WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention cdc developed

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not use the device. Include warning statements in marketing materials about the risk of using the device. ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.16 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  2. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  3. CDC Vital Signs–Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    This podcast is based on the September 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Each year, more than 140,000 people die and many survivors face disability. Eighty percent of strokes are preventable. Learn the signs of stroke and how to prevent them.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0:60 seconds] On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Teenage Pregnancy MedlinePlus – Birth Control The Doctor’s Channel: CDC Vital Signs Long Acting Reversible Contraception [VIDEO – 3:30 minutes] Top of Page Get Email Updates To receive ... USA.gov TOP

  5. CDC Climat - 2011 Sustainable Development Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    CDC Climat is the Caisse des Depots (CDC) subsidiary that is dedicated to combating climate change. Its activities aim to support the transition towards a low resource and low greenhouse gas emission (GHG) economy, through services that are cutting-edge, pro table, and in line with CDC's public policy goals. Through its corporate purpose, CDC Climat embodies the CDC's commitments in the sustainable development field. CDC Climat supports the implementation of public GHG emission reduction policies, primarily through emission trading schemes at the European and international level. Since it was founded in 2010, and throughout 2011, its strategic priorities have consisted in: - developing a long-term policy for investing in carbon credits generated by environmental initiatives, as part of the project mechanisms set up by the Kyoto Protocol, and used in the European Emission Trading Scheme; - supporting the development of its investments in carbon finance operators, like BlueNext, the European carbon exchange, for instance; - broadening the scope of its research into climate economics, which is supported by CDC and available to everyone, in order to serve the public and private players concerned. Its teams have supported French and European governments, international organisations and the United Nations, and various NGOs in their work and thinking on the future of tools for combating climate change. They have specifically contributed reports based on their research and operational feedback. When it was founded, CDC Climat was closely linked to public policies aimed at combating climate change via allowance and carbon trading mechanisms. The difficulties encountered by international negotiations, together with the effects of the economic and financial downturn in Europe, have resulted in a very pronounced fall in the price of carbon assets on these markets since the summer of 2011, with no prospect of recovery for several years. This environment is calling some of the

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Radiation Hazard Scale Data Product Review Feedback Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alai, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    In support of the Department of Energy (DOE) National nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) assisted in the development of new data templates for disseminating and communicating FRMAC1 data products using the CDC Radiation Hazard Scale communication tool. To ensure these data products will be useful to stakeholders during a radiological emergency, LLNL facilitated opportunities for product socialization and review.

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  9. CDC Vital Signs-Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This podcast is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  10. 75 FR 62844 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... CDC. Matters to be Discussed: The ACD, CDC will receive updates from the Global Workgroup; State... for More Information: Carmen Villar, M.S.W., Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road...

  11. Cdc7 kinase - a new target for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan; Mahalingam, Devalingam; O'Dwyer, Michael; Santocanale, Corrado; Kelly, Kevin; Carew, Jennifer; Giles, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The cell division cycle 7 (Cdc7) is a serine threonine kinase that is of critical importance in the regulation of normal cell cycle progression. Cdc7 kinase is highly conserved during evolution and much has been learned about its biological roles in humans through the study of lower eukaryotes, particularly yeasts. Two important regulator proteins, Dbf4 and Drf1, bind to and modulate the kinase activity of human Cdc7 which phosphorylates several sites on Mcm2 (minichromosome maintenance protein 2), one of the six subunits of the replicative DNA helicase needed for duplication of the genome. Through regulation of both DNA synthesis and DNA damage response, both key functions in the survival of tumour cells, Cdc7 becomes an attractive target for pharmacological inhibition. There are much data available on the pre-clinical anti-cancer effects of Cdc7 depletion and although there are no available Cdc7 inhibitors in clinical trials as yet, several lead compounds are being optimised for this purpose. In this review, we will address the current status of Cdc7 as an important target for new drug development.

  12. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nurses could use this opportunity to discuss advantages and disadvantages of different contraceptive methods and the ... Director for Communications (OADC) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  14. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Pamela; Redding, Colleen A; Raja, Sheela; Newton, Tamara; Beharie, Nisha; Printz, Destiny

    2018-02-21

    The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership.

  15. 77 FR 19018 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 61 (Thursday, March 29, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 19018] [FR Doc No: 2012-7551] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance...

  16. 78 FR 60876 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...

  17. 78 FR 64503 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cancellation: This notice was published in the Federal...

  18. 78 FR 18602 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...

  19. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...

  20. 75 FR 7483 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES); Correction AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting; meeting...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  2. 77 FR 58847 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... Person for More Information: Carmen Villar, MSW, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road...

  3. 76 FR 20354 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD.... Contact Person for More Information: Carmen Villar, MSW, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600...

  4. 75 FR 7606 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... Information: Anne C. Haddix, PhD, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S D14...

  5. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  6. 77 FR 23733 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In... and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS and other STDs. Matters To Be...

  7. 75 FR 39264 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In... and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS and other STDs. Matters To Be...

  8. Make a Difference at Your School! CDC Resources Can Help You Implement Strategies to Prevent Obesity Among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews scientific evidence to determine which school-based policies and practices are most likely to improve key health behaviors among young people, including physical activity and healthy eating. In this document, the CDC identifies ten strategies to help schools prevent obesity by promoting…

  9. 75 FR 4830 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES..., CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs...

  10. Norovirus Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    If you’re suffering from vomiting and diarrhea, you might be among the millions of Americans who get sick from norovirus each year. In this podcast, Dr. Aron Hall discusses ways to prevent norovirus outbreaks from contaminated food.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  11. Preventing Pneumonia (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-09

    Pneumonia is a lung infection that can result in severe illness and even death. Common symptoms include cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Farrar discusses ways to prevent pneumonia.  Created: 11/9/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/9/2017.

  12. Norovirus Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    Nearly one in 15 people in the U.S. gets sick from norovirus each year and up to 800 die. This podcast discusses the importance of hand washing, and other ways to prevent the spread of noroviruses.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  13. Stroke Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-29

    Worldwide, strokes are the second leading cause of death among people over 60, and they are among the leading causes of disability. In the U.S., nearly 800,000 people suffer a stroke each year. In this podcast, Dr. Sallyann King discusses ways to prevent strokes.  Created: 10/29/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/29/2014.

  14. CDC international HIV prevention research activities among injection drug users in Thailand and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alan E; Tappero, Jordan; Choopanya, Kachit; van Griensven, Frits; Martin, Mike; Vanichseni, Suphak; Santibanez, Scott; Molotilov, Valerie; Hader, Shannon; Broyles, Laura N

    2005-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has participated in collaborative HIV prevention research activities in injection drug users (IDUs) with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) in Bangkok, Thailand, from 1995 to the present and with the Orel AIDS Center in Orel Oblast, Russia, from 2001 to 2003. Studies in Bangkok have included an HIV prevention trial preparatory cohort from 1995 to 1998, a seroconverter cohort from 1998 to the present, a phase III trial of the AIDSVAX B/E gp120 HIV vaccine from 1999 to 2003, and a phase II/III HIV prophylaxis trial with tenofovir scheduled to begin in 2005. Activities in Orel included a review of HIV surveillance data in 2001, focus group discussions and a case-control study with HIV-infected and -uninfected IDUs in 2001, a cross-sectional study with the female sex partners of male IDUs in 2002, and a community outreach intervention in 2002-2003. In Bangkok, 1,209 IDUs were enrolled in the preparatory cohort which revealed an HIV incidence of 5.8% per 100 person-years; 133 HIV-infected IDUs have been followed in the seroconverter cohort with >85% follow-up and HIV and tuberculosis care provided; 2,546 IDUs were enrolled in the HIV vaccine efficacy trial which was successfully completed with a follow-up rate of >95%, although the vaccine was not shown to be effective at reducing HIV incidence; and 1,600 IDUs will be enrolled in the daily tenofovir HIV prophylaxis trial in 2005. In Orel, initial focus group discussions and epidemiologic studies revealed low HIV knowledge and high rates of unsafe injecting and sexual practices among IDUs and their female sex partners; and educational campaigns and the community outreach intervention were developed and implemented. A steady decline in new HIV infections in IDUs was then observed in Orel in 2002-2003. CDC has participated in the conduct of successful collaborative HIV prevention research activities in Thailand and Russia over the past decade. The

  15. 77 FR 76046 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... subcommittee will provide advice to the CDC Director through the ACD on strategic and other broad issues facing... More Information: Leandris Liburd, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.A., Designated Federal Officer, HDS, ACD, CDC, 1600...

  16. 75 FR 61505 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... to the ACD on strategic and other broad issues facing CDC. Matters To Be Discussed: Policy brief on..., ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S E-67, Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Telephone (404) 498-2310, E- mail...

  17. 77 FR 34046 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs... ethics standards to the accreditation process for public health departments; ethical considerations...

  18. 75 FR 72831 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from... strategy for addressing its charge to provide a preliminary overview to the ACD on ethical issues related...

  19. 77 FR 2549 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and... territorial health departments in their efforts to address public health ethics challenges, approaches for...

  20. 76 FR 29755 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs, scientists and practitioners... April 28, 2011, ACD, CDC meeting; discussion of next steps on addressing potential public health ethical...

  1. 75 FR 57044 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and...; efforts to support state, tribal, local and territorial health departments address ethical issues in the...

  2. 76 FR 55678 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues... in their efforts to address public health ethics challenges. The agenda is subject to change as...

  3. CDC Vital Signs–Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    This podcast is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  4. Prevention and control of tuberculosis in correctional and detention facilities: recommendations from the CDC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available roles of shared responsibility. The recommendations in this report can assist officials of federal, state, and local correctional facilities in preventing trans- mission of TB and controlling TB among inmates and facility employees. The target...-care professionals. The report is intended to assist policymakers in reaching informed decisions regarding the pre- vention and control of TB in correctional facilities. Methods To update the existing guidelines, with assistance from ACET, CDC organized...

  5. CDC Kerala 1: Organization of clinical child development services (1987-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; George, Babu; Nair, G S Harikumaran; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of establishing the Child Development Centre (CDC), Kerala for piloting comprehensive child adolescent development program in India, has been to understand the conceptualization, design and scaling up of a pro-active positive child development initiative, easily replicable all over India. The process of establishing the Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala for research, clinical services, training and community extension services over the last 25 y, has been as follows; Step 1: Conceptualization--The life cycle approach to child development; Step 2: Research basis--CDC model early stimulation is effective; Step 3: Development and validation of seven simple developmental screening tools; Step 4: CDC Diagnostic services--Ultrasonology and genetic, and metabolic laboratory; Step 5: Developing seven intervention packages; Step 6: Training--Post graduate diploma in clinical child development; Step 7: CDC Clinic Services--seven major ones; Step 8: CDC Community Services--Child development referral units; Step 9: Community service delivery models--Childhood disability and for adolescent care counselling projects; Step 10: National capacity building--Four child development related courses. CDC Kerala follow-up and clinic services are offered till 18 y of age and premarital counselling till 24 y of age as shown in "CDC Kerala Clinic Services Flow Chart" and 74,291 children have availed CDC clinic services in the last 10 y. CDC Kerala is the first model for comprehensive child adolescent development services using a lifecycle approach in the Government sector and hence declared as the collaborative centre for Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK), in Kerala.

  6. Rho GTPase protein Cdc42 is critical for postnatal cartilage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahama, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi, E-mail: yamadaa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Junichi [Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, Ryo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Dai [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Kassai, Hidetoshi [Laboratory of Animal Resources, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, Kenji [Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Aiba, Atsu [Laboratory of Animal Resources, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-19

    Cdc42, a small Rho GTPase family member, has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions in vitro, including actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and gene expression. However, its tissue-specific roles in vivo remain largely unknown, especially in postnatal cartilage development, as cartilage-specific Cdc42 inactivated mice die within a few days after birth. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of Cdc42 during cartilage development after birth using tamoxifen-induced cartilage-specific inactivated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42 {sup fl/fl}; Col2-CreERT) mice, which were generated by crossing Cdc42 flox mice (Cdc42 {sup fl/fl}) with tamoxifen-induced type II collagen (Col2) Cre transgenic mice using a Cre/loxP system. The gross morphology of the Cdc42 cKO mice was shorter limbs and body, as well as reduced body weight as compared with the controls. In addition, severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes of the long bones, characterized by a shorter proliferating zone (PZ), wider hypertrophic zone (HZ), and loss of columnar organization of proliferating chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with abnormal bone growth. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Cdc42 for cartilage development during both embryonic and postnatal stages. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen-induced cartilage specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice were generated. • Cdc42 mutant mice were shorter limbs and body. • Severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes.

