to combating increasing child obesity rates. Through a range of activities that rely on the presence of an on-site food garden, North Bay Children's Center (NBCC), an early childhood education program, has enacted a "culture of health" into all aspects of the curriculum to promote healthy eating practices among children, families, teachers and staff. NBCC's garden program serves as a model in early childhood education and as a community-based intervention to improve family health and prevent child obesity.
Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M
The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance
Austin, Anna E; Shanahan, Meghan E; Zvara, Bharathi J
Previous research has examined the association of childhood abuse with opioid misuse and dependence in adulthood. However, little research has focused specifically on prescription opioids, and no studies have examined associations with prescription opioid use, a potential pathway to later opioid misuse and dependence. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse with prescription opioid use in early adulthood. We used data from Waves I (12-18years) and IV (24-32years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. At Wave IV, respondents reported experiences of childhood abuse occurring prior to age 18years and prescription opioid use in the last four weeks. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations of childhood abuse with recent prescription opioid use. In multivariable models adjusted for respondent sex, race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, childhood emotional abuse (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.29, 1.90), physical abuse (OR=1.46, 95% CI 1.14, 1.87), and any childhood abuse (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.24, 1.82) were significantly associated with recent prescription opioid use. Given continued increases in prescription opioid use and opioid-related morbidity and mortality in the U.S., understanding upstream social and environmental factors associated with prescription opioid use is important to strengthening and expanding current prevention and intervention strategies. Future research is needed to examine factors potentially mediating the association between childhood abuse and prescription opioid use in order to provide additional insights for prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop
Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society
Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.
Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…
Kirch, Susan A.
In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.
Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.
This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…
containing no voltage sources). The main functionality of the early prevention method is to deliver control solution allowing escape from instability on the basis of data obtained by PMU measurements. The developed algorithm performs identification of the optimal node for countermeasure application...... instability was created. Utilizing synthetic PMU data, the early prevention method proposed a location and an amount of the countermeasure which will prevent instability; the prediction of the resulting stability margins corresponding to application of the suggested countermeasure was carried out....... The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system...
The goal of this paper is to elaborate and to re-invent the competencies needed by early childhood education teachers. Building children’s character from an early age is significant, but the main problem that is often overlooked is the contribution of Early Childhood Education teachers. Children’s character formation is largely determined by the quality of early childhood teachers. So if we want to instill character values required by our nations, the improvement of the quality of early child...
Leeds, Maureen; Muscoplat, Miriam Halstead
Receiving recommended childhood vaccinations on schedule is the best way to prevent the occurrence and spread of vaccine-preventable diseases (1). Vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months in the United States exceeds 90% for most recommended vaccines in the early childhood series (2); however, previous studies have found that few children receive all recommended vaccine doses on time (3). The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), using information from the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection (MIIC) and the MDH Office of Vital Records, examined early childhood immunization rates and found that children with at least one foreign-born parent were less likely to be up-to-date on recommended immunizations at ages 2, 6, 18, and 36 months than were children with two U.S.-born parents. Vaccination coverage at age 36 months varied by mother's region of origin, ranging from 77.5% among children born to mothers from Central and South America and the Caribbean to 44.2% among children born to mothers from Somalia. Low vaccination coverage in these communities puts susceptible children and adults at risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, as evidenced by the recent measles outbreak in Minnesota (4). Increased outreach to immigrant, migrant, and refugee populations and other populations with low up-to-date vaccination rates might improve timely vaccination in these communities.
Eshach, Haim; Fried, Michael N.
This essay considers the question of why we should teach science to K-2. After initial consideration of two traditional reasons for studying science, six assertions supporting the idea that even small children should be exposed to science are given. These are, in order: (1) Children naturally enjoy observing and thinking about nature. (2) Exposing students to science develops positive attitudes towards science. (3) Early exposure to scientific phenomena leads to better understanding of the scientific concepts studied later in a formal way. (4) The use of scientifically informed language at an early age influences the eventual development of scientific concepts. (5) Children can understand scientific concepts and reason scientifically. (6) Science is an efficient means for developing scientific thinking. Concrete illustrations of some of the ideas discussed in this essay, particularly, how language and prior knowledge may influence the development of scientific concepts, are then provided. The essay concludes by emphasizing that there is a window of opportunity that educators should exploit by presenting science as part of the curriculum in both kindergarten and the first years of primary school.
Rosario Mérida Serrano
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the professional development of 24 teachers involved in the Early Childhood Education-CPD Centre for Teachers-University Network ([blind review]. Collaborative research-action is carried out with teachers and pupils of Early Childhood Education, an adviser from the Continuing Professional Development (CPD Centre for Teachers, researchers, and teacher training undergraduates from the University of [blind review] ([blind review]. Taking a qualitative approach, through interviews, focus groups, and research journals, the benefits obtained by the teachers through their involvement in the [blind review] network are identified: (1 Their colleagues offer them emotional support and provide examples of good practices; (2 The teacher training undergraduates provide technological resources and the possibility of calmly observing what goes on in the classroom; (3 The researchers foster processes of reflection about practice and endorse the validity of the Project Approach; (4 The adviser provides continuing professional development.
Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner
on their profession. Obviously, attracting men to a BA study programme within care and Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) is one thing, recruiting men afterwards to ECEC is quite another matter, especially when gender and ECEC hold so very strong gender associated expectations. The participants and especially......This article reports the results from five recently completed projects funded by the Danish Ministry for Children, Education and Gender Equality and based on an idea developed in cooperation with the Danish Union of Early Childhood and Youth Educators. The Danish government is obliged not only...... by European legislation but also by national resolutions and therefore is very interested in ways to break down the gender segregated labour market and the gender segregated choices of education. The five projects spread across Denmark in five different municipalities took place in day-care institutions...
