WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention consequences fire

  1. Ignition and combustion of sodium, fire consequences, extinguishment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the results of work carried out at the IPSN on: sodium inflammation, sodium combustion (pool fires and sprayed jet fires), extinguishment (passive means and extinguishing powder), the physico-chemical behaviour of aerosols and their filtration, the protection means of concretes, intervention during and after a fire, treatment of residues, intervention equipment. The calculation codes developed during these studies are described. The experimental basis which allowed the qualification of these codes and the technological means aimed at prevention and sodium fire fighting, was obtained using programmes carried out in the experimental facilities existing in Cadarache or in collaboration with the German teams of Karlsruhe

  2. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Saeed; Anand Paul; Abdul Rehman; Won Hwa Hong; Hyuncheol Seo

    2018-01-01

    Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure....

  3. Preventive fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordina, K.; Dobbernack, R.

    1988-01-01

    Fire risk considerations in nuclear power plants and questions of preventive fire protection have so far not been dealt with sufficient attention. For this reason a research program was proposed and financed by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany in order to clarify these questions and to optimise preventive fire protection measures especially in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  4. Consequences of Fire: The Killing Fumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Develop Test Improvise Adjust The Hydrogen Connection Integration Nation Trouble in Mind The Haunted Castle Fire ... declined steadily over the past two decades, fire continues to cause major losses. When people fear death ...

  5. 76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Proclamation Fires, whether caused by people or nature, can have devastating effects. Hundreds of thousands of... practice fire safety throughout the year. This year's Fire Prevention Week theme, ``Protect Your Family... mowing dry grasses to two inches or less, and by clearing brush, leaves, green grass, and lumber from...

  6. Three fire prevention television films varying in "threat" content .... their effectiveness in changing attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene C. Bernardi

    1970-01-01

    The campaign to disseminate fire prevention information has for some years relied heavily on a belief in the efficacy of television. Consequently, numerous public service films on fire prevention have been produced and beamed over commercial television channels in the hopes of achieving a reduction in the number of man-caused forest fires. Television continues to be...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.352 - Fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flammable compounds, or heavy dust concentrations creates a hazard. (d) Suitable fire extinguishing... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Welding and Cutting § 1926.352 Fire prevention. (a...

  8. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  9. Consequence modeling of fire on Methane storage tanks in a gas refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shahedi ali abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: using fossil fuels, some hazards such as explosion and fire are probable. This study was aimed to consequence modeling of fire on Methane storage tanks in a gas refinery using analyzing the risk, and modeling and evaluating the related consequences. Method: Hazard analysis by PHA was used to choosing the worst-case scenario. Then, causes of the scenario were determined by FTA. After that, consequence modeling by the PHAST software was applied for the consequence analysis. Results: Based on some criteria, the fire of methane gas tank (V-100 was selected as the worst-case scenario at the refinery. The qualitative fault tree showed three factors including mechanical, process, and human failures contribute in gas leakage. The leakage size and weather conditions were effective on the distance of radiation. Using consequence modeling, thermal radiation was considered as the major outcome of the incident. Finally, for outcome evaluating, probit equations were used to quantify losses and the percentage of fatalities due to the methane gas leakage and fire occurrence. The maximum number of fatalities caused by fire was obtained 23 persons. Conclusions: In conclusion, the methane gas vessel in the refinery can be considered as the main center of hazard, therefore the implementation of the safety rules, eliminating mechanical failures, personal protection and education, and Effective measures to prevent and fighting of fire are proposed for decreasing the probable losses and fatalities.

  10. The fire course and consequences to be drawn from the fire in the Browns Ferry nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, N.

    1977-01-01

    After a short description of the fire course and the fire fighting measures during the cable fire at Browns Ferry nuclear power station, the effects on the safety system are given in chronological order, and consequences are drawn for a general fire protection programme for nuclear power plants. In this context, the licensing guideline of the NRC for fire protection in nuclear power plants is mentioned, which took particular account of the consequences to be drawn from the Browns Ferry fire. (ORU) [de

  11. Thermodynamic consequences of sodium leaks and fires in reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Jordan, S.

    1989-01-01

    In the technical and design concept of containment systems of sodium cooled breeder reactors due consideration must be given to the fact, that sodium penetration through leakages leads to sodium fires. The temperature and pressure rise caused by sodium fires makes it indispensable to analyze these accidents to be able to asses the safety of the whole system. To study the thermodynamic consequences of sodium leaks and fires, a long series of experiments on pool fires, spray fires and combined fires has been performed in the FAUNA-facility. In the pool fire experiments the pool area has been varied between 2 m 2 and 12 m 2 , with up to 500 kg of sodium at 500 deg. C inlet temperature. Burning rates between 20 and 40 kg Na/m 2 /h, depending on the particular conditions, can be stated for such types of fires. Combined fires, simulating a leakage through an insulation, have been investigated using a special sodium outlet 6 m above a 12 m 2 burning pan. The sodium flow ejection rate in these experiments covered the range of 50 up to 710 gr Na/sec, the maximum total amount of sodium released into the FAUNA vessel was 810 kg. The consequences of combined fires cover the range between pool fires and spray fires. The sodium spray fires were performed using a sodium spray system (150 liters of sodium at 500 deg. C and up to 6 bars overpressure), installed in the FAUNA containment, ejecting the sodium vertically upwards towards the impact plate at the top of the containment. In a series of experiments the spray nozzles have been varied from circular holes to sharp and rough edged slits, the flow rate covered the range from 0.8 kg Na/sec up to 56 Na/sec. It has been found that the nozzle design influences somewhat the course of the pressure increase, but the maximum overpressure is mainly determined by the sodium flow rate and the amount of sodium ejected. (author)

  12. Nursing students practice primary fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee; Todd, Julie A; Keller, Rachel; Presley, Lynn; Jackson, Jessica; Davis, Stephanie; Hockman, Kristi; Phillips-Payne, Charles; Sauer, Sarah; Wessemeier, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate a standardized, interactive, home fire safety program for elementary school students. Senior baccalaureate nursing students in their pediatric clinical rotation taught burn prevention techniques using Hazard House, a model house filled with common household fire hazards (Hazard House, 2006, Ref. 1). Elementary school students were encouraged to identify the hazards and discuss ways in which the house could be made safer. Local firemen then briefly presented what to do if a fire occurred, how firemen may look during a rescue, and the importance of working smoke alarms in the home. A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention. The three groups of participants included 128 kindergarten students, 311 students in grades 1-2, and 61 students in grades 3-4. The tests and interventions were tailored appropriately for each age group. There was no difference in pre- and post-test scores for the students in kindergarten and grades 3-4 (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference for students in grades 1-2 (pimproving the understanding of fire safety for students in grades 1-2. Future studies may need to include a larger sample of students for the other grades. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Forest fires prevention and limitation of the greenhouse effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of forest fires to the carbon budget and greenhouse effect is examined at global and national (Italian scale and forest management options directed to preventing fires are briefly outlined.

  14. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure. Wireless sensor networks (WSN consist of tiny, cheap, and low-power sensor devices that have the ability to sense the environment and can provide real-time fire detection with high accuracy. In this paper, we designed and evaluated a wireless sensor network using multiple sensors for early detection of house fires. In addition, we used the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM to avoid false alarms. To test the results of our fire detection system, we simulated a fire in a smart home using the Fire Dynamics Simulator and a language program. The simulation results showed that our system is able to detect early fire, even when a sensor is not working, while keeping the energy consumption of the sensors at an acceptable level.

  15. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, Daniel L.

    1989-09-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to assist in the creation of specific prevention plans. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) contains two types of knowledge—domain and tutoring. The domain knowledge for wildfire prevention is structured around several foci: (1) individual concepts used in prevention planning; (2) explicitly specified interrelationships between concepts; (3) deductive methods that contain subjective judgment normally unavailable to less-experienced users; (4) analytical models of fire behavior used for identification of hazard areas; (5) how-to guidance needed for performance of planning tasks; and (6) expository information that provides a rationale for planning steps and ideas. Combining analytical, procedure, inferential, conceptual, and expositional knowledge into a tutoring environment provides the student and/or user with a multiple perspective of the subject matter. A concept network provides a unifying framework for structuring and utilizing these diverse forms of prevention planning knowledge. This network structure borrows from and combines semantic networks and frame-based knowledge representations. The flexibility of this organization facilitates an effective synthesis and organization of multiple knowledge forms.

  16. The principles for creation of fire-prevention forest belts with barriers of deciduous species for protection from crown fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discuss one of the priority security problems in Russia, which is elaboration of the strategic system of the forest and society safeguards from catastrophic forest crown fires in connection with rapid climate warming. It is postulated, that a most effective and reliable barrier for the dispersal of the intensive crown fire in a coniferous forest massive can be a sufficiently wide strip of deciduous tree species – «deciduous forest barrier», which has phytomass capable of absorbing crown fire energy and transforming them to surface fire, which may be extinguished by technical means. The actuality of the natural study of the transition parameters from the crown fire to surface fire has been noted, depending on climate, fire intensity and the deciduous barrier structure. The results of the quantitative natural investigation of the consequences of catastrophic crown fires of 2004 in the island pine forests of forest-steppe zone in Kurgan Oblast, which passed through the belt of 50–70 year-old birch stands of middle density, has been cited and formalized mathematically. It has been shown, that 150 m width of deciduous forest barrier is necessary as a minimum for the reliable transition of the high intensive front crown fire to surface fire in the forest-steppe conditions of the Western Siberia, but this width reduces with a decreasing heating effect. It has been proposed to create the complex fire-prevention forest belts of different construction for the protection of forests, industrial objects and settlements. Besides a basic deciduous barrier, their structure should include technologically necessary buffer zones and zones for the localization and extinguishing surface fire, which stop a crown fire. It has been recommended to use natural regeneration of deciduous tree species, as a most effective and non-deficient method for the creation of deciduous forest barriers in the predominant forest types, except the lichen pine forests

  17. Experimental study of fire barriers preventing vertical fire spread in ETISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the external thermal insulation system (ETIS has been applied increasingly in a large amount of buildings for energy conservation purpose. However, the increase use of combustible insulation materials in the ETIS has raised serious fire safety problems. Fires involving this type of ETIS have caused severe damage and loss. In order to improve its fire safety, fire barriers were suggested to be installed. This paper introduces fire experiments that have been done to study the effects of fire barriers on preventing vertical fire spread along the ETIS. The experiments were performed according to BS 8414-1:2002 “Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1: Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the building”. The test facility consists of a 9 m high wall. The fire sources were wood cribs with a fire size of 3 ± 0.5 MW. The insulation materials were expanded polystyrene foam (EPS. The fire barrier was a horizontal strip of rockwool with a width of 300 mm. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures outside and inside the ETIS. A series of experiments with different fire scenarios were done: no fire barrier, two fire barriers and three fire barriers at different heights. Test results were compared. The results show that the ETIS using EPS without fire barriers almost burned out, while the ETIS with fire barriers performed well in preventing fire spread. The temperatures above the fire barrier were much lower than those below the fire barrier, and most of the insulation materials above the top fire barrier stayed in place.

  18. Status of wildland fire prevention evaluation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Doolittle; Linda R. Donoghue

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of an assessment of the evaluation of wildland prevention efforts by all U.S. Wildland fire management agencies, and offers recommendations for improvements in prevention valuation techniques and procedures.

  19. Effect of color on recall in fire prevention signing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1964-01-01

    An exploratory experiment, designed to determine the effect of color on recall in fire prevention signing, was conducted on the San Bernardino National Forest. Background color of usual black on light yellow fire prevention signing, was changed to bright, high intensity orange. The change may have affected impact, but did not improve recall. Frequency of exposure to...

  20. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires and prevention. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of the specialists' meeting was to summarize the IWGFR member countries' knowledge of sodium combustion and extinguishment technology, including prevention and detection of sodium fires and protective clothes and to review and discuss critical features of sodium fires contaminated with fission products and fuel, evolution and filtration of aerosols and to determine the critical gaps in our knowledge and what should be done to develop knowledge in this area. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into three major sections, as follows: sodium fires; prevention and extinguishing of sodium fires, and aerosols

  1. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  2. The fire-safe cigarette: a burn prevention tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Brigham, P A; Kayden, D A; Heck, R T; McManus, A T

    2000-01-01

    Cigarettes are the most common ignition source for fatal house fires, which cause approximately 29% of the fire deaths in the United States. A common scenario is the delayed ignition of a sofa, chair, or mattress by a lit cigarette that is forgotten or dropped by a smoker whose alertness is impaired by alcohol or medication. Cigarettes are designed to continue burning when left unattended. If they are dropped on mattresses, upholstered furniture, or other combustible material while still burning, their propensity to start fires varies depending on the cigarette design and content. The term "fire-safe" has evolved to describe cigarettes designed to have a reduced propensity for igniting mattresses and upholstered furniture. Legislative interest in the development of fire-safe smoking materials has existed for more than 50 years. Studies that showed the technical and economic feasibility of commercial production of fire-safe cigarettes were completed more than 10 years ago. Despite this, commercial production of fire-safe smoking materials has not been undertaken. The current impasse relates to the lack of consensus on a uniform test method on which to base a standard for fire-safe cigarettes. Although the fire-safe cigarette is a potentially important burn prevention tool, commercial production of such cigarettes will not occur until a standard against which fire-starting performance can be measured has been mandated by law at the state or federal level. The burn care community can play a leadership role in such legislative efforts.

  3. Sodium pool fires consequences on a confined vessel and on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzekiecki, R.; Charpenel, J.; Malet, J.C.; Cucinotta, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the PYROS I Code used in France to calculate the effects of a sodium pool fire on a vessel and his validation range. The results or the atmospheric behaviour of the aerosol are given. Predicting the consequences of large sodium fires in large cells from the results of small scaled experiments, claim attention on scale effects. (author)

  4. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  5. Cerebral microhemorrhages: mechanisms, consequences, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Tarantini, Stefano; Kirkpatrick, Angelia C; Csiszar, Anna; Prodan, Calin I

    2017-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of multifocal cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs, also known as "cerebral microbleeds") is a significant, newly recognized problem in the aging population of the Western world. CMHs are associated with rupture of small intracerebral vessels and are thought to progressively impair neuronal function, potentially contributing to cognitive decline, geriatric psychiatric syndromes, and gait disorders. Clinical studies show that aging and hypertension significantly increase prevalence of CMHs. CMHs are also now recognized by the National Institutes of Health as a major factor in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Moreover, the presence of CMHs is an independent risk factor for subsequent larger intracerebral hemorrhages. In this article, we review the epidemiology, detection, risk factors, clinical significance, and pathogenesis of CMHs. The potential age-related cellular mechanisms underlying the development of CMHs are discussed, with a focus on the structural determinants of microvascular fragility, age-related alterations in cerebrovascular adaptation to hypertension, the role of oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase activation, and the deleterious effects of arterial stiffening, increased pulse pressure, and impaired myogenic autoregulatory protection on the brain microvasculature. Finally, we examine potential treatments for the prevention of CMHs based on the proposed model of aging- and hypertension-dependent activation of the reactive oxygen species-matrix metalloproteinases axis, and we discuss critical questions to be addressed by future studies.

  6. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1989-01-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to...

  7. Prioritization of reactor control components susceptible to fire damage as a consequence of aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.; Vigil, R.; Nowlen, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Fire Vulnerability of Aged Electrical Components Test Program is to identify and assess issues of plant aging that could lead to an increase in nuclear power plant risk because of fires. Historical component data and prior analyses are used to prioritize a list of components with respect to aging and fire vulnerability and the consequences of their failure on plant safety systems. The component list emphasizes safety system control components, but excludes cables, large equipment, and devices encompassed in the Equipment Qualification (EQ) program. The test program selected components identified in a utility survey and developed test and fire conditions necessary to maximize the effectiveness of the test program. Fire damage considerations were limited to purely thermal effects

  8. Prioritization of reactor control components susceptible to fire damage as a consequence of aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, W.; Vigil, R. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nowlen, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Fire Vulnerability of Aged Electrical Components Test Program is to identify and assess issues of plant aging that could lead to an increase in nuclear power plant risk because of fires. Historical component data and prior analyses are used to prioritize a list of components with respect to aging and fire vulnerability and the consequences of their failure on plant safety systems. The component list emphasizes safety system control components, but excludes cables, large equipment, and devices encompassed in the Equipment Qualification (EQ) program. The test program selected components identified in a utility survey and developed test and fire conditions necessary to maximize the effectiveness of the test program. Fire damage considerations were limited to purely thermal effects.

  9. Team teaching fire prevention program: evaluation of an education technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman

    1978-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...

  10. The wildland-urban interface fire problem: A consequence of the fire exclusion paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Cohen

    2008-01-01

    The fire destruction of hundreds of homes associated with wildfires has occurred in the United States for more than a century. From 1870 to 1920, massive wildfires occurred principally in the Lake States but also elsewhere. Wildfires such as Peshtigo (Wisconsin, 1871), Michigan (1881), Hinckley (Minnesota, 1894), Adirondack (New York, 1903), the Big Blowup (Idaho-...

  11. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 05: prescriptions and fire effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Miller

    2004-01-01

    Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 5: prescriptions and fire effects. Miller, Melanie. 2004. Res. Note RMRS-RN-23-5-WWW. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 2 p. While our understanding of the causes for variation in postfire effects is increasing, burn...

  12. Means of evaluating the consequences of a fire in ventilation and filtration networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, J.C.; Mulcey, P.; Pourprix, M.; Savornin, J.; Tessier, J.

    1989-10-01

    Accident events involving fire are quite frequent and could have a severe effect on the safety of nuclear facilities. As confinement must be maintained, the ventilation and filtration systems have to be designed to exclude any radioactive release to the environment. To determine and analyse the consequences of a fire on the ventilation network and on its associated air cleaning systems, a research program including the development of calculation codes and experimental studies has been carried out at the Nuclear Studies Centre at Saclay (France). The paper describes the highlights of this research program

  13. Iatrogenic disease in the elderly: risk factors, consequences, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompol Permpongkosol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sompol PermpongkosolDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: The epidemiology of iatrogenic disease in the elderly has not been extensively reported. Risk factors of iatrogenic disease in the elderly are drug-induced iatrogenic disease, multiple chronic diseases, multiple physicians, hospitalization, and medical or surgical procedures. Iatrogenic disease can have a great psychomotor impact and important social consequences. To identify patients at high risk is the first step in prevention as most of the iatrogenic diseases are preventable. Interventions that can prevent iatrogenic complications include specific interventions, the use of a geriatric interdisciplinary team, pharmacist consultation and acute care for the elderly units.Keywords: iatrogenic disease, elderly, risk factors, prevention

  14. Fires in refugee and displaced persons settlements: the current situation and opportunities to improve fire prevention and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, Yasaman; Gyedu, Adam; Burnham, Gilbert; Nwomeh, Benedict; Charles, Anthony; Mishra, Brijesh; Kuah, Solomon S; Kushner, Adam L; Stewart, Barclay T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to describe the burden of fires in displaced persons settlements and identify interventions/innovations that might address gaps in current humanitarian guidelines. Methods We performed a systematic review of: i) academic and non-academic literature databases; and ii) guidelines from leading humanitarian agencies/initiatives regarding fire prevention/control. Results Of the 1,521 records retrieved, 131 reports described settlement fires in 31 hosting countries since 1990. These incidents resulted in 487 deaths, 790 burn injuries, displacement of 382,486 individuals and destruction of 50,509 shelters. There was a 25-fold increase in the rate of settlement fires from 1990 to 2015 (0.002 to 0.051 per 100,000 refugees, respectively). Only 4 of the 15 leading humanitarian agencies provided recommendations about fire prevention/control strategies. Potentially useful interventions/innovations included safer stoves (e.g. solar cookers) and fire retardant shelter materials. Conclusion The large and increasing number of fires in displaced persons settlements highlights the need to redress gaps in humanitarian fire prevention/control guidelines. The way forward includes: i) developing consensus among aid agencies regarding fire prevention/control strategies; ii) evaluating the impact of interventions/innovations on the burden of fires; and iii) engaging agencies in a broader discussion about protecting camp residents from armed groups. PMID:26818955

  15. Incorporating economic valuation into fire prevention planning and management in Southern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Varela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This article describes and analyzes the links between the fire-based scientific knowledge, the social perception of fire prevention and forest fires and the economic valuation requirements to assess social preferences for fire prevention measures. Area of study: Southern European countries. Material and Methods: For that purpose, we develop a critical revision of the existing literature on economic valuation of social preferences for fire risk reduction and fire prevention in terms of its links with fire science and social perceptions and the applicability of these results in fire management policies. Research highlights: The assessment of social preferences for fire related issues is challenging due to the difficulty of setting sound valuation scenarios that can simultaneously be relevant for the respondents and derive conclusions useful for fire management. Most of the revised studies set up valuation scenarios focused on the final management outcome e.g. number of burnt hectares, what is easier for the respondents to evaluate but weakens the scientific relationship with fire management, making difficult reaching conclusions for sound management advice. A more recent set of valuation studies has been developed where risk perception of homeowners is further assessed as a key variable determining their preferences in valuation scenarios. These studies are relevant for mangers setting fire prevention programs in wildland urban interface areas as understanding the factors that may promote or hinder the enrolment of these homeowners in fire prevention activities may have direct implication in addressing communication programs to promote fire prevention management.

  16. Sexual violence against women: prevalence, consequences, societal factors, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, I L

    1991-01-01

    Sexual assault of women in the United States may have a prevalence rate of 25% or more. Moreover, the majority of survivors of sexual assault know their assailants. Consequences of assault may be severe and long-term, including fear and anxiety, depression, suicide attempts, difficulties with daily functioning and interpersonal relationships, sexual dysfunction, and a whole range of somatic complaints. Recent evidence implicates societal factors, such as acceptance of rape myths, rigid sex role stereotyping beliefs, and acceptance of violence as a legitimate means for obtaining compliance in interpersonal relationships, in the etiology of sexual violence against women. I present a model for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of rape. Primary prevention represents a program of anticipatory guidance in a developmental framework. Secondary prevention entails identification of and early intervention in dysfunctional families. Tertiary prevention consists of the appropriate treatment of the survivor of sexual assault to prevent or minimize subsequent physical and psychological problems. This preventive framework may be incorporated into the practice of clinical preventive medicine and primary care.

  17. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  18. Climate and human intervention effects on future fire activity and consequences for air pollution across the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val Martin, M.; Pierce, J. R.; Heald, C. L.; Li, F.; Lawrence, D. M.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Tilmes, S.; Vitt, F.

    2016-12-01

    Emissions of aerosols and gases from fires have been shown to adversely affect air quality across the world. Fire activity is strongly related to climate and anthropogenic activities. Current fire projections for the 21st century seem very uncertain, ranging from increasing to declining depending on the climate, land cover change and population growth scenarios used. Here we present an analysis of the changes in future wildfire activity and consequences on air quality, with focus on PM2.5 and surface O3 over regions vulnerable to fire. We use the global Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a process-based fire model to simulate emissions from agriculture, peatland, deforestation and landscape fires for present-day and throughout the current century. We consider two future Representative Concentration Pathways climate scenarios combined with population density changes predicted from Shared Socio-economic Pathways to project climate and demographic effects on fire activity and further consequences for future air quality.

  19. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising

  20. Mixed-severity fire regimes in the northern Rocky Mountains: consequences of fire exclusion and options for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno; David J. Parsons; Robert E. Keane

    2000-01-01

    Findings from fire history studies have increasingly indicated that many forest ecosystems in the northern Rocky Mountains were shaped by mixed-severity fire regimes, characterized by fires of variable severities at intervals averaging between about 30 and 100 years. Perhaps because mixed-severity fire regimes and their resulting vegetational patterns are difficult to...

  1. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the in-tank fuel fire/deflageration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, R.D. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for In-Tank Fuel fire/Deflageration consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  2. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the in-tank fuel fire/deflagration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.D.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for In-Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  3. 75 FR 40845 - Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH 141-A] Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of...

  4. Preventive Rad/Nuc Detection Equipment Categorization for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Musolino, S. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klemic, G. [US Dept. of Homeland Security National Security Technology Lab., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection equipment (PRND) to provide state and local agencies with guidance on how to best use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation. While the equipment being tested in this effort has been specifically designed for detection and interdiction operations, the fleet of PRND equipment can help fill critical needs for radiological instrumentation should a consequence management response take place. This effort will provide scientific guidance on the best way to deploy and operate this class of equipment for consequence management missions. With the support of the US Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), PRND equipment has been placed into service at federal, state, and local agencies throughout the nation. If the equipment capability and limitations are taken into account, this large inventory can be repurposed to support the emergency response in the aftermath of a radiological of nuclear event. This report evaluates PRND equipment to define key categories of equipment and the types of missions they can be used for. This is important because there are over 100 different types of PRND equipment, often with significantly different capabilities with respect to the consequence management mission. The current DNDO draft NIMS PRND equipment types were used as a foundation and expanded, when necessary, to address key characteristics important for the consequence mission. Table 1 provides a summary of the PRND instrument categories developed for this effort. Also included on the table are some common response mission detection equipment categories that will be used for capability comparisons.

  5. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jean Rankin,1 Lynsay Matthews,2 Stephen Cobley,3 Ahreum Han,3 Ross Sanders,3 Huw D Wiltshire,4 Julien S Baker5 1Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, 2MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Cardiff School of Sport/Ysgol Chwaraeon Caerdydd, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 5School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland Abstract: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW or obese (OB, and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings

  6. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  7. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  8. Long-run health consequences of air pollution: Evidence from Indonesia's forest fires of 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younoh; Knowles, Scott; Manley, James; Radoias, Vlad

    2017-08-01

    While many studies in the medical literature documented causal relationships between air pollution and negative health outcomes immediately following exposure, much less is known about the long run health consequences of pollution exposure. Using the 1997 Indonesian forest fires as a natural experiment, we estimate the long term effects of air pollution on health outcomes. We take advantage of the longitudinal nature of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), which collects detailed individual data on a multitude of health outcomes, in both 1997 and 2007. We find significant negative effects of pollution, which persist in the long run. Men and the elderly are impacted the most, while children seem to recover almost completely from these early shocks. For the entire population, an extra standard deviation in the pollution level increases the likelihood of a poor general health status by almost 3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of the cigarette ignition propensity standard in preventing unintentional residential fires in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Christiani, David C; Orav, E John; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the Massachusetts Fire Safe Cigarette Law's (FSCL's) effectiveness in preventing residential fires. We examined unintentional residential fires reported to the Massachusetts Fire Incident Reporting System from 2004 to 2010. We analyzed FSCL effect on the likelihood of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires and effect modification by fire scenario factors by using an interrupted time series regression model. We analyzed the effect of FSCL on monthly fire rates with Poisson regression. Cigarettes caused 1629 unintentional residential fires during the study period. The FSCL was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval = 12%, 41%) reduction in the odds of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires, although not in analyses restricted to casualty fires, with smaller sample size. The largest reductions were among fires in which human factors were involved; that were first ignited on furniture, bedding, or soft goods; that occurred in living areas; or that occurred in the summer or winter. The FSCL appears to have decreased the likelihood of cigarette-caused residential fires, particularly in scenarios for which the ignition propensity standard was developed. Current standards should be adopted, and the need for strengthening should be considered.

  10. What kind of cutting and thinning can prevent crown fires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick Harrington

    2008-01-01

    Many land managers are attempting to lessen the probability of severe wildfire behavior and impacts, especially near communities, by manipulating canopy and surface fuel characteristics. Various interest groups have questioned the value of fuels treatments. In reality, apart from fire exposure when a real fire went through a treated stand, effectiveness of fuel...

  11. Fire prevention film spots for television ... narrator influence on knowledge and attitude changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene C. Bernardi

    1973-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of 60-second films on fire prevention, with different narrators, was tested among high school students and by exposure on commercial television channels. The narrators were Smokey Bear, a Youth, and a Ranger. All three films were effective in teaching proper fire use practices to the high school classroom audience. In commercial TV showings,...

  12. Specifics of fire-preventing arrangements in the forests of Baikal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Evdokimenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire risk in major forest types and concomitant vegetation complexes across all altitudinal belts has been analyzed. High fire risk in woodlands is determined by domination of light needle coniferous stands in their structure and specific climate with continuous spring-summer droughts. Thus, the risk of landscape wildfires is high. The most drastic situations occur in very dry years of climatic cycles during forest pyrogenic anomalies when fire spreads across the main landscapes in several nature areas. Current fire-frequency is incompatible with high biosphere status of nature complex of Lake Baikal as an object of the World nature heritage. Extensive forest exploitation is unacceptable as well. Fire-prevention measures in the area require modernization. According to the results of many years of comparative studies of fire risk in phytocenoses with different species composition and structure of tree layers, the techniques of making fire stopping barriers were developed. The scheme of dividing the managed forests into isolated cells separated by special obstacles and fire-resistant forest borders combined with commonly used fire barriers is suggested. Fire-resistant barriers should be formed on both sides of main roads, passing through the intensively exploited woodlands dominating with common pine Pinus sylvestris L., Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., and Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. tree species. Such barriers are intended to stop the fire front of crown fires. The barrier width is determined by the cell order. The barriers are bordered with clearings with scarified soil strips of 3–4 meters in width. Trees and shrubs damaged in the process are removed during clutter cleaning. In places where the barrier passes through coniferous tree stands longitudinal corridors with scarified soil strips every 20–30 meters should be made. Reforestation and thinning are supposed to be combined with

  13. Fire prevention in industrial installations presenting a risk for man and environment (ICPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moche, L.

    2000-01-01

    The most likely accident in industrial installations is fire. 59 out of 100 accidents reported in 1999 describe a fire outbreak, the fire is either the initiating cause of the accident or the form into which the event eventually evolves. This article briefly describes the why and the wherefore of French regulations on fire prevention in installations presenting a risk for man and environment. The French system is based on the responsibility of the plant operator and on the result of inspections performed by authorities to check the conformity of the installation with current regulations. (A.C.)

  14. Radiological terrorism: problems of prevention and minimization of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, Leonid; Arutyunyan, Rafael; Pavlovski, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the key factors defining the extent of potential hazard caused by ionizing radiation sources for the purpose of radiological terrorism and the key areas of activities in the field of counteractions and minimization of possible consequences of such acts. The importance of carrying out system analysis of the practical experience of response to radiation accidents and elimination of their consequences is emphasized. The need to develop scientific approaches, methods and software to realistically analyze possible scenarios and predict the scale of consequences of the acts of terrorism involving radioactive materials is pointed out. The importance of improvement of radioactive materials accounting, control and monitoring systems, especially in non-nuclear areas, as well as improvement of the legal and regulatory framework governing all aspects of radiation source application in the national economy is of particular importance. (author)

  15. Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephen R; Arnett, Donna K; Eckel, Robert H; Gidding, Samuel S; Hayman, Laura L; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Robinson, Thomas N; Scott, Barbara J; St Jeor, Sachiko; Williams, Christine L

    2005-04-19

    The prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents has dramatically increased. There may be vulnerable periods for weight gain during childhood and adolescence that also offer opportunities for prevention of overweight. Overweight in children and adolescents can result in a variety of adverse health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. The best approach to this problem is prevention of abnormal weight gain. Several strategies for prevention are presented. In addition, treatment approaches are presented, including behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical treatment. Childhood and adolescent overweight is one of the most important current public health concerns.

  16. Restoring fire to long-unburned Pinus palustris ecosystems: novel fire effects and consequences for long-unburned ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan J. Varner; Doria r. Gordon; Francis E. Putz; J. Kevin Hiers

    2005-01-01

    Biologically rich savannas and woodlands dominated by Pinus palustris once dominated the southeastern U.S. landscape. With European settlement, fire suppression, and landscape fragmentation, this ecosystem has been reduced in area by 97%. Half of remnant forests are not burned with sufficient frequency, leading to declines in plant and animal species...

  17. Social Bullying: Correlates, Consequences, and Prevention. In Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Terzian, Mary; Bradshaw, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is considered one of the most prevalent and potentially damaging forms of school violence. Each year, more than a quarter of middle and high school students are subjected to some form of bullying in their school environments. Research has identified potentially harmful immediate and long-term consequences for bullying-involved youth and…

  18. Temperature monitoring: the consequences and prevention of mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vigorous shivering roughly doubles metabolic heat production, although this level of intensity cannot be sustained for long. The net efficiency of shivering thermogenesis is somewhat lower than might be expected because muscle metabolism increases blood flow to peripheral tissue, and consequently, heat loss to the.