  7. Rho GTPase protein Cdc42 is critical for postnatal cartilage development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Ryo; Yamada, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junichi; Aizawa, Ryo; Suzuki, Dai; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Mishima, Kenji; Aiba, Atsu; Maki, Koutaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Cdc42, a small Rho GTPase family member, has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions in vitro, including actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and gene expression. However, its tissue-specific roles in vivo remain largely unknown, especially in postnatal cartilage development, as cartilage-specific Cdc42 inactivated mice die within a few days after birth. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of Cdc42 during cartilage development after birth using tamoxifen-induced cartilage-specific inactivated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42  fl/fl ; Col2-CreERT) mice, which were generated by crossing Cdc42 flox mice (Cdc42  fl/fl ) with tamoxifen-induced type II collagen (Col2) Cre transgenic mice using a Cre/loxP system. The gross morphology of the Cdc42 cKO mice was shorter limbs and body, as well as reduced body weight as compared with the controls. In addition, severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes of the long bones, characterized by a shorter proliferating zone (PZ), wider hypertrophic zone (HZ), and loss of columnar organization of proliferating chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with abnormal bone growth. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Cdc42 for cartilage development during both embryonic and postnatal stages. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen-induced cartilage specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice were generated. • Cdc42 mutant mice were shorter limbs and body. • Severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes.

  8. 76 FR 22708 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee..., regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health...

  9. 75 FR 78997 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee... and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and...

  10. CDC's Prevention Status Reports: Monitoring the Status of Public Health Policies and Practices for Improved Performance and Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea C; Lowry, Garry; Mumford, Karen; Graaf, Christine

    Increasing the adoption and implementation of evidence-based policies and practices is a key strategy for improving public health. Although there is widespread agreement about the importance of implementing evidence-based public health policies and practices, there are gaps between what has been shown to be effective and what is implemented at the state level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Prevention Status Reports (PSRs), a performance measurement system, to highlight evidence-based public health policies and practices and catalyze state performance and quality improvement efforts across the nation. CDC selected a set of 10 topics representing some of the most important public health challenges in the nation. Stakeholders, including state health departments and other partners, helped conceptualize the PSRs and informed the development of the PSR framework, which provides an organizational structure for the system. CDC subject matter experts developed criteria for selecting policies and practices, indicators for each policy and practice, and a criteria-based rating system for each indicator. The PSRs were developed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The PSRs were developed and serve as a performance measurement system for monitoring the adoption, reach, and implementation fidelity of evidence-based public health policies and practices nationwide. The PSRs include 33 policy and practice indicators across the 10 health topics. They use a simple 3-level rating system-green, yellow, and red-to report the extent to which each state (and the District of Columbia) has implemented the policy or practice in accordance with supporting evidence or expert recommendations. Results from aggregate analyses show positive change or improvement. The PSRs are a unique part of CDC's work to improve the performance and accountability of the public health system, serving as both a monitoring tool and a call to action to improve health

  11. 75 FR 53703 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 169 (Wednesday, September 1, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 53703] [FR Doc No: 2010-21803] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health...

  12. 76 FR 57744 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on September 8, 2011, Volume 76, Number 174...

  13. 78 FR 64221 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of Meeting In... given of the following virtual committee meeting. Name: CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment Dates and Times: November 13, 2013, 10:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m. November...

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc42p GTPase Is Involved in Preventing the Recurrence of Bud Emergence during the Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Tamara J.; Johnson, Douglas I.

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc42p GTPase interacts with multiple regulators and downstream effectors through an ∼25-amino-acid effector domain. Four effector domain mutations, Y32K, F37A, D38E, and Y40C, were introduced into Cdc42p and characterized for their effects on these interactions. Each mutant protein showed differential interactions with a number of downstream effectors and regulators and various levels of functionality. Specifically, Cdc42D38Ep showed reduced interactions with the Cla4p p21-activated protein kinase and the Bem3p GTPase-activating protein and cdc42D38E was the only mutant allele able to complement the Δcdc42 null mutant. However, the mutant protein was only partially functional, as indicated by a temperature-dependent multibudded phenotype seen in conjunction with defects in both septin ring localization and activation of the Swe1p-dependent morphogenetic checkpoint. Further analysis of this mutant suggested that the multiple buds emerged consecutively with a premature termination of bud enlargement preceding the appearance of the next bud. Cortical actin, the septin ring, Cla4p-green fluorescent protein (GFP), and GFP-Cdc24p all predominantly localized to one bud at a time per multibudded cell. These data suggest that Cdc42D38Ep triggers a morphogenetic defect post-bud emergence, leading to cessation of bud growth and reorganization of the budding machinery to another random budding site, indicating that Cdc42p is involved in prevention of the initiation of supernumerary buds during the cell cycle. PMID:11046150

  15. CDC Signos Vitales-La prevención del melanoma (Preventing Melanoma)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. El cáncer de piel es el tipo de cáncer más común en los Estados Unidos. En el 2011, hubo más de 65 000 casos de melanoma, el tipo de cáncer de piel más mortal. Sepa cómo todos pueden ayudar a prevenir el cáncer de piel.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  16. CDC Signos Vitales-Una pastilla diaria puede prevenir el VIH (Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    Este podcast se basa en la edición del 24 de noviembre del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. La profilaxis prexposición, o PrEP, es un medicamento diario que se puede usar para prevenir contraer el VIH. La PrEP es para las personas que no tienen el VIH, pero que están en alto riesgo de contraerlo mediante las relaciones sexuales o el consumo de drogas inyectables. Desafortunadamente, muchas de las personas que se pueden beneficiar de la PrEP no la están tomando.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  17. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... Director through the ACD on strategic and other health disparities and health equity issues and provide...., Designated Federal Officer, HDS, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-67, Atlanta, Georgia 30333...

  18. 76 FR 3909 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES..., regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs, scientists and... submitted on the ethical considerations document for the allocation of ventilators during a severe pandemic...

  19. 78 FR 32392 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... care setting and integrating STD screening and treatment services in HIV care settings); (2) The test... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92...

  20. Cooperation of Rho family proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 in cartilage development and calcified tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Mikiko; Yamada, Atsushi; Fujita, Koji; Yoshida, Yuko; Kato, Tadashi; Sakashita, Akiko; Ogata, Hiroaki; Iijima, Takehiko; Kuroda, Masahiko; Chikazu, Daichi; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2018-04-20

    Rac1 and Cdc42, Rho family low molecular weight G proteins, are intracellular signaling factors that transmit various information from outside to inside cells. Primarily, they are known to control various biological activities mediated by actin cytoskeleton reorganization, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In order to investigate the functions of Rac1 and Cdc42 in bone formation, we prepared cartilage-specific double conditional knockout mice, Rac1 fl/fl ; Cdc42 fl/fl ; Col2-Cre (Rac1: Cdc42 dcKO mice), which died just after birth, similar to Cdc42 fl/fl ; Col2-Cre mice (Cdc42 cKO mice). Our findings showed that the long tubule bone in Rac1: Cdc42 dcKO mice was shorter than that in Rac1 fl/fl ; Col2-Cre mice (Rac1 cKO mice) and Cdc42 cKO mice. Abnormal skeleton formation was also observed and disordered columnar formation in the growth plate of the Rac1: Cdc42 dcKO mice was more severe as compared to the Rac1 cKO and Cdc42 cKO mice. Together, these results suggest that Rac1 and Cdc42 have cooperating roles in regulation of bone development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cdc42 regulates epithelial cell polarity and cytoskeletal function during kidney tubule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Bertha C; Das, Amrita; Parekh, Diptiben V

    2015-01-01

    and maintenance, its exact molecular function in kidney development is not well understood. In this study, we define the specific role of Cdc42 during murine kidney epithelial tubulogenesis by deleting it selectively at the initiation of ureteric bud or metanephric mesenchyme development. Deletion in either...

  2. Engineering and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, G Scott; Reed, Laurence D; Conover, D; Estill, C; Gjessing, C; Gressel, M; Hall, R; Hudock, S; Hudson, H; Kardous, C; Sheehy, J; Topmiller, J; Trout, D; Woebkenberg, M; Amendola, A; Hsiao, H; Keane, P; Weissman, D; Finfinger, G; Tadolini, S; Thimons, E; Cullen, E; Jenkins, M; McKibbin, R; Conway, G; Husberg, B; Lincoln, J; Rodenbeck, S; Lantagne, D; Cardarelli, J

    2006-12-22

    Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. Using imagination, judgment, and reasoning to apply science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience, engineers develop the design, production, and operation of useful objects or processes. During the 1940s, engineers dominated the ranks of CDC scientists. In fact, the first CDC director, Assistant Surgeon General Mark Hollis, was an engineer. CDC engineers were involved in malaria control through the elimination of standing water. Eventually the CDC mission expanded to include prevention and control of dengue, typhus, and other communicable diseases. The development of chlorination, water filtration, and sewage treatment were crucial to preventing waterborne illness. Beginning in the 1950s, CDC engineers began their work to improve public health while developing the fields of environmental health, industrial hygiene, and control of air pollution. Engineering disciplines represented at CDC today include biomedical, civil, chemical, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mining, and safety engineering. Most CDC engineers are located in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Engineering research at CDC has a broad stakeholder base. With the cooperation of industry, labor, trade associations, and other stakeholders and partners, current work includes studies of air contaminants, mining, safety, physical agents, ergonomics, and environmental hazards. Engineering solutions remain a cornerstone of the traditional "hierarchy of controls" approach to reducing public health hazards.

  3. Use of the CDC autocidal gravid ovitrap to control and prevent outbreaks of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Veronica; Caban, Belkis; Felix, Gilberto; Mackay, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Populations ofAedes aegypti (L.) can be managed through reductions in adult mosquito survival, number of offspring produced, or both. Direct adult mortality can be caused by the use of space sprays or residual insecticides to mosquito resting sites, and with a variety of residual insecticide-impregnated surfaces that are being tested, such as curtains, covers for water-storage vessels, bednets, and ovitraps. The fertility ofAe. aegypti populations can be reduced by the use of autocidal oviposition cups that prevent the development of mosquitoes inside the trap by mechanical means or larvicides, as well as by releasing sterile, transgenic, and para-transgenic mosquitoes. Survival and fertility can be simultaneously reduced by capturing gravid female Ae. aegypti with sticky gravid traps. We tested the effectiveness of the novel Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitrap (CDC-AGO trap) to control natural populations ofAe. aegypti under field conditions in two isolated urban areas (reference vs. intervention areas) in southern Puerto Rico for 1 yr. There were significant reductions in the captures of female Ae. aegypti (53-70%) in the intervention area The presence of three to four AGO control traps per home in 81% of the houses prevented outbreaks of Ae. aegypti, which would be expected after rains. Mosquito captures in BG-Sentinel and AGO traps were significantly and positively correlated, showing that AGO traps are useful and inexpensive mosquito surveillance devices. The use of AGO traps to manage Ae. aegypti populations is compatible with other control means such as source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding, sterile insect techniques, induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, and dominant lethal gene systems.