Golubović, Špela; Marković, Jasminka; Perović, Lidija
Early intervention implies a model of support focused on a child, family and a broader community from early childhood. The aim of this study was to analyze the elements of the successful early intervention in childhood, as well as to assess the role of a special educator and rehabilitator and level of their involvement in implementing the program on the territory of Novi Sad. The study sample included 100 parents of children with disabilities (aged 3-7), who completed the questionnaire designed for the purposes of this research, based on a similar questionnaire design. Speech delay is one of the most common reasons (over 50%) why parents seek professional help. By the end of the first year of life of their child, 43% of parents responded that they had noticed the first problems, that is, a problem was identified in 25% of children of this age group, and the same number was included in the treatment. About 55% of children were involved in organized treatment from 3 years of age onwards. Special educators and rehabilitators are usually involved in treatment when the team consists of three or more professionals. It is necessary to improve early intervention services, to educate staff, and provide conditions which would make it possible to overcome the existing disadvantages in treating children from an early age. In addition, the involvement of special education and rehabilitation professionals in treatment teams since children's early age is vital.
Full Text Available Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Bačka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and χ2 (p<0.05 test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%, out of kindergardens (54.2%, in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9% and in part-time employed mothers (47.2% who had only elementary education (59.3% and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1% of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%. Conclusion. The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.
Nivala, V. (Veijo); Hujala, E. (Eeva)
Abstract The book consists of presentations given at the Open Forum at the University of Oulu on March 2001. It highlights the contextual approach in leadership in early childhood. The studies introduced in this volume provide strong evidence that leadership is not only a leader's matter — it is a matter of concern for the whole leadership community. Different methods, like focus group — discussion, self study report and shared data will be introduced in the articles. The articles are ...
Løkken, Gunvor; Moser, Thomas
This issue of Education Inquiry includes a thematic section with five articles about different aspects of the physical environment in Norwegian early childhood education institutions (kindergartens). The contributions represent five out of nine sub-projects in a research project entitled Kindergarten space – materiality, learning and meaning making – The importance of space for kindergarten’s pedagogical activities conducted at Vestfold University College (VUC) funded by the Norwegian Researc...
Full Text Available Jean Rankin,1 Lynsay Matthews,2 Stephen Cobley,3 Ahreum Han,3 Ross Sanders,3 Huw D Wiltshire,4 Julien S Baker5 1Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, 2MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Cardiff School of Sport/Ysgol Chwaraeon Caerdydd, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 5School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland Abstract: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW or obese (OB, and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings
Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Root, Elisabeth Dowling
Understanding residential mobility in early childhood is important for contextualizing family, school, and neighborhood influences on child well-being. We examined the consequences of residential mobility for socioemotional and cognitive kindergarten readiness using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative longitudinal survey that followed U.S. children born in 2001 from infancy to kindergarten. We described individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics associated with residential mobility for children aged 0-5. Our residential mobility indicators examined frequency of moves, nonlinearities in move frequency, quality of moves, comparisons between moving houses and moving neighborhoods, and heterogeneity in the consequences of residential mobility. Nearly three-quarters of children moved by kindergarten start. Mobility did not predict cognitive scores. More moves, particularly at relatively high frequencies, predicted lower kindergarten behavior scores. Moves from socioeconomically advantaged to disadvantaged neighborhoods were especially problematic, whereas moves within a ZIP code were not. The implications of moves were similar across socioeconomic status. The behavior findings largely support an instability perspective that highlights potential disruptions from frequent or problematic moves. Our study contributes to literature emphasizing the importance of contextualizing residential mobility. The high prevalence and distinct implications of early childhood moves support the need for further research.
Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys. Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey. Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided. Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions
Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.
Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659
Alessandra de Carvalho Faria
childhood education. This paper intends to discuss the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education, which define how they should be organized teaching practice, and examine how the activities should be developed in early childhood education institutions, to objectify the holistic development of children in seeking quality care this stage of basic education.
Wong, Michelle S; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Roland J; Bleich, Sara N; Chan, Kitty S
Fathers have increased their involvement in child caregiving; however, their changing role in childhood obesity is understudied. This study assessed the longitudinal association between changes in obesity among children aged 2 to 4 years and changes in fathers' involvement with raising children. Longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort were used to conduct child fixed-effects linear and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between changes in childhood obesity-related outcomes (sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, screen time, BMI z score, overweight/obesity, obesity) and fathers' involvement with raising children (caregiving and influencing child-related decisions). Fixed-effects models control for all time-invariant characteristics. Analyses were controlled for time-varying confounders, including child age, maternal and paternal employment, and family poverty status. Children whose fathers increased their frequency of taking children outside and involvement with physical childcare experienced a decrease in their odds of obesity from age 2 to age 4. Obesity-related outcomes were not associated with fathers' decision-making influence. Increases in fathers' involvement with some aspects of caregiving may be associated with lower odds of childhood obesity. Encouraging fathers to increase their involvement with raising children and including fathers in childhood obesity prevention efforts may help reduce obesity risk among young children. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community. Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far. Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions. Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible. Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf
Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849
Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…
Weihrauch-Blüher, Susann; Koormann, Stefanie; Brauchmann, Jana; Wiegand, Susanna
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/Web of Science to identify randomized and/or controlled studies that have investigated the efficacy of electronic media for obesity prevention below the age of 18. A total of 909 studies were identified, and 88 studies were included in the analysis. Active video games did increase physical activity compared to inactive games when applied within a peer group. Interventions via telephone had positive effects on certain lifestyle-relevant behaviours. Interventions via mobile were shown to decrease dropout rates by sending regular SMS messages. To date, interventions via smartphones are scarce for adolescents; however, they might improve cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from internet-based interventions showed a trend towards positive effects on lifestyle-relevant behaviors. The combination of different electronic media did not show superior results compared to interventions with only one medium. Interventions via TV, DVD or video-based interventions may increase physical activity when offered as an incentive, however, effects on weight status were not observed. Children and adolescents currently grow up in a technology- and media-rich society with computers, tablets, smartphones, etc. used daily. Thus, interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity are contemporary. Available studies applying electronic media are however heterogeneous in terms of applied medium and duration
Fitzpatrick Caroline; Pagani Linda S; Barnett Tracie A
Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the st...
Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre
Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.
Grace, Rebekah; Trudgett, Michelle
This paper presents the findings from semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous Australian early childhood workers who were asked about how Indigenous families might be better supported to engage with early childhood education and care services. The workers identified three key barriers to family participation: transport difficulties, family…
Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine
This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…
Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth
Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…
Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.
In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…
Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany
Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina
Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…
Hasnain, Syed Ridda; Singer, Martha R.; Bradlee, M. Loring; Moore, Lynn L.