  19. 34 CFR 668.188 - Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. 668.188 Section 668.188 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.188 Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates...

  20. 34 CFR 668.207 - Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. 668.207 Section 668.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Cohort Default Rates § 668.207 Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. (a...

  1. Etiologies and consequences of adolescent drug use: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, P M

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results and work in progress from a longitudinal study of drug use etiologies and consequences. Early- and mid-adolescent drug use patterns, personality, and behavioral correlates were studied in a large sample of normal youth beginning in the mid-1970's. To determine the correlates and consequences of adolescent drug use, controlling for related tendencies such as lack of social conformity and deviant friendship networks, 654 youngsters were followed into young adulthood and their behaviors and lifestyles evaluated. Teenage drug use was found to disrupt many critical developmental tasks of adolescence and young adulthood. Tendencies to use many different drugs as an adolescent led in young adulthood to increased drug crime involvement, decreased college involvement, increased job instability, income, psychoticism, and stealing episodes. Intervention efforts should be directed not only towards decreasing drug use, but also towards improving personal maturity, social skills, and economic opportunities.

  2. Temperature monitoring: the consequences and prevention of mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    varying environmental temperatures. As thermoregulatory responses are inhibited (by drugs), the range of environmental temperatures over which normal core temperature can be maintained decreases. For example, when shivering is prevented following the administration of muscle relaxants, hypothermia will develop in ...

  3. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 01: Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides accessible, up-to-date fire effects summaries, taken from current English-language literature, for almost 900 plant species, about 100 animal species, and 16 Kuchler plant communities found on the North American continent. This fact sheet discusses the development of FEIS and what is contained in the species summary....

  4. Effects of climate change on fire and spruce budworm disturbance regimes and consequences on forest biomass production in eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, S.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of spruce budworm (SBW) outbreaks and wildfires are expected to change as climatic change progresses. The effects of an altered, combined interaction between SBW and fire may be of greater importance than the individual effect of either on forest biomass production. The objectives of this study are to define current fire and SBW regimes in eastern Canada and relate the characteristics of each regime based upon climate model outputs for 2050 and 2100. The study also attempts to evaluate the impact of predicted changes in SBW and fire disturbance regimes on forest dynamics. The methodology used in the study included data from the Canadian Large Fire Database and historical records of SBW outbreaks. Spatial and environmental variables were presented along with climate models. The analysis was conducted using constrained ordination techniques, and canonical correspondence and redundancy analysis. Projected disturbance regimes were presented for both fire and SBW. The effects of the regimes on biomass productivity were also examined, using a Landscape Disturbance Simulator (LAD). It was concluded that this model will help evaluate the consequences of changes imposed by climatic change on both disturbances individually, as well as their interaction. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  5. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  6. R and D needs for evaluation of sodium fire consequences and aerosol behavior for DFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S.; Hashiguchi, Y.; Okabe, A.

    1996-01-01

    Sodium fire is one of the important safety issues for the liquid metal cooled fast reactor system. In order to achieve the reasonable plant cost performance, the rational countermeasures for sodium fire should be provided and the influence of sodium fire should be evaluated properly. This paper describes the principle of the safety design against sodium leak in the Demonstration Fast Breeder Reactor in Japan (DFBR). In addition, Research and Development (R and D) needs for the design of rational countermeasures against sodium fire and aerosol release are described which include the clarification of behaviors or phenomena, the accumulation of the database of the experimental parameters for the analysis codes, and the improvement of evaluation technique and method. (author)

  7. Underground fires in oil shale mines: special traits of their spreading, extinguishing and liquidating of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parakhonsky, E.

    1995-01-01

    Danger of catching fire in oil shale underground mines has considerably increased lately because of essential increase in mechanization level and frequent violation of fire-safety regulations. The largest underground fire in Estonia took place in the most mechanized mine 'Estonia' in the end of 1988 and lasted 81 days. The fire started in one of the conveyor drifts where two belt-conveyors with rubber-rope belts and a fire pipeline were installed. At the start of the fire and beginning of extinguishing work this pipeline contained no water. Driving heads of these conveyors were installed with automatic extinguishing equipment and with different primary means against fire. When the first group of the Johvi military mine-rescue squad reached the mine they established that the conveyor drift, pillars and a part of rail drift between them were caught by fire. The conveyor belt, oil shale and feeds of conveyor drives were burning. The flame had propagated about 350 metres along the rail and conveyor drifts but the smoke had spread 4 kilometres already. Air temperature near the burning area was about 40-60 deg C, rocks from the roof supported by pillars had crashed down. The mine air was polluted by combustion products. The fire caused a noticeable pollution of mine and surface waters with phenols formed at oil shale combustion. Their limit concentration was exceeded for more than 400 times. To decrease this number, an intensive saturation of waters with atmosphere air was started. For this purpose special dams were constructed on water-diversion ditches ensuring a 0.5-0.7 m difference in water levels. Nevertheless, the phenol concentration in Rannapungerya River and Lake Peipsi still exceeded the normal level 5-6 times. However, the actual maximum concentration of phenols was considerably lower than the lethal doses for fish and other water organisms. Their mass extinction in the river or in the lake was observed neither during nor after the fire. One may conclude the

  8. Applicability of the 'constructional fire prevention for industrial plants' to power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammacher, P.

    1978-01-01

    Power plants, especially nuclear power plants, are considered because of their high value and large construction volume to be among the most important industrial constructions of our time. They have a very exposed position from the point of view of fire prevention because of their constructional and operational concept. The efforts in the Federal Republic of Germany to standardize laws and regulations for fire prevention in industrial plants (industrial construction code, DIN 18230) must be supported if only because they would simplify the licensing procedure. However these regulations cannot be applied in many cases and especially in the main buildings of thermal power plants without restricting or even endangering the function or the safety of such plants. At the present state of the art many parts of the power plant can surely be defined as 'fire safe'. Fire endangered plant components and rooms are protected according to their importance by different measures (constructional measures, fire-fighting equipments, extractors for flue gases and for heat, fire-brigade of the plant). (orig.) [de

  9. Manual for best practice for emergency response procedures, part 1: causes and prevention of inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spencer, KC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Executive Summary This project was designed to have the following outputs: • Recommendations for best practices to deal with coal mine emergencies, with emphasis on inrushes, fires and explosions. • Provide a document from which training staff can... and prevention of inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies. Part 2 The management of inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies. Part 3 A review of the Department of Minerals and Energy guidelines relevant to inrushes, fires, explosions...

  10. Investigation of Lab Fire Prevention Management System of Combining Root Cause Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process with Event Tree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chan Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new approach, combining root cause analysis (RCA, analytic hierarchy process (AHP, and event tree analysis (ETA in a loop to systematically evaluate various laboratory safety prevention strategies. First, 139 fire accidents were reviewed to identify the root causes and draw out prevention strategies. Most fires were caused due to runaway reactions, operation error and equipment failure, and flammable material release. These mostly occurred in working places of no prompt fire protection. We also used AHP to evaluate the priority of these strategies and found that chemical fire prevention strategy is the most important control element, and strengthening maintenance and safety inspection intensity is the most important action. Also together with our surveys results, we proposed that equipment design is also critical for fire prevention. Therefore a technical improvement was propounded: installing fire detector, automatic sprinkler, and manual extinguisher in the lab hood as proactive fire protections. ETA was then used as a tool to evaluate laboratory fire risks. The results indicated that the total risk of a fire occurring decreases from 0.0351 to 0.0042 without/with equipment taking actions. Establishing such system can make Environment, Health and Safety (EH&S office not only analyze and prioritize fire prevention policies more practically, but also demonstrate how effective protective equipment improvement can achieve and the probabilities of the initiating event developing into a serious accident or controlled by the existing safety system.

  11. Levels and sources of forest fire prevention knowledge of California hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1963-01-01

    Males 30-50 years of age from the smaller urban centers (under 25,000 population) make up the bulk of the California hunter population. They are mainly from the skilled-semiskilled and professional-managerial occupations. Their level of knowledge about forest fire prevention is generally high, but their knowledge is weak in some pertinent areas. Most frequently...

  12. Radio and television use in Butte County, California: application to fire prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1975-01-01

    A sample of Butte County residents were interviewed about their radio and television use habits. Their responses were analyzed in terms of demographic, social, and economic characteristics. The findings can be used in developing more effective fire prevention programs. Most people in Butte County listen to the radio or watch television but they differ widely in the way...

  13. Moisture transport in heated concrete, as studied by NMR, and its consequences for fire spalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijden, G.H.A. van der; Bijnen, R.M.W. van; Pel, L.; Huinink, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    During the past 30 years concrete has developed enormously in both strength and durability. A drawback of these improvements is the increased risk of explosive spalling in case of fire. The moisture inside the concrete plays an important role in the spalling mechanism. In order to study the moisture migration inside concrete during intense heating, a dedicated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) setup was built. This setup can be placed inside a 1.5-T MRI scanner. With this setup one-dimensional moisture profiles can be measured while the concrete sample is heated up to 250 deg. C. Besides concrete, measurements were performed on fired-clay brick and calcium-silicate brick. The results show that water inside the concrete sample is superheated to a temperature of 170 deg. C, which results in an increased pressure inside the concrete. A model was developed to predict the movement of the observed drying front

  14. Comparative funding consequences of large versus small gas-fired power generation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    Gas producers are increasingly looking to privately-owned gas-fired power generation as a major growth market to support the development of new fields being discovered across Australia. Gas-fired generating technology is more environmentally friendly than coal-fired power stations, has lower unit capital costs and has higher efficiency levels. With the recent downward trends in gas prices for power generation (especially in Western Australia) it is likely that gas will indeed be the consistently preferred fuel for generation in Australia. Gas producers should be sensitive to the different financial and risk characteristics of the potential market represented by large versus small gas-fired private power stations. These differences are exaggerated by the much sharper focus given by the private sector to quantify risk and to its allocation to the parties best able to manage it. The significant commercial differences between classes of generation projects result in gas producers themselves being exposed to diverging risk profiles through their gas supply contracts with generating companies. Selling gas to larger generation units results in gas suppliers accepting proportionately (i.e. not just prorata to the larger installed capacity) higher levels of financial risk. Risk arises from the higher probability of a project not being completed, from the increased size of penalty payments associated with non-delivery of gas and from the rising level of competition between gas suppliers. Gas producers must fully understand the economics and risks of their potential electricity customers and full financial analysis will materially help the gas supplier in subsequent commercial gas contract negotiations. (author). 1 photo

  15. Preventing Factory Fires through Contracts: Case study of Garment Factories in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Hideki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a multi-decade history of lethal fires in the Bangladeshi garment industry, Sato (2012 proposed a contract framework that encourages manufacturers to adopt measures that reduce loss of life. Apart from the humanitarian imperative, the manufacturer has an incentive to sign the contract and adopt its preventative measures because an industrial disaster will cancel its relationship with its global retailer and end the related profits. This theoretical study specifies the optimal contract that incentivizes manufacturers and reduces the occurrence of garment industry fires.

  16. A Mega-fire event in Central Russia: fire weather, radiative, and optical properties of the atmosphere, and consequences for subboreal forest plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataly Y. Chubarova; Nickolay G. Prilepsky; Alexei N. Rublev; Allen R. Riebau

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, a major drought and prolonged high temperatures occurred in central Russia that resulted in unprecedented wildland fires. These fires occurred under extreme fire danger conditions and were impossible for the Russian authorities to extinguish. It is perhaps somewhat unique that the fires were first burning peat bogs and later forests, causing very massive smoke...

  17. Disruptive behavior in the operating room: prevalence, consequences, prevention, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Fast, Ian; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2018-04-13

    Disruptive workplace behavior can have serious consequences to clinicians, institutions, and patients. There is a range of disruptive behaviors, and the consequences are often underappreciated. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the definition, prevalence, consequences, prevention, and management of disruptive behavior in the operating room. Although a small minority of operating room clinicians act disruptively, 98% of clinicians report having recently been exposed to disruptive behavior, with the average being 64 events per clinician per year. The causes include intrapersonal factors, workplace relationships, workplace logistics, and broader contextual factors. Disruptive behavior undermines patient care by decreasing individual and team clinical performance. It decreases clinician well being, sets a poor example for medical students who are susceptible to negative role models, and decreases hospital efficiency. The way that clinicians respond to disruptive behavior may either exacerbate or reduce the consequences of the behavior. In order to prevent disruptive behavior, the causes must be addressed. Institutions must have robust policies to deal with disruptive behavior and have preventive measures that include regular staff education. Whenever disruptive behavior does occur, it must be expeditiously addressed, which may include graded discipline. Disruptive intraoperative behavior is prevalent and harms multiple parties in the operating room. Institutions require comprehensive measures to prevent the behavior and to mitigate consequences.

  18. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  19. Forest and Land Fire Prevention Through the Hotspot Movement Pattern Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmudi, T.; Kardono, P.; Hartanto, P.; Ardhitasari, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has experienced a great forest fire disaster in 2015. The losses incurred were enormous. But actually the incidence of forest and land fires occurs almost every year. Various efforts were made to cope with the fire disaster. The appearance of a hotspot becomes an early indication of the fire incident both location and time. By studying the location and time of the hotspot's appearance indicates that the hotspot has certain movement patterns from year to year. This study aims to show the pattern of movement of hotspots from year to year that can be used for the prevention of forest and land fires. The method used is time series analysis of land cover and hotspot distribution. The data used were land cover data from 2005 to 2016, hotspot data from 2005 to 2016. The location of this study is the territory of Meranti Kepulauan District. The results show that the highest hotspot is 425 hotspots occurs in the shrubs and bushes. From year to year, the pattern of hotspot movement occurs in the shrubs and bushes cover. The hotspot pattern follows the direction of unused land for cultivation and is dominated by shrubs. From these results, we need to pay more attentiont for the land with the cover of shrubs adjacent to the cultivated land.

  20. Investigation into the use of a water curtain over openings to prevent fire spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turco Matt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of several full-scale experiments to study heat radiation attenuation and shielding using sprinklers to create a water curtain between a compartment fire and a target wall. This work builds on the concept that water absorbs and scatters heat radiation and applies it as a shielding mechanism, which can be used to protect personnel and property exposed to an opening during a compartment fire. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a water curtain created using sprinkler heads in attenuating the heat flux from flames exiting a compartment fire, shielding the target wall and preventing fire spread. The results show that the water curtain reduces heat flux to the target wall which may allow for decreasing the building distance from the property line. Heat fluxes along the target wall are compared to heat fluxes required for the piloted ignition of wood products. The effects of fire size, sprinkler system flow rate, and separation distance to the target wall are discussed.

  1. Characterization of wildland-urban interfaces for fire prevention in the province of Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madrigal Olmo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The present study is the first attempt to characterize and map wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs in eastern Spain (province of Valencia and its relationship with wildfire occurrence. Area of study. The study area is located in eastern Spain in the province of Valencia. The area covers 246,426 ha and includes four administrative departments comprising 86 municipalities.Material and methods. The methodology integrates housing density and vegetation aggregation for large-scale fire prevention using the WUImap ® ARC GIS tool. A PLS model was developed to relate wildfire occurrence and WUI typologies.Main results. The results show that 21% of housing can be considered as WUIs, highlighting the high degree of fire hazard in the study area. The PLS model shows that the 4 typologies outside of WUI present lower significance than most of WUI typologies. The types of WUI most related to fire occurrence (Number of Fires and Area Burned are Insolated and Scattered housing with Low or High vegetation aggregation. The type Insolated housing with low aggregation presents the highest significance to explain wildfire occurrence.Research highlights: A significant relationship between wildfire occurrence the study area and WUI has been demonstrated. The obtained results verify the ability of WUImap tool in classifying large-scale administrative departments and its suitability for application to prioritize preventive actions in the Mediterranean areasKey words: Housing density; PLS (Partial Least Squares model; vegetation aggregation; WUImap.

  2. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load : risk factors, consequences, and preventive action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Grinten, M.P. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Poel, E.G.T. van der

    1998-01-01

    Objectives - Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks,

  3. Evaluating implementation of a fire-prevention injury prevention briefing in children's centres: Cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toity Deave

    Full Text Available Many developed countries have high mortality rates for fire-related deaths in children aged 0-14 years with steep social gradients. Evidence-based interventions to promote fire safety practices exist, but the impact of implementing a range of these interventions in children's services has not been assessed. We developed an Injury Prevention Briefing (IPB, which brought together evidence about effective fire safety interventions and good practice in delivering interventions; plus training and facilitation to support its use and evaluated its implementation.We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial, with integrated qualitative and cost-effectiveness nested studies, across four study sites in England involving children's centres in disadvantaged areas; participants were staff and families attending those centres. Centres were stratified by study site and randomised within strata to one of three arms: IPB plus facilitation (IPB+, IPB only, usual care. IPB+ centres received initial training and facilitation at months 1, 3, and 8. Baseline data from children's centres were collected between August 2011 and January 2012 and follow-up data were collected between June 2012 and June 2013. Parent baseline data were collected between January 2012 and May 2012 and follow-up data between May 2013 and September 2013. Data comprised baseline and 12 month parent- and staff-completed questionnaires, facilitation contact data, activity logs and staff interviews. The primary outcome was whether families had a plan for escaping from a house fire. Treatment arms were compared using multilevel models to account for clustering by children's centre.1112 parents at 36 children's centres participated. There was no significant effect of the intervention on families' possession of plans for escaping from a house fire (adjusted odds ratio (AOR IPB only vs. usual care: 0.93, 95%CI 0.58, 1.49; AOR IPB+ vs. usual care 1.41, 95%CI 0.91, 2.20. However, significantly more

  4. Evaluating implementation of a fire-prevention injury prevention briefing in children's centres: Cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deave, Toity; Hawkins, Adrian; Kumar, Arun; Hayes, Mike; Cooper, Nicola; Watson, Michael; Ablewhite, Joanne; Coupland, Carol; Sutton, Alex; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; McDaid, Lisa; Goodenough, Trudy; Beckett, Kate; McColl, Elaine; Reading, Richard; Kendrick, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Many developed countries have high mortality rates for fire-related deaths in children aged 0-14 years with steep social gradients. Evidence-based interventions to promote fire safety practices exist, but the impact of implementing a range of these interventions in children's services has not been assessed. We developed an Injury Prevention Briefing (IPB), which brought together evidence about effective fire safety interventions and good practice in delivering interventions; plus training and facilitation to support its use and evaluated its implementation. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial, with integrated qualitative and cost-effectiveness nested studies, across four study sites in England involving children's centres in disadvantaged areas; participants were staff and families attending those centres. Centres were stratified by study site and randomised within strata to one of three arms: IPB plus facilitation (IPB+), IPB only, usual care. IPB+ centres received initial training and facilitation at months 1, 3, and 8. Baseline data from children's centres were collected between August 2011 and January 2012 and follow-up data were collected between June 2012 and June 2013. Parent baseline data were collected between January 2012 and May 2012 and follow-up data between May 2013 and September 2013. Data comprised baseline and 12 month parent- and staff-completed questionnaires, facilitation contact data, activity logs and staff interviews. The primary outcome was whether families had a plan for escaping from a house fire. Treatment arms were compared using multilevel models to account for clustering by children's centre. 1112 parents at 36 children's centres participated. There was no significant effect of the intervention on families' possession of plans for escaping from a house fire (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) IPB only vs. usual care: 0.93, 95%CI 0.58, 1.49; AOR IPB+ vs. usual care 1.41, 95%CI 0.91, 2.20). However, significantly more families in

  5. Evaluating implementation of a fire-prevention injury prevention briefing in children's centres: Cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deave, Toity; Hawkins, Adrian; Kumar, Arun; Hayes, Mike; Cooper, Nicola; Watson, Michael; Ablewhite, Joanne; Coupland, Carol; Sutton, Alex; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; McDaid, Lisa; Goodenough, Trudy; Beckett, Kate; McColl, Elaine; Reading, Richard; Kendrick, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Background Many developed countries have high mortality rates for fire-related deaths in children aged 0–14 years with steep social gradients. Evidence-based interventions to promote fire safety practices exist, but the impact of implementing a range of these interventions in children’s services has not been assessed. We developed an Injury Prevention Briefing (IPB), which brought together evidence about effective fire safety interventions and good practice in delivering interventions; plus training and facilitation to support its use and evaluated its implementation. Methods We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial, with integrated qualitative and cost-effectiveness nested studies, across four study sites in England involving children’s centres in disadvantaged areas; participants were staff and families attending those centres. Centres were stratified by study site and randomised within strata to one of three arms: IPB plus facilitation (IPB+), IPB only, usual care. IPB+ centres received initial training and facilitation at months 1, 3, and 8. Baseline data from children’s centres were collected between August 2011 and January 2012 and follow-up data were collected between June 2012 and June 2013. Parent baseline data were collected between January 2012 and May 2012 and follow-up data between May 2013 and September 2013. Data comprised baseline and 12 month parent- and staff-completed questionnaires, facilitation contact data, activity logs and staff interviews. The primary outcome was whether families had a plan for escaping from a house fire. Treatment arms were compared using multilevel models to account for clustering by children’s centre. Results 1112 parents at 36 children’s centres participated. There was no significant effect of the intervention on families’ possession of plans for escaping from a house fire (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) IPB only vs. usual care: 0.93, 95%CI 0.58, 1.49; AOR IPB+ vs. usual care 1.41, 95%CI 0.91, 2

  6. Preventing Factory Fires through Contracts: Case study of Garment Factories in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Following a multi-decade history of lethal fires in the Bangladeshi garment industry, Sato (2012) proposed a contract framework that encourages manufacturers to adopt measures that reduce loss of life. Apart from the humanitarian imperative, the manufacturer has an incentive to sign the contract and adopt its preventative measures because an industrial disaster will cancel its relationship with its global retailer and end the related profits. This theoretical study specifies the optimal contr...

  7. Flammability of tree species for use in fuelbreaks at forest fires prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Kovalsyki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among several silvicultural measures of forest fires prevention, fuelbreaks stands out. These structures are used to reduce and/or prevent fire spread. They consist of plantations with lower flammability species than the main species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the flammability of Psidium cattleianum Sabine., Ligustrum lucidum W. T. Aiton., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. and Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, for potential use in fuelbreaks. In this research Pinus taeda L. was used as control. Samples consisted of 1 g of fine material (< 0.7 cm of diameter newly collected. Samples burning were performed in epiradiator, under temperature between 250 °C and 350 °C. It was carried out 50 replications for each species. It was analyzed ignition frequency, time to ignition, combustion duration, combustion index, and it was also determined flammability value. P. taeda presents a very high combustion intensity and was classified as a flammable species. The other species were considered poorly flammable. S. terebinthifolius and B. glabra indicated low combustion intensity, L. lucidum medium and P. cattleianum high combustion intensity. In this context, it was concluded that these species have potential to be used in fuelbreaks to prevent forest fires.

  8. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  9. Prescribed burning experiences in Italy: an integrated approach to prevent forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascoli D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is used in many geographical areas for multiple and integrated objectives (wildfire prevention, habitat conservation, grazing management. In Europe the collaboration between researchers and fire professionals has brought to implement this technique over increasing areas (~104 ha year-1, effectively and efficiently. In Italy prescribed burning has not been much studied and it is rarely applied. A new interest is recently rising. Some Regions particularly threatened by wildfires have updated their legislation and set up procedures to authorize prescribed fire experiments and interventions. From 2004 to 2011 several scientific, operative and training experiences have been carried out at a regional level (Basilicata, Campania, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Piemonte, Sardegna, Toscana. The present paper aims to: (i document and compare these regional programs; (ii discuss their frameworks and limitations; (iii provide information about objectives, prescriptions, methods and results. The study has involved Universities, Forest Corps, Civil Protection, Municipalities, Parks and professionals from Italy and other Countries. Interventions have regarded integrated objectives (fire hazard reduction; habitat conservation; forest and grazing management, and involved several vegetation types (broadleaved and conifer forests; Mediterranean and Continental shrublands; grasslands. Studies on fire behaviour and ecology have helped to set prescriptions for specific objectives and environments. Results have been transferred to professionals through training sessions. Several common elements are outlined: integrated objectives, multidisciplinary character, training and research products. Ecological questions, certification to the use of fire, communication to local communities and the proposal of new studies, are some of the issues outlined in the discussion. The present study is the first review at national level and we hope it will help to deepen the

  10. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 06: wildland fire use: the "other" treatment option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Black

    2004-01-01

    Fire suppression has reduced acres burned to an average of 2 million acres a year. An unfortunate result of this has been the accumulation of even more above-normal fuel loads in many areas. This paper discusses (1) the important ecological role of fire, (2) using fire as a fuels treatment, and (2) the benefits and risks of fire.

  11. Shifting Perceptions of Consequences of IPV Among Beneficiaries of Indashyikirwa: An IPV Prevention Program in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Niyibizi, Lea Liliane

    2018-01-01

    Indashyikirwa is a Rwandan program that seeks to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) and support healthy, equitable relationships. A fundamental program aspect is a 5-month curriculum among heterosexual couples designed to identify the causes and consequences of economic, emotional, physical, and sexual IPV, and build skills to manage triggers of IPV. The program also trained opinion leaders to more effectively prevent and respond to IPV, and established women's safe spaces to educate women about their rights, refer or accompany women who wish to report abuse or seek services. Drawing on 30 interviews with couples and 9 interviews with opinion leaders before and after completing the Indashyikirwa trainings, this article highlights beneficiaries' perceived consequences of IPV, and how such perceptions were influenced through the Indashyikirwa program. Interviews were conducted in Kinyarwanda, recorded, translated, and transcribed into English and analyzed thematically. The data reveal a depth of understanding of consequences of various forms of IPV. Although several participants justified more minor forms of men's physical IPV, such as slapping, severe consequences of physical IPV were most readily identified and sanctioned. Various harms of emotional and economic IPV were reported, yet these forms of IPV were typically less socially sanctioned or identified as IPV. Conceptions of sexual IPV were influenced by inequitable gender norms, and not typically recognized as a violation under the law. Although the data do not yet demonstrate the long-term impact, collectively identifying the overlapping consequences and underlying power inequalities for all forms of IPV, the legal rights protecting against various forms of IPV, and the benefits of nonviolent, equitable relationships, appeared to be helpful to shift perceptions of consequences of IPV. Implications of the findings for the program and broader IPV prevention are identified.

  12. Effect of pre-firing compression on the prevention of pancreatic fistula in distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashita, Teijiro; Ohta, Masayuki; Yada, Kazuhiro; Tada, Kazuhiro; Saga, Kunihiro; Takayama, Hiroomi; Endo, Yuichi; Uchida, Hiroki; Iwashita, Yukio; Inomata, Masafumi

    2018-03-26

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a major complication of distal pancreatectomy (DP). Several procedures for resection and closure of the pancreas have been proposed; however, the rate of POPF remains high. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between perioperative factors and POPF and to clarify the advantages of pre-firing compression of the pancreas in the DP. From 2008 to 2016, records of 75 patients who underwent DP were retrospectively reviewed. The relationship between the perioperative factors and clinically relevant POPF was investigated. Univariate analysis showed that body mass index, thickness of the pancreas, and pre-firing compression were significantly related with clinically relevant POPF. Multivariate analysis showed that the pre-firing compression was an independent factor of clinically relevant POPF (OR = 44.31, 95%CI = 3.394-578.3, P = 0.004). Pre-firing compression of the pancreas can prevent clinically relevant POPF in DP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for fatigue in shipping, the consequences for seafarers’ health and options for preventive intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Zhao, Zhiwei; Pekcan, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of fatigue for the health and safety of seafarers have caused concern in the industry and among academics, and indicates the importance of further research into risk factors and preventive interventions at sea. This chapter gives an overview of the key issues relating to seafarer...... fatigue. A literature study was conducted aimed at collecting publications that address risk factors for fatigue, short-term and long-term consequences for health and safety, and options for fatigue mitigation at sea. Due to the limited number of publications that deal with seafarers, experiences from...

  14. Evaluation of awareness concerning fire prevention and control methods among personnel of operating room in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are risk of fire accidents in Operating rooms during surgery. Experts estimate annually around 100 fire accidents occur in the operating rooms of United States’s hospitals. 10 to 20 of these accidents lead to severe injuries and about 1 to 2 lead to death. Despite such accidents rarely happen, but they can lead to serious injury or death of patients. .Material and Method: This Cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted among several hospitals belonged to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this study, all personnel of operating rooms were investigated. Questionnaire were used to collect information and the chi-square test was applied to examine the relationship between the Knowledge of operating room personels on fire prevention and control methods, jobs and work experience. For statistical analysis SPSS14 were used. .Result: In this study from 220 participants, about 19.72% had full awareness, 19.62% had partial knowledge, 19.37% had low awareness and 40.97% had no knowledge on fire prevention methods, concerning fire control methods. However, 76% of the participate had full awareness and 24% had no knowledge. Test result Statistically showed that the relationship between the awareness of operating room personnel to fire control methods and work experience were significant (P-value <0.05. But, the relationship between the knowledge of operating room to fire control methods and the type of jobs were not significant. Also no significant relationship were found between the level of awareness in operating room personnel to fire prevention methods, work experience and job title. .Conclusion: The results indicated that the operating room staff awareness of fire prevention and control methods are low. The results also showed that awareness of fires prevention are lower than the awareness of fire control among the studied personel. Regarding to the potential risk of fire in the operating room, it is suggested

  15. Awareness of Causes, Consequences and Preventive Measures of Obesity among Adolescents in India

    OpenAIRE

    kansra, pooja

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is associated with wide range of diseases, including cardio respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary heart disease. Aims: This study aimed to assess the awareness of the adolescents towards the causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Methods: The present study was based on primary data. The study included 200 adolescents surveyed as per convenience sampling. The an...

  16. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants: Long-Tern Consequences and Modern Approaches for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses modern ideas about the genesis of the most common variants of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID in infants, and their ability to lead to long-term negative consequences for the health of the child. The article provides data on role of intestinal microbiota in development of FGID in infants and current approaches to prevention and correction using probiotics with proven effectiveness. 

  17. Prevention of low back pain and its consequences among nurses' aides in elderly care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2013-01-01

    to the multi-factorial origin of low back pain. Participatory ergonomics, cognitive behavioral training and physical training have previously shown promising effects on prevention and rehabilitation of low back pain. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to examine whether a multi-faceted workplace...... intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioral training can prevent low back pain and its consequences among nurses' aides. External resources for the participating workplace and a strong commitment from the management and the organization support......A high prevalence of low back pain has persisted over the years despite extensive primary prevention initiatives among nurses' aides. Many single-faceted interventions addressing just one aspect of low back pain have been carried out at workplaces, but with low success rate. This may be due...

  18. The Fire is Coming: An HIV Prevention Intervention Contextualized to the Maasai People of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Fire is Coming” film is an innovative HIV-prevention intervention contextualized to the Maasai people of Tanzania through use of a traditional Maasai story. The intervention was developed and implemented in partnership with Maasai Pastoralists for Education and Development (MAPED. Although there have been numerous Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP surveys conducted among the Maasai, this is the first control-group comparison study designed to measure the effectiveness of an HIV-prevention intervention contextualized specifically to the Maasai people of Tanzania. We will first discuss the background and context in which the intervention was developed and methods used to develop the intervention. We will then discuss the evaluation methods, results, and implications of a retrospective Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices (KAP two-village comparison survey (n=200 for “The Fire is Coming” HIV-prevention intervention among Maasai people. There was a significant effect for HIV-related attitudes, t(16 = 2.77, p 0.05. Implications: Belief in one’s ability to do something is often the pivotal point for behavior change. The results of the survey denote a highly effective intervention in changing HIV-related attitudes and behaviors. It is promising for replication among other Maasai communities and for adaptation with indigenous people groups in other regions.