  4. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  5. Redundant and nonredundant roles for Cdc42 and Rac1 in lymphomas developed in NPM-ALK transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhari, Ramesh; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Menotti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Rho family GTPases could have a critical role in the biology of T-cell lymphoma. In ALK-rearranged anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a specific subtype of T-cell lymphoma, the Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 are activated by the ALK oncogenic activity....... In vitro studies have shown that Cdc42 and Rac1 control rather similar phenotypes of ALCL biology such as the proliferation, survival, and migration of lymphoma cells. However, their role and possible redundancy in ALK-driven lymphoma development in vivo are still undetermined. We genetically deleted Cdc42...... or Rac1 in a mouse model of ALK-rearranged ALCL to show that either Cdc42 or Rac1 deletion impaired lymphoma development, modified lymphoma morphology, actin filament distribution, and migration properties of lymphoma cells. Cdc42 or Rac1 deletion primarily affected survival rather than proliferation...

  6. NUP98 fusion oncoproteins interact with the APC/C(Cdc20) as a pseudosubstrate and prevent mitotic checkpoint complex binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsi, Valentina; Fantini, Sebastian; Zappavigna, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    NUP98 is a recurrent partner gene in translocations causing acute myeloid leukemias and myelodisplastic syndrome. The expression of NUP98 fusion oncoproteins has been shown to induce mitotic spindle defects and chromosome missegregation, which correlate with the capability of NUP98 fusions to cause mitotic checkpoint attenuation. We show that NUP98 oncoproteins physically interact with the APC/C(Cdc20) in the absence of the NUP98 partner protein RAE1, and prevent the binding of the mitotic checkpoint complex to the APC/C(Cdc20). NUP98 oncoproteins require the GLEBS-like domain present in their NUP98 moiety to bind the APC/C(Cdc20). We found that NUP98 wild-type is a substrate of APC/C(Cdc20) prior to mitotic entry, and that its binding to APC/C(Cdc20) is controlled via phosphorylation of a PEST sequence located within its C-terminal portion. We identify S606, within the PEST sequence, as a key target site, whose phosphorylation modulates the capability of NUP98 to interact with APC/C(Cdc20). We finally provide evidence for an involvement of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase PIN1 in modulating the possible conformational changes within NUP98 that lead to its dissociation from the APC/C(Cdc20) during mitosis. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the aberrant capability of NUP98 oncoproteins to interact with APC/C(Cdc20) and to interfere with its function.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life (CDC HRQOL items in adults with arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeVellis Robert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL is important in arthritis and the SF-36v2 is the current state-of-the-art. It is only emerging how well the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HRQOL measures HRQOL for people with arthritis. This study's purpose is to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item CDC HRQOL (4-item Healthy Days Core Module and 5-item Healthy Days Symptoms Module in an arthritis sample using the SF-36v2 as a comparison. Methods In Fall 2002, a cross-sectional study acquired survey data including the CDC HRQOL and SF-36v2 from 2 North Carolina populations of adult patients reporting osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia; 2182 (52% responded. The first item of both the CDC HRQOL and the SF-36v2 was general health (GEN. All 8 other CDC HRQOL items ask for the number of days in the past 30 days that respondents experienced various aspects of HRQOL. Exploratory principal components analyses (PCA were conducted on each sample and the combined samples of the CDC HRQOL. The multitrait-multimethod matrix (MTMM was used to compute correlations between each trait (physical health and mental health and between each method of measurement (CDC HRQOL and SF36v2. The relative contribution of the CDC HRQOL in predicting the physical component summary (PCS and the mental component summary (MCS was determined by regressing the CDC HRQOL items on the PCS and MCS scales. Results All 9 CDC HRQOL items loaded primarily onto 1 factor (explaining 57% of the item variance representing a reasonable solution for capturing overall HRQOL. After rotation a 2 factor interpretation for the 9 items was clear, with 4 items capturing physical health (physical, activity, pain, and energy days and 3 items capturing mental health (mental, depression, and anxiety days. All of the loadings for these two factors were greater than 0.70. The CDC HRQOL physical health factor correlated with PCS (r = -.78, p 2

  8. Signos Vitales de los CDC Prevención de las sobredosis de medicamentos recetados (Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de julio del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Todos los días, 46 personas mueren en los EE. UU. de una sobredosis de analgésicos opioides recetados. Infórmese sobre lo que se puede hacer para que la prescripción de analgésicos sea segura y para ayudar a prevenir las sobredosis.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  9. Cdc42-dependent structural development of auditory supporting cells is required for wound healing at adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttonen, Tommi; Kirjavainen, Anna; Belevich, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Cdc42 regulates the initial establishment of cytoskeletal and junctional structures, but only little is known about its role at later stages of cellular differentiation. We studied Cdc42's role in vivo in auditory supporting cells, epithelial cells with high structural complexity. Cdc42 inactivat......, a process that is critical to scar formation. Thus, Cdc42 is required for structural differentiation of auditory supporting cells and this proper maturation is necessary for wound healing in adults....

  10. Taking Steps to Prevent Falls (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-22

    For older adults, falls can mean serious injury, loss of independence, or even death. Certain changes associated with aging increase the risk for falls, but falls can be prevented. In this podcast, Elizabeth Burns discusses falls among older adults and ways to prevent them.  Created: 9/22/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/22/2016.

  11. 76 FR 66721 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section l0(a)(2) of the... the Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health...

  12. The use of theory based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: formative research for CDC's Prevention Marketing Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M

    1996-01-01

    Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research.

  13. Taking Steps to Prevent Falls (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-22

    More than one in four adults U.S. adults over 65 fell at least once in the preceding year. This podcast discusses the importance of preventing falls among older Americans.  Created: 9/22/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/22/2016.

  14. SUBSCAPULAR AND TRICEPS SKINFOLDS REFERENCE VALUES OF HISPANIC AMERICAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH THE REFERENCE OF CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrodán Serrano, María Dolores; González-Montero de Espinosa, Marisa; Herráez, Ángel; Alfaro, Emma Laura; Felipe Bejarano, Ignacio; Carmenate, María Margarita; Prado, Consuelo; Beatriz Lomaglio, Delia; López-Ejeda, Noemí; Martínez, Antonio; Mesa, María Soledad; Méndez Pérez, Betty; Meléndez, Juana María; Moreno Romero, Susana; Pacheco, Jose Luis; Vázquez, Vanessa; Dipierri, José E

    2015-12-01

    the assessment of the skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. Therefore, it is a useful tool for nutritional diagnosis and prevention of metabolic risk associated with excess fat in chilhood and adolescence. to provide percentiles of subscapular and triceps skinfolds for Hispanic American schoolchildren and compare them with those published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from United States, that it have been commonly used as a reference in most of these countries. subscapular and triceps skinfolds were measured in 9.973 schoolchildren 4-19 aged from Spain, Argentina, Cuba, Venezuela and Mexico with Holtain caliper with 0.2 mm accuracy. Percentiles were obtained with the LMS statistical method and were presented in tables divided in stages of 6 months and in curves graphics. The difference between Hispanic American and CDC mean values were provided for P3, P50 and P97 in mm and also were graphically represented. skinfolds measurements obviously increased with age in both sexes but, in boys, this increase is much more marked in highest percentiles between 8 and 13 years; this maximum is reached earlier than what occurs in CDC reference. In both sexes, all percentiles analized in Hispanic American schoolchildren were higher than the CDC reference except P97 up to 10 or 13 years that was notably smaller. the skinfolds percentiles of Hispanic American children and adolescents differ from CDC that are usually used as reference. The values of subscapular and triceps skinfolds provided in this study, could be applied to populations of a similar ethnic background, especially in comparative studies of body composition. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Hispanic Health: CDC Vitalsigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preventable with more effective water management. Problem Water management problems can lead to Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks. What ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  17. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  18. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  19. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  20. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  1. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  2. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  3. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  4. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  5. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  6. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  7. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  8. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  9. PTT Advisor: A CDC-supported initiative to develop a mobile clinical laboratory decision support application for the iOS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Thomas G; Lee, Brian A; Ledbetter, Greg; Brown, Sara; Lavalley, Dale; Taylor, Julie; Thompson, Pam

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development of PTT (Partial Thromboplastin Time) Advisor, one of the first of a handful of iOS-based mobile applications to be released by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PTT Advisor has been a collaboration between two groups at CDC (Informatics R&D and Laboratory Science), and one partner team (Clinical Laboratory Integration into Healthcare Collaborative - CLIHC). The application offers clinicians a resource to quickly select the appropriate follow-up tests to evaluate patients with a prolonged PTT and a normal Prothrombin Time (PT) laboratory result. The application was designed leveraging an agile methodology, and best practices in user experience (UX) design and mobile application development. As it is an open-source project, the code to PTT Advisor was made available to the public under the Apache Software License. On July 6, 2012, the free app was approved by Apple, and was published to their App Store. Regardless of the complexity of the mobile application, the level of effort required in the development process should not be underestimated. There are several issues that make designing the UI for a mobile phone challenging (not just small screen size): the touchscreen, users' mobile mindset (tasks need to be quick and focused), and the fact that mobile UI conventions/expectations are still being defined and refined (due to the maturity level of the field of mobile application development).

  10. Perceptions of malaria control and prevention in an era of climate change: a cross-sectional survey among CDC staff in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-31

    Though there was the significant decrease in the incidence of malaria in central and southwest China during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of malaria since 2000. A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst the staff of eleven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China to gauge their perceptions regarding the impacts of climate change on malaria transmission and its control and prevention. Descriptive analysis was performed to study CDC staff's knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and suggestions for malaria control in the face of climate change. A majority (79.8%) of CDC staff were concerned about climate change and 79.7% believed the weather was becoming warmer. Most participants (90.3%) indicated climate change had a negative effect on population health, 92.6 and 86.8% considered that increasing temperatures and precipitation would influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases including malaria. About half (50.9%) of the surveyed staff indicated malaria had re-emerged in recent years, and some outbreaks were occurring in new geographic areas. The main reasons for such re-emergence were perceived to be: mosquitoes in high-density, numerous imported cases, climate change, poor environmental conditions, internal migrant populations, and lack of health awareness. This study found most CDC staff endorsed the statement that climate change had a negative impact on infectious disease transmission. Malaria had re-emerged in some areas of China, and most of the staff believed that this can be managed. However, high densities of mosquitoes and the continuous increase in imported cases of malaria in local areas, together with environmental changes are bringing about critical challenges to malaria control in China. This study contributes to an understanding of climate change related perceptions of malaria control and prevention amongst CDC staff. It may help to formulate in-house training guidelines, community health promotion

  11. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2008-01-01

    . This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land information......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making......The issue of informal development was discussed in details at the joint FIG Com 3 and UNECE/WPLA workshop in Sounio, Greece, March 2007. Emphasis was given to the scale of the problem in Southern and Eastern Europe and to means of legalising such informal urban development. This paper, instead...

  12. Signos Vitales de los CDC Cómo prevenir los brotes de norovirus (Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los norovirus infectan cada año a cerca de 20 millones de personas en los Estados Unidos. Sepa cómo protegerse y proteger a su familia de esta enfermedad que es muy contagiosa y potencialmente grave.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  13. Resistance patterns and outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia. Validation of European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification of multidrug resistant organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Torres, Antonio; Rinaudo, Mariano; Terraneo, Silvia; de Rosa, Francesca; Ramirez, Paula; Diaz, Emili; Fernández-Barat, Laia; Li Bassi, Gian Luigi; Ferrer, Miquel

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial resistance has become a major public health problem. To validate the definition of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) based on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification. Prospective, observational study in six medical and surgical Intensive-Care-Units (ICU) of a University hospital. Three-hundred-and-forty-three patients with ICU-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP) were prospectively enrolled, 140 patients had no microbiological confirmation (41%), 82 patients (24%) developed ICUAP for non-MDRO, whereas 121 (35%) were MDROs. Non-MDRO, MDRO and no microbiological confirmation patients did not present either a significant different previous antibiotic use (p 0.18) or previous hospital admission (p 0.17). Appropriate antibiotic therapy was associated with better ICU survival (105 [92.9%] vs. 74 [82.2%]; p = 0.03). An adjusted multivariate regression logistic analysis identified that only MDRO had a higher ICU-mortality than non-MDRO and no microbiological confirmation patients (OR 2.89; p < 0.05; 95% CI for Exp [β]. 1.02-8.21); Patients with MDRO ICUAP remained in ICU for a longer period than MDRO and no microbiological confirmation respectively (p < 0.01) however no microbiological confirmation patients had more often antibiotic consumption than culture positive ones. Patients who developed ICUAP due to MDRO showed a higher ICU-mortality than non-MDRO ones and use of ICU resources. No microbiological confirmation patients had more often antibiotic consumption than culture positive patients. Risk factors for MDRO may be important for the selection of initial antimicrobial therapy, in addition to local epidemiology. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  15. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  16. Signos Vitales de los CDC-¡El cáncer de cuello uterino se puede prevenir! (Cervical Cancer is Preventable!)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de noviembre del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Cada cita médica es una oportunidad para prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino. Las mujeres pueden hacerse la prueba de Papanicoláu y la del VPH para ayudar a prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino, y los niños y las niñas adolescentes pueden recibir la vacuna contra el VPH para ayudar a prevenir esta enfermedad y otros tipos de cáncer.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Cobtrol (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  17. CDC Lab Values

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-02

    More than fifteen hundred scientists fill the lab benches at CDC, logging more than four million hours each year. CDC’s laboratories play a critical role in the agency’s ability to find, stop, and prevent disease outbreaks. This podcast provides a brief overview of what goes on inside CDC’s labs, and why this work makes a difference in American’s health.  Created: 2/2/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/2/2015.