Background: Childhood obesity is closely associated with adult obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This study's aim was to determine the effects of beverage intake patterns on body composition from early childhood into adolescence in the Framingham Children's Study.
Pinkerton, Relana; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Lima, Aldo A M; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Oriá, Mônica O B; Patrick, Peter D; Moore, Sean R; Wiseman, Benjamin L; Niehaus, Mark D; Guerrant, Richard L
Understanding the complex relationship between early childhood infectious diseases, nutritional status, poverty, and cognitive development is significantly hindered by the lack of studies that adequately address confounding between these variables. This study assesses the independent contributions of early childhood diarrhea (ECD) and malnutrition on cognitive impairment in later childhood. A cohort of 131 children from a shantytown community in northeast Brazil was monitored from birth to 24 months for diarrhea and anthropometric status. Cognitive assessments including Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI), coding tasks (WISC-III), and verbal fluency (NEPSY) were completed when children were an average of 8.4 years of age (range = 5.6-12.7 years). Multivariate analysis of variance models were used to assess the individual as well as combined effects of ECD and stunting on later childhood cognitive performance. ECD, height for age (HAZ) at 24 months, and weight for age (WAZ) at 24 months were significant univariate predictors of the studies three cognitive outcomes: TONI, coding, and verbal performance (P < 0.05). Multivariate models showed that ECD remained a significant predictor, after adjusting for the effect of 24 months HAZ and WAZ, for both TONI (HAZ, P = 0.029 and WAZ, P = 0.006) and coding (HAZ, P = 0.025 and WAZ, P = 0.036) scores. WAZ and HAZ were also significant predictors after adjusting for ECD. ECD remained a significant predictor of coding (WISC III) after number of household income was considered (P = 0.006). This study provides evidence that ECD and stunting may have independent effects on children's intellectual function well into later childhood. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...
Ng, Man Wai; Fida, Zameera
Management of the complex chronic disease of early childhood caries requires a system of coordinated health care interventions which can be led by a dental hygienist and where patient self-care efforts are paramount. Even after receiving costly surgical treatment under general anesthesia in the operating room, many children develop new and recurrent caries after only 6-12 months, a sequela that can be prevented. This article describes the chronic disease management (CDM) of dental caries, a science-based approach that can prevent and control caries. In this article, we (1) introduce the concept of CDM of dental caries, (2) provide evidence that CDM improves oral health outcomes, and (3) propose a dental hygienist-led team-based oral health care approach to CDM. Although we will be describing the CDM approach for early childhood caries, CDM of caries is applicable in children, adolescents, and adults. Early childhood caries disease control requires meaningful engagement of patients and parents by the oral health care team to assist them with making behavioral changes in the unique context of their families and communities. The traditional dentist/hygienist/assistant model needs to evolve to a collaborative partnership between care providers and patients/families. This partnership will be focused on systematic risk assessment and behaviorally based management of the disease itself, with sensitivity toward the familial environment. Early pilot study results demonstrate reductions in the rates of new caries, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared with baseline rates. Dental hygienists are the appropriate team members to lead this approach because of their expertise in behavior change and prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Overweight in children is more prevalent than ever before. What can parents do to try to promote health and prevent obesity in their own children? The present paper reviews research related to parenting and childhood obesity. The review describes what food-related parenting practices may be helpful: modeling healthy eating behaviors, making time for family meals, making sure healthy food is available and accessible, becoming aware of appropriate portion sizes, encouraging children to eat breakfast, and limiting soda and fast food intake. The paper also discusses food-related parenting practices that may not work to help prevent obesity: pressure to eat, food rewards, restriction, permissiveness, and modeling of unhealthy eating behaviors. Additional parenting practices such as supporting and engaging in physical activity, encouraging an adequate amount of sleep, and limiting television and other screen-media may also help children to maintain healthy weights. Suggestions are also given for professionals working with youth.
Aljabar, P.; Bhatia, K. K.; Murgasova, M.; Hajnal, J. V.; Boardman, J. P.; Srinivasan, L.; Rutherford, M. A.; Dyet, L. E.; Edwards, A. D.; Rueckert, D.
In this work we obtain estimates of tissue growth using longitudinal data comprising MR brain images of 25 preterm children scanned at one and two years. The growth estimates are obtained using segmentation and registration based methods. The segmentation approach used an expectation maximisation (EM) method to classify tissue types and the registration approach used tensor based morphometry (TBM) applied to a free form deformation (FFD) model. The two methods show very good agreement indicating that the registration and segmentation approaches can be used interchangeably. The advantage of the registration based method, however, is that it can provide more local estimates of tissue growth. This is the first longitudinal study of growth in early childhood, previous longitudinal studies have focused on later periods during childhood.
Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon
Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene with longit......Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene...... with longitudinally assessed asthma phenotypes and atopic dermatitis in early childhood. We analysed eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PCDH1 from 411 children born to asthmatic mothers from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. Asthma and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed...
Karacabeyli, D; Allender, S; Pinkney, S; Amed, S
Multi-setting, multi-component community-based interventions have shown promise in preventing childhood obesity; however, evaluation of these complex interventions remains a challenge. The objective of the study is to systematically review published methodological approaches to outcome evaluation for multi-setting community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions and synthesize a set of pragmatic recommendations. MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched from inception to 6 July 2017. Papers were included if the intervention targeted children ≤18 years, engaged at least two community sectors and described their outcome evaluation methodology. A single reviewer conducted title and abstract scans, full article review and data abstraction. Directed content analysis was performed by three reviewers to identify prevailing themes. Thirty-three studies were included, and of these, 26 employed a quasi-experimental design; the remaining were randomized control trials. Body mass index was the most commonly measured outcome, followed by health behaviour change and psychosocial outcomes. Six themes emerged, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of active vs. passive consent, quasi-experimental vs. randomized control trials, longitudinal vs. repeat cross-sectional designs and the roles of process evaluation and methodological flexibility in evaluating complex interventions. Selection of study designs and outcome measures compatible with community infrastructure, accompanied by process evaluation, may facilitate successful outcome evaluation. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.