  19. Intracellular Methamphetamine Prevents the Dopamine-induced Enhancement of Neuronal Firing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kaustuv; Sambo, Danielle; Richardson, Ben D.; Lin, Landon M.; Butler, Brittany; Villarroel, Laura; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    The dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is implicated in multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson disease and drug addiction. The primary target of psychostimulants such as amphetamine and methamphetamine is the dopamine transporter (DAT), the major regulator of extracellular dopamine levels in the brain. However, the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of methamphetamine and amphetamine administration are unique from one another, thereby suggesting these two compounds impact dopaminergic neurotransmission differentially. We further examined the unique mechanisms by which amphetamine and methamphetamine regulate DAT function and dopamine neurotransmission; in the present study we examined the impact of extracellular and intracellular amphetamine and methamphetamine on the spontaneous firing of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons and isolated DAT-mediated current. In dopaminergic neurons the spontaneous firing rate was enhanced by extracellular application of amphetamine > dopamine > methamphetamine and was DAT-dependent. Amphetamine > methamphetamine similarly enhanced DAT-mediated inward current, which was sensitive to isosmotic substitution of Na+ or Cl− ion. Although isosmotic substitution of extracellular Na+ ions blocked amphetamine and methamphetamine-induced DAT-mediated inward current similarly, the removal of extracellular Cl− ions preferentially blocked amphetamine-induced inward current. The intracellular application of methamphetamine, but not amphetamine, prevented the dopamine-induced increase in the spontaneous firing of dopaminergic neurons and the corresponding DAT-mediated inward current. The results reveal a new mechanism for methamphetamine-induced dysregulation of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24962577

  20. Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; Defries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-12-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from

  1. Daily and 3-hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003.2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ]derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top ]down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from

  2. 34 CFR 86.5 - What are the consequences if an IHE fails to submit a drug prevention program certification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the consequences if an IHE fails to submit a drug prevention program certification? 86.5 Section 86.5 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.5 What are the consequences if an IHE fails to submit a drug prevention program...

  3. Healthcare costs and obesity prevention: drug costs and other sector-specific consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappange, David R; Brouwer, Werner B F; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Van Baal, Pieter H M

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major contributor to the overall burden of disease (also reducing life expectancy) and associated with high medical costs due to obesity-related diseases. However, obesity prevention, while reducing obesity-related morbidity and mortality, may not result in overall healthcare cost savings because of additional costs in life-years gained. Sector-specific financial consequences of preventing obesity are less well documented, for pharmaceutical spending as well as for other healthcare segments. To estimate the effect of obesity prevention on annual and lifetime drug spending as well as other sector-specific expenditures, i.e. the hospital segment, long-term care segment and primary healthcare. The RIVM (Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment) Chronic Disease Model and Dutch cost of illness data were used to simulate, using a Markov-type model approach, the lifetime expenditures in the pharmaceutical segment and three other healthcare segments for a hypothetical cohort of obese (body mass index [BMI] >or=30 kg/m2), non-smoking people with a starting age of 20 years. In order to assess the sector-specific consequences of obesity prevention, these costs were compared with the costs of two other similar cohorts, i.e. a 'healthy-living' cohort (non-smoking and a BMI >or=18.5 and definition of healthcare. Lifetime drug expenditures are higher for obese people than for 'healthy-living' people, despite shorter life expectancy for the obese. Obesity prevention results in savings on drugs for obesity-related diseases until the age of 74 years, which outweigh additional drug costs for diseases unrelated to obesity in life-years gained. Furthermore, obesity prevention will increase long-term care expenditures substantially, while savings in the other healthcare segments are small or non-existent. Discounting costs more heavily or using lower relative mortality risks for obesity would make obesity prevention a relatively more attractive

  4. Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  5. Mission Analysis for Using Preventive Radiological/Nuclear Detection Equipment for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood-Zika, Annmarie R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haynes, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klemic, Gladys A. [US Dept. of Homeland Security National Urban Security Technology Lab., Manhattan, NY (United States); Musolino, Stephen V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) equipment to provide state and local agencies with scientific guidance on how to effectively use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation. While the equipment being tested in this effort has been specifically designed by technology manufacturers and purchased by responders for preventive detection and source interdiction operations, the fleet of PRND equipment can help fill critical needs for radiological instrumentation should a consequence management (CM) response take place, as it is currently the most widely available and fielded radiological instrumentation by state and local agencies. This effort will provide scientific guidance on the most effective way to utilize this class of equipment for consequence management missions. Gaining a better understanding of how PRND equipment can operate and perform for these missions will allow for recommendations on the tactical approach responders can use for consequence management operations. PRND equipment has been placed into service by federal, state, and local agencies throughout the nation. If the equipment capability and limitations are taken into account, this large inventory can be leveraged to support the emergency response in the aftermath of a radiological or nuclear event. With several hundred makes and models of PRND equipment, often with significantly different detection capabilities that do not align with their nominal PRND equipment type, development of a streamlined categorization scheme with respect to consequence management missions was the first step to identifying safe and effective uses of PRND equipment for radiological/nuclear incident response.

  6. Leuna methods of rapid emptying and pressure release of operating equipment filled with combustible liquids and gases, as means of prevention of spreading fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1944-12-14

    At times, the considerable amounts of combustible liquids in the equipment during distillation, gas separation, scrubbing, etc. required special precautionary measures even under normal conditions. Obviously, such amounts of combustibles carried the danger of spreading fires from any disturbance, such as breaks in the piping, of the slides, explosions, and small fires. The past precautions taken in this matter had been fire extinguishers, construction of localizing compartments, spray systems, reduction of the amount of liquids, and other similar measures. However, such measures were of little use in case of an attack. Leuna decided to provide a means of rapid emptying with a simultaneous rapid exhausting of all equipment under danger. Releasing the pressure would prevent the formation of sharp-pointed flames with their devastating consequences. The installation consisted essentially of groups of valves (easily accessible), long pipe lines, storage farms for liquids, and a discharge into the air. Provisions were made for returning the materials under atmospheric pressure to prevent losses. The figures showed rapid emptying of scrubbers for circulating gas under high pressure, gasoline catchpot still, and pressure release of gas separation unit. These installations proved worthy and became a necessary part of operations. Four diagrams are given showing this installation. 4 diagrams

  7. Space-time clustering analysis of wildfires: The influence of dataset characteristics, fire prevention policy decisions, weather and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G; Tonini, Marj

    2016-07-15

    The present study focuses on the dependence of the space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) (1) on the input database's characteristics and (2) on the use of this methodology to assess changes on the fire regime due to different type of climate and fire management activities. Based on the very strong relationship between weather and the fire incidence in Portugal, the detected clusters will be interpreted in terms of the atmospheric conditions. Apart from being the country most affected by the fires in the European context, Portugal meets all the conditions required to carry out this study, namely: (i) two long and comprehensive official datasets, i.e. the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) and the National Mapping Burnt Areas (NMBA), respectively based on ground and satellite measurements; (ii) the two types of climate (Csb in the north and Csa in the south) that characterizes the Mediterranean basin regions most affected by the fires also divide the mainland Portuguese area; and, (iii) the national plan for the defence of forest against fires was approved a decade ago and it is now reasonable to assess its impacts. Results confirmed (1) the influence of the dataset's characteristics on the detected clusters, (2) the existence of two different fire regimes in the country promoted by the different types of climate, (3) the positive impacts of the fire prevention policy decisions and (4) the ability of the STPSS to correctly identify clusters, regarding their number, location, and space-time size in spite of eventual space and/or time splits of the datasets. Finally, the role of the weather on days when clustered fires were active was confirmed for the classes of small, medium and large fires. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 03: structure fires in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) data indicate that wildfires destroyed approximately 9,000 homes between 1985 and 1994 in the United States. The loss of homes to wildfire has had a significant impact on Federal fire policy. This fact sheet discusses the causes of home ignitions in the wildland-urban interface, home ignition zones, how to reduce home...

  9. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  10. Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas

  11. Determinants, consequences and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity: An Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjani, Harish; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mehreen, T S; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Anand, Krishnan; Garg, Renu; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents and children has risen to alarming levels globally, and this has serious public health consequences. Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value are speculated to be two of the most important etiological factors responsible for escalating rate of childhood overweight in developing nations. To tackle the childhood obesity epidemic we require comprehensive multidisciplinary evidence-based interventions. Some suggested strategies for childhood obesity prevention and management include increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time including television viewing, personalized nutrition plans for very obese kids, co-curriculum health education which should be implemented in schools and counseling for children and their parents. In developing countries like India we will need practical and cost-effective community-based strategies with appropriate policy changes in order to curb the escalating epidemic of childhood obesity.

  12. Risks, consequences, and prevention of falls of older people in oral healthcare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, Cees; de Baat, Paul; Gerritsen, Anneloes E; Flohil, Karien A; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; van der Maarel-Wierink, Claar D

    2017-03-01

    One-third of community-dwelling people older than 65 years of age fall each year, and half of them fall at least twice a year. Older care home residents are approximately three times more likely to fall when compared to community-dwelling older people. Risk indicators for falls are related to the older people's body, environment, behavior, and activities. An important health risk indicator is (orthostatic or postprandial) hypotension, which may induce cerebral hypoperfusion. Although the majority of falls remain without major consequences, 10% to 25% of falls in care homes result in bodily trauma. Prevalent fall-related injuries are brain injury, lower extremity fracture including hip fracture and forearm/wrist fracture, facial fracture, humeral fracture, and rib/scapular fracture. As fall accidents by older people can have severe consequences, prevention of falls is of paramount importance. Healthcare providers, including oral healthcare providers, should inform older people on risks of falling and draw attention to potentially hazardous arrangements. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage: cost consequences analysis of misoprostol in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Danielle L; Zhao, Fei-Li; Robertson, Jane

    2015-11-23

    While inferior to oxytocin injection in both efficacy and safety, orally administered misoprostol has been included in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines for use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in low-resource settings. This study evaluates the costs and health outcomes of use of oral misoprostol to prevent PPH in settings where injectable uterotonics are not available. A cost-consequences analysis was conducted from the international health system perspective, using data from a recent Cochrane systematic review and WHO's Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 births in a mixed hospital (40% births)/community setting (60% births). Costs were estimated based on 2012 US dollars. Using oxytocin in the hospital setting and misoprostol in the community setting in a cohort of 1000 births, instead of oxytocin (hospital setting) and no treatment (community setting), 22 cases of PPH could be prevented. Six fewer women would require additional uterotonics and four fewer women a blood transfusion. An additional 130 women would experience shivering and an extra 42 women fever. Oxytocin/misoprostol was found to be cost saving (US$320) compared to oxytocin/no treatment. If misoprostol is used in both the hospital and community setting compared with no treatment (i.e. oxytocin not available in the hospital setting), 37 cases of PPH could be prevented; ten fewer women would require additional uterotonics; and six fewer women a blood transfusion. An additional 217 women would experience shivering and 70 fever. The cost savings would be US$533. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the results are sensitive to the incidence of PPH-related outcomes, drug costs and the proportion of hospital births. Our findings confirm that, even though misoprostol is not the optimum choice in the prevention of PPH, misoprostol could be an effective and cost-saving choice where oxytocin is not or cannot be used due to a

  14. Research on consequence analysis method for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear fuel facilities (4). Investigation of safety evaluation method for fire and explosion incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Ueda, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    A special committee on 'Research on the analysis methods for accident consequence of nuclear fuel facilities (NFFs)' was organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) under the entrustment of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The committee aims to research on the state-of-the-art consequence analysis method for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NFFs, such as fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. The objective of this research is to obtain the useful information related to the establishment of quantitative performance objectives and to risk-informed regulation through qualifying issues needed to be resolved for applying PSA to NFFs. The research activities of the committee were mainly focused on the analysis method of consequences for postulated accidents with potentially large consequences in NFFs, e.g., events of criticality, spill of molten glass, hydrogen explosion, boiling of radioactive solution, and fire (including rapid decomposition of TBP complexes), resulting in the release of radio active materials into the environment. The results of the research were summarized in a series of six reports, which consist of a review report and five technical ones. In this technical report, the research results about basic experimental data and the method for safety evaluation of fire and explosion incidents were summarized. (author)

  15. How knowledge influences a MCDM analysis: WOCAT Portuguese experience on prevention of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, M.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Moreira, J.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Valente, S.; Soares, J.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Schwilch, G.; Bachmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    degradation processes. Affecting large areas every year, they also have serious human, socio-economic and psychological impacts. Under the DESIRE project two Portuguese study sites were selected - Góis e Mação. Both study sites are located in Central Portugal and are frequently affected by forest fires. Nowadays different types of solutions applied at the local level are related with the prevention, combat and mitigation of forest fires. At a higher level of analysis the main solution is related with the diversification of the soil uses, mainly by the mixture of cropland, pastures and forest areas. But the selection of the technique isn't so far an open, participative and effective process, and the interests of land users are not represented most of the time. This paper aims to present WOCAT approach and results to forest fire prevention in Portugal considering stakeholder's perspectives and policy recommendations and it's evolution based on an increased of knowledge.

  16. Experience in the field of sodium fire and prevention in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzawa, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The existing facilities of sodium technology development and liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactors are equipped with fire-extinguishing powder capable of putting out fire by smothering in case of accidental sodium fire induced by the leakage of high temperature sodium from the circulating system. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain quantitatively the relationship between such a fire-extinguishing powder needed and sodium temperature and its depth. The fourteen different experiments were performed using Na 2 CO 3 type and NaCl type powder both of which are authorized as fire-extinguishing agent under the present governmental regulation, and the sodium (25 cm deep in the test container) being heated up to 300 deg. C and 600 deg. C, and burned. The present experiment has shown the prospective that the amount of fire extinguishing powder of 45 kg/m 2 at maximum is sufficient to control the accidental sodium fire under the foreseeable circumstances. (author)

  17. Experimental study of sodium fires on concrete based on the sodium-concrete reaction and its consequences: study of the behavior of various concretes under metallic sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin; Colome, J.; Malet, J.C.

    The problem created by the violent reaction between hot sodium and concrete has only recently been recognized. Its importance was evidenced during experiments in which the sodium-barium oxide concrete reactions led to violent explosions. SESR approached this question during its experimental programs Cassandre and Lucifer. The Cassandre 01 experiment demonstrated the sodium-ordinary concrete reaction, where sodium was burned directly in a concrete vat. The consequences of this fire, pulverization of sodium particles, explosions and deterioration of the concrete led to consideration of protecting the concrete. Among possible shieldings sheath metal appeared to be the safest solution. The Cassandre 08, Lucifer 01 and Lucifer 04 experiments were used to study the behavior of various qualities of concrete protected from fire by a metal wall. The results show that a metal cladding efficiently protects concrete from sodium leaks

  18. Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J.T; van der Werf, G.R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G.J.; DeFries, R.S.; Hyer, E.J.; Prins, E.M.; Griffith, D.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G.C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P.O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic-and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for

  19. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 02: First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    FOFEM 5.2 is a simple, yet versatile computer program that predicts first order fire effects using text and graphic outputs. It can be used in a variety of situations including: determining acceptable upper and lower fuel moistures for conducting prescribed burns, determining the number of acres that may be burned on a given day without exceeding particulate emission...

  20. Financial policy of prevention and liquidation of consequences of global economic instability: foreign experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushevska Viktoriia V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main measures of the financial policy realised in the countries of the world, in particular, Europe, USA, China and Japan, directed at prevention and liquidation of consequences of crisis phenomena of the world economy. It considers programmes of support of economy and financial sector of different countries adopted during the period of the world financial crisis of 2007 – 2009. It marks out that an important element of successful realisation of anti-crisis measures is a correct co-ordination of the budget and tax policy and money and loan policy. It positively marks out experience of application of active arbitrary stimulating policy under crisis conditions. In view of increase of efficiency of macro-economic management an important task of the future would be improvement of anti-crisis mechanisms with consideration of their influence upon short-term dynamics and long-term growth. The conducted analysis allows making a conclusion that mistakes of the financial policy are one of the main reasons of overheating the world economy, while analysis and use of experience of the leading countries of the world would allow increase of quality of the financial policy, directed at reduction of crisis vulnerability.

  1. Preparation and Stability of Inorganic Solidified Foam for Preventing Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic solidified foam (ISF is a novel material for preventing coal fires. This paper presents the preparation process and working principle of main installations. Besides, aqueous foam with expansion ratio of 28 and 30 min drainage rate of 13% was prepared. Stability of foam fluid was studied in terms of stability coefficient, by varying water-slurry ratio, fly ash replacement ratio of cement, and aqueous foam volume alternatively. Light microscope was utilized to analyze the dynamic change of bubble wall of foam fluid and stability principle was proposed. In order to further enhance the stability of ISF, different dosage of calcium fluoroaluminate was added to ISF specimens whose stability coefficient was tested and change of hydration products was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The outcomes indicated that calcium fluoroaluminate could enhance the stability coefficient of ISF and compact hydration products formed in cell wall of ISF; naturally, the stability principle of ISF was proved right. Based on above-mentioned experimental contents, ISF with stability coefficient of 95% and foam expansion ratio of 5 was prepared, which could sufficiently satisfy field process requirements on plugging air leakage and thermal insulation.

  2. Cost savings associated with improving appropriate and reducing inappropriate preventive care: cost-consequences analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskerville Neill

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outreach facilitation has been proven successful in improving the adoption of clinical preventive care guidelines in primary care practice. The net costs and savings of delivering such an intensive intervention need to be understood. We wanted to estimate the proportion of a facilitation intervention cost that is offset and the potential for savings by reducing inappropriate screening tests and increasing appropriate screening tests in 22 intervention primary care practices affecting a population of 90,283 patients. Methods A cost-consequences analysis of one successful outreach facilitation intervention was done, taking into account the estimated cost savings to the health system of reducing five inappropriate tests and increasing seven appropriate tests. Multiple data sources were used to calculate costs and cost savings to the government. The cost of the intervention and costs of performing appropriate testing were calculated. Costs averted were calculated by multiplying the number of tests not performed as a result of the intervention. Further downstream cost savings were determined by calculating the direct costs associated with the number of false positive test follow-ups avoided. Treatment costs averted as a result of increasing appropriate testing were similarly calculated. Results The total cost of the intervention over 12 months was $238,388 and the cost of increasing the delivery of appropriate care was $192,912 for a total cost of $431,300. The savings from reduction in inappropriate testing were $148,568 and from avoiding treatment costs as a result of appropriate testing were $455,464 for a total savings of $604,032. On a yearly basis the net cost saving to the government is $191,733 per year (2003 $Can equating to $3,687 per physician or $63,911 per facilitator, an estimated return on intervention investment and delivery of appropriate preventive care of 40%. Conclusion Outreach facilitation is more expensive

  3. IMPROVEMENT SUPPORT RESEARCH OF LOCAL DISASTER PREVENTION POWER USING THE FIRE SPREADING SIMULATION SYSTEM IN CASE OF A BIG EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Toru; Omoto, Shohei; Hamamoto, Kenichirou

    This research describes the risk communication towards improvement in the local disaster prevention power for Gobusho town in Marugame city which is only a high density city area in Kagawa Pref. Specifically, the key persons and authors of the area report the practice research towards improvement in the local disaster prevention power by the PDCA cycle of the area, such as formation of local voluntary disaster management organizations and implementation of an emergency drill, applying the fire spreading simulation system in case of a big earthquake. The fire spreading simulation system in case of the big earthquake which authors are developing describes the role and subject which have been achieved to BCP of the local community as a support system.

  4. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Rebecca J; Mahdi, Sundus; Johnson, Fiona; Meisel, Susanne F

    2018-03-21

    This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584) or >45 years (older adults; n = 107) participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01). Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Beeken

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. Methods: UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584 or >45 years (older adults; n = 107 participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Results: Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01. Conclusion: Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight.

  6. The analysis outlining the occurrence and consequences of accidents in the work environment of the firefighters employed by the State Fire Service in Poland in 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Agata; Gotlib, Joanna; Gałązkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Due to the specifics of their work and to being exposed to a wide range of hazards, firefighters working for the State Fire Service (SFS) face the risk of work-related accidents more often than members of other occupational groups. The aim of this paper is to analyze the occurrence and consequences of accidents in the work environment of the SFS officers in Poland between the years 2008-2013. The material analyzed is based on aggregate data collected by the Headquarters of the State Fire Service. Figures regarding accidents in the period between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013 show that 8518 work-related accidents occurred in that period and 8635 people were injured. The data shows that neither the number of accidents nor their frequency indicator underwent any significant fluctuations over the 6 years under consideration. The group that is most exposed to accidents on duty in the profession includes active firefighters serving in rescue and fire extinguishment divisions. According to the data, the greatest number of trauma incidents in the SFS between the years 2008-2013 occurred during sporting activities. The predominant cause of these was inappropriate behavior or the lack of proper care. The most frequent injuries sustained during the accidents were broken or fractured bones and sprained joints. Accidents on duty occur significantly more often when firefighters are at their stations, during sporting classes, exercises or maneuvers, than in the course of actual rescue operations. The firefighters of the State Fire Services are insufficiently prepared for their sporting activities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Manual for best practice for emergency response procedures, part 4: a checklist of best practice requirements for the prevention and management of inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spencer, KC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available PRACTICE FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES PART 4 A CHECKLIST OF BEST PRACTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF INRUSHES, FIRES, EXPLOSIONS AND OTHER EMERGENCIES Authors: K C Spencer, D M Walters, T P T Page and A G du Plessis... CHECKLIST FOR BEST PRACTICES PAGE 1 Part 1 Prevention of inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies Ref. ISSUE Y/N/? ACTION 1 Control mechanism for administration of CoPs, procedures & standards. 2 Introduction of hazards...

  8. Carbon consequences of droughts, fires, bark beetles, and harvests affecting forests of the United States: comparative analysis and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. A.; Ghimire, B.; Schwalm, C.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Weather and climate extremes and ecosystem disturbances can profoundly alter the structure and function of forests with long lasting carbon legacies. The nature of these legacies varies with disturbance severity and type. The associated complexity presents a significant challenge in assessing the current state of the global carbon cycle. Here we offer a detailed comparative analysis of the unique carbon legacies following severe droughts, fires, insect outbreaks, and harvest disturbances affecting forests of the United States. We document the frequency of each disturbance type over the past three decades, explore their trends and interannual variability, illustrate their regional spatial distributions, and discuss how these agents of change combine to influence the U.S. carbon budget now and into the future. We also identify observational approaches for addressing key uncertainties.

  9. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  10. A Cellular Automata-Based Simulation Tool for Real Fire Accident Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek M. Czerniak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many serious real-life problems could be simulated using cellular automata theory. There were a lot of fires in public places which kill many people. Proposed method, called Cellular Automata Evaluation (CAEva in short, is using cellular automata theory and could be used for checking buildings conditions for fire accident. The tests performed on real accident showed that an appropriately configured program allows obtaining a realistic simulation of human evacuation. The authors analyze some real accidents and proved that CAEva method appears as a very promising solution, especially in the cases of building renovations or temporary unavailability of escape routes.

  11. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  12. Using satellite fire detection to calibrate components of the fire weather index system in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C; Field, Robert D; Roswintiarti, Orbita; Guswanto

    2005-04-01

    Vegetation fires have become an increasing problem in tropical environments as a consequence of socioeconomic pressures and subsequent land-use change. In response, fire management systems are being developed. This study set out to determine the relationships between two aspects of the fire problems in western Indonesia and Malaysia, and two components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. The study resulted in a new method for calibrating components of fire danger rating systems based on satellite fire detection (hotspot) data. Once the climate was accounted for, a problematic number of fires were related to high levels of the Fine Fuel Moisture Code. The relationship between climate, Fine Fuel Moisture Code, and hotspot occurrence was used to calibrate Fire Occurrence Potential classes where low accounted for 3% of the fires from 1994 to 2000, moderate accounted for 25%, high 26%, and extreme 38%. Further problems arise when there are large clusters of fires burning that may consume valuable land or produce local smoke pollution. Once the climate was taken into account, the hotspot load (number and size of clusters of hotspots) was related to the Fire Weather Index. The relationship between climate, Fire Weather Index, and hotspot load was used to calibrate Fire Load Potential classes. Low Fire Load Potential conditions (75% of an average year) corresponded with 24% of the hotspot clusters, which had an average size of 30% of the largest cluster. In contrast, extreme Fire Load Potential conditions (1% of an average year) corresponded with 30% of the hotspot clusters, which had an average size of 58% of the maximum. Both Fire Occurrence Potential and Fire Load Potential calibrations were successfully validated with data from 2001. This study showed that when ground measurements are not available, fire statistics derived from satellite fire detection archives can be reliably used for calibration. More importantly, as a result of this work, Malaysia and

  13. Singapore Haze in June 2013: Consequences of Land-Use Change, Fires, and Anomalous Meteorology for Air Quality in Equatorial Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplitz, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Kim, P. S.; DeFries, R. S.; Marlier, M. E.; Schwartz, J.; Buonocore, J.; Myers, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Much of Equatorial Asia is currently undergoing extensive burning from agricultural fires and rapid land-use conversion to oil palm plantations, with substantial consequences for air quality and health. In June 2013, Singapore experienced severe smoke levels, with surface particulate matter concentrations greater than ten times average. Unlike past haze events in Singapore (e.g. September 1997 and October 2006), the June 2013 pollution event occurred during El Nino-neutral conditions. Using a combination of observations and chemical transport modeling, we examine relationships between sea surface temperatures, wind fields, fire patterns, and aerosol optical depth during the June 2013 haze event. We find reasonable agreement between satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the MODIS and MISR instruments and in-situ measurements from the AERONET stations across Equatorial Asia for 2005-2010 (MODIS R2 = 0.39, bias = -1.6%; MISR R2 = 0.27, bias = -42%). However, AOD observations fail to capture the Singapore pollution event of June 2013. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem model suggest that anomalously high dust concentrations during June 2013 may have impaired the ability of MODIS to monitor the haze over Singapore. In contrast, we show that the OMI Aerosol Index can effectively capture these smoke events and may be used to monitor future haze episodes in Equatorial Asia. We find that the June 2013 haze in Singapore may be attributed to anomalously strong westerlies carrying smoke from Riau Province in Indonesia. These westerlies, 5 m s-1 faster than the 2005-2010 mean June winds, are consistent with the phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) crossing the Maritime Continent at that time. These westerlies may have been further enhanced by a negative phase of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), an east-west gradient in sea surface temperature anomalies across the Indian Ocean, with cold sea surface temperature anomalies (-3 C°) off the Arabian coast and

  14. Risk factors, incidence, consequences and prevention strategies for falls and fall-injury within older indigenous populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara; Sherrington, Cathie; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Coombes, Julieann; Clemson, Lindy; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    To examine the risk factors, incidence, consequences and existing prevention strategies for falls and fall-related injury in older indigenous people. Relevant literature was identified through searching 14 electronic databases, a range of institutional websites, online search engines and government databases, using search terms pertaining to indigenous status, injury and ageing. Thirteen studies from Australia, the United States, Central America and Canada were identified. Few studies reported on fall rates but two reported that around 30% of indigenous people aged 45 years and above experienced at least one fall during the past year. The most common hospitalised fall injuries among older indigenous people were hip fracture and head injury. Risk factors significantly associated with falls within indigenous populations included poor mobility, a history of stroke, epilepsy, head injury, poor hearing and urinary incontinence. No formally evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention interventions were identified. Falls are a significant and growing health issue for older indigenous people worldwide that can lead to severe health consequences and even death. No fully-evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention programs were identified. Implications for Public Health: Research into fall patterns and fall-related injury among indigenous people is necessary for the development of appropriate fall prevention interventions. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Review of practices for the prevention, detection and control of underground fires in coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holding, W

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A statistical review is given of the frequency of fires and flammable gas ignitions in South African underground coal mines, both on a simple numerical basis and in relation to underground coal production, for the years 1970-1992.previously...

  16. Role of fire in preventing bush encroachment in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serious bush encroachment problem has developed in the Eastern Cape and it has been suggested that this is partly the result of the elimination of regular, fierce veld fires. The author is of the opinion that it was rather the interaction of burning and wild browsing animals that played the major role in maintaining the ...

  17. Comprehensive fire prevention legislation enacted by the California legislature in 1992 after the East Bay firestorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Richman

    1995-01-01

    Legislation was enacted by the California Legislature in 1992 after the East Bay firestorm on the Oakland/Berkeley border; it included roofing standards, brush clearance, and other safety requirements. Fire safety personnel and local government officials all participated in developing these measures and presenting them to the California Legislature.

  18. Vegetation clearance distances to prevent wildland fire caused damage to telecommunication and power transmission infrastructure (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; T. Wallace; J. Hogge

    2015-01-01

    Towers and poles supporting power transmission and telecommunication lines have collapsed due to heating from wildland fires. Such occurrences have led to interruptions in power or communication in large municipal areas with associated social and political implications as well as increased immediate danger to humans. Vegetation clearance standards for overhead...

  19. Vegetation clearance distances to prevent wildland fire caused damage to telecommunication and power transmission infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; J. Webb; J. Hogge; T. Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Towers and poles supporting power transmission and telecommunication lines have collapsed due to heating from wildland fires. Such occurrences have led to interruptions in power or communication in large municipal areas with associated social and political implications as well as increased immediate danger to humans. Unfortunately, no studies address the question of...

  20. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) effects in preventing consequences of lead acetate in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ali-Reza Ayoubi; Reza Valizadeh; Arash Omidi; Mohsen Abolfazli

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Diabetes is one of the mortality factors in the world. Nutritional and environmental pollution with heavy metals, especially lead, exacerbates diabetic condition. The curcumin in Turmeric has antioxidant properties and therapeutic effects on the treatment of some diseases such as diabetes. Materials and Methods: In an interventional experiment designed to investigate the protective effect of turmeric powder on consequences of lead acetate on some blood parameters in the...

  1. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed M; Salamati, Payman; Harandi, Ali Amini; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-04-01

    About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88). After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  2. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  3. Job Aids for Using Preventive Radiological/Nuclear Detection Equipment for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haynes, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood-Zika, Annmarie R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klemic, Gladys [US Department of Homeland Security National Urban

    2017-10-02

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection equipment (PRND) to provide state and local agencies with guidance on how to best use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation.

  4. Drug-related falls in older patients: implicated drugs, consequences, and possible prevention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Marlies R.; Van der Elst, Maarten; Hartholt, Klaas A.

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injuries among older adults, aged 65 years and older. Furthermore, falls are an increasing public health problem because of ageing populations worldwide due to an increase in the number of older adults, and an increase in life expectancy. Numerous studies have identified risk factors and investigated possible strategies to prevent (recurrent) falls in community-dwelling older people and those living in long-term care facilities. Several types of drugs have been ...

  5. Drug-related falls in older patients: Implicated drugs, consequences, and possible prevention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Marlies R.; Elst, Maarten; Hartholt, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFalls are the leading cause of injuries among older adults, aged 65 years and older. Furthermore, falls are an increasing public health problem because of ageing populations worldwide due to an increase in the number of older adults, and an increase in life expectancy. Numerous studies have identified risk factors and investigated possible strategies to prevent (recurrent) falls in community-dwelling older people and those living in long-term care facilities. Several types of drug...

  6. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Thyroxine administration prevents matrilineal intergenerational consequences of in utero ethanol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Harper, Kathryn M; Graf, Evan N; Redei, Eva E

    2016-06-01

    The neurodevelopmental fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Conferring the deficits to the next generation would increase overall FASD disease burden and prevention of this transmission could be highly significant. Prior studies showed the reversal of these behavioral deficits by low dose thyroxine (T4) supplementation to the ethanol-consuming mothers. Here we aim to identify whether prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in the second-generation (F2) progeny, and whether T4 administration to the ethanol-consuming dam can prevent it. Sprague-Dawley (S) dams received control diets (ad libitum and nutritional control) or ethanol containing liquid diet with and without simultaneous T4 (0.3mg/L diet) administration. Their offspring (SS F1) were mated with naive Brown Norway (B) males and females generating the SB F2 and BS F2 progeny. Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampal expression of the thyroid hormone-regulated type 3 deiodinase, (Dio3) and neurogranin (Nrgn) were assessed. SS F1 PE-exposed females and their SB F2 progeny exhibited fear memory deficits. T4 administration to the mothers of F1 females reversed these deficits. Although SS F1 PE-exposed males also experienced fear memory deficit, this was neither transmitted to their BS F2 offspring nor reversed by prenatal T4 treatment. Hippocampal Dio3 and Nrgn expression showed similar pattern of changes. Grandmaternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy affects fear memory of the matrilineal second-generation progeny. Low dose T4 supplementation prevents this process likely via altering allele-specific and total expression of Dio3 in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Indirect assessment of economic damages from the Prestige oil spill: consequences for liability and risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, María Dolores; Prada, Albino; Varela, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Xosé Vázquez

    2009-03-01

    The social losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed the compensation granted under the IOPC (International Oil Pollution Compensation) system, with losses estimated at 15 times more than the applicable limit of compensations. This is far above the level of costs for which those responsible for hydrocarbons spills are liable. The highest market losses correspond to sectors of extraction, elaboration and commercialisation of seafood. However, damages to non-commercial natural resources could constitute an outstanding group of losses for which further primary data are needed: these losses would only be compensable under the current system by means of a refund for cleaning and restoration costs. Results show that, in Europe, the responsibility for oil spills in maritime transport is limited and unclear. The consequence of this is net social losses from recurrent oil spills and internationally accepted incentives for risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons.