  18. 77 FR 66469 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a...--Treatment as Prevention; (2) Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Client Level Data Update; (3) Viral Hepatitis... prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with...

  19. CDC's Response to Zika: Enjoy Your Vacation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your destination has Zika, check the CDC Travelers’ Health site for current travel notices: cdc. gov/ travel Pack to prevent • Insect repellent (Look for these ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol, or 2-undecanone ) • ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  2. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  16. 1-L-MT, an IDO inhibitor, prevented colitis-associated cancer by inducing CDC20 inhibition-mediated mitotic death of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuting; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Yang; Du, Qianming; Hu, Rong

    2018-04-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), known as IDO, catabolizes tryptophan through kynurenine pathway, whose activity is correlated with impaired clinical outcome of colorectal cancer. Here we showed that 1-L-MT, a canonical IDO inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inducing mitotic death. Our results showed that inhibition of IDO decreased the transcription of CDC20, which resulted in G2/M cycle arrest of HCT-116 and HT-29. Furthermore, 1-L-MT induced mitochondria injuries and caused apoptotic cancer cells. Importantly, 1-L-MT protected mice from azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis, with reduced mortality, tumor number and size. What is more, IDO1-/- mice exhibited fewer tumor burdens and reduced proliferation in the neoplastic epithelium, while, 1-L-MT did not exhibit any further protective effects on IDO-/- mice, confirming the critical role of IDO and the protective effect of 1-L-MT-mediated IDO inhibition in CRC. Furthermore, 1-L-MT also alleviated CRC in Rag1-/- mice, demonstrating the modulatory effects of IDO independent of its role in modulating adaptive immunity. Taken together, our findings validated that the anti-proliferation effect of 1-L-MT in vitro and the prevention of CRC in vivo were through IDO-induced cell cycle disaster of colon cancer cells. Our results identified 1-L-MT as a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of CRC. © 2018 UICC.

  17. BREED: a CDC-7600 computer program for the automation of breeder reactor design analysis (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelore, N.R.; Maher, C.M.

    1985-03-01

    BREED is an executive CDC-7600 program which was developed to facilitate the sequence of calculations and movement of data through a prescribed series of breeder reactor design computer programs in an uninterrupted single-job mode. It provides the capability to interface different application programs into a single computer run to provide a complete design function. The automation that can be achieved as a result of using BREED significantly reduces not only the time required for data preparation and hand transfer of data, but also the time required to complete an iteration of the total design effort. Data processing within a technical discipline and data transfer between technical disciplines can be accommodated. The input/output data processing is achieved with BREED by using a set of simple, easily understood user commands, usually short descriptive words, which the user inserts in his input deck. The input deck completely identifies and controls the calculational sequence needed to produce a desired end product. This report has been prepared to provide instructional material on the use of BREED and its user-oriented procedures to facilitate computer automation of design calculations

  18. CDC Activities for Improving Implementation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, Cervical Cancer Screening, and Surveillance Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, Virginia; Duran, Denise; Loharikar, Anagha; Hyde, Terri B; Markowitz, Lauri E; Unger, Elizabeth R; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-12-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high, particularly in developing countries. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, screening, and timely treatment. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides global technical assistance for implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination pilot projects and programs and laboratory-related HPV activities to assess HPV vaccines. CDC collaborates with global partners to develop global cervical cancer screening recommendations and manuals, implement screening, create standardized evaluation tools, and provide expertise to monitor outcomes. CDC also trains epidemiologists in cancer prevention through its Field Epidemiology Training Program and is working to improve cancer surveillance by supporting efforts of the World Health Organization in developing cancer registry hubs and assisting countries in estimating costs for developing population-based cancer registries. These activities contribute to the Global Health Security Agenda action packages to improve immunization, surveillance, and the public health workforce globally.

  19. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonathan E; Benson, Constance; Holmes, King K; Brooks, John T; Pau, Alice; Masur, Henry

    2009-04-10

    This report updates and combines earlier versions of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected adults (i.e., persons aged >/=18 years) and adolescents (i.e., persons aged 13--17 years), last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. It has been prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). The guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care providers, HIV-infected patients, and policy makers in the United States. These guidelines address several OIs that occur in the United States and five OIs that might be acquired during international travel. Topic areas covered for each OI include epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; and special considerations during pregnancy. These guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists from the United States government and academic institutions. For each OI, a small group of specialists with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the guidelines were last published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting held at NIH in June 2007. After these presentations and discussion, the revised guidelines were further reviewed by the co-editors; by the Office of AIDS Research, NIH; by specialists at CDC; and by HIVMA of IDSA before final approval and publication. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of

  20. cdc-25.4, a Caenorhabditis elegans Ortholog of cdc25, Is Required for Male Mating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division cycle 25 (cdc25 is an evolutionarily conserved phosphatase that promotes cell cycle progression. Among the four cdc25 orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that cdc-25.4 mutant males failed to produce outcrossed progeny. This was not caused by defects in sperm development, but by defects in male mating behavior. The cdc-25.4 mutant males showed various defects during male mating, including contact response, backing, turning, and vulva location. Aberrant turning behavior was the most prominent defect in the cdc-25.4 mutant males. We also found that cdc-25.4 is expressed in many neuronal cells throughout development. The turning defect in cdc-25.4 mutant males was recovered by cdc-25.4 transgenic expression in neuronal cells, suggesting that cdc-25.4 functions in neurons for male mating. However, the neuronal morphology of cdc-25.4 mutant males appeared to be normal, as examined with several neuronal markers. Also, RNAi depletion of wee-1.3, a C. elegans ortholog of Wee1/Myt1 kinase, failed to suppress the mating defects of cdc-25.4 mutant males. These findings suggest that, for successful male mating, cdc-25.4 does not target cell cycles that are required for neuronal differentiation and development. Rather, cdc-25.4 likely regulates noncanonical substrates in neuronal cells.

  1. Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liere, Annette; Ritzen, Henk; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Van Liere, A., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2011, August). Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente. Paper presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.

  2. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs CDC SEALS Software CDC State Strategies: Preventing Tooth Decay CDC Oral Health Data Other Sites MedlinePlus – Child Dental Health MedlinePlus – Tooth Decay American Dental Association – Evidence-based clinical practice guideline ...

  3. FDA-CDC Antimicrobial Resistance Isolate Bank: a Publicly Available Resource To Support Research, Development, and Regulatory Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgring, Joseph D; Machado, María-José; Benahmed, Faiza H; Conville, Patricia; Shawar, Ribhi M; Patel, Jean; Brown, Allison C

    2018-02-01

    The FDA-CDC Antimicrobial Resistance Isolate Bank was created in July 2015 as a publicly available resource to combat antimicrobial resistance. It is a curated repository of bacterial isolates with an assortment of clinically important resistance mechanisms that have been phenotypically and genotypically characterized. In the first 2 years of operation, the bank offered 14 panels comprising 496 unique isolates and had filled 486 orders from 394 institutions throughout the United States. New panels are being added. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  5. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  6. CDC Vital Signs–Opioid Prescribing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Higher opioid prescribing puts patients at risk for addiction and overdose. Learn what can be done about this serious problem.  Created: 7/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/6/2017.

  7. CDC 7600 Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The CDC 7600 has been created by Seymour Cray. It was designed to be compatible with the 6600, which allows for a substantial increase in performance. Furthermore the rise of new technologies has enabled this performance by reducing the minor cycle clock period from 100 ns to 27.5 ns (4 time faster). A very large machine, the 7600 had over 120 miles of hand-wired interconnections. It was the most powerful computer of its time. However, this speed caused a ground-loop problem causing intermittent faults, and eventually requiring all modules to be fitted with sheathed rubber bands. The CDC 7600 was replaced in 1983 by CRAY-1A.

  8. New role for Cdc14 phosphatase: localization to basal bodies in the oomycete phytophthora and its evolutionary coinheritance with eukaryotic flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah-Fong, Audrey M V; Judelson, Howard S

    2011-02-14

    Cdc14 protein phosphatases are well known for regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle, particularly during mitosis. Here we reveal a distinctly new role for Cdc14 based on studies of the microbial eukaryote Phytophthora infestans, the Irish potato famine agent. While Cdc14 is transcribed constitutively in yeast and animal cells, the P. infestans ortholog is expressed exclusively in spore stages of the life cycle and not in vegetative hyphae where the bulk of mitosis takes place. PiCdc14 expression is first detected in nuclei at sporulation, and during zoospore formation the protein accumulates at the basal body, which is the site from which flagella develop. The association of PiCdc14 with basal bodies was supported by co-localization studies with the DIP13 basal body protein and flagellar β-tubulin, and by demonstrating the enrichment of PiCdc14 in purified flagella-basal body complexes. Overexpressing PiCdc14 did not cause defects in growth or mitosis in hyphae, but interfered with cytoplasmic partitioning during zoosporogenesis. This cytokinetic defect might relate to its ability to bind microtubules, which was shown using an in vitro cosedimentation assay. The use of gene silencing to reveal the precise function of PiCdc14 in flagella is not possible since we showed previously that silencing prevents the formation of the precursor stage, sporangia. Nevertheless, the association of Cdc14 with flagella and basal bodies is consistent with their phylogenetic distribution in eukaryotes, as species that lack the ability to produce flagella generally also lack Cdc14. An ancestral role of Cdc14 in the flagellar stage of eukaryotes is thereby proposed.

  9. New role for Cdc14 phosphatase: localization to basal bodies in the oomycete phytophthora and its evolutionary coinheritance with eukaryotic flagella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M V Ah-Fong

    Full Text Available Cdc14 protein phosphatases are well known for regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle, particularly during mitosis. Here we reveal a distinctly new role for Cdc14 based on studies of the microbial eukaryote Phytophthora infestans, the Irish potato famine agent. While Cdc14 is transcribed constitutively in yeast and animal cells, the P. infestans ortholog is expressed exclusively in spore stages of the life cycle and not in vegetative hyphae where the bulk of mitosis takes place. PiCdc14 expression is first detected in nuclei at sporulation, and during zoospore formation the protein accumulates at the basal body, which is the site from which flagella develop. The association of PiCdc14 with basal bodies was supported by co-localization studies with the DIP13 basal body protein and flagellar β-tubulin, and by demonstrating the enrichment of PiCdc14 in purified flagella-basal body complexes. Overexpressing PiCdc14 did not cause defects in growth or mitosis in hyphae, but interfered with cytoplasmic partitioning during zoosporogenesis. This cytokinetic defect might relate to its ability to bind microtubules, which was shown using an in vitro cosedimentation assay. The use of gene silencing to reveal the precise function of PiCdc14 in flagella is not possible since we showed previously that silencing prevents the formation of the precursor stage, sporangia. Nevertheless, the association of Cdc14 with flagella and basal bodies is consistent with their phylogenetic distribution in eukaryotes, as species that lack the ability to produce flagella generally also lack Cdc14. An ancestral role of Cdc14 in the flagellar stage of eukaryotes is thereby proposed.