Mozhdeh B Bruss
Full Text Available This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the development of a cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, a U.S. commonwealth. This project demonstrated that in populations with health disparity, teachers can be a valuable and accessible resource for identifying key health issues of concern to communities and a vital partner in the development of parent and child interventions. Teachers also benefited by gaining knowledge and skills to facilitate student and parent learning and impact on personal and familial health. Successful community-school-higher education partnerships require consideration of local culture and community needs and resources. Moreover, within any community-school–higher education partnership it is essential that a time sensitive and culturally appropriate feedback loop be designed to ensure that programs are responsive to the needs and resources of all stakeholders, and that leaders and policymakers are highly engaged so they can make informed policy decisions.
Kurz, Herbert; Riedler, Jose
During the last few decades there has ben a significant rise in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that this increase is real and not due to changes in diagnostic labelling. It has become increasingly clear that a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors account for this phenomenon. Genetically predisposed individuals are at an increased susceptibility to develop asthma or other allergic diseases when exposed to certain environmental or lifestyle factors. Particularly passive smoking has been shown to increase the risk for asthma in many studies and for atopy at least in some studies. This association is less clear for the exposure to sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, diesel exhaust and ozone. Lifestyle factors like socioeconomic status, sib-ship size, early childhood infections, dietary habits, growing up in antroposophic families or on a farm are more and more realised to be of great relevance for the development of allergic conditions. At the moment, there is a lot of uncertainty about which recommendations should be given for primary prevention. Recent studies have challenged the old paradigma that avoidance of early allergen contact could prevent the development of allergic disease. However, there is consensus that avoidance of smoking during pregnancy and avoidance of passive smoking during childhood should be recommended for primary prevention of asthma.
Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar
Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
A study was conducted to determine and compare the literacy beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices of early childhood educators who espouse emergent literacy and reading readiness philosophies; to explore the relationship among beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices; and to examine the degree to which beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices were…
LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.
Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803
Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acar, Serra; Akamoğlu, Yusuf
The authors examined the extent to which practices for parent participation in early intervention/ early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs. The role of parents in the EI/ECSE is important and supported through the literature. The changing traditional family picture in the classrooms, the importance of evolving laws and regulations and recommended practices regarding parent participation are highlighted. The conceptual framework is based on the children, parents, and practitioners...
Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.
Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…
Kernan, Margaret; Devine, Dympna
This study is based on a study of the experience of the outdoors in early childhood education and care settings in Ireland. Central to the analyses are the inter-linkages drawn between constructions of a "good" childhood, and children's "need" for outdoor play, as well as the contradictions which arise around competing…
Full Text Available This qualitative study focuses on primary schools' state of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. Adopting a multiple case study design, the article explores, through semi-structured interviews and documentation, school heads, teachers-in-charge and classroom teachers' perceptions of their respective schools' state of readiness for the installation and implementation of early childhood education. The study established that, while classroom teachers were adequately qualified to implement early childhood education, teachers-in-charge were not. Secondly, school heads received limited induction for the introduction and implementation of early childhood education. Additionally, inadequate teaching-learning resources and lack of on-going teacher support contributed to schools' lack of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. The study recommends interventions that curriculum planners and implementers can utilise in order to create conditions that enable primary schools to be ready for introducing and implementing early childhood education.
Tan Kendrick, A.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Ling, Ho [Department of Paediatric Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Subramaniam, Ramnath; Joseph, Vijeyakaran T. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore)
Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)
Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa
OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099
Hansen, Ole Henrik; Greve, Anne
-called Nordic model represents a uni ed system of early childhood education and care (ECEC). This chapter underlines the distinctive shared characteristics of the Nordic approach to play and learning, and care and education, where participation, democracy, respect for other cultures and religions...... and character of the Nordic people. Here, there is a strong foundation in an ideal of freedom, democracy, equality, in uence and sustainability, but also a focus on education that emphasises the toddler as a learning being. However, toddlers in ECEC represent an area in need of more attention and new research....
Munksgaard, Kristian Fahnøe
(Sundhedsstyrelsen, 2016). Therefor the aim of the study was to examine relevant factors for teachers working in early childhood education and care to consider, when working didactically with enhancing movement opportunities for children. Method: The study was conducted as a Realist Review (Pawson, Greenhalgh...... for preschool children. Relevant factors for preschool teachers to consider are parent involvement in movement activities, being a good role model, providing good physical environments for movement, applying policies and strategies that support movement, assuring sufficient teacher competencies in movement...
Lesaux, Nonie K., Ed.; Jones, Stephanie M., Ed.
"The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education" aims to support the effort to simultaneously scale up and improve the quality of early childhood education by bringing together relevant insights from emerging research to provide guidance for this critical, fledgling field. It reflects the growing recognition that early childhood…
Herrmann, T.; Doerr, W.; Lesche, A.; Lehmann, D.; Koy, S.
Background: only few reports of effects of radiotherapy in childhood on the dental apparatus are available in the literature. The basis for early loss of teeth appears to be a reduction of the root surface area after radiation exposure. These effects in the periodontium are a consequence of combined radiochemotherapy usually applied for treatment of childhood neoplasia. Chemotherapy alone also results in changes of periodontal development. Case report: a 33-year-old patient is reported, who, at the age of 11 years, received high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy of neuroaxis and cranium for acute lymphatic leukemia with relapse. The patient consulted the Implant Section of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery because of severe dental changes and tooth loss despite adequate dental care and oral hygiene. Radiation doses given to the superior maxilla and mandible at the age of 11 were estimated to be in the range of 8-25 Gy. Conclusion: intense, life-long dental care and follow-up of patients cured from malignant disease in childhood must hence be postulated in order to minimize dental treatment sequelae by supportive measures, but also to initiate timely adequate dental and prosthetic management. (orig.)
Full Text Available This article is the result of the research work been carried on by the research group History of Education and Early Childhood Education at Federal University of São Carlos. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities and paths for the application of the principles of Pedagogia Histórico-Crítica for Early Childhood Education. Therefore we expect that this article generate discussions in order to improve methodologically and pedagogically our Early Childhood Education.
Crowe, K.; Cumming, T.; McCormack, J.; McLeod, S.; Baker, E.; Wren, Y.; Roulstone, S.; Masso, S.