  9. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 09: Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Reinhardt

    2005-01-01

    FFE-FVS is a model linking stand development, fuel dynamics, fire behavior and fire effects. It allows comparison of mid- to long-term effects of management alternatives including harvest, mechanical fuel treatment, prescribed fire, salvage, and no action. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does, and tells the user...

  10. Systematic review of prevention and management strategies for the consequences of gender-based violence in refugee settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Emery, Eleanor; Wong, Marcia

    2013-06-01

    Uncertainties continue regarding effective strategies to prevent and address the consequences of gender-based violence (GBV) among refugees. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Anthropology Plus, EMBASE, DARE, Google Scholar, MSF Field Research, UNHCR and the regional and global indices of the WHO Global Health Library were searched twice within a 6-month period (April and September 2011) for English-language clinical, public health, basic and social science studies evaluating strategies to prevent and manage health sequelae of GBV among refugees before September 2011. Studies not primarily about prevention and treatment, and not describing population, health outcome and interventions, were excluded. The literature search for the prevention and management arms produced 1212 and 1106 results, respectively. After reviewing the titles and abstracts, 29 and 27 articles were selected for review in their entirety, none of which met the inclusion criteria. Multiple panels of expert recommendations and guidelines were not supported by primary data on actual displaced populations. There is a dire need for research that evaluates the efficacy and effectiveness of various responses to GBV to ultimately allow a transition from largely theoretical and expertise driven to a more evidence-based field. We recommend strategies to improve data collection and to overcome barriers in primary data driven research.

  11. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  12. [Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, health consequences, treatment and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, S

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.

  13. Immunological consequences of intermittent preventive treatment against malaria in Senegalese preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riveau Gilles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment in children (IPTc is a promising strategy to control malaria morbidity. A significant concern is whether IPTc increases children's susceptibility to subsequent malaria infection by altering their anti-Plasmodium acquired immunity. Methods To investigate this concern, IgG antibody (Ab responses to Plasmodium falciparum schizont extract were measured in Senegalese children (6 months-5 years old who had received three rounds of IPTc with artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (or placebo at monthly intervals eight months earlier. Potential confounding factors, such as asexual malaria parasitaemia and nutritional status were also evaluated. Results Firstly, a bivariate analysis showed that children who had received IPTc had lower anti-Plasmodium IgG Ab levels than the non-treated controls. When epidemiological parameters were incorporated into a multivariate regression, gender, nutritional status and haemoglobin concentration did not have any significant influence. In contrast, parasitaemia, past malaria morbidity and increasing age were strongly associated with a higher specific IgG response. Conclusions The intensity of the contacts with P. falciparum seems to represent the main factor influencing anti-schizont IgG responses. Previous IPTc does not seem to interfere with this parasite-dependent acquired humoral response eight months after the last drug administration.

  14. A methodology for determining operational priorities for prevention and suppression of wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Rodríguez y Silva; J.R. Molina Martínez; Armando González-Cabán

    2014-01-01

    Traditional uses of the forest (timber, forage) have been giving way to other uses more in demand (recreation, ecosystem services). An observable consequence of this process of forest land use conversion is an increase in more difficult and extreme wildfires. Wildland forest management and protection program budgets are limited, and managers are requesting help in...

  15. [The preventive medical aspects in ensuring efficiency and safety in the operation of a fire-fighting and accident-rescue service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, Iu N; Bogdanov, M I; Anisimov, V N; Konnova, L A

    1994-03-01

    On the basis of national and foreign experience on liquidation of the consequences of natural calamities and catastrophies the article shows the necessity to introduce a course of medical training into the program of studies for the specialists of fire-fighting and rescue services of the Ministry for Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MIARF). This training will ensure these specialists with adequate skills of primary medical and predoctor care in disaster situations. The article contains basic items of the Program of medical training for the students of the St. Petersburg Higher Fire-Fighting Technical School of MIARF which was included into curriculum planning in 1992.

  16. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Website. Unintentional fire/burn fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. ... Prevention and Control. Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  17. Physical consequences of surgery for breast cancer in the affected upper limb and proposal of preventive physiotherapeutic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis Tenorio, Ericka; Molina Vargas, Viviana M.

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant growth that begins in breast tissue. The incidence rate in Costa Rica, for 2003, was 40.07 per 100,000 inhabitants (Registro Nacional de Tumores, 2007). The most used treatment for this pathology has been the surgery, has many variations; however, in Costa Rica the modified radical mastectomy and quadrantectomy (conservative surgery) are the most performed. Along with this, other treatments are practiced such as: hormonal therapy, radiation and chemotherapy. The physical consequences of such treatments are: lymphedema, decreased mobility of the shoulder joint on the side of surgery and postoperative pain. The consequences have represented an important change for people that live, because they will have limitations in activities of their daily lives. These can be treated, reduced and even avoided, through a program of physical therapy with techniques and exercises. Costa Rica lacks a prevention program, interdisciplinary and postoperative rehabilitation for people with breast surgery. Therefore, the creation of a proposal of physiotherapeutic intervention based on scientific criteria would be an instrument of great importance. The main objective of this transversal, descriptive and analytic study has been to examine the physical consequences of breast cancer surgery in the affected upper limb. A proposal of physiotherapeutic intervention was designed for the prevention of that physical consequences and possible treatments, from the literature review and valuing people post-breast surgery. In total 27 women were assessed post breast surgery (20 mastectomy and 7 with quadrantectomy), whose time post surgery was located at the range of 1 day -12 months (21 people), more than 12 months (6 people). The selection criteria were: unilateral breast surgery, radical type modified or quadrantectomy; located in the ranges of 35-59 years (19 people) and 60-85 years (8 people); no injuries previous in the upper limb the side of the surgery; with or

  18. Experimental Investigation of Closed Porosity of Inorganic Solidified Foam Designed to Prevent Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the deficiency of the existing fire control technology and control coal spontaneous combustion by sealing air leakages in coal mines, inorganic solidified foam (ISF with high closed porosity was developed. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS concentration on the porosity of the foams was investigated. The results showed that the optimized closed porosity of the solidified foam was 38.65 wt.% for an SDS concentration of approximately 7.4×10-3 mol/L. Based on observations of the microstructure of the pore walls after solidification, it was inferred that an equilibrium between the hydration process and the drainage process existed. Therefore, the ISF was improved using three different systems. Gelatin can increase the viscosity of the continuous phase to form a viscoelastic film around the air cells, and the SDS + gelatin system can create a mixed surfactant layer at gas/liquid interfaces. The accelerator (AC accelerates the hydration process and coagulation of the pore walls before the end of drainage. The mixed SDS + gelatin + AC systems produced an ISF with a total porosity of 79.89% and a closed porosity of 66.89%, which verified the proposed stabilization mechanism.

  19. Calculation note - Consequences of a fire in the sorting and repackaging glovebox in room 636 of bldg 2736-ZB - Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    This Calculation Note provides a conservative estimate of the grams of plutonium released from Building 2736-ZB of the Plutonium Finishing Plant as a result of a fire within Glovebox 636, without consideration of mitigation

  20. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  1. Studies about pressure variations and their effects during a fire in a confined and forced ventilated enclosure: safety consequences in the case of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugues Pretrel; Laurent Bouilloux; Jerome Richard

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In a nuclear facility, the cells are confined and forced ventilated and some of them are equipped with isolation devices designed to close in case of a fire. So, if a fire occurred, the pressure variations in the cell could be important. This contribution presents the safety concerns related to pressure variation effects (propagation of smokes and/or flames through the fire barriers, propagation of radioactive material) and the research works carried out by the french 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN) on this topic. These research works are composed of two different studies. The first study permits to quantify the overpressure and depression levels and to reveal the influence of the fire heat release rate (HRR), of the characteristics of the cell, of the ventilation layout (especially the airflow resistances of the ventilation branches) and of the control of the fire dampers. This study is based on three sets of experimental tests performed in three large-scale facilities of various dimensions (3600 m3, 400 m3 and 120 m3 in volume) and with several settings of the ventilation network. The analysis focuses on the conditions that lead to significant overpressure and depression peaks and identifies the level of fire HRR and airflow resistances for which pressure peaks may become a safety concern. The second study allows to characterise the behaviour of sectorisation and containment equipments subject to pressure stresses. The mechanical resistance of some equipments (doors, fire dampers) subject to pressure stresses as well as the aeraulic behaviour of this equipment (gas leak rates) are determined in order to assess the potential transfer of contamination in the ventilation networks. (authors)

  2. Economic impacts of urban flooding in South Florida: Potential consequences of managing groundwater to prevent salt water intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Engel, Vic; Martinez, Chris; Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David; Sukop, Michael C; Hughes, Joseph D

    2018-04-15

    High-value urban zones in coastal South Florida are considered particularly vulnerable to salt water intrusion into the groundwater-based, public water supplies caused by sea level rise (SLR) in combination with the low topography, existing high water table, and permeable karst substrate. Managers in the region closely regulate water depths in the extensive South Florida canal network to control closely coupled groundwater levels and thereby reduce the risk of saltwater intrusion into the karst aquifer. Potential SLR adaptation strategies developed by local managers suggest canal and groundwater levels may have to be increased over time to prevent the increased salt water intrusion risk to groundwater resources. However, higher canal and groundwater levels cause the loss of unsaturated zone storage and lead to an increased risk of inland flooding when the recharge from rainfall exceeds the capacity of the unsaturated zone to absorb it and the water table reaches the surface. Consequently, higher canal and groundwater levels are also associated with increased risk of economic losses, especially during the annual wet seasons. To help water managers and urban planners in this region better understand this trade-off, this study models the relationships between flood insurance claims and groundwater levels in Miami-Dade County. Via regression analyses, we relate the incurred number of monthly flood claims in 16 Miami-Dade County watersheds to monthly groundwater levels over the period from 1996 to 2010. We utilize these estimated statistical relationships to further illustrate various monthly flood loss scenarios that could plausibly result, thereby providing an economic quantification of a "too much water" trade-off. Importantly, this understanding is the first of its kind in South Florida and is exceedingly useful for regional-scale hydro-economic optimization models analyzing trade-offs associated with high water levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Blows to the head during development can predispose to violent criminal behaviour: rehabilitation of consequences of head injury is a measure for crime prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Carrión, José; Ramos, Francisco Javier Chacartegui

    2003-03-01

    Criminal behaviour and violence may be the consequence of head injuries acquired during childhood and youth (gang fights, domestic violence, small blows to the head while driving, falls and so forth). In this study, a comparison was made of the school and head injury histories of violent and non-violent prisoners. It was found that the delinquent subjects in both groups had a history of academic difficulties. However, what differentiated the violent from the non-violent group was a history of having suffered head injuries that were never treated. Problems at school are not enough themselves to predict violent behaviour. A history of discrete neurological damage as a consequence to blows received to the head must also be present. The results suggest to the authors that the treatment of the cognitive, behavioural and emotional consequences of brain injury could be a measure for crime prevention. Measures both for prevention and rehabilitation are discussed.

  4. Estimating the consequences of fire exclusion for food crop production, soil fertility, and fallow recovery in shifting cultivation landscapes in the humid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgrove, Lindsey; Hauser, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    In the Congo Basin, smallholder farmers practice slash-and-burn shifting cultivation. Yet, deliberate burning might no longer be sustainable under reduced fallow scenarios. We synthesized data from the Forest Margins Benchmark Area (FMBA), comprising 1.54 million hectares (ha), in southern Cameroon and assessed the impact of fire exclusion on yield, labor inputs, soil fertility, ecosystem carbon stocks, and fallow recovery indicators in two common field types (plantain and maize) under both current and reduced fallow scenarios. While we could not distinguish between impacts of standard farmer burning practice and fire exclusion treatments for the current fallow scenario, we concluded that fire exclusion would lead to higher yields, higher ecosystem carbon stocks as well as potentially faster fallow recovery under the reduced fallow scenario. While its implementation would increase labor requirements, we estimated increased revenues of 421 and 388 US$ ha(-1) for plantain and maize, respectively. Applied to the FMBA, and assuming a 6-year reduced fallow scenario, fire exclusion in plantain fields would potentially retain 240,464 Mg more ecosystem carbon, comprising topsoil carbon plus tree biomass carbon, than standard farmer practice. Results demonstrate a potential "win-win scenario" where yield benefits, albeit modest, and conservation benefits can be obtained simultaneously. This could be considered as a transitional phase towards higher input use and thus higher yielding systems.

  5. Presentation of a method for consequence modeling and quantitative risk assessment of fire and explosion in process industry (Case study: Hydrogen Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Jafari

    2013-05-01

     .Conclusion: Since the proposed method is applicable in all phases of process or system design, and estimates the risk of fire and explosion by a quantitative, comprehensive and mathematical-based equations approach. It can be used as an alternative method instead of qualitative and semi quantitative methods.

  6. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  7. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  8. Review of CNEN activities in the field of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, A.

    1979-01-01

    The problems related to sodium fires have received increased attention at CNEN in recent years. Sodium fires have been reported in several countries with a rate that is. relatively high if compared to the number of plants in operation. The consequences of fires have been usually quite limited but it appears that more adequate precautions could often be applied to minimize risk of more serious consequences. Many alternatives exist for fire prevention and for fire extinction, but the fact that many alternatives have not been sufficiently tested make choices rather difficult. CNEN has been facing the problem of sodium fire prevention and extinction in relation to: design of PEC reactor; design of experimental loops in its own centres (Casaccia and Brasimone); safe operation of the same loops and analysis of accidents and potential accident situations; design of facilities for sodium fire experiments; operation of sodium fire facilities; operation of sodium disposal facilities. It is worth mentioning that sodium is also utilized by italian concerns, where it is processed mostly as an intermediate product in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead. A recent accident in a TEL production plant in Italy (Trento in July 1978) has recently once more raised the question if provisions for sodium fire extinction were adequate. Small scale fires for training purposes have been performed by several experimenters at CNEN since 1965. A more systematic approach, initiated in 1973 at Brasimone Centre, has been interrupted after 1976 when studies for the construction of a larger experimental facility (SUPERSATANA) have been abandoned. In 1976 it was proposed a CNEN participation to the French Program ESMERALDA. An accord to run the ESMERALDA Project as a French-Italian common program has recently been taken. Experimental results are presented in this paper

  9. Linking 3D spatial models of fuels and fire: Effects of spatial heterogeneity on fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; William E. Mell; Peter McCauley

    2011-01-01

    Crownfire endangers fire fighters and can have severe ecological consequences. Prediction of fire behavior in tree crowns is essential to informed decisions in fire management. Current methods used in fire management do not address variability in crown fuels. New mechanistic physics-based fire models address convective heat transfer with computational fluid dynamics (...

  10. Action taken by the french safety authorities for fire protection and fire fighting in basic nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Gibault, M.; Berger, R.; Kaluzny, Y.; Wallard, H.E.; Winter, D.

    1989-03-01

    The safety goal for nuclear installations is to prevent the dispersal of radioactive substances, both in the work area and outside the buildings into the environment. It is therefore at the design stage, then during construction and subsequent operation that it is necessary to take preventive measures against the outbreak of fire, and to take precautions to ensure that the consequences will always be limited. The paper describes the arrangements made by the French safety authorities to provide protection against fire in both nuclear plants and nuclear fuel cycle installations at all these stages

  11. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  12. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  13. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  14. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  15. Temporal framing and persuasion to adopt preventive health behavior: moderating effects of individual differences in consideration of future consequences on sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Kyriakaki, Maria

    2008-11-01

    Previous work on temporal framing of health communications has focused upon detection behaviors that possess an inherent immediate risk of negative consequences. The present studies evaluate the role of temporal frame for a preventive behavior, using sunscreen. Two experimental field studies manipulated the temporal frame in which positive and negative consequences of using sunscreen were presented. Cognitive responses, intention, and behavior (experiment 2). Consistent with hypotheses, Experiment 1 showed that individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC; A. Strathman, F. Gleicher, D. S. Boninger, & C. S. Edwards, 1994) moderated (a) the processing of long- versus short-term consequences and (b) the persuasive impact of the different temporal frames on behavioral intentions. In Experiment 2, the balance of positive versus negative thoughts generated by reading the persuasive communications was shown to mediate the effects of the Temporal Frame x CFC interaction on a behavioral measure. Findings extend previous work by demonstrating the importance of individual differences in CFC to the processing of health communication about a preventive health behavior and to a behavioral outcome.

  16. Decree of 16 February 1982 to amend the Ministerial Decree of 27 September 1965 determining activities subject to fire prevention inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Decree, issued by the Ministers of the Interior and of Industry, Commerce and Crafts, amends a Decree of 27th September 1965 listing the facilities and activities, also in the nuclear reactor, subject to fire prevention controls. The new Decree expands the list to include facilities for the storage of nuclear substances, radioactive products or waste, and facilities where nuclear fuels are held. In addition, facilities for the production, preparation and treatment of nuclear substances as well as for the separation of isotopes are now covered by the 1982 Decree. (NEA) [fr

  17. Testing transferability of willingness to pay for forest fire prevention among three states of California, Florida and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Loomis; Hung Trong Le; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2005-01-01

    The equivalency of willingness to pay between the states of California, Florida and Montana is tested. Residents in California, Florida and Montana have an average willingness to pay of $417, $305, and $382 for prescribed burning program, and $403, $230, and $208 for mechanical fire fuel reduction program, respectively. Due to wide confidence intervals, household WTP...

  18. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  19. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  20. Fire behavior in Mediterranean shrub species (Maquis) | Saglam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of fire behavior in fire prone ecosystems is of vital importance in all phases of fire management including fire prevention, presuppression, suppression and fire use. This paper deals with an experimental burning exercise conducted in the Mediterranean region in Turkey. A series of 18 experimental fires were ...

  1. Ketogenic diet prevents neuronal firing increase within the substantia nigra during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Opportunity for offshore wind to reduce future demand for coal-fired power plants in China with consequent savings in emissions of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Chen, Xinyu; Kang, Chongqing

    2014-12-16

    Although capacity credits for wind power have been embodied in power systems in the U.S. and Europe, the current planning framework for electricity in China continues to treat wind power as a nondispatchable source with zero contribution to firm capacity. This study adopts a rigorous reliability model for the electric power system evaluating capacity credits that should be recognized for offshore wind resources supplying power demands for Jiangsu, China. Jiangsu is an economic hub located in the Yangtze River delta accounting for 10% of the total electricity consumed in China. Demand for electricity in Jiangsu is projected to increase from 331 TWh in 2009 to 800 TWh by 2030. Given a wind penetration level of 60% for the future additional Jiangsu power supply, wind resources distributed along the offshore region of five coastal provinces in China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Fujian) should merit a capacity credit of 12.9%, the fraction of installed wind capacity that should be recognized to displace coal-fired systems without violating the reliability standard. In the high-coal-price scenario, with 60% wind penetration, reductions in CO2 emissions relative to a business as usual reference could be as large as 200.2 million tons of CO2 or 51.8% of the potential addition, with a cost for emissions avoided of $29.0 per ton.

  3. Forest fires are changing: let’s change the fire management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, resulting in high costs and limited efficacy versus extreme fire seasons. We advocate to increase the role and investments in wildfire prevention, which can be carried out by fuel-oriented silviculture, such as facilitating less flammable species or prescribed burning, in order to reduce the flammability of the vegetation and mitigate fire intensity in high-leverage areas. A centralized structure is necessary to implement such a strategy and coordinate the competences and actions of all local administrations and actors involved.

  4. Glovebox fire experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Keiichi; Sunaoshi, Mitsugu; Mishima, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Koichi.

    1979-01-01

    The gloveboxes used for plutonium facilities in Japan and foreign countries have considerable combustibles as their components, so that the fire resistivity of the gloveboxes is a serious problem in the safety evaluation of the facilities. Actually, a big fire having burned gloveboxes occurred in a foreign weapon facility. But the fire in the weapon facility should be distinguished from that in nuclear fuel facilities, since the former handles quite combustible plutonium metal, while the latter handle quite stable plutonium oxide. The countermeasures to fires should be decided, considering the properties and quantity of combustibles around gloveboxes and ventilation systems, as the probability and scale of fires can be presumed from them. From the viewpoint of safety, the experiment on glovebox fires was carried out by the Plutonium Fuel Division, PNC. The experimental conditions are explained. The samples were the acrylic resin panels with four glove ports and a small glovebox currently used. The glovebox showed the considerable fire resistance, and the panel hardly burned. The weakest component of the glovebox against fire was the gloves. The countermeasure to curtain the gloves with an insulating material seemed to be effective. The ventilation of the room and the glovebox worked as fire preventer at least in the first stage of fire. (Kako, I.)

  5. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each floor. (e) Fire alarm devices. (1) An alarm system, e.g., telephone system, siren, etc., shall be... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150 Fire...

  6. Low-Altitude Long-Endurance Solar Unmanned Plane for Forest Fire Prevention: Application to the Natural Park of Serra do Xures (spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jorge, H.; Bueno, M.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2017-08-01

    Unamnned aerial systems (UAS) show great potential in operations related to surveillance. These systems can be successfully applied to the prevention of forest fires, especially those caused by human intervention. The present works focuses on a study of the operational possibilities of the unmanned system "AtlantikSolar" developed by the ETH Zurich for the prevention of forest fires in the Spanish natural park of Serra do Xurés, an area of 20,920 ha with height variations between 300 m and 1,500 m. The operation evaluation of AtlantikSolar is based on the use of Flir Tau 2 LWIR camera as imaging payload which could detect illegal activities in the forest, such as bonfires, uncontrolled burning or pyromaniacs. Flight surveillance is planned for an altitude of 100 m to obey the legal limit of the Spanish UAS regulation. This altitude produces a swath width of 346.4 m and pixel resolution between 1.5 and 1.8 pixels/m. Operation is planned to adapt altitude to the change on the topography and obtain a constant ground resolution. Operational speed is selected to 52 km/h. The UAS trajectory is adapted to the limits of the natural park and the border between Spain and Portugal. Matlab code is developed for mission planning. The complete surveillance of the natural park requires a total time of 15.6 hours for a distance of 811.6 km.

  7. Criteria for efficient prevention of dissemination and successful eradication of Erwinia amylovora (the cause of fire blight in Aragón, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PALACIO-BIELSA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora was detected on pome fruits in the Aragón region (North-Eastern Spain, in a ca. 5 km radius area located in the mid Jalón river (mid Ebro Valley in the province of Zaragoza, during 2000‒2003. Eight years have now passed since this pathogen was last detected, without new infections being reported in the same area. The bases for surveys and rapid eradication performed have been analyzed in detail to understand the reasons for the success in removing fireblight. The results demonstrate that intensive surveillance, risk assessment, plant analyses using accurate identification methods, and, especially, rapid total or selective eradication of infected trees in the plots have been very effective in preventing the generalized spread of fireblight and in delaying economic losses associated with this disease. Eradication and compensation to growers, estimated to cost approx. € 467,000, were clearly counterbalanced by the economic value of apple and pear production in the 2000‒2003 period (approx. € 368 million. Fire blight risk-assessment, using the MARYBLYT system, showed that climatic conditions in the studied area were favourable to infections during the analyzed period (1997‒2006. Molecular characterization of E. amylovora strains had revealed their homogeneity, suggesting that these fire blight episodes could have been caused by just one inoculum source, supporting the hypothesis that there was a unique introduction of E. amylovora in the studied area. Spatial spread of E. amylovora to trees was analyzed within six orchards, indicating an aggregated distribution model. This Spanish experience demonstrates the success of scientifically-based prevention methods that lead to the deployment of a fast and strict containment strategy, useful for other Mediterranean areas.

  8. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  9. Fire protection in ventilation systems and in case of fire operating ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitzelsberger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The fire risks in ventilation systems are discussed. It follows a survey of regulations on fire prevention and fire protection in ventilation systems and smoke and heat exhaust systems applicable to nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Fire protection concepts for normal systems and for systems operating also in case of fire will be given. Several structural elements for fire protection in those systems will be illustrated with regard to recent research findings

  10. Retroperitoneal anatomy of the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: consequences for prevention and treatment of chronic inguinodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinpold, W; Schroeder, A D; Schroeder, M; Berger, C; Rohr, M; Wehrenberg, U

    2015-08-01

    Chronic inguinodynia is one of the most frequent complications after groin herniorrhaphy. We investigated the retroperitoneal anatomy of the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to prevent direct nerve injury during hernia repairs and to find the most advantageous approach for posterior triple neurectomy. We dissected the inguinal nerves in 30 human anatomic specimens bilaterally. The distances from each nerve and their entry points in the abdominal wall were measured in relation to the posterior superior iliac spine, anterior superior iliac spine, and the midpoint between the two iliac spines on the iliac crest. We evaluated our findings by creating high-resolution summation images. The courses of the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerve are most consistent on the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum muscle. The genitofemoral nerve always runs on the psoas muscle. The entry points of the nerves in the abdominal wall are located as follows: the iliohypogastric nerve is above the iliac crest and lateral from the anterior superior iliac spine, the ilioinguinal nerve is with great variability, either above or below the iliac crest and lateral from the anterior superior iliac spine, the genital branch is around the internal inguinal ring, the femoral branch is either cranial or caudal to the iliopubic tract, and the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is either medial or lateral to the anterior superior iliac spine. Nerve injury during inguinal hernia repairs can be avoided by taking the topographic anatomy of the inguinal nerves into consideration. The most advantageous plane to look for the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerve during posterior neurectomy is on the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum muscle. For the surgical treatment of severe chronic inguinodynia, especially after posterior open or endoscopic mesh repair (TAPP/TEP), the retroperitoneoscopic or open retroperitoneal approach for posterior

  11. Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development Of Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Biological Consequences And Complications After Neutron Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: Neutrons irradiation produce a unique biological effectiveness compare to different types of radiation because their ability to create a denser trail of ionized atoms in biological living tissues[Straume 1982; Latif et al.2010; Katz 1978; Bogatyrev 1982]. The efficacy of an Anti-Radiation Vaccine for the prophylaxis, prevention and therapy of acute radiation pathology was studied in a neutron exposure facility. The biological effects of fast neutrons include damage of central nervous system and cardiovascular system with development of Acute Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular forms of acute radiation pathology. After irradiation by high doses of fast neutron, formation of neurotoxins, hematotoxins,cytotoxins forming from cell's or tissue structures. High doses of Neutron Irradiation generate general and specific toxicity, inflammation reactions. Current Acute Medical Management and Methods of Radiation Protection are not effective against moderate and high doses of neutron irradiation. Our experiments demonstrate that Antiradiation Vaccine is the most effective radioprotectant against high doses of neutron-radiation. Radiation Toxins(biological substances with radio-mimetic properties) isolated from central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals could be working substance with specific antigenic properties for vaccination against neutron irradiation. Methods: Antiradiation Vaccine preparation standard - mixture of a toxoid form of Radiation Toxins - include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Cardiovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with different forms of Acute Radiation Syndromes - Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Hematopoietic forms. Devices for Y-radiation were "Panorama","Puma". Neutron exposure was accomplished at the Department of Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The neutrons

  12. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  13. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  14. Fire precautions at petroleum refineries and bulk storage installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Topics covered in this Code of Practice include petroleum products and combustion, site evaluation for fire defence, and fire prevention, protection, detection, systems, fighting, and fire fighting facilities in storage areas. Appendices cover legal requirements and enforcement arrangements, application rates for fire water and foam, codes of practice, flammable limits of petroleum compounds, flash points and spontaneous ignition temperatures and classification of fires. (UK)

  15. Fire analysis. Relevant aspects from Spanish nuclear power plants experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Pedro; Villar, Tomas [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Madrid (Spain). Nuclear Safety Dept.

    2015-12-15

    Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E. leads the development and updating of fire analysis for the Spanish NPP's. Some of them decided to voluntarily adopt standard NFPA-805 as an alternative to the current fire protection rules. Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methodologies have been continuously evolving during recent years. This paper will briefly present experience gained in relationship with some relevant aspects of fire risk analysis. Associated circuits need to be evaluated to determine if cable faults can prevent or cause the maloperation of redundant safety related systems. If a circuit is not properly protected by an isolation device, fire damage to a cable could propagate to other safe shutdown cables. In order to check that the coordination is adequate, existing electrical protections coordination studies have been analyzed and, for some plants, additional analyses have been performed for DC and AC for instrumentation an control (I and C) systems. Spurious actuations are also a basic part of the analysis of the consequence of a fire, which should consider any possible actuation that can prevent or affect the performance of a system or safety function. In this context, it was furthermore necessary to take into account the possibility of a combination of several spurious actuations that can result in a specific consequence, according to Appendix G of NEI 00-01 Rev. 2. These are the so-called Multiple Spurious Operations (MSOs). One key element in fire analysis is the availability of validated fire models used to estimate the spread of fire and the failure time of cable raceways. NFPA 805 states that fire models shall only be applied within the limitations of the given model. The applicability of the validation results is determined using normalized parameters traditionally used in fire modeling applications. Normalized parameters assessed in NUREG-1934 may be used to compare NPP fire scenarios with validation experiments. If some of the parameters do

  16. Lead exposure at firing ranges-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel; Mielke, Howard; Gulson, Brian; Ball, Andrew S

    2017-04-04

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population. The search terms "blood lead", "lead poisoning", "lead exposure", "marksmen", "firearms", "shooting", "guns", "rifles" and "firing ranges" were used in the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct to identify studies that described BLLs in association with firearm use and health effects associated with shooting activities. Thirty-six articles were reviewed that included BLLs from shooters at firing ranges. In 31 studies BLLs > 10 μg/dL were reported in some shooters, 18 studies reported BLLs > 20 μg/dL, 17 studies > 30 μg/d, and 15 studies BLLs > 40 μg/dL. The literature indicates that BLLs in shooters are associated with Pb aerosol discharge from guns and air Pb at firing ranges, number of bullets discharged, and the caliber of weapon fired. Shooting at firing ranges results in the discharge of Pb dust, elevated BLLs, and exposures that are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. Women and children are among recreational shooters at special risk and they do not receive the same health protections as occupational users of firing ranges. Nearly all BLL measurements compiled in the reviewed studies exceed the current reference level of 5 μg/dL recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH). Thus firing ranges, regardless of type and user classification

  17. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  18. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  19. Different design approaches to structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, I.

    2013-01-01

    Fire has always been a major threat for buildings and other structures, leadingto consequences that can affect both the safety of people and the usage or in some cases the very survival of constructions, due to collapse mechanisms induced by fire or fire effects.Aim of this paper is to highlight...