  10. CDC Vital Signs-Heroin Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-07

    This podcast is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  11. Essential and distinct roles for cdc42 and rac1 in the regulation of Schwann cell biology during peripheral nervous system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benninger, Yves; Thurnherr, Tina; Pereira, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    -specific conditional gene targeting to show that members of the Rho GTPases, cdc42 and rac1, have different and essential roles in axon sorting by Schwann cells. Our results indicate that although cdc42 is required for normal Schwann cell proliferation, rac1 regulates Schwann cell process extension and stabilization...

  12. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  13. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  15. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  17. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure. The...

  18. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  19. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  20. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  1. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure....

  2. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  5. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption. The...

  6. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The STATE...

  7. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption....

  8. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  9. Development of preventive maintenance procedures and schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, H.V.; Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.) [de

  10. CDC Vital Signs-E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-05

    This podcast is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.  Created: 1/5/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/5/2016.

  11. CDC 6600 Cordwood Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    The CDC 6600 cordwood module containing 64 silicon transistors. The module was mounted between two plates that were cooled conductive by a refrigeration unit via the front panel. The construction of this module uses the cord method, so called because the resistors seem to be stacked like cord between the two circuit boards in order to obtain a high density. The 6600 model contained nearly 6,000 such modules.

  12. Development and feasibility of falls prevention advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten-Krouwel, Diny; Schuurmans, Marieke; Emmelot-Vonk, Mariëlle; Pel-Littel, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the feasibility of nursing falls prevention advice and factors influencing feasibility. The frequency and seriousness of falls in hospitalised patients are underestimated, and such falls should be preventable because of the presence of professionals. A best practice-based falls prevention advice was developed to decrease the incidence of secondary falls and the incidence of primary falls in the long term and to increase the knowledge of nurses about falls prevention and the seriousness of falls. A descriptive, explorative study. Feasibility of the advice for 30 patients was assessed 82 times (theoretically, three times per patient) by observation and by interviewing nurses, patients and their families. The falls prevention advice was used in 48% of the assessments. There was a difference in use between interventions. Interventions that required more knowledge, communication and extra activities were implemented the least. The absence of materials and knowledge about falls prevention were important determinants of the non-implementation of certain interventions. Before falls prevention advice is implemented, it is important to educate nurses about falls, communication skills and implementation of the advice. The falls prevention advice might help nurses to prevent falls and increase their knowledge about falls prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Development of Pollution Prevention Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polle, Juergen [Brooklyn College, The City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York, (United States); Sanchez-Delgado, Roberto [Brooklyn College, The City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York, (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This project investigated technologies that may reduce environmental pollution. This was a basic research/educational project addressing two major areas: A. In the algae research project, newly isolated strains of microalgae were investigated for feedstock production to address the production of renewable fuels. An existing collection of microalgae was screened for lipid composition to determine strains with superior composition of biofuel molecules. As many microalgae store triacylglycerides in so-called oil bodies, selected candidate strains identified from the first screen that accumulate oil bodies were selected for further biochemical analysis, because almost nothing was known about the biochemistry of these oil bodies. Understanding sequestration of triacylglycerides in intracellular storage compartments is essential to developing better strains for achieving high oil productivities by microalgae. At the onset of the project there was almost no information available on how to obtain detailed profiles of lipids from strains of microalgae. Our research developed analytical methods to determine the lipid profiles of novel microalgal strains. The project was embedded into other ongoing microalgal projects in the Polle laboratory. The project benefited the public, because students were trained in cell cultivation and in the operation of state-of-the-art analytical equipment. In addition, students at Brooklyn College were introduced into the concept of a systems biology approach to study algal biofuels production. B. A series of new nanostructured catalysts were synthesized, and characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. Our catalyst design leads to active nanostructures comprising small metal particles in intimate contact with strongly basic sites provided by the supports, which include poly(4-vinylpyridine), magnesium oxide, functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide. The new materials display a good potential as catalysts

  14. Multipurpose prevention technologies: products in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, David R; Clark, Justin T; Kiser, Patrick F; Clark, Meredith R

    2013-12-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are broadly defined as products capable of simultaneously addressing multiple sexual and reproductive health needs including unintended pregnancy, STIs including HIV-1, and other reproductive tract infections. MPTs have been discussed for a few decades but little product development has occurred. With the recent proof-of-concept that a topically applied antiretroviral (ARV) can effectively reduce sexual transmission of HIV-1 (tenofovir 1% gel) the impetus to develop MPTs is gaining momentum. Products currently in development are broadly categorized as either long-acting or on-demand. Long-acting MPTs include intravaginal rings (IVRs) and long-acting injectable products. Several IVR MPTs are under development including one designed to release tenofovir to prevent transmission of HIV-1 and levonorgestrel (LNG) to prevent unintended pregnancy over a 90-day period. Another MPT IVR under development is designed to release the ARV dapivirine and LNG for 2 months. Long-acting injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) formulations of rilpivirine (TMC278) and GSK1265744 have entered clinical evaluation and could form the basis of long-acting injectable products for HIV-1 prevention and prevention of unintended pregnancy. On-demand products include TFV 1% gel (HIV-1/HSV-2 prevention), a zinc/carrageenan zinc gel (HIV-1/HSV-2 prevention), and the SILCS diaphragm administered with TFV 1% gel. Significant technical, funding, and regulatory hurdles must be overcome to develop most MPTs; however, the significant reproductive health benefits to many women around the world should provide motivation to overcome these hurdles. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies", held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  16. Cdc42-mediated tubulogenesis controls cell specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Greiner, Thomas Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how cells polarize and coordinate tubulogenesis during organ formation is a central question in biology. Tubulogenesis often coincides with cell-lineage specification during organ development. Hence, an elementary question is whether these two processes are independently controlled......, or whether proper cell specification depends on formation of tubes. To address these fundamental questions, we have studied the functional role of Cdc42 in pancreatic tubulogenesis. We present evidence that Cdc42 is essential for tube formation, specifically for initiating microlumen formation and later...... for maintaining apical cell polarity. Finally, we show that Cdc42 controls cell specification non-cell-autonomously by providing the correct microenvironment for proper control of cell-fate choices of multipotent progenitors. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data...

  17. SCFCyclin F-dependent degradation of CDC6 suppresses DNA re-replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, David; Hoffmann, Saskia; Komseli, Eirini-Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    origin licensing, however, it is poorly understood how CDC6 activity is constrained in higher eukaryotes. Here we report that the SCF(Cyclin F) ubiquitin ligase complex prevents DNA re-replication by targeting CDC6 for proteasomal degradation late in the cell cycle. We show that CDC6 and Cyclin F...... interact through defined sequence motifs that promote CDC6 ubiquitylation and degradation. Absence of Cyclin F or expression of a stable mutant of CDC6 promotes re-replication and genome instability in cells lacking the CDT1 inhibitor Geminin. Together, our work reveals a novel SCF(Cyclin F...

  18. CdGAP/ARHGAP31, a Cdc42/Rac1 GTPase regulator, is critical for vascular development and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Christine; DeGeer, Jonathan; Fournier, Patrick; Duquette, Philippe M.; Luangrath, Vilayphone; Ishii, Hidetaka; Karimzadeh, Fereshteh; Lamarche-Vane, Nathalie; Royal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the CdGAP/ARHGAP31 gene, which encodes a GTPase-activating protein for Rac1 and Cdc42, have been reported causative in the Adams-Oliver developmental syndrome often associated with vascular defects. However, despite its abundant expression in endothelial cells, CdGAP function in the vasculature remains unknown. Here, we show that vascular development is impaired in CdGAP-deficient mouse embryos at E15.5. This is associated with superficial vessel defects and subcutaneous edema, resulting in 44% embryonic/perinatal lethality. VEGF-driven angiogenesis is defective in CdGAP−/− mice, showing reduced capillary sprouting from aortic ring explants. Similarly, VEGF-dependent endothelial cell migration and capillary formation are inhibited upon CdGAP knockdown. Mechanistically, CdGAP associates with VEGF receptor-2 and controls VEGF-dependent signaling. Consequently, CdGAP depletion results in impaired VEGF-mediated Rac1 activation and reduced phosphorylation of critical intracellular mediators including Gab1, Akt, PLCγ and SHP2. These findings are the first to demonstrate the importance of CdGAP in embryonic vascular development and VEGF-induced signaling, and highlight CdGAP as a potential therapeutic target to treat pathological angiogenesis and vascular dysfunction. PMID:27270835

  19. Structural Make-up, Biopolymer Conformation, and Biodegradation Characteristics of Newly Developed Super Genotype of Oats (CDC SO-I vs. Conventional Varieties): Novel Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiran, D.; Yu, P

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new 'super' genotype of oats (CDC SO-I or SO-I) has been developed. The objectives of this study were to determine structural makeup (features) of oat grain in endosperm and pericarp regions and to reveal and identify differences in protein amide I and II and carbohydrate structural makeup (conformation) between SO-I and two conventional oats (CDC Dancer and Derby) grown in western Canada in 2006, using advanced synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM). The SRFTIRM experiments were conducted at National Synchrotron Light Sources, Brookhaven National Laboratory (NSLS, BNL, U.S. Department of Energy). From the results, it was observed that comparison between the new genotype oats and conventional oats showed (1) differences in basic chemical and protein subfraction profiles and energy values with the new SO-I oats containing lower lignin (21 g/kg of DM) and higher soluble crude protein (530 g/kg CP), crude fat (59 g/kg of DM), and energy values (TDN, 820 g/kg of DM; NE{sub L3x}, 7.8 MJ/kg of DM); (2) significant differences in rumen biodegradation kinetics of dry matter, starch, and protein with the new SO-I oats containing lower EDDM (638 g/kg of DM) and higher EDCP (103 g/kg of DM); (3) significant differences in nutrient supply with highest truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP, 23 g/kg of DM) and total metabolizable protein supply (MP, 81 g/kg of DM) from the new SO-I oats; and (4) significant differences in structural makeup in terms of protein amide I in the endosperm region (with amide I peak height from 0.13 to 0.22 IR absorbance unit) and cellulosic compounds to carbohydrate ratio in the pericarp region (ratio from 0.02 to 0.06). The results suggest that with the SRFTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between the new genotype oats (SO-I) and two conventional oats (Dancer and Derby) could be revealed.

  20. Structural Make-up, Biopolymer Conformation, and Biodegradation Characteristics of Newly Developed Super Genotype of Oats (CDC SO-I vs. Conventional Varieties): Novel Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiran, D.; Yu, P.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new 'super' genotype of oats (CDC SO-I or SO-I) has been developed. The objectives of this study were to determine structural makeup (features) of oat grain in endosperm and pericarp regions and to reveal and identify differences in protein amide I and II and carbohydrate structural makeup (conformation) between SO-I and two conventional oats (CDC Dancer and Derby) grown in western Canada in 2006, using advanced synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM). The SRFTIRM experiments were conducted at National Synchrotron Light Sources, Brookhaven National Laboratory (NSLS, BNL, U.S. Department of Energy). From the results, it was observed that comparison between the new genotype oats and conventional oats showed (1) differences in basic chemical and protein subfraction profiles and energy values with the new SO-I oats containing lower lignin (21 g/kg of DM) and higher soluble crude protein (530 g/kg CP), crude fat (59 g/kg of DM), and energy values (TDN, 820 g/kg of DM; NE L3x , 7.8 MJ/kg of DM); (2) significant differences in rumen biodegradation kinetics of dry matter, starch, and protein with the new SO-I oats containing lower EDDM (638 g/kg of DM) and higher EDCP (103 g/kg of DM); (3) significant differences in nutrient supply with highest truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP, 23 g/kg of DM) and total metabolizable protein supply (MP, 81 g/kg of DM) from the new SO-I oats; and (4) significant differences in structural makeup in terms of protein amide I in the endosperm region (with amide I peak height from 0.13 to 0.22 IR absorbance unit) and cellulosic compounds to carbohydrate ratio in the pericarp region (ratio from 0.02 to 0.06). The results suggest that with the SRFTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between the new genotype oats (SO-I) and two conventional oats (Dancer and Derby) could be revealed.