Early childhood educators are frequently called on to support preschool-aged children with speech sound disorders and to engage these children in activities that target their speech production. This study explored factors that acted as facilitators and/or barriers to the provision of computer-based support for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) in early childhood centres. Participants were 23 early childhood educators at 13 centres who participated in the Sound Start Study, a randomiz...
The first rationale of the study was not only to determine the topics taught in Turkish early childhood settings but also to define the frequency and time allocation for teaching science (n?=?382). In the second phase, through semi-structured interview questions, the aim was to gain detailed information about Turkish early childhood teachers'…
Plumb, Melinda; Kautz, Karlheinz; Tootell, Holly
The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in early childhood educational settings, in particular touch screen technology such as interactive whiteboards and tablet computing devices has potential for use within early childhood educational institutions. We conducted a literature...... that can support the successful implementation of touch screen technology within early childhood educational institutions....... in regards to touch screen technology in early childhood, particularly from a process perspective, and suggest that further research is required to understand the interplay between individual actions and organisational structural influences. This will contribute to the development of an understanding...
Franco, Manuel; Sanz, Belén; Otero, Laura; Domínguez-Vila, Adrián; Caballero, Benjamín
Obesity is currently a global public health problem. Obesity in early life increases the risk of long-term energy imbalance and adult obesity and its comorbidities, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Since infancy and childhood are critical periods for the adoption of food preferences and physical activity, prevention strategies must intervene in these early periods to promote healthy habits and reduce risk behaviors. Trends in the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Spain have continuously increased in the last three decades. Obesity and overweight currently affect 15 and 20% of Spanish children, respectively, and these percentages are among the highest in Europe. Childhood obesity is determined by social and economic factors pertaining to sectors other than the health system, such as advertising, the built environment, education and the school environment, transportation and the food environment. Following the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, the authors identified a series of multisector policy changes that may help to prevent and control the current rising trend of childhood obesity in Spain. The HiAP approach acknowledges that social factors including socioeconomic status, gender differences and the work-life balance are important to develop effective policy changes in the prevention of childhood obesity. A key to success in the prevention of childhood obesity in Spain through policy changes will depend on the ability to establish a policy with the explicit and primary goal of improving health outcomes, despite the anticipated resistance from various sectors and stakeholders. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin
This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…
Ames, Patricia; Rojas, Vanessa; Portugal, Tamia
This working paper is part of a series on early transitions from "Young Lives," a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores the diverse experiences of 28 children from four contrasting communities in Peru as they start school. These detailed case studies highlight common problems:…
Full Text Available The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.
Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Kremers, Stef P J; Gubbels, Jessica S; Raat, Hein; de Vries, Nanne K; Jansen, Maria W J
The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.
Kimberly J. Rask
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the Bruner's early childhood education. This paper examined an education theory of Bruner in the change of early education as the clue. In section 1, it clarified about the history of Japanese early education. In section 2, it not only clarified about the hypothesis of Bruner which affected early childhood education, but it clarified about the error with Bruner by hypothetical understanding. A hypothesis of Bruner is "We begin with the hypothesis that s...
Bright, Melissa A; Thompson, Lindsay A
To understand how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with co-occurring physical, mental and developmental problems during early childhood. A subsample of 19,957 children aged 2-5 years were selected from the 2011-2012 National Survey for Child Health. Outcomes included 18 health conditions organized in singular condition domains (physical, mental, and developmental), and combinations of condition domains (e.g., physical plus mental, mental plus developmental, etc.). Predictors included 8 ACEs (divorce of a parent, death of a parent, exposure to domestic violence, living with someone with a drug or alcohol abuse problem, household member with a mental illness, parent incarceration, neighborhood violence, discrimination). Multivariable logistic regression was performed controlling for demographic characteristics, having a personal doctor, health insurance coverage, and seeing a health care professional in the previous year. Experiencing 3 or more ACEs before the age of 5 years was associated with increased likelihood of nearly every co-occurring condition combination across 3 domains of health. Most notably, experiencing 3 or more ACEs was also associated with a 2-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical condition and ≥1 developmental condition, a 9-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 mental and ≥1 developmental condition, and a 7-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical, ≥1 mental, and ≥1 developmental condition. This study demonstrates that we can identify the health effects of adversity quite early in development and that management should include communication between both health care and early childhood education providers.
Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi
of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health...... solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC......-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be conducted to evaluate interventions aimed at preventing ECC in different population groups....
Reifen Tagar, Michal; Federico, Christopher M; Lyons, Kristen E; Ludeke, Steven; Koenig, Melissa A
In the research reported here, we examined whether individual differences in authoritarianism have expressions in early childhood. We expected that young children would be more responsive to cues of deviance and status to the extent that their parents endorsed authoritarian values. Using a sample of 43 preschoolers and their parents, we found support for both expectations. Children of parents high in authoritarianism trusted adults who adhered to convention (vs. adults who did not) more than did children of parents low in authoritarianism. Furthermore, compared with children of parents low in authoritarianism, children of parents high in authoritarianism gave greater weight to a status-based "adult = reliable" heuristic in trusting an ambiguously conventional adult. Findings were consistent using two different measures of parents' authoritarian values. These findings demonstrate that children's trust-related behaviors vary reliably with their parents' orientations toward authority and convention, and suggest that individual differences in authoritarianism express themselves well before early adulthood.
Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M
As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter
vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age......BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG......-protocol analyses. RESULTS: 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child...
Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S
Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed.
Rocío BERENGUER SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available In primary education is essential to know and develop methodologies using the development of creativity and laterality in the process of teaching and learning in our student. It is an ideal place to study the relationship between these variables period. As we understand creativity as an integral part of all the languages in which student in early childhood education (verbal and written language, plastic body… are expressed, for all languages represent a creative process, a way to communicate with others, either verbal or written form, plastic. All these forms of communication is also related to another concept as laterality. It is essential to identify and examine the importance of laterality and dominations in kindergarten because all these processes are required before accessing other languages such as literacy. The objective of this study is to describe the relationship between creativity and laterality in Early Childhood Education. This has been evaluated 60 children in the second cycle of Infant Education and creativity variables defined and undefined laterality. In the development of this research test Torrance Creative Thinking (1974 of figurative expression and the test of laterality of the neuropsychological test (2011 it was applied. The results show that most of the student have defined laterality with 75%. These student earn higher average scores on each component of creativity, the group with undefined laterality and more creativity than the group with undefined laterality.
Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria
To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Minasyan, Anna; Babajanyan, Arman; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph
Parental questionnaires to assess incidence of pediatric allergic disease have been validated for use in school-aged children. Currently, there is no validated questionnaire-based assessment of food allergy, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma for infants and young children. The Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire was designed for detecting AD, asthma, and IgE-mediated food allergies in children aged 1-5 years. A nested case-control design was applied. Parents of 150 children attending pediatric outpatient clinics completed the questionnaire before being clinically assessed by a pediatrician for allergies. Sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the questionnaire were assessed. Seventy-seven children were diagnosed with one or more current allergic diseases. The questionnaire demonstrated high overall sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.98) with a specificity of 0.79 (95% CI 0.68-0.88). Questionnaire reproducibility was good with a kappa agreement rate for symptom-related questions of 0.45-0.90. Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire accurately and reliably reflects the presence of allergies in children aged 1-5 years. Its use is warranted as a tool for determining prevalence of allergies in this pediatric age group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bell, Andrew Colin; Wolfenden, Luke; Sutherland, Rachel; Coggan, Lucy; Young, Kylie; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hodder, Rebecca; Orr, Neil; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John
Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005-2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2-15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p awareness of the program and each of its messages over time in HNE compared to no change over time in NSW (p Awareness was significantly higher (p awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region.
Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2–15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p campaign (except the vegetable one) and significantly higher awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region. PMID:24090174
Lahat, Ayelet; Lamm, Connie; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early childhood temperament characterized by fearful responses to novelty and avoidance of social interactions. During adolescence, a subset of children with stable childhood BI develop social anxiety disorder and concurrently exhibit increased error monitoring. The current study examines whether increased error monitoring in 7-year-old, behaviorally inhibited children prospectively predicts risk for symptoms of social phobia at age 9 years. A total of 291 children were characterized on BI at 24 and 36 months of age. Children were seen again at 7 years of age, when they performed a Flanker task, and event-related potential (ERP) indices of response monitoring were generated. At age 9, self- and maternal-report of social phobia symptoms were obtained. Children high in BI, compared to those low in BI, displayed increased error monitoring at age 7, as indexed by larger (i.e., more negative) error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes. In addition, early BI was related to later childhood social phobia symptoms at age 9 among children with a large difference in amplitude between ERN and correct-response negativity (CRN) at age 7. Heightened error monitoring predicts risk for later social phobia symptoms in children with high BI. Research assessing response monitoring in children with BI may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later anxiety disorders and inform prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Yuan E; Emerson, Janice S; Levine, Robert S; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Hull, Pamela C
Childcare settings are an opportune location for early intervention programs seeking to prevent childhood obesity. This article reports on a systematic review of controlled trials of obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings. The review was limited to English language articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) between January 2000 and April 2012. childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings using controlled designs that reported adiposity and behavior outcomes. no interventions, non-childcare settings, clinical weight loss programs, non-English publications. Publications were identified by key word search. Two authors reviewed eligible studies to extract study information and study results. Qualitative synthesis was conducted, including tabulation of information and a narrative summary. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported improvements in adiposity. Six of the 13 interventions with dietary components reported improved intake or eating behaviors. Eight of the 12 interventions with physical activity components reported improved activity levels or physical fitness. Evidence was mixed for all outcomes. Results should be interpreted cautiously given the high variability in study designs and interventions. Further research needs long-term follow-up, multistrategy interventions that include changes in the nutrition and physical activity environment, reporting of cost data, and consideration of sustainability.
Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh
Full Text Available Female fertility begins to decline many years prior to the onset of menopause despite continued regular ovulatory cycles. Age related infertility is due to oocyte abnormalities and decreased ovarian reserve. Treatment of infertility when the cause is limited to decreased ovarian reserve is empirical at present except for oocyte donation. This mini review of the literature covers all available English biomedical journals that have been published from 1995 to 2008. The search based on combination of the words age, fertility, infertility, and oocyte abnormalities. The important findings from this search strategy are summarized and presented in the sub headings including female age and fertility, miscarriage and in vitro fertilization. Regarding infertility prevention, this mini review suggested that early marriage is a primordial, effective, inexpensive and easy way to prevent infertility.
Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J N C
Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (P early childhood caries in their child.
Bell, A Colin; Simmons, Anne; Sanigorski, Andrea M; Kremer, Peter J; Swinburn, Boyd A
In spite of greater awareness of the need for action to reduce obesity, the evidence on sustainable community approaches to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity is surprisingly sparse. This paper describes the design and methodological components of the Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention, a demonstration site in the Barwon-South West region of Victoria, Australia, that aims to build the programs, skills and evidence necessary to attenuate and eventually reverse the obesity epidemic in children and adolescents. The Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention is based on a partnership between the region's university (Deakin University) and its health, education and local government agencies. The three basic foundations of the Sentinel Site are: multi-strategy, multi-setting interventions; building community capacity; and undertaking program evaluations and population monitoring. Three intervention projects have been supported that cover different age groups (preschool: 2-5 years, primary school: 5-12 years, secondary school: 13-17 years), but that have many characteristics in common including: community participation and ownership of the project; an intervention duration of at least 3 years; and full evaluations with impact (behaviours) and outcome measures (anthropometry) compared with regionally representative comparison populations. We recommend the Sentinel Site approach to others for successfully building evidence for childhood obesity prevention and stimulating action on reducing the epidemic.
Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.
The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.
Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Pagani, Linda S; Barnett, Tracie A
The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ) and fourth grade waist circumference. Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.