  20. Application of Pulse Spark Discharges for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander

    2012-06-30

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop a new scale-prevention technology by continuously precipitating and removing dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) in cooling water while the COC could be doubled from the present standard value of 3.5. The hypothesis of the present study was that if we could successfully precipitate and remove the excess calcium ions in cooling water, we could prevent condenser-tube fouling and at the same time double the COC. The approach in the study was to utilize pulse spark discharges directly in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions in recirculating cooling water into relatively large suspended particles, which could be removed by a self-cleaning filter. The present study began with a basic scientific research to better understand the mechanism of pulse spark discharges in water and conducted a series of validation experiments using hard water in a laboratory cooling tower. Task 1 of the present work was to demonstrate if the spark discharge could precipitate the mineral ions in water. Task 2 was to demonstrate if the selfcleaning filter could continuously remove these precipitated calcium particles such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. Task 3 was to demonstrate if the scale could be prevented or minimized at condenser tubes with a COC of 8 or (almost) zero blowdown. In Task 1, we successfully completed the validation study that confirmed the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions in cooling water with the supporting data of calcium hardness over time as measured by a calcium ion probe. In Task 2, we confirmed through experimental tests that the self-cleaning filter could continuously remove precipitated calcium particles in a simulated laboratory cooling tower such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. In addition, chemical water analysis data were obtained which were used to confirm the COC calculation. In Task 3, we conducted a series

  1. Fire investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  2. Fire Safety for the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon and Surgical Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, LisaMarie; Ferneini, Elie M

    2017-05-01

    Fire in the operating room is a life-threatening emergency that demands quick, efficient intervention. Because the circumstances surrounding fires are generally well-understood, virtually every operating room fire is preventable. Before every operating room case, thorough preprocedure "time outs" should address each team members' awareness of specific fire risks and agreement regarding fire concerns and emergency actions. Fire prevention centers on 3 constituent parts of the fire triad necessary for fire formation. Regular fire drills should guide policies and procedures to prevent surgical fires. Delivering optimal patient care in emergent situations requires surgical team training, practicing emergency roles, and specific actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal Forecasting of Fires across Southern Borneo, 1997-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Field, Robert; Kaiser, Johannes; Langner, Andreas; Moore, Jonathan; Pappenberger, Florian; Siegert, Florian; Weber, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Wildfire is a fundamental Earth System process, affecting almost all biogeochemical cycles, and all vegetated biomes. Fires are naturally rare in humid tropical forests, and tropical trees are generally killed by even low-intensity fires. However, fire activity in the tropics has increased markedly over the past 15-20 years, especially in Indonesia, Amazonia, and more recently, central Africa also. Since fire is the prime tool for clearing land in the tropics, it not surprising that the increase in fire activity is strongly associated with increased levels of deforestation, which is driven mainly by world-wide demand for timber and agricultural commodities. The consequences of deforestation fires for biodiversity conservation and emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols are enormous. For example, carbon emissions from tropical biomass burning are around 20% of annual average global fossil fuel emissions. The destructive fires in Indonesia during the exceptionally strong El Niño-induced drought in late 1997 and early 1998 rank as some of the largest peak emissions events in recorded history. Past studies estimate about 1Gt of carbon was released to the atmosphere from the Indonesian fires in 1997 (which were mostly concentrated in carbon-rich forested peatlands). This amount is equivalent to about 14% of the average global annual fossil fuel emissions released during the 1990s. While not as large as the 1997-98 events, significant emissions from biomass burning have also been recorded in other (less severe) El Niño years across Indonesia, in particular, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2009-2010. Recent climate modelling studies indicate that the frequency of El Niño events may increase under future climate change, affecting many tropical countries, including Indonesia. An increased drought frequency plus a projected increase in population and land use pressures in Indonesia, imply there will be even more fires and emissions in future across the region. However, while

  4. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  5. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G

    2013-12-01

    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  6. Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Zouhar; Jane Kapler Smith; Steve Sutherland; Matthew L. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-knowledge review of information on relationships between wildland fire and nonnative invasive plants can assist fire managers and other land managers concerned with prevention, detection, and eradication or control of nonnative invasive plants. The 16 chapters in this volume synthesize ecological and botanical principles regarding relationships between...

  7. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  8. Application of a Novel Liquid Nitrogen Control Technique for Heat Stress and Fire Prevention in Underground Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Ma, Lingjun; Dong, Wei; Zhou, Fubao

    2015-01-01

    With the continually increasing mining depths, heat stress and spontaneous combustion hazards in high-temperature mines are becoming increasingly severe. Mining production risks from natural hazards and exposures to hot and humid environments can cause occupational diseases and other work-related injuries. Liquid nitrogen injection, an engineering control developed to reduce heat stress and spontaneous combustion hazards in mines, was successfully utilized for environmental cooling and combustion prevention in an underground mining site named "Y120205 Working Face" (Y120205 mine) of Yangchangwan colliery. Both localized humidities and temperatures within the Y120205 mine decreased significantly with liquid nitrogen injection. The maximum percentage drop in temperature and humidity of the Y120205 mine were 21.9% and 10.8%, respectively. The liquid nitrogen injection system has the advantages of economical price, process simplicity, energy savings and emission reduction. The optimized heat exchanger used in the liquid nitrogen injection process achieved superior air-cooling results, resulting in considerable economic benefits.

  9. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  10. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  11. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  12. 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire brigades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Control Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce (now known as the U.S. Fire Administration), which are... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Service Extension; Georgia Fire Academy, New York State Department, Fire Prevention and Control; Louisiana...

  13. Ecological effects of alternative fuel-reduction treatments: highlights of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Scott L. Stephens; James K. Agee; Jamie Barbour; Ralph E. J. Boerner; Carl B. Edminster; Karen L. Erickson; Kerry L. Farris; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl E. Fiedler; Sally Haase; Stephen C. Hart; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Jason J. Moghaddas; William Otrosina; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Dylan W. Schwilk; Carl N. Skinner; Thomas A. Waldrop; C. Phillip Weatherspoon; Daniel A. Yaussy; Andrew Youngblood; Steve Zack

    2012-01-01

    The 12-site National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS) was a multivariate experiment that evaluated ecological consequences of alternative fuel-reduction treatments in seasonally dry forests of the US. Each site was a replicated experiment with a common design that compared an un-manipulated control, prescribed fire, mechanical and mechanical + fire treatments....

  14. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth; Laurie L. Kurth; Bernard R. Parresol; Roger D. Ottmar; Susan J. Prichard

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation...

  15. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  16. Fire drives functional thresholds on the savanna-forest transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Batalha, Marco A; Pausas, Juli G

    2013-11-01

    In tropical landscapes, vegetation patches with contrasting tree densities are distributed as mosaics. However, the locations of patches and densities of trees within them cannot be predicted by climate models alone. It has been proposed that plant-fire feedbacks drive functional thresholds at a landscape scale, thereby maintaining open (savanna) and closed (forest) communities as two distinct stable states. However, there is little rigorous field evidence for this threshold model. Here we aim to provide support for such a model from a field perspective and to analyze the functional and phylogenetic consequences of fire in a Brazilian savanna landscape (Cerrado). We hypothesize that, in tropical landscapes, savanna and forest are two stable states maintained by plant-fire feedbacks. If so, their functional and diversity attributes should change abruptly along a community closure gradient. We set 98 plots along a gradient from open savanna to closed forest in the Brazilian Cerrado and tested for a threshold pattern in nine functional traits, five soil features, and seven diversity indicators. We then tested whether the threshold pattern was associated with different fire regimes. Most community attributes presented a threshold pattern on the savanna-forest transition with coinciding breakpoints. The thresholds separated two community states: (1) open environments with low-diversity communities growing in poor soils and dominated by plants that are highly resistant to high-intensity fires; and (2) closed environments with highly diverse plant communities growing in more fertile soils and dominated by shade-tolerant species that efficiently prevent light from reaching the understory. In addition, each state was associated with contrasting fire regimes. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that forests and savannas are two coexisting stable states with contrasting patterns of function and diversity that are regulated by fire-plant feedbacks; our results also

  17. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  18. The role of fire severity, distance from fire perimeter and vegetation on post-fire recovery of small-mammal communities in chaparal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay Diffendorfer; Genie M. Fleming; Scott Tremor; Wayne Spencer; Jan L. Beyers

    2012-01-01

    Chaparral shrublands in southern California, US, exhibit significant biodiversity but are prone to large, intense wildfires. Debate exists regarding fuel reduction to prevent such fires in wildland areas, but the effects of these fires on fauna are not well understood. We studied whether fire severity and distance from unburned fire perimeter influenced recovery of the...

  19. Making fire and fire surrogate science available: a summary of regional workshops with clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Heidi Bigler-Cole; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl Fiedler; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Carl N. Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2007-01-01

    Operational-scale experiments that evaluate the consequences of fire and mechanical "surrogates" for natural disturbance events are essential to better understand strategies for reducing the incidence and severity of wildfire. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) study was initiated in 1999 to establish an integrated network of long-term studies...

  20. Fire When Ready.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrass, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    There are ways to fire an unproductive volunteer and still do minimal damage to both the volunteer and the alumni association, but an ounce of prevention is advocated. Some types of volunteers that might cause problems are identified and advice on what to do when dismissing a volunteer is provided. (MLW)

  1. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  2. The effect of fires on the development and appearance of medieval towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kušar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of fires was one of the main dangers, which slowed down development of medieval towns. Frequent fires, whether they occurred due to carelessness, poorly maintained fireplaces and chimneys or military attacks, caused damage, particularly to those towns and buildings, which were constructed of inflammable materials such as timber and straw. In medieval times most towns were built using such materials, except those near the coast. Citizens tried to reduce fire hazards and the consequences of fires. With substitution of inflammable materials, apparatus and with the improved maintenance of fireplaces and chimneys, as well as other preventive measures, they influenced the development of towns and thus changed their architectural image.

  3. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline

  4. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  5. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

  6. Evolution of human-driven fire regimes in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human ability to manipulate fire and the landscape has increased over evolutionary time, but the impact of this on fire regimes and consequences for biodiversity and biogeochemistry are hotly debated. Reconstructing historical changes in human...

  7. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield. 167 and the surface area was sealed with soil. Later on, blazing fire was reported in three different galleries of V/VI coal seam. Again in 1995, a blazing fire was noticed on the eastern edge of the quarry. To prevent further advance of fire towards the adjoin- ing area ...

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-80 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 167.45-80 Section 167.45-80 Shipping COAST... Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-80 Fire axes. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with fire axes, as follows: Number of axes Gross tons of nautical school ships: All not over 50...

  9. Fire-induced wounding elicits changes in the wood anatomy of North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Elaine K. Sutherland; Kevin T. Smith; Donald A. Falk

    2013-01-01

    Fire is a major disturbance agent in North American forests. Fires injure trees when heat transfer through the bark partially kills the cambium and the compartmentalization process results in a fire scar. Dendrochronologists use these scars in the xylem to reconstruct fire regimes. However, little information exists on the wood anatomy of fire scars. Consequently, this...

  10. Fire Whirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Ali; Gollner, Michael J.; Xiao, Huahua

    2018-01-01

    Fire whirls present a powerful intensification of combustion, long studied in the fire research community because of the dangers they present during large urban and wildland fires. However, their destructive power has hidden many features of their formation, growth, and propagation. Therefore, most of what is known about fire whirls comes from scale modeling experiments in the laboratory. Both the methods of formation, which are dominated by wind and geometry, and the inner structure of the whirl, including velocity and temperature fields, have been studied at this scale. Quasi-steady fire whirls directly over a fuel source form the bulk of current experimental knowledge, although many other cases exist in nature. The structure of fire whirls has yet to be reliably measured at large scales; however, scaling laws have been relatively successful in modeling the conditions for formation from small to large scales. This review surveys the state of knowledge concerning the fluid dynamics of fire whirls, including the conditions for their formation, their structure, and the mechanisms that control their unique state. We highlight recent discoveries and survey potential avenues for future research, including using the properties of fire whirls for efficient remediation and energy generation.

  11. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...... of frustrations and riots...

  12. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1000ºC or special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such a situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity alumina and related oxides. Fire Synthesis. Preparation of Alumina ...

  13. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  14. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...

  15. Guide relative to the application of the order on 31/12/99. Subject: fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The decree of the 31.12.1999 is applied to the existing nuclear facilities. The study of fire risks is updated at the moment of reexamination of safety in order to show that the dispositions implemented to prevent a fire or an explosion (linked to this one) and eventually to limit the consequences on environment, are adapted and answer to the exigence of the order. This revision can be presented as a file that will be integrate to the safety report especially when a new safety examination is not planned before the first january 2010. (N.C.)

  16. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  17. The Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory: A 50-year dedication to understanding wildlands and fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Smith

    2012-01-01

    In 1960, the USDA Forest Service established the Northern Forest Fire Laboratory (now the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory) to find scientific solutions for better managing the nation's wildland resources and to research ways to improve forest fire prevention and suppression. This new state-of-the-art research facility did not emerge from a vacuum, however. This...

  18. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  19. Fire, carbon, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Flannigan, M.

    2005-01-01

    One million hectares of forest are harvested in Canada annually, with 1 to 8 million hectares destroyed by fire and a further 10 to 25 million hectares consumed by insects. Enhanced disturbances have meant that Canadian forests are becoming carbon sources instead of carbon sinks. Canadian fire statistics from the year 1920 were provided along with a map of large fires between 1980 and 1999. A cycle of combustion losses, decomposition and regeneration of forests was presented, along with a stylized concept of forest carbon life cycles with fire. Direct emissions from forests fires were evaluated. An annual net ecosystem production in Canadian boreal forests and stand age was presented. Projections of areas burned were presented based on weather and fire danger relationships, with statistics suggesting that a 75 to 120 per cent increase is likely to occur by the end of this century. Trend observations show that areas burned are correlated with increasing temperature caused by anthropogenic effects. Prevention, detection, suppression and fuels management were presented as areas that needed improvement in fire management. However, management strategies may only postpone an increase in forest fires. Changes in disturbances such as fire and insects will be a significant early impact of climate change on forests. tabs., figs

  20. Analysis of the effects of storage conditions on the preservation of soybean quality and the prevention of the self-heating process and the occurrence of fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanko Verica J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After harvest, oilseed raw materials must be stored for a longer or shorter period of time before further processing. The task of storage is the safekeeping of the stored material with a minimal loss in quality. In order to preserve wet grain until processing, it is necessary to provide proper storage conditions. For this purpose, storage in the atmosphere of inert gases as well as storage in hermetically closed storages is applied. Such method is uncommon for oil cultures in domestic practice. Experimental research, analyzed in this paper, with emphasis on the effects of storage conditions on the preservation of soybean grain quality and the prevention of possibilities of the occurrence of the self-heating and self-ignition process, confirms the advantages of application of such method of storage for soybean grain. Soybean with the moisture content of 10.99% and 16.96% is stored in steel semi-industrial silo cells with carbon-dioxide atmosphere, and in hermetically sealed cell. The changes in temperature in the silo cells, changes in moisture content and discoloration of the soybean grains, as well as the amount of oil and protein in the grain were monitored during the experiment. The quality of the oil in grain was determined through the content of free fatty acids. The results of the research showed that, during longer period of time (216 days, the quality of the soybean grain in the sample with higher moisture content (16,96% was preserved when storage was performed in carbon dioxide atmosphere. The storage of wet grain in a hermetically closed cell, in relation to the grain kept in carbon dioxide atmosphere, did not record significant differences in the examined indicators. Since the storage under controlled conditions did not result in the development of processes that would lead to the spontaneous heating of the soybean mass, the recommendation is to introduce such storage method for oilseed raw materials into domestic practice, with the

  1. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  2. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  3. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J.

    2009-09-01

    of Portugal and the overgrown paisaje of Galicia. While international in scope, the real hazards reside in particular places, and while telegenically graphic, the economic losses elsewhere are no worse than those caused by tornadoes. The pressures for the earlier frontier were deep, and often damaged both land and settlers, but until the momentum had exhausted itself, there was little reform possible. So it may take the Great Recession, or worse, to stem the flow of money that has underwritten the colonization of subprime landscapes. Besides, sprawl is interbreeding with whatever hazard it meets. Fire in the I-zone is less damaging than sprawl in floodplains, coastal plains, or earthquake zones. Over the past 20 years, the responsible agencies have largely succeeded in learning how to protect people and houses when fires break out. The tenets of Fire Wise, Fire Safe, and Community Fireguard are widely known. A new kind of landscape is emerging. The worst hazards reside in the older communities that need retrofitting. A fatal plague is becoming a seasonal nuisance. But an appeal to other scholarships might - still can - illuminate the powers and limits of the proposed remediations, which ultimately rely for their success on cultural acceptance. Fire is about context: it synthesizes its surroundings. Yet the only research context allowed is a universalist science, such that the science of south Australia can join that of Catalonia and of Missoula, Montana. It does not mingle with other scholarship. In this way we have come to understand in marvelous detail how houses burn, but not why houses are there in the first place. We understand how to prevent roofs from igniting during ember attacks, but not how to cope with sprawl's attack on the landscape. So long as we leave fire on the fringe of scholarship, it will roar through the fringes of our new- settled countryside. References [1] Wilson A A G and Ferguson I S 1986 Predicting the probability of house survival during

  4. Nutrition pathways in consequence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1982-01-01

    During 1979-1980 calculations of risk from waste transportation by truck (fire following collision) and fire in temporary storage for waste were performed. A modified version of the consequence model of WASH-1400 (CRAC) was used. Two exposure pathways dominated the results: external exposure from material on the ground and exposure via nutrition. Many of the parameters entering into the nutrition calculations will depend upon local conditions, like soil composition, crop yield, etc. It was decided to collect detailed comments upon the CRAC nutritions model and parameter values from radioecologists in the four Nordic countries. Four alternate sets of parameter values were derived from these comments, and new risk calculations were performed

  5. On the fluid mechanics of fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

    2000-02-29

    Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

  6. FOREST FIRES AROUND UNITS OF CONSERVATION – A CASE STUDY IN ÁGUAS EMENDADAS ECOLOGICAL STATION, DISTRITO FEDERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio P. Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze aspects of fire use on urban areas around Águas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE, in Distrito Federal, and to evaluate the foremost fire occurrences, equipment availability and tools for combatants and beyond decreasing forest fire incidences. The local population in town region around it (considering three kilometers as ray from the station, fire crew members units of conservation and the garrison body of firemen were interviewed in a representative form. Results had shown that most inclined areas to forest fire occurrence (33.4% highways edges and secondary roads had their localization related to urban environment, in which 34% of residents used fire as land cleanness. Machines availability, tools and equipment for execution of the activities on prevention and combat exist; however, there is not any equipment for individual protection for all fire crew members. As a solution, educative campaigns to emphasize the negative consequences of using fire (as a tool land and also to alert people for the risks caused by it should be done.

  7. Controlled fires, politics, and the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Kettridge, Nicholas; Gray, Alan; Ascoli, Davide; Fernandes, Paulo; Marrs, Rob; Allen, Katherine; Doerr, Stephan; Clay, Gareth; McMorrow, Julia; Vandvik, Vidgis; Davies, Matt

    2017-04-01

    A golden rule in science communication is to be in charge - particularly when communicating sensitive topics. When our recent review on the use of fire and UK peatlands (Davies et al. 2016a) was accidentally released into the public domain prior to publication, we were certainly not in charge. The international fire ecology literature recognises that there are many potential benefits from the controlled use of fire, yet this tool is frequently viewed negatively in the UK. This may be at least partly due to its association with (creating habitat for) grouse hunting. In Davies et al. (2016a) we highlighted this controversy. We countered recent publications that portrayed controlled fires as having predominantly negative impacts on the environment (including water quality), often based on studies of potentially severe wildfires. We furthermore explored both the benefits and negative consequence of controlled burns. As fire is a highly political and emotional topic in the UK, we planned a press release upon publication of our paper to take the lead in the communication. The accidental release however prevented us from doing so, and came about inadvertently through one of us following the new rules of publication for University staff within the UK, designed to satisfy the Research Excellence Framework guidelines, i.e. that the accepted version of all papers should be entered immediately on acceptance into institutional repositories. To avoid similar issues, we suggest that all authors of commentary papers, especially if controversial, should endure that embargo terms are enforced in repository depositions strictly to prevent this happening. Ironically, our paper that called for informed, unbiased debate was used out of context by groups aligned with different wider environmental, social and political agendas. Our scientific credibility was consequently questioned in a blog by a prominent Guardian journalist, who disagreed with us on the focus of our review (fire effects

  8. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further

  9. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This translation of an IAEA publication (Safety Series No. 50-SD-D2, Rev.1) is a safety guide for fire protection of above-ground nuclear power plants equipped with reactors working with thermal neutrons. It is aimed at designers and surveillance bodies as an aid for setting up the fire protection concept in the design of the nuclear power plant and in its operation. The publication defines generic requirements and aims of fire protection, prevention and extinguishing, gives hints for reducing the secondary impacts of fires, and lays down requirements for quality assurance and basic principles of fire protection. (M.D.). 9 figs., 1 tab

  10. Fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Fire ant venom contains a chemical called ... Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 140. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill ...

  11. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  12. Spatial distribution of human-caused forest fires in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Chas-Amil; J. Touza; P. Prestemon

    2010-01-01

    It is crucial for fire prevention policies to assess the spatial patterns of human-started fires and their relationship with geographical and socioeconomic aspects. This study uses fire reports for the period 1988-2006 in Galicia, Spain, to analyze the spatial distribution of human-induced fire risk attending to causes and underlying motivations associated with fire...

  13. Preventing deaths and injuries from house fires: a cost-benefit analysis of a community-based smoke alarm installation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellman, Merissa A; Peterson, Cora; McCoy, Mary A; Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Caton, Emily; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Padgett, Ted O; Florence, Curtis; Istre, Gregory R

    2018-02-01

    Operation Installation (OI), a community-based smoke alarm installation programme in Dallas, Texas, targets houses in high-risk urban census tracts. Residents of houses that received OI installation (or programme houses) had 68% fewer medically treated house fire injuries (non-fatal and fatal) compared with residents of non-programme houses over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up during an effectiveness evaluation conducted from 2001 to 2011. To estimate the cost-benefit of OI. A mathematical model incorporated programme cost and effectiveness data as directly observed in OI. The estimated cost per smoke alarm installed was based on a retrospective analysis of OI expenditures from administrative records, 2006-2011. Injury incidence assumptions for a population that had the OI programme compared with the same population without the OI programme was based on the previous OI effectiveness study, 2001-2011. Unit costs for medical care and lost productivity associated with fire injuries were from a national public database. From a combined payers' perspective limited to direct programme and medical costs, the estimated incremental cost per fire injury averted through the OI installation programme was $128,800 (2013 US$). When a conservative estimate of lost productivity among victims was included, the incremental cost per fire injury averted was negative, suggesting long-term cost savings from the programme. The OI programme from 2001 to 2011 resulted in an estimated net savings of $3.8 million, or a $3.21 return on investment for every dollar spent on the programme using a societal cost perspective. Community smoke alarm installation programmes could be cost-beneficial in high-fire-risk neighbourhoods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Fire Dynamics Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Petersen, Arnkell J.

    2007-01-01

    In case of fire dynamics simulation requirements to reliable results are most often very high due to the severe consequences of erroneous results. At the same time it is a well known fact that fire dynamics simulation constitutes rather complex physical phenomena which apart from flow and energy ...

  15. Constrained consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available and explicate one formal framework for a whole spectrum of consequence relations, flexible enough to be tailored for choices from a variety of contexts. They do so by investigating semantic constraints on classical entailment which give rise to a family of infra...

  16. CCDP evaluation of the fire areas of KSNP using CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2005-01-01

    During the past decade, the nuclear power industry has been moving away from prescriptive rules and practices toward risk-informed and performance-based engineering analysis to support the decision making for plant fire protection programs. For example, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) prepared NFPA 805, Performance-Based Standard for Fire Protection for Light Water Reactor Electric Generating Plants 2001 Edition. One crucial element in supporting the risk-informed fire protection is availability of simple and reliable methods and tools for evaluating the likelihood and consequences of fire scenarios. These tools directly benefit risk-informed and performance-based fire protection and application of risk information to resolve fire protection issues. Now the deterministic analysis results for the cable integrity is not given in case of performing the fire PSA. So it is necessary to apply the results for the fire modeling to the fire PSA model to develop the more realistic model. This document is intended to analyze the peak temperature of the upper gas layer using the fire modeling code, CFAST , to evaluate the integrity of the cable located on the dominant pump rooms, and to assess the CCDP(Conditional Core Damage Probability) using the results of the cable integrity. Accordingly, the fire safety assessment for the dominant fire areas using the fire modeling code will be capable of evaluating the consequences of the fire scenario, of reducing the the uncertainty, and to develop a more realistic model

  17. Modelling of Fire in an Open Car Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Timea; Dederichs, Anne Simone; Giuliani, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Steel car parks exhibit high vulnerability to fire, as a consequence of the degradation of the steel mechanical properties at high temperatures and of the combustible type and amount. Real fire accidents in open car parks demonstrated a much faster and extended fire spread than predictions......, assuming that a fire spread rate of 12 min and consider at most 3-4 vehicles on fire at the same time. Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) is applied in this current paper to study fire spread between cars. The outcomes of the investigations show that the fire spread is strongly influenced by the geometrical...... layout and that the distance between cars plays a determinant role on the fire spread rate and ignition of adjacent cars. In particular it was found that the fire spread can be faster than 12 minutes in the case of the cars parked 40 and 60 cm from each other....

  18. Analysis of large urban fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures

  19. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence

  20. Fire behaviour in the Kruger National Park. | Trollope | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fire research in the Kruger National Park has largely been focused on the effect of the season and frequency of burning on the vegetation. Very little information is available on the effect of fire behaviour and in particular fire intensity, on the flora of the park. Consequently a research project was conducted to develop ...

  1. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the

  2. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  3. Cable fire tests in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2000-05-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [German] Modifikationen werden in allen franzoesischen Kernkraftwerken durchgefuehrt, um die Brandschutzsicherung zu verbessern. Die Modifikationen sind auf einem Dreistufenkonzept begruendet: brandvorbeugende Massnahmen, begrenzter Brandschutz und Brandkontrolle. Begrenzter Brandschutz verlangt viele Modifikationen wie Brandschutz von Kabelanlagen und Kenntnisse ueber Feuerentwicklung, die Forschung und Entwicklung brauchen. Einerseits werden die aus Mineralwolle hergestellten Kabelhuellen fuer alle moeglichen Faelle geprueft, einschliesslich der Auswirkung von Alterung, Ueberhitzung und Feuer, um so die Huellen als Schutz zu nutzen. Andererseits werden Kabelanlagen der Stufe eins mit Gas und Loesungsmitteln entzuendet, um Entzuendung, Feuerentwicklung und Feueruebersprung zu simulieren. Diese Versuche werden unter unterschiedlichen Anlagenbedingungen durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse koennen fuer Computermodelle zur Pruefung von Brandschutztechniken benutzt werden. (orig.)

  4. Fire protection in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackroyd, G.C.; Lake, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    To reduce fire hazards at a nuclear power plant to an acceptable level it is stressed that the planning of a fire protection programme should be an integral part of the design stage. The formulation of a suitable programme involves assessment of direct danger and subsequent losses, devising preventative measures and devising fire fighting equipment. The sort of considerations that apply and measures that might be taken are outlined. (UK)

  5. FIRE-PRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterfall, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM), is a service company in the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies who provides services worldwide (outside of the USA) to Shell Operating Companies. It has defined and recommended for implementation by Shell Companies a policy on safety (Enhanced Safety Management policy) to manage the total safety aspects of all they do, including the design, engineering, installation and operation of their facilities worldwide. This policy affects all activities in such a way as to avoid harm to health of, or injury to employees and others as well as avoiding damage to property. This in turn reflects through specific policies and standards for investment strategy, engineering and operations of facilities. With average Group losses due to major fires and explosion (for each incident over Brit-pounds 100,000) between 1988 and 1990 being of the order of Brit-pounds 28 million, there is an obvious potential to effectively employ fire protection criteria in design. However, Shell need to ensure the cost-effective application of protective measures, but first and foremost it is essential not to jeopardize life or risk damage to the environment. FIRE-PRAN has the possibility to do this efficiently as it is A systematic team approach for identification of all potential fire and explosion hazards and consequences, and a means for developing optimal means of protection for all types of facilities. It should thus be considered as an auditing technique, but one that fits into the overall safe management of activities. This paper discusses the status of development of the FIRE-PRAN technique following its successful application over a number of years to a variety of equipment and installations

  6. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  7. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps... be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. (1) A...

  8. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  9. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  10. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity .... reaction between Ti and B to form titanium boride. The reaction between titanium (fuel- electron donor) and boron (oxidiser-electron acceptor) once initiated ...

  11. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  12. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1324-1332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1324-1332 ...

  13. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0050-0057 ...

  14. Review of national and international demands on fire protection in nuclear power plants and their application in the Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredholm, Lotta

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this report has been to detect and describe differences between rules regarding fire safety and the interpretation of the rules and make suggestions on how all parties involved are able to develop a harmonized approach to the fire conditions and how fire requirements aspects can be optimized and modernized. International and national laws and requirements for fire protection are compared and analyzed with the content and structure of the USNRCs RG.1189, which is considered the document that has the most complete accounts of the fire requirements both in terms of structure and content. The national laws, rules and guidelines that have been studied are general fire protection rules as well as nuclear specific rules. The studied national rules also includes Safety Analysis Reports (SAR) and Technical Specifications (TS). This study shows that the Swedish SAR and TS are markedly different from each other in how the fire requirements are presented as well as the methodology and level of detail of how they are fulfilled. These differences make it difficult to compare the quality of the fire protection between different sites and it also makes it different to learn from each other. The main reason to the differences are the lack of national guidance of how to fulfil the general requirements. The main conclusion of the screening of national requirements, is that many of the references used in the SAR are not suited for operation at a nuclear plant. The differences are often the purpose, examples of purposes that are not necessarily met by complying with national laws, rules, advices are: - Prevent fire to influence redundant safety equipment in different fire cells. - Prevent fire to influence redundant safety equipment in the same fire cell. - Prevent extensive consequences of fire in cable rooms. - Prevent extensive consequences of fires in oil that are not included in the Swedish regulation for handling highly flammable liquids. The international regulations

  15. Investigation of radiological consequences of a serious accident in Swiss nuclear power plants on the drinking water supply and preventive measures in waterworks for securing drinking water quality and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustohalova, V.; Kueppers, C.; Claus, M.

    2016-01-01

    The radiological consequences of a serious accident in Swiss nuclear power plants on the drinking water supply was studied, preventive measures for securing the drinking water quality were elaborated. Based on the scaling of thermal power and burnup of the used nuclear fuel the fission product release in case of a severe accident was estimated for airborne and waterborne migration paths. In cities that use the rivers for their water drinking water supplies have to stop the water abstraction. The Swiss tolerance and limiting values for radionuclides in drinking water would be exceeded shortly after the accident and the hazardous situation would last for more than 90 days.

  16. Declining stroke and vascular event recurrence rates in secondary prevention trials over the past 50 years and consequences for current trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Yegiaian, Sharon; Lee, Meng; Lee, Juneyoung; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2011-05-17

    It is widely supposed, but not well-demonstrated, that cumulative advances in standard care have reduced recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events in secondary prevention trials. Systematic search identified all randomized, controlled trials of medical secondary stroke prevention therapies published from 1960 to 2009. Randomized, controlled trials narrowly focused on single stroke mechanisms, including atrial fibrillation, cervical carotid stenosis, and intracranial stenosis, were excluded. From control arms of individual trials, we extracted data for baseline characteristics and annual event rates for recurrent stroke, fatal stroke, and major vascular events and analyzed trends over time. Fifty-nine randomized controlled trials were identified, enrolling 66 157 patients in control arms. Over the 5 decade periods, annual event rates declined, per decade, for recurrent stroke by 0.996% (P=0.001), fatal stroke by 0.282% (P=0.003), and major vascular events by 1.331% (P=0.001). Multiple regression analyses identified increasing antithrombotic use and lower blood pressures as major contributors to the decline in recurrent stroke. For recurrent stroke, annual rates fell from 8.71% in trials launched in the 1960s to 6.10% in the 1970s, 5.41% in the 1980s, 4.04% in the 1990s, and 4.98% in the 2000s. The sample size required for a trial to have adequate power to detect a 20% reduction in recurrent stroke increased 2.2-fold during this period. Recurrent stroke and vascular event rates have declined substantially over the last 5 decades, with improved blood pressure control and more frequent use of antiplatelet therapy as the leading causes. Considerably larger sample sizes are now needed to demonstrate incremental improvements in medical secondary prevention.

  17. That's a good idea, but let's keep thinking! Can we prevent our initial ideas from being forgotten as a consequence of thinking of new ideas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditta, Annie S; Storm, Benjamin C

    2017-05-01

    Four experiments examined participants' ability to remember their own ideas in a modified Alternative Uses Task. Participants were asked to generate uses for objects, and on half of the trials participants were then asked to think of more uses. Memory for the initial uses they generated was then tested via a cued-recall task. Results demonstrated that participants forgot their initial uses as a consequence of thinking of new uses (referred to as the thinking-induced forgetting effect), and this effect persisted even when participants chose the subset of uses they thought were the most creative and to be remembered. The only scenario in which uses were protected from forgetting was when they were required to use their uses as hints for generating more ideas. Together, these findings demonstrate that one's own ideas are susceptible to forgetting when additional ideas must be generated, indicating that thinking is a modifier of memory despite one's motivation to preserve their ideas.