  1. CDC Vital Signs–HIV Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast is based on the December 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 15 percent of people who have HIV don't know they have it. Learn about the importance of testing, early diagnosis, and treatment.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  2. CDC Vital Signs–African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  3. CDC Vital Signs–Cancer and Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-04

    This podcast is based on the October 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. Unfortunately, two out of three U.S. adults weigh more than recommended. Find out what can be done to help people get to and keep a healthy weight.  Created: 10/4/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2017.

  4. NEK11 regulates CDC25A degradation and the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melixetian, M.; Helin, K.; Klein, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    new genes involved in the G2/M checkpoint we performed a large-scale short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library screen. We show that NIMA (never in mitosis gene A)-related kinase 11 (NEK11) is required for DNA damage-induced G2/M arrest. Depletion of NEK11 prevents proteasome-dependent degradation of CDC25A...... that genetic mutations in NEK11 may contribute to the development of human cancer....

  5. Injury prevention in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Branas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are rapidly escalating by-products of growth and urbanization in developing nations and have become the number one global health threat to children, young adults, and developing nations. Injuries are also highly preventable with scientifically evaluated, cost-effective solutions. Yet these same injuries are highly underappreciated as a global health threat and receive inadequate attention and funding. Because injuries so heavily affect individuals in their most productive years, their continued growth is sure to hamper or wipe away economic gains in many developing nations and further health inequities between developed and developing nations. Injury prevention in developing countries thus represents an enormous opportunity since attention and funding has been limited even in the face of evidence-based, cost-effective solutions. This opportunity should be pursued in developing nations by choosing prevention programs that address key injury threats and, at the same time, affect long-term, sustainable, and measurable injury reductions. Such programs should have strong local buy-in, a history of evaluation (preferably in developing nations, high returns-on-investment, make use of existing infrastructures when possible, and include an implementation plan that is to be carried out by the developing nation itself.

  6. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. ► We merge attitude–behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. ► Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. ► Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. ► Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude–behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz’s altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals’ engagement in future policies.

  8. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: a.bortoleto@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  9. Strengthening the public health workforce: three CDC programs that prepare managers and leaders for the challenges of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Rebecca; Porter, Janet E; Malison, Michael; Frederick, Steve; Balderson, Thomas R

    2003-01-01

    To address the need for management development in public health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established three independent workforce development initiatives aimed primarily at strengthening management and leadership capacity: the Sustainable Management Development Program, the Management Academy for Public Health, and the CDC Leadership and Management Institute. Though independently designed and implemented, the programs share similar guiding principles in their approach to management development: interactive (adult) learning, management tools that reinforce evidence-based decision making, individual feedback, continuous improvement of the learning process, posttraining support for networking and life-long learning, and teamwork. This article will discuss important lessons learned regarding best practices in management and leadership development.

  10. CDC Vital Signs–Opioid Overdoses Treated in Emergency Departments

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Opioid overdoses continue to increase in the United States. Learn what can be done to help prevent opioid overdose and death.  Created: 3/6/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2018.

  11. NEK11: linking CHK1 and CDC25A in DNA damage checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Melixetian, Marina; Klein, Ditte Kjaersgaard

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage induced G(2)/M checkpoint is an important guardian of the genome that prevents cell division when DNA lesions are present. The checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis by degrading CDC25A, a key CDK activator. CDC25A proteolysis is controlled by direct phosphorylation events...

  12. Injury prevention in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    Injuries are rapidly escalating by-products of growth and urbanization in developing nations and have become the number one global health threat to children, young adults, and developing nations. Injuries are also highly preventable with scientifically evaluated, cost-effective solutions. Yet these same injuries are highly underappreciated as a global health threat and receive inadequate attention and funding. Because injuries so heavily affect individuals in their most productive years, thei...

  13. Improving integration and coordination of funding, technical assistance, and reporting/data collection: recommendations from CDC and USAPI stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; White, Susan F; Rochester, Phyllis F; Holden, Debra J

    2011-03-01

    Current US Federal funding mechanisms may foster program silos that disable sharing of resources and information across programs within a larger system of public health services. Such silos present challenges to USAPI communities where human resources, health infrastructure, and health financing are limited. Integrative and coordinated approaches have been recommended. The CDC Pacific Islands Integration and Coordination project was initiated by the CDC Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC). The project aim was to identify ways for the CDC to collaborate with the USAPI in improving CDC activities and processes related to chronic disease. This article focuses on recommendations for improving coordination and integration in three core areas of health services programming: funding, program reporting/data collection and analysis, and technical assistance. Preliminary information on challenges and issues relevant to the core areas was gathered through site visits, focus groups, key informant interviews, and other sources. This information was used by stakeholder groups from the CDC and the USAPI to develop recommendations in the core programming areas. Recommendations generated at the CDC and USAPI stakeholder meetings were prepared into a single set of recommendations and stakeholders reviewed the document for accuracy prior to its dissemination to CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion programs management and staff. Key recommendations, include: (1) consideration of resources and other challenges unique to the USAPI when reviewing funding applications, (2) consideration of ways to increase flexibility in USAPI use of program funds, (3) dedication of funding and human resources for technical assistance, (4) provision of opportunities for capacity-building across programs and jurisdictions, (5) consideration of ways to more directly link program reporting with technical assistance. This project provided a unique opportunity

  14. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  15. Computer Center CDC Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    34 Introduction *"- 1. For card decks, the following job card requirements apply at the DTNSRDC site: MFF - CDC CYBER 176 - orange (Carderock) yellow ...stripe (Annapolis) * MFE - CDC CYBER 750 - blue or purple (Carderock) yellow stripe (Annapolis) * No other cards in the deck should be any of the above...semi-private files day -OFF -Turn off dayfile messages for individual MSAUDITs for LO=FP (could generate wallpaper ). Has no effect on other options

  16. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Developing... Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m.-4:00 p.m., June 18, 2013 (Closed...

  17. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  18. Using participatory action research for injury prevention in child development centers, Suratthani province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naturthai Suwantip

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of using participatory action research (PAR in the prevention of injury to children in 14 child development centers (CDCs under local administrative organizations in one district in Suratthani province, Thailand. In total, 98 stakeholder representatives participated in the study, consisting of 7 managers or representatives of the CDCs, 14 caregivers, 7 local health officials and 70 children's parents. They participated in all stages of the study—problem identification, setting the objectives and goals of the study, planning the study, development of research tools, data collection, risk analysis, risk management, monitoring, evaluation, and revision. The physical environments that were in non-compliance with safety standards were identified after a walk-through survey with the participants using an approved checklist. The number of injuries to children was collected before and after the risk management. The participants' knowledge and awareness of child injury prevention were collected using questionnaires. Optimal solutions for injury prevention were obtained through several focus group discussions between the participants within each CDC and among the CDCs. Active participation of the stakeholders resulted in significantly more knowledge and awareness relating to child injury prevention. The environments of CDCs in compliance with safety standards were significantly increased. The number of injuries to the children decreased. The participatory action model in this research was developed through collaboration between the 14 CDCs. The executives of local administrative organizations and local health officials can take the model used in this study and apply it to injury prevention in other CDCs which have a similar environment across the province. Keywords: child development center, injury prevention, participatory action research

  19. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs–Safe Sleep for Babies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-09

    This podcast is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.  Created: 1/9/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/9/2018.

  1. Enhancement of a Locally Developed HIV Prevention Intervention for Hispanic/Latino MSM: A Partnership of Community-Based Organizations, a University, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Freeman, Arin; Sun, Christina J; Garcia, Manuel; Painter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, no efficacious behavioral HIV/STD prevention interventions are currently available for use with this vulnerable population. We describe the enhancement of HOLA en Grupos, a community-based behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino MSM that is currently being implemented and evaluated in North Carolina with support from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our intervention enhancement process included incorporating local data on risks and context; identifying community needs and priorities; defining intervention core elements and key characteristics; developing a logic model; developing an intervention logo; enhancing intervention activities and materials; scripting intervention delivery; expanding the comparison intervention; and establishing a materials review committee. If the CDC-sponsored evaluation determines that HOLA en Grupos is efficacious, it will be the first such behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention to be identified for potential use with Hispanic/Latino MSM, thereby contributing to the body of evidence-based resources that may be used for preventing HIV/STD infection among these MSM and their sex partners.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the restroom. Use utensils and single-use disposable gloves to avoid touching ready-to-eat foods with ... Visit www.FoodSafety.gov for the latest information. Top of Page Science Behind the Issue MMWR Science ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs–Arthritis in America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-07

    This podcast is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.  Created: 3/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/7/2017.

  4. Informe Signos Vitales de los CDC Obesidad infantil - (Childhood Obesity)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Signos Vitales de los CDC de agosto del 2013. La tasa de obesidad entre los niños en edad prescolar de bajos ingresos ha disminuido, pero todavía uno de cada seis niños hispanos es obeso. Este programa habla brevemente sobre lo que se puede hacer.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  5. Stalking SARS: CDC at Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the SARS outbreak and how CDC worked to solve the mystery.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  6. Role of AtCDC48 & the AtCDC48 Regulatory Protein Family, PUX, in Plant Cell Morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarek, Sebastian, Y.

    2009-11-08

    The long-term objective of this work is to understand the molecular events and mechanisms involved in secretory membrane trafficking and organelle biogenesis, which are crucial for normal plant growth and development. Our studies have suggested a vital role for the cytosolic chaperone Cdc48p/p97 during cytokinesis and cell expansion which are highly dependent upon secretory membrane trafficking. Localization studies have shown that the plant Cdc48p/p97, AtCDC48, and the Arabidopsis ortholog of the ER- and Golgi-associated SNARE, syntaxin 5, (referred to as SYP31) are targeted to the division plane during cytokinesis. In addition, AtCDC48 and SYP31 were shown to interact in vitro and in vivo. To characterize further the function of AtCDC48 and SYP31 we have utilized affinity chromatography and MALDI-MS to identify several plant-specific proteins that interact with SYP31 and/or modulate the activity of AtCDC48 including two UBX (i.e. ubiquitin-like) domain containing proteins, PUX1 and PUX2 (Proteins containing UBX domain). These proteins define a plant protein family consisting of 15 uncharacterized members that we postulate interact with AtCDC48. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that PUX2 is a novel membrane adapter for AtCDC48 that mediates AtCDC48/SYP31 interaction and is likely to control AtCDC48-dependent membrane fusion. In contrast, PUX1 negatively regulates AtCDC48 by inhibiting its ATPase activity and by promoting the disassembly of the active hexamer. These findings provide the first evidence that the assembly and disassembly of the CDC48/p97complex is actually a dynamic process. This new unexpected level of regulation for CDC48/p97 was demonstrated to be critical in vivo as pux1 loss-of-function mutants grow faster than wild-type plants. These studies suggest a role for AtCDC48 in plant cell cycle progression including cytokinesis and/or cell expansion. The proposed studies are designed to: 1) characterize further the localization and function of AtCDC

  7. NEK11: linking CHK1 and CDC25A in DNA damage checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Melixetian, Marina; Klein, Ditte Kjaersgaard

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage induced G(2)/M checkpoint is an important guardian of the genome that prevents cell division when DNA lesions are present. The checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis by degrading CDC25A, a key CDK activator. CDC25A proteolysis is controlled by direct phosphorylation events...... is required for beta-TrCP mediated CDC25A polyubiquitylation and degradation. The activity of NEK11 is in turn controlled by CHK1 that activates NEK11 via phosphorylation on serine 273. Since inhibition of NEK11 activity forces checkpoint-arrested cells into mitosis and cell death, NEK11 is, like CHK1...