Otsuki, Taisuke; Honda, Ryoko; Takahashi, Akio; Kaido, Takanobu; Kaneko, Yu; Nakai, Tetsuji; Saito, Yuko; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki
To describe operative procedures, seizure control and complications of surgery for cortical dysplasia (CD) causing intractable epilepsy in infancy and early childhood. Fifty-six consecutive children (less than 6years old) underwent resective epilepsy surgery for CD from December 2000 to August 2011. Age at surgery ranged from 2 to 69months (mean 23months) and the follow-up was from 1 to 11years (mean 4years 4months). Half of the children underwent surgery during infancy at an age less than 10months, and the majority (80%) of these infants needed extensive surgical procedures, such as hemispherotomy and multi-lobar disconnection. Seizure free (ILAE class 1) outcome was obtained in 66% of the cases (class 1a; 55%): 85% with focal resection (n=13), 50% with lobar resection (n=18), 71% with multilobar disconnection (n=7) and 67% with hemispherotomy (n=18). Peri-ventricular and insular structures were resected in 23% of focal and 61% of lobar resections. Repeated surgery was performed in 9 children and 5 (56%) became seizure free. Histological subtypes included hemimegalencephaly (16 patients), polymicrogyria (5 patients), and FCD type I (6 patients), type IIA (19 patients), type IIB (10 patients). Polymicrogyria had the worst seizure outcome compared to other pathologies. Surgical complications included 1 post-operative hydrocephalus, 1 chronic subdural hematoma, 2 intracranial cysts, and 1 case of meningitis. No mortality or severe morbidities occurred. Early surgical intervention in children with CD and intractable seizures in infancy and early childhood can yield favorable seizure outcome without mortality or severe morbidities although younger children often need extensive surgical procedures. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik; Evans, Wendell; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Lo, Edward; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad H; Baez, Ramon; Varenne, Benoit; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Songpaisan, Yupin; Woodward, Margaret; Nakornchai, Siriruk; Ungchusak, Chantana
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is prevalent around the world, but in particular the disease is growing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries in parallel with changing diet and lifestyles. In many countries, ECC is often left untreated, a condition which leads to pain and adversely affects general health, growth and development, and quality of life of children, their families and their communities. Importantly, ECC is also a global public health burden, medically, socially and economically. In many countries, a substantial number of children require general anaesthesia for the treatment of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC. These should align with existing international initiatives such as the Sixtieth World Health Assembly Resolution WHA 60.17 Oral health: action plan for promotion and integrated disease prevention, WHO Guideline on Sugars and WHO breastfeeding recommendation. ECC prevention and control interventions should be integrated into existing primary healthcare systems. WHO public health principles must be considered when tackling the effect of social determinants in ECC. Initiatives aimed at modifying behaviour should focus on families and communities. The involvement of communities in health promotion, and population-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be
Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.
We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....
For the past 20 years, early childhood education has undergone changes that have resulted from an alteration in Indonesian socio-political situations. One of the changes has resulted in the emergence of the internationalisation of early childhood education in Indonesia. This paper unpacks the complexity of the process. Three teachers from three…
Wright, Cheryl; Diener, Marissa L.; Kemp, Jacqueline Lindsay
Healthy social-emotional development is promoted by building a safe, secure and respectful environment in an early childhood setting with positive and consistent relationships among adults, children, and their peers. This study explored storytelling dramas as an opportunity to build community within the context of one early childhood classroom.…
Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia
This paper examines contemporary issues in early childhood teacher education in Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore dimensions of the construct of preschool teachers' competence as reported by 810 students enrolled in early childhood teacher education at 15 Swedish universities. The results showed that students' definitions of preschool…
The technological knowledge the children bring with them into early childhood settings is not well documented or understood. This article discusses the technological knowledge and understanding of the nature of technology present within children's collaborative play in two New Zealand early childhood settings. The children incorporated a wide…
This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to…
Park, Eunhye; Kim, Heejin; Yu, Sunyoung
This study investigates the perceptions and attitudes of Korean early childhood teachers about education for sustainable development (ESD). A total of 301 Korean early childhood teachers participated in a survey which was purposefully developed for this research. The survey focused on three areas of interest: understanding of concepts about…
Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna
This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…
Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.
While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…
Jung, Eunjoo; Jin, Bora
This study investigates the perceptions of 207 college students in early childhood education and child and family studies (future professionals) regarding the role of play in early childhood classrooms. The results indicate that future professionals in their freshman and sophomore years in college held relatively positive perceptions of play in…
Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis
This study investigated early childhood teachers' beliefs about information and communications technology (ICT) and play in preschool, as well as their confidence in integrating ICT in the classroom. A 28-item questionnaire was compiled and administered to 190 early childhood teachers in Greece. Although ICT play (which can provide learning…
Sembiante, Sabrina F.; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Justice, Laura M.
Research Findings: This study examined preschool teachers' literal talk (LT) and inferential talk (IT) during shared book readings in early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms. We aimed to characterize and compare teachers' LT and IT in these 2 classroom contexts and determine whether differences in LT…
Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David
This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…
Fenech, Marianne; Lotz, Mianna
Dominant constructions of professionalism in early childhood education can diminish early childhood teachers' and educators' undertaking of advocacy at the systems or political level. In this paper, we propose an ethically grounded construction of professionalism that provides space for professional practice to move beyond the classroom and into…
Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram
The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…
Liu, Yan; Pan, Yue-Juan
Compared with the former policies on early childhood education, the policies recently issued in mainland China clearly defined early childhood education as an integral part of education and social public welfare and stipulated the responsibilities of the government in its development, shifting the developmental orientation to promoting social…
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…
Monroe, Lisa; Ruan, Jiening
While the early childhood student population has become increasingly diverse in the U.S., its teaching force remains primarily European American. The diverse student population demands that early childhood educators possess intercultural sensitivity in order to teach their culturally diverse learners effectively. This study examined the…
Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth
This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…
Brouskeli, Vasiliki; Sapountzis, Antonis
Sexuality education is one of the most disputable health education programs as far as its inclusion in Early Childhood Education is concerned. This study was conducted in order to investigate early childhood future educators' attitudes and considerations about introducing sexuality education to their future pupils. We used a qualitative research…
Heydon, Rachel M.; Wang, Ping
Through a case study of a key Canadian early childhood education program, The Kindergarten Program (Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1998a), we explore the relationship between curricular paradigms and early childhood education (ECE) models, and the opportunities that each creates for enacting ethical teaching and learning…
Gerde, Hope K.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Wasik, Barbara A.
Researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in how early childhood programs prepare young children for science. Due to a number of factors, including educators' low self-efficacy for teaching science and lack of educational resources, many early childhood classrooms do not offer high-quality science experiences for young…
Campbell-Barr, Verity; Georgeson, Janet; Varga, Anikó Nagy
European education agendas have emphasized the importance of early childhood education in providing the foundations for lifelong learning. Central to the success of early childhood education is the quality of provision, with the workforce being key. While qualifications levels are frequently cited as important for the quality of provision here we…
Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching
The study aimed to uncover the conceptions of creativity among early childhood teachers in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 563 early childhood teachers. Factor analysis supported the multidimensional hypothesis of teachers' conceptions of creativity. Five dimensions were found: novelty, product, problem solving, cognitive processes and personal…
Time is an important driver of pedagogy which is often overlooked in the busy atmosphere of an early childhood centre. Engaging philosophically with three different concepts of time, and drawing examples from literature and art to focus attention on how time is constituted in early childhood centres, this article argues that we inhabit the…
Averett, Paige; Hegde, Archana; Smith, Justin
This article presents the first systematic review of all the existing peer-reviewed literature (n = 20) on gay and lesbian parents and their children in early childhood education settings. The review includes articles that were empirical or pedagogical practice oriented, focused exclusively on early childhood education (Birth to 5 years), and…
Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel
Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research based…
Willis, Elizabeth; Dinehart, Laura H.
This article examines the development of self-regulation skills in early childhood and the possibilities of children's contemplative practices as a viable tool to facilitate this development. Current research indicates that self-regulation skills in early childhood education make a significant contribution to school readiness, and long-term…
Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.
This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…
Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu
The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…
Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis
This study investigated teachers' perceptions of barriers to using - integrating computers in early childhood settings. A 26-item questionnaire was administered to 134 early childhood teachers in Greece. Lack of funding, lack of technical and administrative support, as well as inadequate training opportunities were among the major perceived…
This article examines an extraordinarily successful early childhood education teacher preparation program at an urban 2-year college struggling with retention. The Early Childhood Education Program in this case study is able to maintain a graduation rate that is over four times greater than that of the college average and has a reputation for…
Teachers can integrate discussion and writing about photographs into the early childhood curriculum to build speaking, reading, and writing skills in any language. Although little available research focuses on photography and early childhood education as related specifically to English Language Learners, several current teacher resources do focus…
Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari
Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…
Wong, Sandie; Turner, Kay
Social inclusion discourses have been powerful in informing early childhood policy contexts, both internationally and in Australia (the context of the current study) for the past decade or so. But little research has examined the productive aspects of social inclusion discourses particularly within early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy…
Mazza, Julia Rachel; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Booij, Linda; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana
Poverty is a well-established risk factor for behavior problems, yet our understanding of putative family mediators during early childhood (i.e., before age 5 years) is limited. The present study investigated whether the association between poverty and behavior problems during early childhood is mediated simultaneously by perceived parenting,…
Goble, Carla B.; Horm, Diane M.; Atanasov, Amy M.; Williamson, Amy C.; Choi, Ji Young
The expansion of early childhood education programming has heightened the focus on teachers' educational preparation and its role in providing high-quality services for young children. The interest in teachers' education is especially relevant in early childhood since differentiated levels of preparation are commonly used in quality rating and…
Gómez, Mariel; Ford, Laurie
This article presents the results of a study on professional development in Chilean state-funded early childhood education. Based on a multiple-case study design and drawing on qualitative methods we explored teachers' perspectives on professional development at two early childhood educational centers. Two centers' directors and four early…
Adair, Jennifer Keys
Initiated as part of the Council on Anthropology and Education's Policy Engagement Working Group, the policy brief "Ethnographic Knowledge For Early Childhood" focused on making the case for ethnography as evidence within early childhood federal policy. This article describes the creation and distribution of the policy brief as well as the…
Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth
The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…
Kesiktas, A. Dolunay
Studies showing developmental delays in infants and children with visual impairments have triggered early childhood special education studies for this population. Early childhood special education guidelines for visually impaired infants and children range from individualized services to personnel preparation issues while all display certain…
Paz-Albo Prieto, Jesús
Nurturing experiences in preparation for prospective early childhood educators' work with families during their training are critical for establishing empowering relationships. This article details a qualitative case study of 77 prospective early childhood educators engaged with the Parent, Family and Community Engagement Simulation. An electronic…
Corr, Catherine; Danner, Natalie
Abuse or neglect and disability often go hand in hand. Unfortunately, most professionals who work with maltreated young children are not aware of early childhood and disability-related resources and services available. In order to raise awareness across early childhood and child welfare systems, a five-week advanced training for volunteer child…
A key component of effective early childhood programs is collaborative relationships between schools, families, and the community (Fiese, Eckert, & Spagnola, 2005). One of these early childhood programs, Head Start, stands out among the others in its efforts to work with children, families, and communities to promote parental involvement. Some…
Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H
Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hoover, Sarah D; Kubicek, Lorraine F; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Zundel, Claudia; Rosenberg, Steven A
This article examines how the Colorado study Children With Social, Emotional and Behavioral Concerns and the Providers Who Support Them (S.D. Hoover, 2006) was used to advance a statewide agenda for early childhood mental health consultation in Colorado. The study involved a survey of licensed childcare providers throughout the state asking about the behavior of children in their care and their responses to that behavior. Exclusion of children from early care and education settings due to challenging behavior was found to be a significant problem taking a toll on families, children, and early care and education providers. Importantly, results from the survey indicated that the rate of exclusion of children from care due to challenging behavior was lower for family childcare providers who had access to mental health consultation. Recommendations are offered regarding the infrastructure needed to sustain mental health consultation capacity in early care and education settings, and related policies and practices. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J
This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available This paper considers whether expanding access to center-based early childhood education (ECE will reduce economic inequality later in life. A strong evidence base indicates that ECE is effective at improving young children's academic skills and human capital development. We review evidence that children from low-income families have lower rates of preschool enrollment than their more affluent peers. Our analysis indicates that increasing enrollments for preschoolers in the year before school entry is likely to be a worthy investment that will yield economic payoffs in the form of increased adult earnings. The benefits of even a moderately effective ECE program are likely to be sufficient to offset the costs of program expansion, and increased enrollment among low-income children may reduce later economic inequality.