  18. Operating room fires in periocular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael A; Menke, Anne M; Vrcek, Ivan; Shore, John W

    2017-05-20

    A survey of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgeons as well as seven-year data regarding claims made to the Ophthalmic Mutual Insurance Company (OMIC) is used to discuss operating room fires in periocular surgery. A retrospective review of all closed claim operating room fires submitted to OMIC was performed. A survey soliciting personal experiences with operating room fires was distributed to all American Society of Oculoplastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. Over the last 2 decades, OMIC managed 7 lawsuits resulting from an operating room fire during periocular surgery. The mean settlement per lawsuit was $145,285 (range $10,000-474,994). All six patients suffered burns to the face, and three required admission to a burn unit. One hundred and sixty-eight surgeons participated in the online survey. Approximately 44% of survey respondents have experienced at least one operating room fire. Supplemental oxygen was administered in 88% of these cases. Most surgical fires reported occurred in a hospital-based operating room (59%) under monitored anesthesia care (79%). Monopolar cautery (41%) and thermal, high-temperature cautery (41%) were most commonly reported as the inciting agents. Almost half of the patients involved in a surgical fire experienced a complication from the fire (48%). Sixty-nine percent of hospital operating rooms and 66% of ambulatory surgery centers maintain an operating room fire prevention policy. An intraoperative fire can be costly for both the patient and the surgeon. Ophthalmic surgeons operate in an oxygen rich and therefore flammable environment. Proactive measures can be undertaken to reduce the incidence of surgical fires periocular surgery; however, a fire can occur at any time and the entire operating room team must be constantly vigilant to prevent and manage operating room fires.

  19. Evaluating spatially explicit burn probabilities for strategic fire management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Miller; M.-A. Parisien; A. A. Ager; M. A. Finney

    2008-01-01

    Spatially explicit information on the probability of burning is necessary for virtually all strategic fire and fuels management planning activities, including conducting wildland fire risk assessments, optimizing fuel treatments, and prevention planning. Predictive models providing a reliable estimate of the annual likelihood of fire at each point on the landscape have...

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  2. Seasonal predictions of Fire Weather Index: Paving the way for their operational applicability in Mediterranean Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Bedia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Managers of wildfire-prone landscapes in the Euro-Mediterranean region would greatly benefit from fire weather predictions a few months in advance, and particularly from the reliable prediction of extreme fire seasons. However, in some cases model biases prevent from a direct application of these predictions in an operational context. Fire risk management requires precise knowledge of the likely consequences of climate on fire risk, and the interest for decision-makers is focused on multi-variable fire danger indices, calculated through the combination of different model output variables. In this paper we consider whether the skill in dynamical seasonal predictions of one of the most widely applied of such indices (the Canadian Fire Weather Index, FWI is sufficient to inform management decisions, and we examine various methodological aspects regarding the calibration of model outputs prior to its verification and operational applicability. We find that there is significant skill in predicting above average summer FWI in parts of SE Europe at 1 month lead time, but poor skill elsewhere. These results are largely linked to the predictability of relative humidity. Moreover, practical recommendations are given for the use of empirical quantile mapping in probabilistic seasonal FWI forecasts. Furthermore, we show how researchers, fire managers and other stakeholders can take advantage of a new open-source climate service in order to undertake all the necessary steps for data download, post-processing, analysis and verification in a straightforward and fully reproducible manner. Keywords: Climate impact indicators, Quantile mapping, Bias correction, System 4, Fire danger, Seasonal forecasting

  3. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  4. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  5. [Prevention of epidemiological consequences during an extreme situation caused by the natural disaster in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaev, T M; Gadzieva, G K; Tsgoeva, S K; Gusalova, L P; Kesaev, I V; Kabolova, Z Z

    2003-01-01

    Information on the organization of interaction between different services responsible for restoration works, sanitary cleaning, disinfection under the conditions of the emergency situation is presented. The activity of the sanitary and epidemiological services in the areas in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, affected by high flood, is described. Measures aimed at the epidemiological surveillance of acute enteric infections, the control of the quality of drinking water and foodstuffs, the bacteriological study of material samples taken from humans, vaccinal and phage prophylaxis have taken an important place in the work of the institutions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. As the result of all these measures the sanitary and epidemiological service has managed to prevent the aggravation of the sanitary and epidemiological situation in the republic.

  6. Fire safety concerns in space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in fire control techniques and identifies important issues for continuing research, technology, and standards. For the future permanent orbiting facility, the space station, fire prevention and control calls for not only more stringent fire safety due to the long-term and complex missions, but also for simplified and flexible safety rules to accommodate the variety of users. Future research must address a better understanding of the microgravity space environment as it influences fire propagation and extinction and the application of the technology of fire detection, extinguishment, and material assessment. Spacecraft fire safety should also consider the adaptation of methods and concepts derived from aircraft and undersea experience.

  7. Impact of attitudes and beliefs regarding African American sexual behavior on STD prevention and control in African American communities: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jo A

    2008-12-01

    Compared to whites, blacks experience significant health disparities for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. To develop more effective interventions to control and prevent STDs, public health practitioners should better understand and respond to factors that facilitate sexual risk-taking behaviors and impede access to STD health care and make use of factors that promote sexual health. Legacies of slavery, racism, and economic or class discrimination leave many blacks suspicious of interventions aimed at improving the welfare of their communities. Sexual behavior, in particular, has been used to justify social oppression of blacks in the United States. Although efforts to engage affected black communities in improving STD health care delivery have been undertaken, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping continue to contribute to negative experiences for many blacks across health care settings, including those involving STD care. Implementing more effective interventions to reduce the disparate burden of bacterial STDs in black communities requires accessible and acceptable STD health care. Understanding and addressing the potential impact of both provider and patient attitudes can improve these service delivery outcomes.

  8. A Framework for Assessment of Intentional Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammadfam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : It is not possible to live without using fire. However, fire could destruct human properties in a short time. One of the most important types of fire is intentional fire. This type of fire has become a great problem for insurance companies, fire departments, industries, government and business in the recent years. This study aimed to provide a framework for risk assessment of intentional fires . Methods: In the present study, risk assessment and management model for protecting critical properties and security vulnerability assessment model were used to develop a comprehensive framework for risk assessment of intentional fires. The framework was examined in an automotive industry . Results : The designed framework contained five steps as 1 asset inventory and prioritizing them according to their importance, 2 invasion assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment, 4 risk assessment and design and 5 implementation and evaluating the effectiveness of corrective/preventive actions. Thirty different scenarios for intentional fires were identified by implementing the designed framework in an automotive company, and then the associated risk of each scenario was quantitatively determined. Conclusion : Compared to seven models, the proposed framework represents its comprehension. Development of safety and security standards and a central security information bank to reduce security risks, including the risk of intentional fires is recommended .

  9. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... documented a simple relation that can be used for estimating the impact of thermal feedback for pre-flashover design fires. A rapid increase of the heat release rate commenced after the incipient phase. This is seen as thermal runaway caused by the energy gain in the smoke layer exceeding the energy that can...... and in two different rooms, which only are varied by linings of significantly different thermal inertia. As all linings were non-combustible the heat release rate could be found without the influence of thermal feedback and for two different levels of thermal feedback. The ISO 9705 Room Corner Test facility...

  10. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  11. Vegetation responses to season of fire in an aseasonal, fire-prone fynbos shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke Kraaij

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Season of fire has marked effects on floristic composition in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate shrublands. In these winter-rainfall systems, summer-autumn fires lead to optimal recruitment of overstorey proteoid shrubs (non-sprouting, slow-maturing, serotinous Proteaceae which are important to the conservation of floral diversity. We explored whether fire season has similar effects on early establishment of five proteoid species in the eastern coastal part of the Cape Floral Kingdom (South Africa where rainfall occurs year-round and where weather conducive to fire and the actual incidence of fire are largely aseasonal. We surveyed recruitment success (ratio of post-fire recruits to pre-fire parents of proteoids after fires in different seasons. We also planted proteoid seeds into exclosures, designed to prevent predation by small mammals and birds, in cleared (intended to simulate fire fynbos shrublands at different sites in each of four seasons and monitored their germination and survival to one year post-planting (hereafter termed ‘recruitment’. Factors (in decreasing order of importance affecting recruitment success in the post-fire surveys were species, pre-fire parent density, post-fire age of the vegetation at the time of assessment, and fire season, whereas rainfall (for six months post-fire and fire return interval (>7 years had little effect. In the seed-planting experiment, germination occurred during the cooler months and mostly within two months of planting, except for summer-plantings, which took 2–3 months longer to germinate. Although recruitment success differed significantly among planting seasons, sites and species, significant interactions occurred among the experimental factors. In both the post-fire surveys and seed planting experiment, recruitment success in relation to fire- or planting season varied greatly within and among species and sites. Results of these two datasets were furthermore inconsistent, suggesting

  12. Vegetation responses to season of fire in an aseasonal, fire-prone fynbos shrubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Tineke; Cowling, Richard M; van Wilgen, Brian W; Rikhotso, Diba R; Difford, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Season of fire has marked effects on floristic composition in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate shrublands. In these winter-rainfall systems, summer-autumn fires lead to optimal recruitment of overstorey proteoid shrubs (non-sprouting, slow-maturing, serotinous Proteaceae) which are important to the conservation of floral diversity. We explored whether fire season has similar effects on early establishment of five proteoid species in the eastern coastal part of the Cape Floral Kingdom (South Africa) where rainfall occurs year-round and where weather conducive to fire and the actual incidence of fire are largely aseasonal. We surveyed recruitment success (ratio of post-fire recruits to pre-fire parents) of proteoids after fires in different seasons. We also planted proteoid seeds into exclosures, designed to prevent predation by small mammals and birds, in cleared (intended to simulate fire) fynbos shrublands at different sites in each of four seasons and monitored their germination and survival to one year post-planting (hereafter termed 'recruitment'). Factors (in decreasing order of importance) affecting recruitment success in the post-fire surveys were species, pre-fire parent density, post-fire age of the vegetation at the time of assessment, and fire season, whereas rainfall (for six months post-fire) and fire return interval (>7 years) had little effect. In the seed-planting experiment, germination occurred during the cooler months and mostly within two months of planting, except for summer-plantings, which took 2-3 months longer to germinate. Although recruitment success differed significantly among planting seasons, sites and species, significant interactions occurred among the experimental factors. In both the post-fire surveys and seed planting experiment, recruitment success in relation to fire- or planting season varied greatly within and among species and sites. Results of these two datasets were furthermore inconsistent, suggesting that proteoid

  13. and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Athanasopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (a Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name, they belong to one of the most popular teams in Greece with a large fan population; have both competed in International Competitions (UEFA’s Champion League; Final Four of the European Tournament and have realised many CSR initiatives in the past. The case studies involved in depth, personal interviews of managers responsible for CSR in each team. Case study data was triangulated with documentation and search of published material concerning CSR actions. Data was analysed with content analysis. (c Findings: Both teams investigated have undertaken various CSR activities the last 5 years, the football team significantly more than the basketball team. Major factors that affect CSR activity include pressure from leagues; sponsors; local community, and global organisations; orientation towards fulfilling their duty to society, and team CSR strategy. Major benefits from CSR include relief of vulnerable groups and philanthropy as well as a better reputation for the firm; increase in fan base; and finding sponsors more easily due to the social profile of the team. However, those benefits are not measured in any way although both teams observe increase in tickets sold; web site traffic and TV viewing statistics after CSR activities. Finally, promotion of CSR is mainly done through web sites; press releases; newspapers, and word-of-mouth communications. (d Research limitations/implications: This study involves only two case studies and has limited generalisability. Future research can extend the

  14. Antiplatelet agents for prevention of pre-eclampsia and its consequences: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is now good evidence that antiplatelet agents (principally low dose aspirin prevent pre-eclampsia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for pregnant women and their babies. A Cochrane Review identified moderate, but clinically important, reductions in the relative risks of pre-eclampsia (19%, preterm birth (7% and perinatal mortality (16% in women allocated antiplatelets, rather than placebo or no antiplatelet. Uncertainty remains, however, about whether some women (in terms of risk benefit more than others, what dose of aspirin is best and when in pregnancy treatment should ideally start. Rather than undertake new trials, the best way to answer these questions is to utilise existing individual patient data from women enrolled in each trial. Methods/Design Systematic review with meta-analysis based on individual patient data. This involves the central collection, validation and re-analysis of thoroughly checked data from individual women in all the available randomised trials. The objective is to confirm that antiplatelet agents, given during pregnancy, will reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia. The review will then determine the size of this effect, and whether antiplatelets delay the onset of pre-eclampsia or its impact on important outcomes for women and their babies. It will also explore whether the effect of antiplatelets differs by womens' risk profile; when commenced during pregnancy; and/or by dose. Discussion The PARIS (Perinatal Antiplatelet Review of International Studies Collaboration has been formed to undertake the review. This will be the first individual patient data review in the perinatal field. Final results should be available by 2006–7.

  15. PREFER: a European service providing forest fire management support products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftychidis, George; Laneve, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Sebastian Lopez, Ana; Lourenco, Louciano; Clandillon, Stephen; Tampellini, Lucia; Hirn, Barbara; Diagourtas, Dimitris; Leventakis, George

    2015-06-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus project of the EC-FP7 program which aims developing spatial information products that may support fire prevention and burned areas restoration decisions and establish a relevant web-based regional service for making these products available to fire management stakeholders. The service focuses to the Mediterranean region, where fire risk is high and damages from wildfires are quite important, and develop its products for pilot areas located in Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and Greece. PREFER aims to allow fire managers to have access to online resources, which shall facilitate fire prevention measures, fire hazard and risk assessment, estimation of fire impact and damages caused by wildfire as well as support monitoring of post-fire regeneration and vegetation recovery. It makes use of a variety of products delivered by space borne sensors and develop seasonal and daily products using multi-payload, multi-scale and multi-temporal analysis of EO data. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main suite of products. The first refers to mapping products for supporting decisions concerning the Preparedness/Prevention Phase (ISP Service). The service delivers Fuel, Hazard and Fire risk maps for this purpose. Furthermore the PREFER portfolio includes Post-fire vegetation recovery, burn scar maps, damage severity and 3D fire damage assessment products in order to support relative assessments required in context of the Recovery/Reconstruction Phase (ISR Service) of fire management.

  16. Act No. 87-565 of 22 July 1987 on the organization of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and the prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr

  17. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context--the Brightening Our Home Fires Project, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Dorothy; Felske, Aileen Wight

    2013-01-01

    The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF) project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from a women's health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT). While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research. The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women's health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel 'ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women's health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.

  18. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context – the brightening our home fires project, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Dorothy; Felske, Aileen Wight

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF) project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from a women's health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT). While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research. Methods The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women's health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. Results This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel ‘ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women's health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues. PMID:23984290

  19. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context – the brightening our home fires project, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Badry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD from a women’s health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT. While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH perspective informed this research. Methods. The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women’s health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. Results. This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel ‘ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women’s health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.

  20. An overview of sodium-fire related studies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilsborough, R.; Capp, P.D.; Newman, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the six years since the last Sodium Fires Specialists Meeting (Hanford, May 1972) the UKAEA and the Construction Companies, now NPC, have concentrated on the commissioning and early operation of the prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Rig support for PFR has continued at Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratory with effort mainly directed to engineering and heat transfer studies; the fire protection and leak detection systems used have been based on information available in 1972. Over the same period the CEGB have shown an increasing interest in the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor system with a consequent increase in research work on the subject of sodium fires. The text and appendices of this overview reflect this spread of emphasis. The ignition characteristics, burning rates and smoke release fractions of free ambient pool fires have been studied and this is described. This paper covers the following topics as well: extinguishment of sodium fires; prevention and protection; aerosols, physical chemistry and codes

  1. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7)…

  2. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  3. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  4. 76 FR 22381 - National Fire Codes: Request for Comments on NFPA Technical Committee Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... the Prevention of P Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities. NFPA 68 Standard on Explosion P Protection by Deflagration Venting. NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm and P Signaling... for Fire Protection. NFPA 24 Standard for the Installation P of Private Fire Service Mains and Their...

  5. A GIS-based framework for evaluating investments in fire management: Spatial allocation of recreation values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando González-Cabán; Catrina I. Páez; Edgard. Chávez

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service is responsible for developing tools to facilitate effective and efficient fire management on wildlands and urban-wildland interfaces. Existing GIS-based fire modeling software only permits estimation of the costs of fire prevention and mitigation efforts as well as the effects of those efforts on fire behavior. This research demonstrates how the...

  6. The impact of state fire safe cigarette policies on fire fatalities, injuries, and incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folz, David H; Shults, Chris

    Cigarettes are a leading cause of civilian deaths in home fires. Over the last decade, state fire service leaders and allied interest groups succeeded in persuading state lawmakers to require manufacturers to sell only low-ignition strength or "fire safe" cigarettes as a strategy to reduce these fatalities and the injuries and losses that stem from them. This article examines whether the states' fire safe cigarette laws actually helped to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce the incidence of home fires ignited by cigarettes left unattended by smokers. Controlling for the effects of key demographic, social, economic, and housing variables, this study finds that the states' fire-safe cigarette policies had significant impacts on reducing the rate of smoking-related civilian fire deaths and the incidence of fires started by tobacco products. The findings also suggest that the states' fire safe cigarette policies may have helped to reduce the rate of smoking-related fire injuries. The study shows that collective actions by leaders in the fire service across the states can result in meaningful policy change that protects lives and advances public safety even when a political consensus for action is absent at the national level.

  7. Pyric-carnivory: Raptor use of prescribed fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Torre J; McGranahan, Devan A; Elmore, R Dwayne; Weir, John R; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D

    2017-11-01

    Fire is a process that shaped and maintained most terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Changes in land use and patterns of human settlement have altered fire regimes and led to fire suppression resulting in numerous undesirable consequences spanning individual species and entire ecosystems. Many obvious and direct consequences of fire suppression have been well studied, but several, albeit less obvious, costs of alteration to fire regimes on wildlife are unknown. One such phenomenon is the response of carnivores to fire events-something we refer to as pyric-carnivory. To investigate the prevalence of pyric-carnivory in raptors, we monitored 25 prescribed fires occurring during two different seasons and across two different locations in tallgrass prairie of the central United States. We used paired point counts occurring before and during prescribed fires to quantify the use of fires by raptors. We found a strong attraction to fires with average maximum abundance nearly seven times greater during fires than prior to ignitions (before: x¯ = 2.90, SE  = 0.42; during: x¯ = 20.20; SE  = 3.29) and an average difference between fire events and immediately before fires of 15.2 (±2.69) raptors. This result was driven by Swainson's hawks ( Buteo swainsoni ), which were the most abundant ( n  = 346) of the nine species we observed using fires. Our results illustrate the importance of fire as integral disturbance process that effects wildlife behavior through multiple mechanisms that are often overshadowed by the predominant view of fire as a tool used for vegetation management.

  8. Evaluation and Mitigation of Industrial Fire Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Petra

    1997-01-01

    A tool suitable for conducting industrial fire and explosion hazard analysis is presented, together with an identification of weak links in the hazard evaluation chain. For some of the weak links additional research has been carried out. The tool, "FREIA", evaluates the consequences for humans and components due to fires and accidental releases indoors and outdoors using established engineering methods. Investigations have been carried out to find possible methods to s...

  9. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  10. The aspects of fire safety at landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshina Tat'yana Anatol'evna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with 2008 and till 2013 there have been alarm messages about fires occurring at landfill places in Russia. Landfill fires are especially dangerous as they emit dangerous fumes from the combustion of the wide range of materials within the landfill. Subsurface landfill fires, unlike typical fires, cannot be put out with water. The article includes the analysis of the sources and causes of conflagrations at landfills. There maintains the necessity to eliminate the reasons, which cause the fires. There are quantification indices of environmental, social and economic effects of fires at landfills all over Russia. Surface fires generally burn at relatively low temperatures and are characterized by the emission of dense white smoke and the products of incomplete combustion. The smoke includes irritating agents, such as organic acids and other compounds. Higher temperature fires can cause the breakdown of volatile compounds, which emit dense black smoke. Surface fires are classified as either accidental or deliberate. For the ecologic security there is a need in the execution of proper hygienic requirements to the content of the places as well as international recommendations. In addition to the burning and explosion hazards posed by landfill fires, smoke and other by-products of landfill fires also present a health risk to firefighters and others exposed to them. Smoke from landfill fires generally contains particulate matter (the products of incomplete combustion of the fuel source, which can aggravate pre-existing pulmonary conditions or cause respiratory distress and damage ecosystem. The monitoring of conducting preventive inflamings and transition to alternative, environment friendly methods of waste disposal is needed.

  11. Overview of internal fire hazards aspects of ABWR design for United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroki [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The ABWR (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) is a generation III+ reactor, the most modern operational generation of nuclear power plants. The UK ABWR design is proposed for development and construction in the United Kingdom (UK), and under review by the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) through Generic Design Assessment (GDA). The UK ABWR design has mainly two types of the safety system: ''preventing'' and ''mitigating'' a fault and their consequences. The prevention of internal hazards starts with design processes and procedures. These processes lead to limiting the sources of potential hazards. The mitigative safety systems are required to ensure the fundamental safety functions (FSFs): control of reactivity, Fuel cooling, long term heat removal, confinement/containment of radioactive materials, and others. Implementation of the safety philosophy is based upon redundant and diverse safety systems that deliver the FSFs. Three mechanical divisions are provided, each of which contains redundant systems, structures, and components (SSCs) capable of carrying out all the FSFs. The safety divisions are separated by robust barriers which act to contain a hazard in an affected division and prevent the spread of the hazard to a different division. The deterministic assessments and the hazard schedule argue that the rooms containing SSCs providing the FSFs are located in different fire safety divisions. The approach to maintaining the FSFs during and after internal fires is to ensure fires do not spread beyond that division to affect redundant equipment in other divisions. During the GDA process, it is demonstrated that generally barrier compartmentation (the divisional barrier walls, ceilings and floors) is sufficient to contain the postulated fires. The UK ABWR design has sufficient capability of withstanding the postulated internal fire hazard to achieve the FSFs. Further development is being undertaken with feedback in the GDA

  12. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well beyond fire-fighting. It ranges from monitoring confined spaces to dealing with flooding and preventing chemical hazards. A wide range of equipment enables them to fulfil thei...

  13. The Angra 1 fire PRA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz E. Massiere de C.; Kassawara, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Angra 1 Fire PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) is under development by ELETRONUCLEAR jointly with EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). The project was started January of 2007 and it is foreseen to be finished in the middle of the next year. The study is being conducted according to the newest methodology developed by EPRI and NRC/RES (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Office of Regulatory Research) published in 2005 as Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities (NUREG/CR-6850 or EPRI TR-1011989) [1]. Starting from the Internal Events Angra 1 PRA model Level 1 the project aims to be a comprehensive plant-specific fire analysis to identify the possible consequences of a fire in the plant vital areas which threaten the integrity of systems relevant to the safety, challenging the safety functions and representing a risk of accident that can lead to a core damage. The main tasks include the plant boundary and partitioning, the fire PRA component selection and the identification of the possible fire scenarios (ignition, propagation, detection, extinction and hazards) considering human failure events to establish the fire-induced risk model for quantification of the risk for nuclear core damage taking into account the plant design and its fire protection resources. This work presents a general discussion on the methodology applied to the completed steps of the project. (author)

  14. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  15. Liver Hypertension: Causes, Consequences and Prevention

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANAGEMENT OF OESOPHAGEAL VARICEAL BLEEDING · Drug Treatment of Hypertension - Repeated BP measurements · How To Diagnose Portal ... Liver Pressure (HVPG) Studies at G B Pant Hospital, Delhi (2001-2004) · Small Vs. Large Varices · Liver Pressure and Bleeder Status (n=176) · HVPG Multivariate ...

  16. Liver Hypertension: Causes, Consequences and Prevention

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hepatic Vein Pressure Gradient (HVPG) · Liver Pressure (HVPG) Studies at G B Pant Hospital, Delhi (2001-2004) · Small Vs. Large Varices · Liver Pressure and Bleeder Status (n=176) · HVPG Multivariate Analysis (Wadhawan et al. 2005) · Safe BP levels · Safe Portal (Liver) Pressure or HVPG · Liver Pressure and Bleeding ...

  17. Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yanikkerem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364

  18. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  19. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  20. Smoldering - The Fire Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Torero, Jose L

    2000-01-01

    There are certain fire initiation scenarios that are particularly common, one of great significance is a fire initiated from the ignition of a porous fuel. Nearly 40% of the deaths due to fire can be traced to cigarette induced smolder of upholstered furniture and the mechanisms that control the process that transforms the weak smolder reaction occurring in the cigarette to a fire are still mostly unknown. A general description of this fire scenario and a discussion of its threats is pr...

  1. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  2. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo C Pereira Júnior

    Full Text Available Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008 for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  3. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  4. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  5. Fire protection for telecommunications central offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, L.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of continuous, uninterrupted telecommunications service is vital to modern life. In order to provide uninterrupted service to customers, a service continuity program has been in place with AT and T for many years. This program integrates many different protection strategies and plans, each designed to mitigate one of the many threats to service continuity. The fire protection program implemented within AT and T is a part of this service continuity program. In the design of this program, a number of unusual problems had to be addressed due to the service continuity requirements. Typical solutions to fire protection problems (ignition prevention, detection, and suppression) which are embodied in building and fire prevention codes are inadequate to provide service continuity. This presentation outlines the basic arrangement of a telecommunications central office, the specific fire protection problems encountered, the fire protection philosophy developed through the use of a systems approach, and the implementation of the fire protection program. Special emphasis is placed on the strategies employed in lieu of more traditional fire protection schemes and the stimuli for selecting them

  6. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  8. Enchentes e saúde pública: uma questão na literatura científica recente das causas, consequências e respostas para prevenção e mitigação Floods and Public Health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As enchentes são os desastres naturais com maior frequência e afetam a vida de aproxi madamente 102 milhões de pessoas a cada ano, principalmente nos países em desenvolvimento e em grandes centros urbanos, com tendência de aumento nas próximas décadas. O objetivo é oferecer subsídios para uma melhor compreensão destes eventos, através dos resultados e experiências encontrados na literatura científica recente. Por meio de busca no Pubmed foram analisados 70 trabalhos aos quais se teve acesso e se enquadraram nos critérios de abordar pelo menos um dos itens selecionados para análise, que eram: causas; consequências; respostas e ações; encaminhamento de propostas e soluções para a prevenção e/ou mitigação dos riscos; e, impactos das enchentes. A partir destes critérios foram montados quadros para cada um dos itens de análise de modo a sistematizar e sintetizar os resultados para as causas, as consequências ambientais, a infraestrutura, os serviços e a saúde e para as respostas e ações de prevenção e mitigação. Considerou-se que, dados os cenários de aumento na frequência e gravidade destes eventos, os desafios para o setor saúde para a redução de riscos de desastres exigem respostas integradas com amplas políticas para o desenvolvimento sustentável.Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1 causes; 2 consequences; 3 responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention

  9. Establishment of fire protection code in Nuclear Power Station (JEAC 4626-2010) and revision of fire protection guide in Nuclear Power Station (JEAG 4607-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi; Ushijima, Koji; Tanaka, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    This article reviewed basic design against fire protection measures in nuclear power plants, need of these measures enhancement by the rule with the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, and then major point of establishment and revision of private rule (design). Fire protection of nuclear power plants should be provided with well-balanced activities of design and management, where the design means fire prevention, fire detection and extinguishment, and mitigation of fire effects. After the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, need of private fire brigade and information dissemination was stressed as management of fire protection. When a massive earthquake occurs, the design shall lower the possibilities of fire breakouts at the structures, systems, or components of higher safety importance. However the possibility of a fire occurrence shall be considered in the planning of fire protection. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Engaging patients in the prevention of health care-associated infections: a survey of patients' awareness, knowledge, and perceptions regarding the risks and consequences of infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottum, Andrew; Sethi, Ajay K; Jacobs, Elizabeth; Zerbel, Sara; Gaines, Martha E; Safdar, Nasia

    2013-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are major health care-associated infections (HAIs). Little is known about patients' knowledge of these HAIs. Therefore, we surveyed patients to determine awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of MRSA infections and CDI. An interviewer-administered questionnaire. A tertiary care academic medical center. Adult patients who met at least one of the following criteria: at risk of CDI or MRSA infection, current CDI or colonization or current MRSA infection or colonization, or history of CDI or MRSA infection. Two unique surveys were developed and administered to 100 patients in 2011. Overall, 76% of patients surveyed were aware of MRSA, whereas 44% were aware of C difficile. The strongest predictor of patients' awareness of these infections was having a history of HAI. Patients with a history of HAI were significantly more likely to have heard of both MRSA (odds ratio, 13.29; 95% confidence interval, 2.84-62.14; P = .001) and C difficile (odds ratio, 9.78; 95% confidence interval, 2.66-35.95; P = .001), than those patients without a history of HAI. There was also a significant positive association between having a history of HAI and greater knowledge of the risk factors, health consequences, and prevention techniques relative to CDI and MRSA infections. There are additional opportunities to engage patients about the risks and consequences of MRSA and CDIs, particularly those without a history of HAI. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Land cover, more than monthly fire weather, drives fire-size distribution in Southern Québec forests: Implications for fire risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Jean; Cumming, Steve G; McIntire, Eliot J B

    2017-01-01

    consequences of climate warming on fire activity, and could be misleading. Assessments of vulnerability to climate change, and subsequent adaptation strategies, are directly dependent on integrated ecological forecasts. Thus, we stress the need to explicitly incorporate land-cover's direct effects and feedbacks in simulation models of coupled climate-fire-fuels systems.

  12. Land cover, more than monthly fire weather, drives fire-size distribution in Southern Québec forests: Implications for fire risk management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marchal

    overestimate the consequences of climate warming on fire activity, and could be misleading. Assessments of vulnerability to climate change, and subsequent adaptation strategies, are directly dependent on integrated ecological forecasts. Thus, we stress the need to explicitly incorporate land-cover's direct effects and feedbacks in simulation models of coupled climate-fire-fuels systems.

  13. Effects of fire on woody vegetation structure in African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Asner, Gregory P; Govender, Navashni; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E; Jacobson, James

    2010-10-01

    Despite the importance of fire in shaping savannas, it remains poorly understood how the frequency, seasonality, and intensity of fire interact to influence woody vegetation structure, which is a key determinant of savanna biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive analysis of vertical and horizontal woody vegetation structure across one of the oldest savanna fire experiments, using new airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. We developed and compared high-resolution woody vegetation height surfaces for a series of large experimental burn plots in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These 7-ha plots (total area approximately 1500 ha) have been subjected to fire in different seasons and at different frequencies, as well as no-burn areas, for 54 years. Long-term exposure to fire caused a reduction in woody vegetation up to the 5.0-7.5 m height class, although most reduction was observed up to 4 m. Average fire intensity was positively correlated with changes in woody vegetation structure. More frequent fires reduced woody vegetation cover more than less frequent fires, and dry-season fires reduced woody vegetation more than wet-season fires. Spring fires from the late dry season reduced woody vegetation cover the most, and summer fires from the wet season reduced it the least. Fire had a large effect on structure in the densely wooded granitic landscapes as compared to the more open basaltic landscapes, although proportionally, the woody vegetation was more reduced in the drier than in the wetter landscapes. We show that fire frequency and fire season influence patterns of vegetation three-dimensional structure, which may have cascading consequences for biodiversity. Managers of savannas can therefore use fire frequency and season in concert to achieve specific vegetation structural objectives.

  14. Fire protection for nuclear power plants. Part 1. Fundamental approaches. Version 6/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The KTA nuclear safety code sets out the fundamental approaches and principles for the prevention of fires in nuclear power plants, addressing aspects such as initiation, spreading, and effects of a fire: (a) Fire load and ignition sources, (b) structural and plant engineering conditions, (c) ways and means relating to fire call and fire fighting. Relevant technical and organisational measures are defined. Scope and quality of fire prevention measures to be taken, as well the relevant in-service inspection activities are determined according to the protective goals pursued in each case. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Davis Fire: Fire behavior and fire effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth

    2010-01-01

    The Davis Fire presents an interesting example of fire behavior in subalpine fir, partially dead lodgepole pine with multiple age classes, and moist site Douglas-fir vegetation types. This has been summer of moderate temperatures and intermittent moisture that has kept live herbaceous and live woody moistures fairly high and dead fuel moistures at a moderate level....