  8. CDC Vital Signs–Legionnaires’ Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-06

    This podcast is based on the June 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Legionnaires’ disease is a serious, often deadly lung infection. People most commonly get it by breathing in water droplets containing Legionella germs. Learn how to prevent infections from Legionella.  Created: 6/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/6/2017.

  9. The Impact of Climate Change on Infectious Disease Transmission: Perceptions of CDC Health Professionals in Shanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Xue, Shulian; Zhao, Shufang; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change. PMID:25285440

  10. The cell polarity determinant CDC42 controls division symmetry to block leukemia cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Benjamin; O'Brien, Eric; Moreira, Daniel C; Wunderlich, Mark; Hochstetler, Cindy L; Duan, Xin; Liu, Wei; Orr, Emily; Grimes, H Leighton; Mulloy, James C; Zheng, Yi

    2017-09-14

    As a central regulator of cell polarity, the activity of CDC42 GTPase is tightly controlled in maintaining normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSC/P) functions. We found that transformation of HSC/P to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with increased CDC42 expression and activity in leukemia cells. In a mouse model of AML, the loss of Cdc42 abrogates MLL-AF9 -induced AML development. Furthermore, genetic ablation of CDC42 in both murine and human MLL-AF9 (MA9) cells decreased survival and induced differentiation of the clonogenic leukemia-initiating cells. We show that MLL-AF9 leukemia cells maintain cell polarity in the context of elevated Cdc42-guanosine triphosphate activity, similar to nonmalignant, young HSC/Ps. The loss of Cdc42 resulted in a shift to depolarized AML cells that is associated with a decrease in the frequency of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions producing daughter cells capable of self-renewal. Importantly, we demonstrate that inducible CDC42 suppression in primary human AML cells blocks leukemia progression in a xenograft model. Thus, CDC42 loss suppresses AML cell polarity and division asymmetry, and CDC42 constitutes a useful target to alter leukemia-initiating cell fate for differentiation therapy. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. HIV Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  12. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Application CDC Legionella Healthy Swimming CDC Vessel Sanitation Program Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks (URDO) European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) Prevention Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  13. Articles Published and Downloaded by Public Health Scientists: Analysis of Data From the CDC Public Health Library, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Bang, Gail; Stupp, Emma; Connick, Kathy; Gomez, Onnalee; Gidudu, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To describe scientific information usage and publication patterns of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Public Health Library and Information Center patrons. Administratively collected patron usage data and aggregate data on CDC-authored publications from the CDC Library for 3 consecutive years were analyzed. The CDC Public Health Library and Information Center, which serves CDC employees nationally and internationally. Internal patrons and external users of the CDC Library. Three-year trends in full-text article publication and downloads including most common journals used for each purpose, systematic literature searches requested and completed, and subscriptions to a weekly public health current literature awareness service. From 2011 to 2013, CDC scientists published a total of 7718 articles in the peer-reviewed literature. During the same period, article downloads from the CDC Library increased 25% to more than 1.1 million, completed requests for reviews of the scientific literature increased by 34%, and electronic subscriptions to literature compilation services increased by 23%. CDC's scientific output and information use via the CDC Library are both increasing. Researchers and field staff are making greater use of literature review services and other customized information content delivery. Virtual public health library access is an increasingly important resource for the scientific practice of public health.

  14. CDC73-Related Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Case Detection in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuin, Karin; Tops, Carli M. J.; Adank, Muriel A.; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Hamdy, Neveen A. T.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.; Menko, Fred H.; van Nesselrooij, Bernadette P. M.; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Valk, Gerlof D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Hes, Frederik J.; Morreau, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Context: Heterozygous pathogenic germline variants in CDC73 predispose to the development of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and, less frequently, ossifying fibroma of the jaw and renal and uterine tumors. Clinical information on CDC73-related disorders has so far been limited to small case

  15. CDC Vital Signs-Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-06

    This podcast is based on the October 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Hospitals can implement the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding to be designated as "Baby-Friendly" and support more moms in a decision to breastfeed.  Created: 10/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/6/2015.

  16. CDC Vital Signs-Safer Food Saves Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This podcast is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  17. CDC Vital Signs-Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  18. Faculty Development--An Ounce of Prevention...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robert F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses areas of concern for faculty development in the sciences, including: (1) knowledge of computers, (2) subject matter knowledge; (3) correlation of the delivery of faculty development programs with individual needs, (4) responsibility for science faculty development in terms of available supports. (CS)

  19. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  20. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  1. African Development of AIDS Prevention Trials (ADAPT2) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Development of AIDS Prevention Trials (ADAPT2) capacity building initiative is an African-Canadian partnership that aims to increase the number and quality of HIV prevention trials led by African researchers. Building on experience gained during ADAPT1 - funded by the Global Health Research Initiative ...

  2. African Development of AIDS Prevention Trials (ADAPT2) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Development of AIDS Prevention Trials (ADAPT2) capacity building initiative is an African-Canadian partnership that aims to increase the number and quality of HIV prevention trials led by African researchers. Building on experience gained during ADAPT1 - funded by the Global Health Research Initiative ...

  3. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future

  4. Preventing Stress in Organizations How to Develop Positive Managers

    CERN Document Server

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma; Yarker, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Preventing Stress in Organizations:How to Develop Positive Managersoffers an innovative, evidence-based approach to help managers prevent and reduce workplace stress in their staff.Provides information on the critical skills managers must develop in order to prevent stress in their staff, and the key ongoing behaviours that promote a healthy work environmentShows practitioners in occupational psychology, HR, Health and Safety and related professions how positive management can be integrated into an organization???s existing practices and processesServes as an essential guide for managers thems

  5. Characterization of the federal workforce at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Fátima; Polite, Markeiya; Glynn, M Kathleen; Massoudi, Mehran S; Sohani, Med M; Koo, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Studies characterizing the public health workforce are needed for providing the evidence on which to base planning and policy decision making both for workforce staffing and for addressing uncertainties regarding organizing, financing, and delivering effective public health strategies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading the enumeration of the US public health workforce with an initial focus on CDC as the leading federal public health agency. To characterize CDC's workforce, assess retirement eligibility and potential staff losses, and contribute these data as the federal component of national enumeration efforts. Two sources containing data related to CDC employees were analyzed. CDC's workforce was characterized by using data elements recommended for public health workforce enumeration and categorized the occupations of CDC staff into 15 standard occupational classifications by using position titles. Retirement eligibility and potential staffing losses were analyzed by using 1-, 3-, and 5-year increments and compared these data across occupational classifications to determine the future impact of potential loss of workforce. As of the first quarter of calendar year 2012, a total 11 223 persons were working at CDC; 10 316 were civil servants, and 907 were Commissioned Corps officers. Women accounted for 61%. Public health managers, laboratory workers, and administrative-clerical staff comprised the top 3 most common occupational classifications among CDC staff. Sixteen percent of the workforce was eligible to retire by December 2012, and more than 30% will be eligible to retire by December 2017. This study represents the first characterization of CDC's workforce and provides an evidence base upon which to develop policies for ensuring an ongoing ability to fulfill the CDC mission of maintaining and strengthening the public's health. Establishing a system for continually monitoring the public health workforce will support future efforts

  6. CDC Vital Signs–Think Sepsis. Time Matters.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    This podcast is based on the August 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Sepsis is a medical emergency and can happen quickly. Learn the signs of sepsis and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  7. CDC Vital Signs–Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-10

    This podcast is based on the November 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. There is a long list of cancers linked to tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of cancer and cancer deaths. Learn more here.  Created: 11/10/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/10/2016.

  8. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  9. Development of laser preventive maintenance technology and application for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, M.; Saeki, R.; Kato, H.; Chida, I.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a laser peening technology to prevent the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on nuclear reactor in-core components. Since 2004, we started to apply it to PWRs and have practiced it three times successfully for Ikata-1,2 of Shikoku Electric Power Company as the SCC preventive maintenance technology for Alloy 600 materials. It is expected the laser peening technology will be applied to many other plants. (author)

  10. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  11. The main issues preventing Kosovo’s economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Demir Lima

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of several problematic factors preventing Kosovo’s economic development. Several sectors that could have been the main pillars of economic development, such as manufacturing, energy, mines and minerals, and other economic sectors have been neglected from the development by domestic institutions or were used clandestinely by certain interest groups, whose focus was not in the development of the country but rather their personal gain. Trade remained the preferred...

  12. AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community : Policy Research and Decision Support. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is at the epicentre of the AIDS pandemic. The regional adult HIV prevalence is approximately 11%, twice the average in other African countries. Scores of ...

  13. Science in Emergency Response at CDC: Structure and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Rose, Dale A; Ghiya, Neelam D

    2017-09-01

    Recent high-profile activations of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) include responses to the West African Ebola and Zika virus epidemics. Within the EOC, emergency responses are organized according to the Incident Management System, which provides a standardized structure and chain of command, regardless of whether the EOC activation occurs in response to an outbreak, natural disaster, or other type of public health emergency. By embedding key scientific roles, such as the associate director for science, and functions within a Scientific Response Section, the current CDC emergency response structure ensures that both urgent and important science issues receive needed attention. Key functions during emergency responses include internal coordination of scientific work, data management, information dissemination, and scientific publication. We describe a case example involving the ongoing Zika virus response that demonstrates how the scientific response structure can be used to rapidly produce high-quality science needed to answer urgent public health questions and guide policy. Within the context of emergency response, longer-term priorities at CDC include both streamlining administrative requirements and funding mechanisms for scientific research.

  14. Structure-based development of novel triazoles and related thiazolotriazoles as anticancer agents and Cdc25A/B phosphatase inhibitors. Synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation, molecular docking and in silico ADME-T studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostom, Sherif A F; Badr, Mona H; Abd El Razik, Heba A; Ashour, Hayam M A

    2017-10-20

    Synthesis of twenty nine new 1,2,4-triazoles and some derived thiazolothiadiazoles (structurally-relevant to some reported triazoles with anticancer and/or Cdc25A/B inhibitory activities) is described in this study. The obtained NCI's in vitro antitumor data revealed that five analogs (12, 15, 18, 19 and 22) displayed considerable tumor percentage growth inhibitory activity (GI%), among which the analog 18 possessed a special antitumor potential and spectrum. Additionally, the same five analogs showed a marginal GI effect on the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A indicating higher selectivity towards cancer cells. The same active analogs 12, 15, 18, 19 and 22 were further assessed for their in vitro Cdc25A/B phosphatase inhibitory activity (a possible antitumor target), where 18 and 22 displayed a distinctive inhibitory affinity towards the Cdc25B isozyme (6.7 and 8.4 μM, respectively). Docking of 12, 15, 18, 19 and 22 with the active site of human Cdc25B phosphatase enzyme demonstrated superior binding profile by the top-scoring analog 18 relative to a reported Cdc25 phosphatase ligand. In silico calculations of molecular properties revealed that all of the active compounds comply with Lipinski's RO5 and Veber's criteria for good bioavailability suggesting good drug-likeness upon oral administration with a predicted high safety profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequent alterations of SLIT2–ROBO1–CDC42 signalling pathway ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-07

    CDC42 signalling pathways in development of breast cancer (BC). Primary BC samples (n = 150), comprising of almost equal proportion of four subtypes were tested for molecu- lar alterations of SLIT2, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ...

  16. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  17. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  18. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  19. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  20. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  1. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  2. CDC WONDER: AIDS Public Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AIDS Public Information Data Set (APIDS) for years 1981-2002 on CDC WONDER online database contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases...

  3. CDC WONDER: Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS) on CDC WONDER contains information on verified tuberculosis (TB) cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control...

  4. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  5. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  6. Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.

  7. Communications and Web services: What do CDC users desire in partner relationship management and does CDC's PHIN Directory meet the need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, Maria A; Savel, Thomas G

    2006-01-01

    The National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sought to establish a database to proactively manage their partner relationships with external organizations. A user needs analysis was conducted, and CDC's Public Health Information Network Directory (PHINDIR) was evaluated as a possible solution. PHINDIR could sufficiently maintain contact information but did not address customer relationships; however, its flexible architecture allows add-on applications via web services. Thus, NCBDDD's needs could be met via PHINDIR.