  16. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  17. Evaluation Of Fire Safety And Protection At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Ab Rahim; Alfred Sanggau Ligam; Nurhayati Ramli; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Phongsakorn Prak; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Zarina Masood

    2014-01-01

    Fire hazard is one of many risks that can affect the safety operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Reactor building in Malaysian Nuclear Agency was built in 1980s and the fire system has been introduced since then. The evaluation of the fire safety system at this time is important to ensure the efficiency of fire prevention, fighting and mitigation task that probably occurs. This evaluation involves with the fire fighting system and equipment, integrity of the system from the perspective of management and equipment, fire fighting procedure and fire fighting response team. (author)

  18. AEGIS: a wildfire prevention and management information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostas Kalabokidis; Alan Ager; Mark Finney; Nikos Athanasis; Palaiologos Palaiologou; Christos Vasilakos

    2016-01-01

    We describe a Web-GIS wildfire prevention and management platform (AEGIS) developed as an integrated and easy-to-use decision support tool to manage wildland fire hazards in Greece (http://aegis.aegean.gr). The AEGIS platform assists with early fire warning, fire planning, fire control and coordination of firefighting forces by providing online access to...

  19. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Lands

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

  20. Influence of Fire Mosaics, Habitat Characteristics and Cattle Disturbance on Mammals in Fire-Prone Savanna Landscapes of the Northern Kimberley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Ian J; Gibson, Lesley A; Corey, Ben; Carnes, Karin; Fairman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patch mosaic burning, in which fire is used to produce a mosaic of habitat patches representative of a range of fire histories ('pyrodiversity'), has been widely advocated to promote greater biodiversity. However, the details of desired fire mosaics for prescribed burning programs are often unspecified. Threatened small to medium-sized mammals (35 g to 5.5 kg) in the fire-prone tropical savannas of Australia appear to be particularly fire-sensitive. Consequently, a clear understanding of which properties of fire mosaics are most instrumental in influencing savanna mammal populations is critical. Here we use mammal capture data, remotely sensed fire information (i.e. time since last fire, fire frequency, frequency of late dry season fires, diversity of post-fire ages in 3 km radius, and spatial extent of recently burnt, intermediate and long unburnt habitat) and structural habitat attributes (including an index of cattle disturbance) to examine which characteristics of fire mosaics most influence mammals in the north-west Kimberley. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between fire mosaic and habitat attributes on total mammal abundance and richness, and the abundance of the most commonly detected species. Strong negative associations of mammal abundance and richness with frequency of late dry season fires, the spatial extent of recently burnt habitat (post-fire age fire age classes in the models. Our results indicate that both a high frequency of intense late dry season fires and extensive, recently burnt vegetation are likely to be detrimental to mammals in the north Kimberley. A managed fire mosaic that reduces large scale and intense fires, including the retention of ≥4 years unburnt patches, will clearly benefit savanna mammals. We also highlighted the importance of fire mosaics that retain sufficient shelter for mammals. Along with fire, it is clear that grazing by introduced herbivores also needs to be reduced so that habitat quality is

  1. Risk Analysis for Road Tunnels – A Metamodel to Efficiently Integrate Complex Fire Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Florian; Knaust, Christian; Arnold, Lukas

    2018-01-01

    Fires in road tunnels constitute complex scenarios with interactions between the fire, tunnel users and safety measures. More and more methodologies for risk analysis quantify the consequences of these scenarios with complex models. Examples for complex models are the computational fluid dynamics...... in risk analysis. We further emphasise that the metamodel is broadly applicable on various experimental or modelling issues in fire safety engineering....

  2. Effect of patches of woody vegetation on the role of fire in tropical grasslands and savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Langevelde, F.; de Groot, F.; Groen, T.A.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Gaigher, I.

    2014-01-01

    In tropical grasslands and savannas, fire is used to reduce woody vegetation expansion. Woody vegetation in these biomes is often patchily distributed, and micro-climatic conditions can largely vary locally with unknown consequences for fire effects. We hypothesised that (1) fire has higher

  3. Effect of patches of woody vegetation on the role of fire in tropical grasslands and savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Groot, de C.; Groen, T.A.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Gaigher, I.

    2014-01-01

    In tropical grasslands and savannas, fire is used to reduce woody vegetation expansion. Woody vegetation in these biomes is often patchily distributed, and micro-climatic conditions can largely vary locally with unknown consequences for fire effects. We hypothesized that (1) fire has higher

  4. Organizational learning contributes to guidance for managing wildland fires for multiple objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Zimmerman; Tim Sexton

    2010-01-01

    Since the inception of organized fire suppression in the early 1900s, wildland fire management has dramatically evolved in operational complexity; ecological significance; social, economic, and political magnitude; areas and timing of application; and recognition of potentially serious consequences. Throughout the past 100 years, fire management has matured from a...

  5. First Order Fire Effects Model: FOFEM 4.0, user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Robert E. Keane; James K. Brown

    1997-01-01

    A First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM) was developed to predict the direct consequences of prescribed fire and wildfire. FOFEM computes duff and woody fuel consumption, smoke production, and fire-caused tree mortality for most forest and rangeland types in the United States. The model is available as a computer program for PC or Data General computer.

  6. Coupled atmosphere-wildland fire modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Henri Balbi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the interaction between fire and atmosphere is critical to the estimation of the rate of spread of the fire. Wildfire’s convection (i.e., entire plume can modify the local meteorology throughout the atmospheric boundary layer and consequently affect the fire propagation speed and behaviour. In this study, we use for the first time the Méso-NH meso-scale numerical model coupled to the point functional ForeFire simplified physical front-tracking wildfire model to investigate the differences introduced by the atmospheric feedback in propagation speed and behaviour. Both numerical models have been developed as research tools for operational models and are currently used to forecast localized extreme events. These models have been selected because they can be run coupled and support decisions in wildfire management in France and Europe. The main originalities of this combination reside in the fact that Méso-NH is run in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES configuration and that the rate of spread model used in ForeFire provides a physical formulation to take into account the effect of wind and slope. Simulations of typical experimental configurations show that the numerical atmospheric model is able to reproduce plausible convective effects of the heat produced by the fire. Numerical results are comparable to estimated values for fire-induced winds and present behaviour similar to other existing numerical approaches.

  7. Pre-fire and post-fire surface fuel and cover measurements collected in the southeastern United States for model evaluation and development - RxCADRE 2008, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Andrew T. Hudak; Susan J. Prichard; Clinton S. Wright; Joseph C. Restaino; Maureen C. Kennedy; Robert E. Vihnanek

    2016-01-01

    A lack of independent, quality-assured data prevents scientists from effectively evaluating predictions and uncertainties in fire models used by land managers. This paper presents a summary of pre-fire and post-fire fuel, fuel moisture and surface cover fraction data that can be used for fire model evaluation and development. The data were collected in the...

  8. Fire risk assessment for hydrogen at EDG/battery room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hyun Jong; Park, Kyung Hyum; Song, Jin Bae

    2004-01-01

    At the design stage of Nuclear Power Plant, the fire hazard analysis for the fire zone or compartment is implemented according to the fire protection requirement and the document is required for the licensing approval. On the basis of fire hazard analysis, the evaluation for the safe shutdown capability is preceded for each fire zone that contains safety-important systems and facilities. The primary philosophy for the fire safety is to secure fire defense-in-depth at Nuclear Power Plants that represents fire prevention, fire protection, and mitigation from fire damage. One of the concerning fire zones that need quantitative fire hazard analysis as well as qualitative fire evaluation at Nuclear Power Plants is the battery room at Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) Room. For an example, Emergency Power Supply System called as EPS at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant generates emergency power and supply the electric power to the safety-related systems and essential facilities during the loss of on-site and off-site AC power. For the start of emergency power generator, it needs DC power from the battery units inside the EPS room. For the emergency supply of DC power, the battery at EPS room should be recharged during the standby period to compensate the reduced chemical energy that was converted to the electric energy or depleted through the natural process. During the recharge process, especially at the time of charging current becoming greater than the nominal floating current or at the time of over-charging period, the hydrogen and the oxygen are generated from the positive plate and cathodic part respectively and escaped through the vent holes or crevices. In this context, the fire hazard assessment should be done for the EPS/battery room with quantitative approach and the fire safety evaluation for the explosion of hydrogen gas must be done under the specific fire protection program at Nuclear Power Plants

  9. DynCorp Tricities Services, Inc. Hanford fire department FY 1998 annual work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E.

    1997-08-19

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the U.S. Department of Energy operated Hanford site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. This fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This plan provides a program overview, program baselines, and schedule baseline.

  10. Modeling the effects of vegetation heterogeneity on wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, A. L.; Linn, R.; Sieg, C.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation structure and densities are known to drive fire-spread rate and burn severity. Many fire-spread models incorporate an average, homogenous fuel density in the model domain to drive fire behavior. However, vegetation communities are rarely homogenous and instead present significant heterogeneous structure and fuel densities in the fires path. This results in observed patches of varied burn severities and mosaics of disturbed conditions that affect ecological recovery and hydrologic response. Consequently, to understand the interactions of fire and ecosystem functions, representations of spatially heterogeneous conditions need to be incorporated into fire models. Mechanistic models of fire disturbance offer insight into how fuel load characterization and distribution result in varied fire behavior. Here we use a physically-based 3D combustion model—FIRETEC—that solves conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and chemical species to compare fire behavior on homogenous representations to a heterogeneous vegetation distribution. Results demonstrate the impact vegetation heterogeneity has on the spread rate, intensity, and extent of simulated wildfires thus providing valuable insight in predicted wildland fire evolution and enhanced ability to estimate wildland fire inputs into regional and global climate models.

  11. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  12. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area...

  13. Modeling Urban Fire Growth,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear explosion damage, *Explosion effects, *Fires, *Flame propagation, Growth (General), Area coverage, Ignition, Combustion, Casualties...Computerized simulation, Predictions, Countermeasures, Fire suppression, Damage assessment, Urban areas, Vulnerability, Data acquisition, Methodology, Symposia

  14. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  15. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  16. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  17. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  18. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  19. Fire Making, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2002-04-01

    In the late 1930's and early 1940's, JCE published several historical accounts on methods for igniting fires. This "From Past Issues" summarizes an article by Warren N. Watson on the fire making arts of primitive peoples.

  20. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  1. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  2. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  3. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  4. Mass Fire Model Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-31

    done by several investigators, the theoretical work of Nielsen (Reference 12) and Nielsen and Tao (Refer- ence 13) specifically models the global...which are approximately equal. This procedure permits computation of the fire..induced wind by a superpositlon of effects from each usub -fire." Outsid...Storm Analysis, ITT Research Institute, Janu- ary 1970. .324 13. Nielsen , H.J. and L.N. Tao, "The Fire Plume Above a Large Free- Burning Fire,’ Tenth S

  5. FIRE USE IN CERRADO COUNTRY PROPERTIES IN CAVALCANTE, GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Xavier Lara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of fire as a land tool management is a common practice in the agricultural area. This practice requires  a lot of care to avoid forest fires and uncontrollable fires. The uncontrollable fires can reach plantations, pastures and improvements. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fire management patterns and economic impacts of the fire management in the country areas in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, in the city of Cavalcante, Goiás. The data collection was made by means of direct interviews, burnt areas, improvements damages and costs evaluation. Fifty agricultural producers used the fire as a tool of farming handling.  The first stage of the data collection was carried out during 2003. Information on the size of burnt area, damages and investments in wildfire prevention was collected. The second survey, mode with the same 50 land owners, was carried out in 2004 dry station. The data of 2003 and 2004 was compared. Results showed that the use of fire, in such a place, causes damages for those land owners who use the fire as a land management tool and for land owners who do not use it. The lack of prevention activities and fire control approaches are the main causes of uncrontrolled burnts in Chapada dos Veadeiros.

  6. Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-12-01

    Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans. With a view to gaining an insight into the mechanisms underlying fire dynamics, fire control, and prevention, we formulated a model that predicts the wildfire regime in fire-prone Mediterranean ecoregions. The model is based on the positive feedback between forest expansion following cropland abandonment, fuel abundance, and fire. Our results demonstrate that progressive land abandonment leads to different fire dynamics in the Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Starting at a no-fire regime when the land is almost completely cultivated, the ecosystem reaches a chaotic fire regime, passing through intermediate land development stages characterized by limit cycle fire dynamics. Wildfires are more devastating, albeit more predictable, in these intermediate stages when fire frequency is higher.

  7. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  8. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  9. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  10. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  11. Forest Fires in the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ: Risk knowledge and public intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Estacio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Every summer, the Metropolitan District of Quito (MDQ is subject to the recurrence of forest fires with different consequences in terms of loss of protected areas of great biodiversity, affectation of public and private spaces of different use and impact on the population well-being. The management of municipal authorities of this type of risks is still limited, since there is no decisional tool that can improve the preventive planning and the response to the annual presence of these events. For this reason, the generation of a study on potential fores fires represents the first step towards the comprehension and the reduction of risks. The present article presents the result of this study, the mechanisms and the efforts of the municipal technicians that made possible the achievement of these tools in the frame of the Risk Reduction Program of the Metropolitan District of Quito. The obtained results allowed the implementation of prevention actions in areas with very valuable ecosystems services but fragile in the same time, as well as the improvement of the fire emergency plans in order to optimize resources and reinforce local capacities. 

  12. Modelling the probability of building fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Barták

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic spatial risk analysis plays a crucial role in preventing emergencies.In the Czech Republic, risk mapping is currently based on the risk accumulationprinciple, area vulnerability, and preparedness levels of Integrated Rescue Systemcomponents. Expert estimates are used to determine risk levels for individualhazard types, while statistical modelling based on data from actual incidents andtheir possible causes is not used. Our model study, conducted in cooperation withthe Fire Rescue Service of the Czech Republic as a model within the Liberec andHradec Králové regions, presents an analytical procedure leading to the creation ofbuilding fire probability maps based on recent incidents in the studied areas andon building parameters. In order to estimate the probability of building fires, aprediction model based on logistic regression was used. Probability of fire calculatedby means of model parameters and attributes of specific buildings can subsequentlybe visualized in probability maps.

  13. Wireless Sensor Network for Forest Fire Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emansa Hasri Putra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are one of problems that threaten sustainability of the forest. Early prevention system for indications of forest fires is absolutely necessary. The extent of the forest to be one of the problems encountered in the forest condition monitoring. To overcome the problems of forest extent, designed a system of forest fire detection system by adopting the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN using multiple sensor nodes. Each sensor node has a microcontroller, transmitter/receiver and three sensors. Measurement method is performed by measuring the temperature, flame, the levels of methane, hydrocarbons, and CO2 in some forest area and the combustion of peat in a simulator. From results of measurements of temperature, levels of methane, a hydrocarbon gas and CO2 in an open area indicates there are no signs of fires due to the value of the temperature, methane, hydrocarbon gas, and CO2 is below the measurement in the space simulator.

  14. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fires in the Jharia coalfield pose a serious threat to India's vital resource of primary coking coal and the regional environment. In order to undertake effective preventative measures, it is critical to detect the occurrence of subsurface coal fires and to monitor the extent of the existing ones. In this study, Differential ...

  15. Trend analysis of fire events at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    We performed trend analyses to compare fire events occurring overseas (1995-2005) and in Japan (1966-2006). We decided to do this after extracting data on incidents (storms, heavy rain, tsunamis, fires, etc.) occurring at overseas nuclear power plants from the Events Occurred at Overseas Nuclear Power Plants recorded in the Nuclear Information Database at the Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS) and finding that fires were the most common of the incidents. Analyses compared the number of fires occurring domestically and overseas and analyzed their causes and the effect of the fires on the power plants. As a result, we found that electrical fires caused by such things as current overheating and electric arcing, account for over one half of the domestic and overseas incidents of fire, which indicates that maintenance management of electric facilities is the most important aspect of fire prevention. Also, roughly the same number of operational fires occurred at domestic and overseas plants, judging from the figures for annual occurrences per unit. However, the overall number of fires per unit at domestic facilities is one fourth that of overseas facilities. We surmise that, while management of operations that utilizes fire is comparable for overseas and domestic plants, this disparity results from differences in the way maintenance is carried out at facilities. (author)

  16. Effects of a Sprinkler on Evacuation Dynamics in Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A fire in an enclosed space, such as a room in a building, is generally called a compartment fire. To prevent the compartment fire, a sprinkler for first-aid fire-fighting is installed in rooms. However, it is difficult to determine the degree to which smoke generation and the fire spreading will be inhibited when sprinklers are on. In particular, demonstrating evacuation behavior assuming an actual fire is impossible. In this study, we evaluated an effectiveness of the sprinkler by numerical simulations. To consider evacuation dynamics, a real-coded cellular automata (RCA was used, where we can freely set the direction and velocity of an evacuee based on a floor field model. To consider the situation in the room fire, we used a simulator called Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS. Two cases with and without the sprinkler were compared to see the validity of the sprinkler on evacuation dynamics. The effect of smoke and the expansion of the fire-spreading region were discussed. Results show that, since the fire-spreading region disappears when the sprinkler is actuated, the evacuation time decreases. Even though the sprinkler is actuated, the smoke generated at the beginning of a fire diffuses inside the whole room. However, the duration of evacuees being overwhelmed by smoke is less, because the amount of smoke generated by the pyrolysis reaction is much decreased.

  17. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the

  18. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  19. A tale of two fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swearingen, Gary L.

    2001-01-01

    Timeline and decision response related to the Hanford Site wildfire. Nothing could have been done on-site to prevent the severe fires at two US nuclear facilities last summer. Fires that began outside the boundaries of the Hanford site in Washington and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico grew and spread into their boundaries and right up to their buildings. Hanford - Washington A vehicle fire resulting from a fatal head-on collision triggered the 24 Command Wildland Fire, which threatened several radioactive waste sites and the Fast Flux Test Facility on the Hanford site. Vegetation on both sides of Washington State Route 24, which runs across the DoE Hanford site, caught fire after a passenger vehicle and semitractor-trailer collided on June 27, 2000. An abundance of natural fuel and adverse weather conditions allowed the fire to move rapidly across the 120-square-mile Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, part of the Hanford Reach National Monument located southwest of the central Hanford site. Unlike the Los Alamos fire (see opposite) the vegetation consisted mainly of cheatgrass, tumbleweed and sage brush. Hot, dry weather had accelerated the fire season in the area, and the National Weather Service had warned that a critical fire weather pattern was ongoing or imminent. From June 27 to July 1 the wildfire burned over nearly 300 square miles, consuming an average of 2000 acres per hour (see panel, opposite). The fire came close to several major radioactive waste sites and blanketed others in a thick layer of smoke. The work of firefighters and the design of the buildings (which have wide concrete and gravel perimeters) kept site facilities safe. However, flames did pass over three inactive waste sites. On June 30 the manager of the DoE Richland Operations Office established a Type B accident investigation board (Board) to address the responses of the DoE and its Hanford site contractors to the fire. Having analysed the event, the

  20. THE REACTION TO FIRE TEST FOR FIRE RETARDANT AND FOR COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida FANFAROVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the natural materials become popular building material for houses, buildings and recreational property. The risk of fires in residential timber construction or eco houses cannot be completely ruled out, therefore there is a need for proper and correct implementing preventive measures and application of all available solutions, which may reduce the risk of fire as far as possible, to slow down the combustion process, to protect the life of people, animals and also the building itself until arrival members of the Fire and Rescue Services. Fireproofing of combustible materials is a specific area of fire protection. For scientific research as well as for real-life practice, not only their structural and physical properties, but also fire-technical characteristics are really important. The present researchers mostly focus on fire-retardant treatment of wood that is why the authors of this contribution focused on a different combustible material. This research article presents the experimental testing and examination of the reaction to fire test of the selected thermal insulation of hemp fiber that was impregnated by the selected fire retardant in laboratory conditions.

  1. Forest Monitoring and Wildland Early Fire Detection by a Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Molina-Pico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wildland fire is an uncontrolled fire that occurs mainly in forest areas, although it can also invade urban or agricultural areas. Among the main causes of wildfires, human factors, either intentional or accidental, are the most usual ones. The number and impact of forest fires are expected to grow as a consequence of the global warming. In order to fight against these disasters, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive, multifaceted approach that enables a continuous situational awareness and instant responsiveness. This paper describes a hierarchical wireless sensor network aimed at early fire detection in risky areas, integrated with the fire fighting command centres, geographical information systems, and fire simulators. This configuration has been successfully tested in two fire simulations involving all the key players in fire fighting operations: fire brigades, communication systems, and aerial, coordination, and land means.

  2. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  3. 78 FR 62305 - Fire Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    .... We should be cautious while cooking, using electrical appliances, and heating our homes. Those who... skilled professionals battle walls of flame, put themselves in the paths of unpredictable wildfires, and...

  4. 75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... attention when cooking on grills or building a campfire--we can avoid untold numbers of emergencies... lifesaving work our firefighters perform in communities across America. These courageous professionals are...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... around combustible storage piles shall be at least 15 feet wide and maintained free from accumulation of... wherever possible and in orderly and regular piles. No combustible material shall be stored outdoors within... combustion engine powered equipment shall be so located that the exhausts are well away from combustible...

  6. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  7. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhad, S.; Hussien, A.Z.; Hammad, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator E gypt's mega gamma I . The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. 4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited

  8. Kerosene fires in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, W.

    1990-08-01

    The thermodynamic and radiological consequences of accidental kerosene fires in have been investigated and analyzed. The burning rate of kerosene fires depends mainly on the burning area and in closed containments on the available oxygen and the ventilation rate in the cells of the reprocessing plants. Maximum burning rates of 150 kg/m 2 xh were measured. Burning kerosene-TBP mixtures produce large amounts of airborne soot. These particles agglomerate very fast to chainlike aerosols. The soot formation rate depends on TBP concentration and can be 10% of the organic layer. The smoke production has a maximum at the end of combustion. Uranium containing TBP releases radioactive particles during fires. The release rate depends on the uranium concentration in the organic liquid and might be up to 10% at the uranium solved in the organic liquid. Special safety filters were developed and tested under accident conditions. Multilayer sandbed filters have filtration efficiencies as high as HEPA filters and proved to have high resistivity against pressure, temperature, and chemicals. (orig.) [de

  9. Combined use of weather forecasting and satellite remote sensing information for fire risk, fire and fire impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knorr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of fire-affected forest areas needs to be combined with their future protection from renewed catastrophic fires, such as those that occurred in Greece during the 2007 summer season. The present work demonstrates that the use of various sources of satellite data in conjunction with weather forecast information is capable of providing valuable information for the characterization of fire danger with the purpose of protecting the Greek national forest areas. This study shows that favourable meteorological conditions have contributed to the fire outbreak during the days of the unusually damaging fires in Peloponnese as well as Euboia (modern Greek: Evia at the end of August 2007. During those days, Greece was located between an extended high pressure system in Central Europe and a low pressure system in the Middle East. Their combination resulted in strong north-northeasterly winds in the Aegean Sea. As a consequence, strong winds were also observed in the regions of Evia and Peloponnese, especially in mountainous areas. The analysis of satellite images showing smoke emitted from the fires corroborates the results from the weather forecasts. A further analysis using the Fraction of Absorbed Photosyntetically Active Radiation (FAPAR as an indicator of active vegetation shows the extent of the destruction caused by the fire. The position of the burned areas coincides with that of the active fires detected in the earlier satellite image. Using the annual maximum FAPAR as an indicator of regional vegetation density, it was found that only regions with relatively high FAPAR were burned.

  10. The Science of Prescribed Fire: to Enable a Different Kind of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Paysen; Marcia G. Narog; Jack D. Cohen

    1998-01-01

    A paradigm shift from fire suppression to fire suppression and prescription requires a shift in emphasis from simply controlling wildfire occurrence and spread to one that includes controlling characteristics of prescribed fire. Suppression focuses on preventing unwanted effects that might result from wildfire occurrence. Prescription promotes desired effects by...

  11. U.S. position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.; Powers, D.A.

    1982-05-01

    Sodium combustion phenomena and U.S. computer codes developed for sodium fires are discussed. Ways of preventing and mitigating sodium fires are described. Effects of sodium fires and spills on LMFBR structural materials, thermal insulation materials, and equipment/instrumentation are considered

  12. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P to... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alarms, and systems that are installed to prevent or control fire ignition sources, and to control fuel source hazards. III. Alarm Systems and How To Report Fires A. A demonstration of alarm procedures, if more than one type exists. B. The work site emergency alarm system. C. Procedures for reporting fires...

  13. 77 FR 67628 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids. NFPA 92--2012 Standard for Smoke 1... Fire 1/4/2013 Prevention and Control in Coal Mines. NFPA 122--2010 Standard for Fire 1/4/2013... 820--2012 Standard for Fire 7/8/2013 Protection in Wastewater Treatment and Collection Facilities...

  14. The causes of fires on northeastern national forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Main; Donald A. Haines

    1974-01-01

    Presents cross-tabulations of classes of people, activities, and causes responsible for forest fires on national forests. The data combinations indicate that greater prevention efforts might be directed toward hunters and fishermen.

  15. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  17. Fire protection programme during construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian Umer, M.

    1998-01-01

    A clear view is given of several measures that have been taken with regard to fire prevention, protection and fire fighting during all phases of the construction, installation and commissioning of the Chasma nuclear power plant to protect personnel and equipment so that any delays in plant operation as a result of fire incident can be avoided. These measures include the precautions taken, the provisions made for fire extinguishers and hydrants, and the setting up of a fire brigade. An overview is also given of the fire incidents that have occurred. (author)

  18. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  19. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  20. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  1. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  2. Climate change, fire and the carbon balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Flannigan, M.

    2004-01-01

    On average, forest fires have burned 2 to 3 million hectares annually in Canada over the last twenty years. Over the last 40 years, this amounts to 20 per cent of the amount of carbon released through fossil fuel emissions in Canada. This paper analyses the extent to which climate change may contribute to a disturbance in the carbon balance due to increased fire activity. In addition, data from FLUXNET-Canada was examined, indicating that carbon fluxes from younger forests show dramatic changes in diurnal carbon flux patterns, caused by reduced photosynthetic uptake during the day and less root respiration at night. Increases in fire are expected throughout much of the boreal forest towards the end of this century, with a lengthening of the fire season and increases in severity and intensity. It was concluded that there is the possibility of a positive feedback, where climate change could cause more fires, resulting in a greater release of carbon and thereby increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Evidence that smoke promoted positive lightning strikes while reducing precipitation was also presented. It was suggested that certain self-limiting factors may prevent a run-away scenario. Changes to human and lightning ignition patterns, for example, may have an impact. It was also suggested that research efforts should focus on refining climate change estimates that account for landscape change and other aspects that control fire in Canada. 9 refs., 2 figs

  3. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  4. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  5. The improvement of the fire protections system for nuclear cycle facilities. Formulation of a fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    The private side Fire Protection Guideline was investigated with respect to the fire having taken place at the nuclear reactor site followed by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in Niigata Prefecture in 2007. To improve the fire protection system especially applicable to MOX fuel fabrication facilities, JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) investigated private guidelines adopted in Japanese Light Water cooled Reactors, the standardized guidelines used in Nuclear Facilities in other countries including USA, and the standards in the chemical plants. The content of the guideline concerns the prevention of the fire breakout, the prevention of fire extension, the reduction of the fire effects, as well as the facility-characteristic protection countermeasures and the fire effect evaluations. (S. Ohno)

  6. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  7. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... as a visiting professor at BYG.DTU financed by the Larsen and Nielsen Foundation, and is entered to the research database by Kristian Hertz responsible for the visiting professorship....

  8. An assessment of the impact of home safety assessments on fires and fire-related injuries: a case study of Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, B N; Thurston, M N

    2013-06-01

    Deaths and injuries related to fires are largely preventable events. In the UK, a plethora of community-based fire safety initiatives have been introduced over the last 25 years, often led by fire and rescue services, to address this issue. This paper focuses on one such initiative--home safety assessments (HSAs). Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service (in England) implemented a uniquely large-scale HSA intervention. This paper assesses its effectiveness. The impact of HSAs was assessed in relation to three outcomes: accidental dwelling fires (ADFs), ADFs contained and injuries arising from ADFs. A two-period comparison in fire-related rates of incidences in Cheshire between 2002 and 2011 was implemented, using Poisson regression and adjusting for the national temporal trend using a control group comprising the 37 other English non-metropolitan fire-services. Significant reductions were observed in rates of ADFs [incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.83, P < 0.001, 2002/03-2007/08 versus 2008/09-2010/11] and associated injuries (IRR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.39-0.60, P < 0.001, 2002/03-2006/07 versus 2007/08-2010/11), but not in the proportion of fires contained to room of origin. There is strong evidence to suggest that the intervention was successful in reducing domestic fires and related injuries.

  9. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation modelORCHIDEE - Part 1: Simulating historical global burned area and fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Yue; P. Ciais; P. Cadule; K. Thonicke; S. Archibald; B. Poulter; W. M. Hao; S. Hantson; F. Mouillot; P. Friedlingstein; F. Maignan; N. Viovy

    2014-01-01

    Fire is an important global ecological process that influences the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. Therefore it is impossible to appropriately model the history and future of the terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system without including fire. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE...

  10. Fire safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The periodic occurrence of large-scale, potentially disastrous industrial accidents involving fire in hazardous environments such as oilwell blowouts, petrochemical explosions and nuclear installations highlights the need for an integrated approach to fire safety engineering. Risk reduction 'by design' and rapid response are of equal importance in the saving of life and property in such situations. This volume of papers covers the subject thoroughly, touching on such topics as hazard analysis, safety design and testing, fire detection and control, and includes studies of fire hazard in the context of environment protection. (author)

  11. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  12. Utilization of geoinformation tools for the development of forest fire hazard mapping system: example of Pekan fire, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Setiawan, Iwan; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nuruddin, Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    A study in modeling fire hazard assessment will be essential in establishing an effective forest fire management system especially in controlling and preventing peat fire. In this paper, we have used geographic information system (GIS), in combination with other geoinformation technologies such as remote sensing and computer modeling, for all aspects of wild land fire management. Identifying areas that have a high probability of burning is an important component of fire management planning. The development of spatially explicit GIS models has greatly facilitated this process by allowing managers to map and analyze variables contributing to fire occurrence across large, unique geographic units. Using the model and its associated software engine, the fire hazard map was produced. Extensive avenue programming scripts were written to provide additional capabilities in the development of these interfaces to meet the full complement of operational software considering various users requirements. The system developed not only possesses user friendly step by step operations to deliver the fire vulnerability mapping but also allows authorized users to edit, add or modify parameters whenever necessary. Results from the model can support fire hazard mapping in the forest and enhance alert system function by simulating and visualizing forest fire and helps for contingency planning.

  13. New tendencies in wildland fire simulation for understanding fire phenomena: An overview of the WFDS system capabilities in Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, E.; Tarragó, D.; Planas, E.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfire theoretical modeling endeavors predicting fire behavior characteristics, such as the rate of spread, the flames geometry and the energy released by the fire front by applying the physics and the chemistry laws that govern fire phenomena. Its ultimate aim is to help fire managers to improve fire prevention and suppression and hence reducing damage to population and protecting ecosystems. WFDS is a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a fire-driven flow. It is particularly appropriate for predicting the fire behaviour burning through the wildland-urban interface, since it is able to predict the fire behaviour in the intermix of vegetative and structural fuels that comprise the wildland urban interface. This model is not suitable for operational fire management yet due to computational costs constrains, but given the fact that it is open-source and that it has a detailed description of the fuels and of the combustion and heat transfer mechanisms it is currently a suitable system for research purposes. In this paper we present the most important characteristics of the WFDS simulation tool in terms of the models implemented, the input information required and the outputs that the simulator gives useful for understanding fire phenomena. We briefly discuss its advantages and opportunities through some simulation exercises of Mediterranean ecosystems.

  14. Environmental Influences on Forest Fire Regime in the Greater Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fires are the major disturbances in the Greater Hinggan Mountains, the only boreal forest in Northeast China. A comprehensive understanding of the fire regimes and influencing environmental parameters driving them from small to large fires is critical for effective forest fire prevention and management. Assisted with satellite imagery, topographic data, and climatic records in this region, this study examines its fire regimes in terms of ignition causes, frequencies, seasonality, and burned sizes in the period of 1980–2005. We found an upward trend for fire occurrences and burned areas and an elongated fire season over the three decades. The dates of the first fire in a year did not vary largely but those of the last fire were significantly delayed. Topographically, spring fires were prevalent throughout the entire region, while summer fires mainly occurred at higher elevations under severe drought conditions. Fall fires were mostly human-caused in areas at lower elevations with gentle terrains. An ordinal logistic regression revealed temperature and elevation were both significant factors to the fire size severity in spring and summer. Other than that, environmental impacts were different. Precipitation in the preceding year greatly influenced spring fires, while summer fires were significantly affected by wind speed, fuel moisture, and human accessibility. An important message from this study is that distinct seasonal variability and a significantly increasing number of summer and fall fires since the mid-1990s suggest a changing fire regime of the boreal forests in the study area. The observed and modeled results could provide insights on establishing a sustainable, localized forest fire prevention strategy in a seasonal manner.

  15. Modeling tree-level fuel connectivity to evaluate the effectiveness of thinning treatments for reducing crown fire potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco A. Contreras; Russell A. Parsons; Woodam Chung

    2012-01-01

    Land managers have been using fire behavior and simulation models to assist in several fire management tasks. These widely-used models use average attributes to make stand-level predictions without considering spatial variability of fuels within a stand. Consequently, as the existing models have limitations in adequately modeling crown fire initiation and propagation,...

  16. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    OECD countries. The contents of each chapter are based on the writers' knowledge on his or her national practices and on the results of the questionnaire. The emphasis in the descriptions of the national practices also reflects the information supplied by the responding countries. Fire PSA is also used in other OECD countries, but the scope of this report is limited to those countries which responded to the questionnaire. The contents of this report are as follows: Fire PSA methodology overview - Based on a review of fire risk studies performed in the contributing countries, the report addresses different methodology and applications issues. Methodology issues, treated in Chapter 2, include the treatment of physical barriers, fire detection and suppression systems and fire fighting. They also include the treatment of operator actions and dependencies (both direct and indirect) between a fire and the plant's safety systems, definition of initiating events, and screening methods. Key assumptions and the effect of plant operational state (i.e., full power vs. low power operation) are dealt with in the report as well. Fire simulation models and codes applied or available - Chapter 3 of the report identifies which fire simulation codes have been used in actual PSAs. The models and scenarios used in different codes are described. To build confidence on fire simulation models, validation against experimental results in different types of fires is necessary. Fire experiments and the pre- and post experiment calculation used for code validation as well as ongoing fire simulation code development projects are discussed. Examples of fire scenarios and typical modeling assumptions are treated and numerous references are given in Chapter 3. References for experimental case studies and related simulation models and codes used for analyzing the production and spreading of smoke are also provided. The impact of smoke and heat - The immediate consequences of fires are caused by heat

  17. The Many Elements of Traditional Fire Knowledge: Synthesis, Classification, and Aids to Cross-cultural Problem Solving in Fire-dependent Systems Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Huffman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available I examined the hypothesis that traditional social-ecological fire systems around the world include common elements of traditional fire knowledge (TFK. I defined TFK as fire-related knowledge, beliefs, and practices that have been developed and applied on specific landscapes for specific purposes by long time inhabitants. In all, 69 distinct elements of TFK were documented in 35 studies, including accounts from 27 countries on 6 continents. On all 6 continents, 21 elements (30% were recorded, and 46 elements (67% were recorded on 4 or more continents. The top 12 most commonly reported elements, which were included in > 50 % of the studies, were fire effects on vegetation; season of the year; fire effects on animals; moisture of live or dead fuels; the onset or end of rainy season, dry season, or timing of rain; burning illegal or regulated by central government; fire intensity, heat output, i.e., hot or cool fire; frequency, return interval, time since fire; fire control; firebreaks, barriers; consequences of not burning; and plant or animal phenology. Traditional fire knowledge was multifaceted: 13 studies included more than 25 elements. Practicing traditional fire management also entails understanding the ways in which multiple elements interact and influence one another. Three classification systems provide insight into TFK systems, including typologies of agro-ecological type, pre- and postindustrial anthropological fire regimes, and viability status. The longevity of traditional fire knowledge and practice faces serious threats at precisely the time when climate change promises disruptions in fire activity that will be problematic for indigenous and nonindigenous societies alike. Central governments tend to adopt the pathological response of command and control during times of fire increase, further constraining traditional fire management. The opposite is needed: to seriously engage traditional practitioners in solving fire problems of

  18. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... information. March 9, 2018 Nationally, 35 new large fires were reported. Fire activity picked up in the ...

  19. Fire work protection of equipment in coal mine 'Suvodol', MPC 'Bitola - Bitola (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panovski, Sotir; Nedelkovski, Igor

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the need, role and importance of the systems for fire prevention of the surface mine for coil 'Suvodol' at the Thermal Power Plant ' Bitola'- Bitola is presented, especially on the exploitation equipment for mining the country rock and the coil as on the other equipment in the mine. Particularly and generally will be evaluated the fire risk, the level of the needed and existing documentation and accomplishment of the fire prevention in the mine, i.e., exploitation equipment. (Author)

  20. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

    2003-09-01

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and

  1. Dioxins and polyvinylchloride in combustion and fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Jiang, Xuguang; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-07-01

    This review on polyvinylchloride (PVC) and dioxins collects, collates, and compares data from selected sources on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), or in brief dioxins, in combustion and fires. In professional spheres, the incineration of PVC as part of municipal solid waste is seldom seen as a problem, since deep flue gas cleaning is required anyhow. Conversely, with its high content of chlorine, PVC is frequently branded as a major chlorine donor and spitefully leads to substantial formation of dioxins during poorly controlled or uncontrolled combustion and open fires. Numerous still ill-documented and diverse factors of influence may affect the formation of dioxins during combustion: on the one hand PVC-compounds represent an array of materials with widely different formulations; on the other hand these may all be exposed to fires of different nature and consequences. Hence, attention should be paid to PVC with respect to the ignition and development of fires, as well as attenuating the emission of objectionable compounds, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dioxins. This review summarises available dioxin emissions data, gathers experimental and simulation studies of fires and combustion tests involving PVC, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of dioxins during PVC combustion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Japanese studies on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, N.; Yoshida, N.

    1983-01-01

    Considerations of sodium fires are very important for the design and licensing of LMFBRs. Continuing effort has been made in the study of sodium fires and their consequences since the beginning of the Japanese fast breeder reactor development program. Recent effort is mainly focussed on studies related to Monju, especially on the design and testing of primary cell liners against large sodium spills. Experimental and analytical studies on sodium fires, water release from concrete and sodium concrete reactions are conducted as a part of this study. Some extinguishing agents are also tested against sodium fires. In addition, considerable effort is being made in the development of detection systems for the small sodium leaks before a pipe rupture. This paper briefly summarizes the Japanese status of these sodium fire related activities conducted by Fast Breeder Reactor Development Project of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

  3. Forest Fires 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heat from within the Earth could be transferred to the charcoal layers above, from there onto the peat and other vegetation in the soil and finally when it comes in contact with forest litter it would develop into a natural forest fire. Ironically, in regions usually thought of as cool and wet, forest fires do occur naturally frop1 time to ...

  4. Fire research issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. McArdle; Donald N. Matthews

    1934-01-01

    This number of Forest Research Motes is primarily for the forest fire protectionist. It consists of a number of very short articles, each of which gives the essence of the results of a study made recently by this Forest Experiment Station. These so-called fire studies which are represented herein by brief fragments are all part of an organized research program, having...

  5. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus...

  6. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  7. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  8. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  9. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  10. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  11. Fire impacts on European Boreal soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Fire is an important natural disturbance in boreal ecosystems, fundamental to understand plant distribution (Ryan, 2002; Wallenius et al., 2004; Granstrom, 2001). Nevertheless, nowadays the intense and successful, fire suppression measures are changing their ecological role (Pereira et al., 2013a,b). This is consequence of the lack of understanding of stakeholders and decision makers about the role of the fire in the ecosystems (Mierasukas and Pereira, 2013; Pereira et al., 2016). This fire suppression measures are increasing the amount of fuel accumulation and the risk of severe wildfires, which can increase of frequency and severity in a context of climate change. Fire is a good tool for landscape management and restoration of degraded ecosystems (Toivanen and Kotiaho, 2007). Fire is considered a soil forming factor (Certini, 2014) and in boreal environments it has been observed that low fire severities, do not change importantly soil properties, mean fire severities induce positive impacts on soil, since add an important amounts of nutrients into soil profile and high severity fires had negative impacts due to the high consumption of organic matter (Vanha-Majamaa et al., 2007; Pereira et al., 2014). References Certini, G., 2014. Fire as a soil-forming factor. Ambio, 43, 191-195 Granstrom A. 2001. Fire management for biodiversity in the European Boreal forest. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 3: 62-69. Mierauskas, P., Pereira, P. (2013) Stakeholders perception about prescribed fire use in Lithuania. First results, Flamma, 4(3), 157-161. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Jordán, A., Bolutiene, V., Úbeda, X., Pranskevicius, M., Mataix-Solera, J. (2013) Spatio-temporal vegetation recuperation after a grassland fire in Lithuania, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 19:856-864 Pereira, P., Mierauskas, P., Ubeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J.,Cerda, A. (2012) Fire in protected areas - the effect of the protection and importance of fire management, Environmental Research

  12. FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in native format (FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE)

  13. FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in Native format (FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE)

  14. Lightning Fires in a Brazilian Savanna National Park: Rethinking Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Neto, Mário Barroso; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2000-12-01

    Fire occurrences and their sources were monitored in Emas National Park, Brazil (17°49'-18°28'S; 52°39'-53°10'W) from June 1995 to May 1999. The extent of burned area and weather conditions were registered. Forty-five fires were recorded and mapped on a GIS during this study. Four fires occurred in the dry winter season (June-August; 7,942 ha burned), all caused by humans; 10 fires occurred in the seasonally transitional months (May and September) (33,386 ha burned); 31 fires occurred in the wet season, of which 30 were caused by lightning inside the park (29,326 ha burned), and one started outside the park (866 ha burned). Wet season lightning fires started in the open vegetation (wet field or grassy savanna) at a flat plateau, an area that showed significantly higher fire incidence. On average, winter fires burned larger areas and spread more quickly, compared to lightning fires, and fire suppression was necessary to extinguish them. Most lightning fires were patchy and extinguished primarily by rain. Lightning fires in the wet season, previously considered unimportant episodes, were shown to be very frequent and probably represent the natural fire pattern in the region. Lightning fires should be regarded as ecologically beneficial, as they create natural barriers to the spread of winter fires. The present fire management in the park is based on the burning of preventive firebreaks in the dry season and exclusion of any other fire. This policy does not take advantage of the beneficial effects of the natural fire regime and may in fact reduce biodiversity. The results presented here stress the need for reevaluating present policies and management procedures concerning fire in cerrado conservation areas.

  15. 77 FR 34020 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Systems for Air Conveying of 1/4/2013. Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids. NFPA... Prevention and Control in Coal 1/4/2013. Mines. NFPA 122--2010 Standard for Fire Prevention and Control in... Process. NFPA 820--2012 Standard for Fire Protection in Wastewater 7/8/2013. Treatment and Collection...

  16. Adolescent childbearing: consequences and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedinger, Emily; Cox, Joanne E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent childbearing in the United States continues to occur at high rates compared with other industrialized nations, despite a recent decline. Adolescent mothers and their offspring are at risk for negative outcomes. Recent literature exploring the consequences of teenage childbearing and interventions to ameliorate these consequences are presented. Negative consequences of adolescent childbearing can impact mothers and their offspring throughout the lifespan. These consequences are likely attributable to social and environmental factors rather than solely to maternal age. Increasing educational attainment, preventing repeat pregnancy and improving mother-child interactions can improve outcomes for mothers and their children. Home, community, school and clinic-based programs are all viable models of service delivery to this population. Connecting teen mothers with comprehensive services to meet their social, economic, health and educational needs can potentially improve long-term outcomes for both mothers and their offspring. Programs that deliver care to this population in culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate ways have demonstrated success. Future investigation of parenting interventions with larger sample sizes and that assess multiple outcomes will allow comparison among programs. Explorations of the role of the father and coparenting are also directions for future research.

  17. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether...

  18. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  19. Using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System to assess the performance of fire management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. M.; Pereira, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    The success of fire management policies can be gauged by changes on the fire regime characteristics. Climate, vegetation (fuel) and topography determine the fire regime, and exert their influences at distinct temporal and spatial scales whose relative importance is quite debated. Climate factors are expected to prevail at the regional scale, while the local control of fire behaviour is determined by fuel and terrain. Recent modifications - 2001-2005 versus 2006-2008 - in wildfire incidence in Portugal are quantified by eliminating the noise associated to fire weather conditions. The following indicators of fire management performance are used, each reflecting a distinct fire management activity: number of fires, proportion of fires larger than 1 ha, proportion of fires larger than 100 ha, and median size of wildfires larger than 100 ha. The performance indicators calculated on a daily basis were examined as a function of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System components. Analysis of covariance was used to identify differences in performance between the two study periods, and non-linear regression analysis was employed to model performance indicators from FWI components for 2001-2005. The resulting models were then applied to 2006-2008 and the deviation between observed and predicted values was determined. Least square means (adjusted for neutral weather conditions) revealed statistically significant differences between the two periods for all indicators but the median size of wildfires > 100 ha. The remaining indicators were in 2006-2008 reduced by 21% (no. fires), 37% (proportion of fires >1 ha) and 63% (proportion of fires >100 ha) in comparison with 2001-2005. The results indicate that the combined performance of fire prevention, fire detection, first intervention and initial attack have improved after 2005. Reduction in the number of large fires is especially relevant, given their impact and weight in total burned area. However, no evidences were

  20. Spacecraft Fire Safety Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate design of fire detection systems requires knowledge of both the expected fire signature and the background aerosol levels. Terrestrial fire detection systems have been developed based on extensive study of terrestrial fires. Unfortunately there is no corresponding data set for spacecraft fires and consequently the fire detectors in current spacecraft were developed based upon terrestrial designs. In low gravity, buoyant flow is negligible which causes particles to concentrate at the smoke source, increasing their residence time, and increasing the transport time to smoke detectors. Microgravity fires have significantly different structure than those in 1-g which can change the formation history of the smoke particles. Finally the materials used in spacecraft are different from typical terrestrial environments where smoke properties have been evaluated. It is critically important to detect a fire in its early phase before a flame is established, given the fixed volume of air on any spacecraft. Consequently, the primary target for spacecraft fire detection is pyrolysis products rather than soot. Experimental investigations have been performed at three different NASA facilities which characterize smoke aerosols from overheating common spacecraft materials. The earliest effort consists of aerosol measurements in low gravity, called the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME), and subsequent ground-based testing of SAME smoke in 55-gallon drums with an aerosol reference instrument. Another set of experiments were performed at NASAs Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), with additional fuels and an alternate smoke production method. Measurements of these smoke products include mass and number concentration, and a thermal precipitator was designed for this investigation to capture particles for microscopic analysis. The final experiments presented are from NASAs Gases and Aerosols from Smoldering Polymers (GASP) Laboratory, with selected

  1. Quantitative Risk Modeling of Fire on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has worked to prevent fire events and to mitigate their impacts should they occur. Hardware is designed to reduce sources of ignition, oxygen systems are designed to control leaking, flammable materials are prevented from flying to ISS whenever possible, the crew is trained in fire response, and fire response equipment improvements are sought out and funded. Fire prevention and mitigation are a top ISS Program priority - however, programmatic resources are limited; thus, risk trades are made to ensure an adequate level of safety is maintained onboard the ISS. In support of these risk trades, the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) team has modeled the likelihood of fire occurring in the ISS pressurized cabin, a phenomenological event that has never before been probabilistically modeled in a microgravity environment. This paper will discuss the genesis of the ISS PRA fire model, its enhancement in collaboration with fire experts, and the results which have informed ISS programmatic decisions and will continue to be used throughout the life of the program.

  2. Fire in Fennoscandia: A palaeo-perspective of spatial and temporal variability in fire frequency and vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Richard; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-05-01

    Active fire suppression in Fennoscandia has created a boreal forest ecosystem that is almost free of fire. Absence of fire is thought to have contributed to the widespread dominance of Picea abies (Norway spruce), though the character and structure of spruce forests operates as a positive feedback retarding fire frequency. This lack of fire and dominance by Picea abies may have assisted declines in deciduous tree species, with a concomitant loss of floristic diversity. Forest fires are driven by a complex interplay between natural (climate, vegetation and topography) and anthropogenic disturbance and through palaeoecology we are able to explore spatio-temporal variability in the drivers of fire, changing fire dynamics and the subsequent consequences for forest succession, development and floristic diversity over long timescales. High resolution analysis of palaeoenvironmental proxies (pollen and macroscopic charcoal) allows Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics to be reconstructed at the local forest-stand scale. Comparisons of fire histories with pollen-derived quantitative reconstruction of vegetation at local- and regional-scales identify large-scale ecosystem responses and local-scale disturbance. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity and variability in biomass burning is explored to identify the drivers of fire and palaeovegetation reconstructions are compared to process-based, climate-driven dynamic vegetation model output to test the significance of fire frequency as a driver of vegetation composition and dynamics. Fire was not always so infrequent in the northern European forest with early-Holocene fire regimes driven by natural climate variations and fuel availability. The establishment and spread of Picea abies was probably driven by an increase in continentality of climate, but local natural and anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance may have aided this spread. Picea expansion led to a step-wise reduction in regional biomass burning and here we show the now

  3. Sodium fires at fast reactors: RF status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasarov, Yu.E.; Buksha, Yu.K.; Drobyshev, A.V.; Zybin, V.A.; Ivanenko, V.N.; Kardash, D.Yu.; Kulikov, E.V.; Yagodkin, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    Scientific and engineering studies carried out in Russian Federation since 1992 up to 1996 in the sodium fire area and their main results are described. A review of activities on modification of the computer codes BOX and AERO developed at IPPE for calculating sodium fire consequences is given. Results of analysis of possible accidental situations at currently designed BN-800 reactor NPP with the use of these codes are presented. Sodium leaks occurring at our domestic fast reactors are briefly analyzed. Experimental work performed are described. Results of comparative analysis of common-cause and sodium fire hazards for fast reactor NPP are presented. (author)

  4. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  5. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  6. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  7. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  8. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  9. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  10. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  11. USFA NFIRS 1999 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 1999 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  12. Progress towards a fire-safe cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, P A; McGuire, A

    1995-01-01

    About 1,000 deaths, 3,000 serious injuries, and several billion dollars in costs of property loss, health care and pain and suffering, result each year in the U.S. from fires started by dropped cigarettes. Efforts to prevent these losses have progressed from admonitory slogans to product-flammability standards to addressing the cigarette itself. Two recent federal studies have: a) concluded that it is technically feasible to produce a cigarette with a reduced likelihood of starting fires, and b) published a broadly validated method by which cigarette brands can be tested for this propensity. The long-term effort of scientists, legislators and public health activists to develop and implement a fire-safe cigarette standard also constitutes a legal liability challenge and a threat to the relative and absolute size of the cigarette market shares held by major U.S. tobacco companies.

  13. Evidence and Implications of Frequent Fires in Ancient Shrub Tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, P E; Brubaker, L B; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Kennedy, A T; Hu, F S

    2008-03-06

    Understanding feedbacks between terrestrial and atmospheric systems is vital for predicting the consequences of global change, particularly in the rapidly changing Arctic. Fire is a key process in this context, but the consequences of altered fire regimes in tundra ecosystems are rarely considered, largely because tundra fires occur infrequently on the modern landscape. We present paleoecological data that indicate frequent tundra fires in northcentral Alaska between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago. Charcoal and pollen from lake sediments reveal that ancient birchdominated shrub tundra burned as often as modern boreal forests in the region, every 144 years on average (+/- 90 s.d.; n = 44). Although paleoclimate interpretations and data from modern tundra fires suggest that increased burning was aided by low effective moisture, vegetation cover clearly played a critical role in facilitating the paleo-fires by creating an abundance of fine fuels. These records suggest that greater fire activity will likely accompany temperature-related increases in shrub-dominated tundra predicted for the 21st century and beyond. Increased tundra burning will have broad impacts on physical and biological systems as well as land-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, including the potential to release stored organic carbon to the atmosphere.

  14. Climatic consequences of nuclear war: Working Group No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.

    1985-12-01

    Research needs on the climate consequences of nuclear war were discussed. These include: (1) a better definition of the emissions from massive urban fires; (2) the exploration of prescribed forest burns; (3) the dirty cloud problem; (4) microphysical studies of soot; and (5) simulation of the second summer season after nuclear war

  15. Biological consequences of atomic explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1984-01-01

    After an introductory chapter of the development and properties of nuclear weapons and the events of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, this books shows the effects of atomic explosions for man: effects of the pressure wave, thermal radiation, initial nuclear radiation alone or in conjunction and possible medical help. In addition the less massive damage caused by induced radioactivity and fallout, their prevention resp. treatment and the malignant/nonmalignant late effects are discussed. A further chapter deals with the psychological and epidemiological effects of atomic explosions, the consequences for food and water supply, and the construction of shetters. The last chapter is concerned with the problem of organising medical help. (MG) [de

  16. Technologies of monitoring, alerting and controlling for coal fires in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Xiao, Yang; Luo, Zhen-Min; Zhang, Yan-Ni; Zheng, Xue-Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Coalfield fire has become a global disaster, especially in China, which lost a large number of coal resources every year, and caused serious destruction of ecological environment. Coalfield fire area has become urgent to solve the problem for the complex, combustion long-time, wide range, fire source hidden, and controlling difficultly in the formed evolution process. At present, surface coal fire areas prospecting technology mainly have visible light on surface, surface radar remote sensing technology, air ground integration technology. Detecting hidden fire source technology are infrared thermal imaging technology, method of radon-test. The technologies of monitoring and early warning for fire areas with ad-hoc, intelligent monitoring for infrared thermal imaging real time networks are applied. The idea of district controlling as "prevention-control-extinguishing" is established and in-site applications, which the technologies and equipment of fire prevention and extinguishment include the inorganic filling plugging, liquid carbon dioxide, and series of colloidal materials.

  17. Thermal response of fusion reactor containment to lithium fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, D.A.; Kazimi, M.S.; Lidsky, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    The lithium pool combustion model LITFIRE was used to study the consequences of lithium fire within fusion reactor containments. Calculations based on the UWMAK-III design show that without any special fire protection measures, the containment may reach over-pressures of up to 2.2 atm when one coolant loop is spilled inside the reactor building. Temperatures as high as 1100 0 C would also be experienced by some of the containment structures. These consequences were found to diminish greatly by the incorporation of a number of design strategies including initially subatmospheric containment pressures, initially low oxygen concentrations, and active post-accident cooling of the containment gas. Compartmentalization of the containment, as in the EBTR design, was found to limit the consequences of lithium fire and hence offers a potential safety advantage

  18. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  19. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  20. Mapping landscape fire frequency for fire regime condition class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale A. Hamilton; Wendel J. Hann

    2015-01-01

    Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) is a departure index that compares the current amounts of the different vegetation succession classes, fire frequency, and fire severity to historic reference conditions. FRCC assessments have been widely used for evaluating ecosystem status in many areas of the U.S. in reports such as land use plans, fire management plans, project...

  1. Accident consequence analysis models applied to licensing process of nuclear installations, radioactive and conventional industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, Murillo; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Jordao, Elizabete

    2002-01-01

    The industrial accidents happened in the last years, particularly in the eighty's decade, had contributed in a significant way to call the attention to government authorities, industry and society as a whole, demanding mechanisms for preventing episodes that could affect people's safety and environment quality. Techniques and methods already thoroughly used in the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries were then adapted for performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. Some models for analyzing the consequences of accidents involving fire and explosion, used in the licensing processes of nuclear and radioactive facilities, are presented in this paper. These models have also application in the licensing of conventional industrial facilities. (author)

  2. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  3. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  4. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256

  5. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  6. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  7. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  8. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  9. Performance based investigations of structural systems under fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Crosti, Chiara; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Prescriptive measures and procedures developed over the past here are mostly aimed at preventing structural failures of single elements for the time required for the evacuation. The response to fire and fire effects of the structural system as a whole remains often unknown and the survival of the...... structures are presented and discussed, with particular attention to methodological aspects. The effects of different assumptions in the modeling and in the definition of the collapse are highlighted, as critical aspects of a performance-based investigation....... these kinds of events, the mitigation of possible collapse induced by fire should be achieved. In this respect, a performance-based investigation of the structure aimed at highlight fire effects and fire-induced collapse mechanisms becomes of interest. In the paper collapse mechanisms of some simple...

  10. East bay fire chiefs' consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to planning for public fire protection has been based on independent actions by each fire department or district. The county fire chiefs’ associations, while providing interagency communication, were not adequate to deal with the regional nature of the wildland urban interface problem. The formation of the East Bay Fire Chiefs’ Consortium grew...

  11. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  12. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  13. Wildland fire management and air quality in the southern Sierra Nevada: using the Lion Fire as a case study with a multi-year perspective on PM(2.5) impacts and fire policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    allow additional burning in an area with severe anthropogenic air pollution and where frequent widespread fire is both beneficial and inevitable. The more extensive air quality impacts documented with large high intensity fire may be averted by embracing the use of fire to prevent unwanted high intensity burns. A widespread increase in the use of fire for ecological benefit may provide the resiliency needed in Sierra Nevada forests as well as be the most beneficial to public health through the reduction of single dose exposure to smoke and limiting impacts spatially. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF FIRE DANGER INDICES IN FOREST FIRE PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe Tamiozzo Pereira Torres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite the existence of different fire danger indices, the use of an inefficient index can lead to making wrong decisions on the appropriate procedures for preventing and fighting forest fires, while a trusted prediction index can help the most quantification and allocation of resources for prevention. Thereat, the objective of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Fire Weather Index (FWI, Logarithmic of Telicyn Index, Nesterov Index, cumulative indexes of precipitation - evaporation (P-EVAP and evaporation / precipitation (EVAP/P, Monte Alegre Index (FMA and Monte Alegre Changed Index (FMA+ in the prediction of forest fires for the city of Viçosa (MG. The indices were compared using the method known as Skill Score (SS taking into account the days that the indexes pointed to the risk of events with focus fire identified by satellite images on the 01/01/2005 to 31/12/2014 period. According to the results, the Logarithm of Telicyn Index (0.53257 as the most efficient for the study area, followed by the indices EVAP/P (0.46553, P-EVAP (0.43724, Nesterov (0.40445, FWI (0.39213, FMA+(0.34595 and FMA (0.28982.

  15. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  16. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  17. OR fire virtual training simulator: design and face validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Denis; Olasky, Jaisa; Jones, Daniel B; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Jones, Stephanie B; Cao, Caroline G L; Molina, Marcos; Henriques, Steven; Wang, Jinling; Flinn, Jeff; De, Suvranu

    2017-09-01

    The Virtual Electrosurgical Skill Trainer is a tool for training surgeons the safe operation of electrosurgery tools in both open and minimally invasive surgery. This training includes a dedicated team-training module that focuses on operating room (OR) fire prevention and response. The module was developed to allow trainees, practicing surgeons, anesthesiologist, and nurses to interact with a virtual OR environment, which includes anesthesia apparatus, electrosurgical equipment, a virtual patient, and a fire extinguisher. Wearing a head-mounted display, participants must correctly identify the "fire triangle" elements and then successfully contain an OR fire. Within these virtual reality scenarios, trainees learn to react appropriately to the simulated emergency. A study targeted at establishing the face validity of the virtual OR fire simulator was undertaken at the 2015 Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons conference. Forty-nine subjects with varying experience participated in this Institutional Review Board-approved study. The subjects were asked to complete the OR fire training/prevention sequence in the VEST simulator. Subjects were then asked to answer a subjective preference questionnaire consisting of sixteen questions, focused on the usefulness and fidelity of the simulator. On a 5-point scale, 12 of 13 questions were rated at a mean of 3 or greater (92%). Five questions were rated above 4 (38%), particularly those focusing on the simulator effectiveness and its usefulness in OR fire safety training. A total of 33 of the 49 participants (67%) chose the virtual OR fire trainer over the traditional training methods such as a textbook or an animal model. Training for OR fire emergencies in fully immersive VR environments, such as the VEST trainer, may be the ideal training modality. The face validity of the OR fire training module of the VEST simulator was successfully established on many aspects of the simulation.

  18. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  19. RETRO_FIRES_WCS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  20. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  1. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  2. Fire Mapper, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  3. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  4. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  5. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harvey became 'a landmark in the evolution of drone usage.' Learn more in NFPA Journal Storm stats ... YouTube GooglePlus Blogger Pinterest RSSFeeds Instagram Terms of Use Privacy Policy © National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2017

  6. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  7. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  8. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  9. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  10. Extreme Fire Severity Patterns in Topographic, Convective and Wind-Driven Historical Wildfires of Mediterranean Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecina-Diaz, Judit; Alvarez, Albert; Retana, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1) determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together) and (2) ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires). The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires) showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn as extreme

  11. Extreme fire severity patterns in topographic, convective and wind-driven historical wildfires of Mediterranean pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecina-Diaz, Judit; Alvarez, Albert; Retana, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1) determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together) and (2) ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires). The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires) showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn as extreme

  12. Aircraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    fabrics of seats, carpets, drapes, lap robes, and sound deadening insulation. Also of concern are the polymeric based plastics used in interior walls...intumescent paints and foams is considered to be feasible; cabin transparencies with improved fire resistance and structure integrity over thermoformed...aircraft fire safety as well as provide a sound basis for further : long-term imp-ovem nts in new aircraft. REFERENCES 1. Final Report of the Special

  13. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  14. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  15. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  16. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    that was carried out in order to give general recommendations with respect to the development of pre-incident plans at the Swedish nuclear power plants for fire fighting in electrical switch rooms. The general recommendations are attached to the main report. Pre-incident plans gives the control room personnel and the fire fighting staff a powerful tool in order to fight fires and respond to other types of accidents. Pre-incident plans are the foundation on which decisions should be made by the control room chief and the chief fire officer, although it is not possible to predict all types of accidents. Pre-incident planning is also important in order to provide staff education and training. The overall aim of the project has been to give general pre-incident planning recommendations with respect to electrical switch room fires, to determine and establish an appropriate delegation order and clarify the overall responsibility of the fire fighting operation as well as the operation of the plant before, during and after an incident. To clarify the appropriate fire fighting tactics and to give recommendations on the type of extinguishing media based on the risk and consequence of a fire with respect to smoke, radiation, chlorides etc. with respect to the extinguishing media. The results presented in this report should also be used as a base for yearly staff training, both control room personnel and fire fighters. The main project results are summarized below: - The current pre-incident plans at the plants differ in various ways. - A lack of education with respect to the topic of this project has been identified. - The chief fire officer is, by law, highest in rank at the fire scene and is responsible for the operations during the incident. The control room chief is responsible for the safe operation of the plant. Two important questions have been answered in this research project in collaboration between the parties concerned and the Nuclear Power Plants: 1 . The Chief Fire

  17. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  18. Optimization of fire protection measures and quality controls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenig, H.; Holtschmidt, H.; Liemersdorf, H.; Suetterlin, L.; Dobbernack, R.; Hahn, C.; Hosser, D.; Kordina, K.; Schneider, U.; Sprey, W.; Wesche, H.

    1985-09-01

    This study presents theoretical and experimental investigations on the evaluation of fire hazards and the optimization of fire protection measures in German nuclear power plants. Differences between the method presented here and the US ''Fire Hazard Analysis'' result from the inclusion of the stringent redundancy concept of German nuclear power plants and the emphasis placed on passive structural fire protection measures. The method includes a time-dependent quantification of fire-specific event sequences. Fire occurrence frequencies and the reliabilities of active fire protection measures were derived from German experiences and literature abroad. The reliability data of passive fire protection measures were obtained by an evaluation of experiments and probabilistic analyses. For the calculation of fire sequences fundamental experiments were taken into consideration. For the quantification of the time-dependent event trees a methodology was applied which permits an evaluation of the influence of the individual measures. The consequences of fire were investigated for ten fire events identified as decisive, and the fire sequence paths important in terms of safety were quantified. Their annual frequencies are within a range of 10 -3 to 8.10 -6 . (orig./HP) [de

  19. Diesel generator fire protection: getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, Hans; Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich)

    1986-01-01

    A wide range of different approaches to the fire protection of diesel generators can be found in nuclear power plants around the world. In some cases there is too little protection. In others there is far too much, such that fire prevention has been overemphasised at the expense of diesel generator operability and overall nuclear safety. A risk assessment check list developed in Switzerland could help to achieve the right balance. (author)

  20. Manual of protection against fires in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, J.

    2000-01-01

    International regulations enforce the existence of a document called manual of protection against fires in nuclear power plants but without specifying what this document must involve. This article presents a proposition for a definition of this manual that has been made by Spanish nuclear safety authorities. This manual should deal with all means, methods and information that can be useful for the prevention, the detection, the fight of fires and staff training