  8. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Hieftje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process of developing the risk reduction and HIV prevention videogame intervention for young adolescents, PlayForward: Elm City Stories. 

  9. Genetic deletion of cdc42 reveals a crucial role for astrocyte recruitment to the injury site in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robel, Stefanie; Bardehle, Sophia; Lepier, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    signals, the small RhoGTPase Cdc42, selectively in mouse astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used an in vitro scratch assay as a minimal wounding model and found that astrocytes lacking Cdc42 (Cdc42Δ) were still able to form protrusions, although in a nonoriented way. Consequently, they failed to migrate...... in a directed manner toward the scratch. When animals were injured in vivo through a stab wound, Cdc42Δ astrocytes developed protrusions properly oriented toward the lesion, but the number of astrocytes recruited to the lesion site was significantly reduced. Surprisingly, however, lesions in Cdc42Δ animals...

  10. Vaccines to prevent pneumonia in children - a developing country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliwa, Jacquie N; Marais, Ben J

    2017-03-01

    Pneumonia accounted for 15% of the 6.3 million deaths among children younger than five years in 2013, a total of approximately 935,000 deaths worldwide. Routine vaccination against common childhood illnesses has been identified as one of the most cost-effective strategies to prevent death from pneumonia. Vaccine-preventable or potentially preventable diseases commonly linked with respiratory tract infections include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza type-b (Hib), pertussis, influenza, measles, and tuberculosis. Although here have been great strides in the development and administration of effective vaccines, the countries that carry the largest disease burdens still struggle to vaccinate their children and newer conjugated vaccines remain out of reach for many. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) has identified priority areas for innovation in research in all aspects of immunisation development and delivery to ensure equitable access to vaccines for all. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of CDC25 as a Common Therapeutic Target for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: CDK4/6 inhibitors are effective against cancer cells expressing the tumor suppressor RB1, but not RB1-deficient cells, posing the challenge of how to target RB1 loss. In triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, RB1 and PTEN are frequently inactivated together with TP53. We performed kinome/phosphatase inhibitor screens on primary mouse Rb/p53-, Pten/p53-, and human RB1/PTEN/TP53-deficient TNBC cell lines and identified CDC25 phosphatase as a common target. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CDC25 suppressed growth of RB1-deficient TNBC cells that are resistant to combined CDK4/6 plus CDK2 inhibition. Minimal cooperation was observed in vitro between CDC25 antagonists and CDK1, CDK2, or CDK4/6 inhibitors, but strong synergy with WEE1 inhibition was apparent. In accordance with increased PI3K signaling following long-term CDC25 inhibition, CDC25 and PI3K inhibitors effectively synergized to suppress TNBC growth both in vitro and in xenotransplantation models. These results provide a rationale for the development of CDC25-based therapies for diverse RB1/PTEN/TP53-deficient and -proficient TNBCs. : Liu et al. report that inhibition of the protein phosphatase CDC25 kills diverse triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC cells. Moreover, CDC25 antagonists cooperate with other drugs, such as PI3K inhibitors, to efficiently suppress growth of human TNBC engrafted into mice. Keywords: triple negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, therapy, RB1, PTEN, TP53, CDC25, WEE1, CHK1, checkpoint control

  12. RCPL1: a program to prepare neutron and photon cross-section libraries for RCP01 (LWBR Development Program). [In FORTRAN for CDC 6600 or 7600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dralle, A V; Candelore, N R; Gast, R C

    1978-08-01

    RCPL1 is a FORTRAN digital computer program designed and developed to prepare neutron and photon cross section libraries for the RCP01 Monte Carlo computer program for solving neutron and photon transport problems in three-dimensional geometry with detailed energy description. The neutron libraries prepared by RCPL1 contain detailed Doppler-broadened resonance cross sections from unresolved and either single-level or multilevel resonance parameters, for any number of nuclides, within an arbitrary energy structure, and the photon libraries contain tabulations of the interaction cross sections and gamma emission spectra. This report describes the various RCPL1 program options, calculational details, and input requirements. All data used for library construction are extracted from a multigroup cross section library system XAP, described in an appendix to the report, which contains Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) data. 5 figures, 6 tables.

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living HIV / AIDS Injury, Violence & Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... Child Injury Prevention Protect the Ones You Love Color Me Safe Child Injury: What You Need to ...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... youth should not drink alcohol. Support effective community strategies to prevent binge drinking, such as those recommended by the Community Guide.* Support local control of the marketing and sale of alcohol. Support the minimum legal drinking age ...

  15. 75 FR 63844 - Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment..., Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-07, Atlanta, Georgia 30333...

  16. Conserved CDC20 cell cycle functions are carried out by two of the five isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kevei

    Full Text Available The CDC20 and Cdh1/CCS52 proteins are substrate determinants and activators of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C E3 ubiquitin ligase and as such they control the mitotic cell cycle by targeting the degradation of various cell cycle regulators. In yeasts and animals the main CDC20 function is the destruction of securin and mitotic cyclins. Plants have multiple CDC20 gene copies whose functions have not been explored yet. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are five CDC20 isoforms and here we aimed at defining their contribution to cell cycle regulation, substrate selectivity and plant development.Studying the gene structure and phylogeny of plant CDC20s, the expression of the five AtCDC20 gene copies and their interactions with the APC/C subunit APC10, the CCS52 proteins, components of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC and mitotic cyclin substrates, conserved CDC20 functions could be assigned for AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2. The other three intron-less genes were silent and specific for Arabidopsis. We show that AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2 are components of the MCC and interact with mitotic cyclins with unexpected specificity. AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2 are expressed in meristems, organ primordia and AtCDC20.1 also in pollen grains and developing seeds. Knocking down both genes simultaneously by RNAi resulted in severe delay in plant development and male sterility. In these lines, the meristem size was reduced while the cell size and ploidy levels were unaffected indicating that the lower cell number and likely slowdown of the cell cycle are the cause of reduced plant growth.The intron-containing CDC20 gene copies provide conserved and redundant functions for cell cycle progression in plants and are required for meristem maintenance, plant growth and male gametophyte formation. The Arabidopsis-specific intron-less genes are possibly "retrogenes" and have hitherto undefined functions or are pseudogenes.

  17. Chk1 regulates the S phase checkpoint by coupling the physiological turnover and ionizing radiation-induced accelerated proteolysis of Cdc25A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Syljuåsen, Randi G; Falck, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Chk1 kinase coordinates cell cycle progression and preserves genome integrity. Here, we show that chemical or genetic ablation of human Chk1 triggered supraphysiological accumulation of the S phase-promoting Cdc25A phosphatase, prevented ionizing radiation (IR)-induced degradation of Cdc25A...

  18. Development of Overflow-Prevention Valve with Trigger Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Yuji; Mizuno, Takeshi; Takasaki, Masaya

    2016-09-01

    A new overflow-prevention valve for combustible fluid is developed which uses a trigger mechanism. Loading arms for combustible fluid are used for transferring oil from a tanker to tanks and vice versa. The loading arm has a valve for preventing overflow. Overflow- prevention valves cannot use any electric component to avoid combustion. Therefore, the valve must be constructed only by mechanical parts. The conventional overflow-prevention valve uses fluid and pneumatic forces. It consists of a sensor probe, a cylinder, a main valve for shutting off the fluid and a locking mechanism for holding an open state of the main valve. The proposed overflow-prevention valve uses the pressure due to the height difference between the fluid level of the tank and the sensor probe. However, the force of the cylinder produced by the pressure is too small to release the locking mechanism. Therefore, a trigger mechanism is introduced between the cylinder and the locking mechanism. The trigger mechanism produces sufficient force to release the locking mechanism and close the main valve when the height of fluid exceeds a threshold value. A trigger mechanism is designed and fabricated. The operation necessary for closing the main valve is conformed experimentally.

  19. Development of quality metrics for ambulatory pediatric cardiology: Infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Barrett, Cindy S; Franklin, Wayne H; Graham, Eric M; Halnon, Nancy J; Hattendorf, Brandy A; Krawczeski, Catherine D; McGovern, James J; O'Connor, Matthew J; Schultz, Amy H; Vinocur, Jeffrey M; Chowdhury, Devyani; Anderson, Jeffrey B

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the American College of Cardiology's (ACC) Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council established a program to develop quality metrics to guide ambulatory practices for pediatric cardiology. The council chose five areas on which to focus their efforts; chest pain, Kawasaki Disease, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch, and infection prevention. Here, we sought to describe the process, evaluation, and results of the Infection Prevention Committee's metric design process. The infection prevention metrics team consisted of 12 members from 11 institutions in North America. The group agreed to work on specific infection prevention topics including antibiotic prophylaxis for endocarditis, rheumatic fever, and asplenia/hyposplenism; influenza vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis (palivizumab); preoperative methods to reduce intraoperative infections; vaccinations after cardiopulmonary bypass; hand hygiene; and testing to identify splenic function in patients with heterotaxy. An extensive literature review was performed. When available, previously published guidelines were used fully in determining metrics. The committee chose eight metrics to submit to the ACC Quality Metric Expert Panel for review. Ultimately, metrics regarding hand hygiene and influenza vaccination recommendation for patients did not pass the RAND analysis. Both endocarditis prophylaxis metrics and the RSV/palivizumab metric passed the RAND analysis but fell out during the open comment period. Three metrics passed all analyses, including those for antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with heterotaxy/asplenia, for influenza vaccination compliance in healthcare personnel, and for adherence to recommended regimens of secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. The lack of convincing data to guide quality improvement initiatives in pediatric cardiology is widespread, particularly in infection prevention. Despite this, three metrics were

  20. Regulated degradation of the APC coactivator Cdc20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins Jonathan A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cdc20 is a highly conserved activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC, promoting cell-cycle-regulated ubiquitination and proteolysis of a number of critical cell-cycle-regulatory targets including securin and mitotic cyclins. APC-Cdc20 activity is tightly regulated, and this regulation is likely important for accurate cell cycle control. One significant component of Cdc20 regulation is thought to be Cdc20 proteolysis. However, published literature suggests different mechanisms and requirements for Cdc20 proteolysis. The degree to which Cdc20 proteolysis is cell-cycle regulated, the dependence of Cdc20 proteolysis on Cdc20 destruction boxes (recognition sequences for APC-mediated ubiqutination, either by Cdc20 or by the related Cdh1 APC activator, and the need for APC itself for Cdc20 proteolysis all have been disputed to varying extents. In animals, Cdc20 proteolysis is thought to be mediated by Cdh1, contributing an intrinsic order of APC activation by Cdc20 and then by Cdh1. One report suggests a Cdh1 requirement for Cdc20 proteolysis in budding yeast; this idea has not been tested further. Results We characterized Cdc20 proteolysis using Cdc20 expressed from its endogenous locus; previous studies generally employed strongly overexpressed Cdc20, which can cause significant artifacts. We analyzed Cdc20 proteolysis with or without mutations in previously identified destruction box sequences, using varying methods of cell cycle synchronization, and in the presence or absence of Cdh1. Cdc20 instability is only partially dependent on destruction boxes. A much stronger dependence on Cdh1 for Cdc20 proteolysis was observed, but Cdh1-independent proteolysis was also clearly observed. Cdc20 proteolysis independent of both destruction boxes and Cdh1 was especially detectable around the G1/S transition; Cdh1-dependent proteolysis was most notable in late mitosis and G1. Conclusions Cdc20 proteolysis is under complex control

  1. Prevention and control of hypertension: developing a global agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Niebylski, Mark L

    2014-07-01

    This review demonstrates the need for enhancing strategic approaches to the prevention and control of hypertension, a global health issue. An epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases is threatening national healthcare systems' sustainability and the economy of many countries. Increased blood pressure is the leading risk for premature death and disability and accounts for approximately 10% of healthcare spending. Four of nine recent United Nations' targets for reducing chronic noncommunicable diseases relate directly or indirectly to hypertension. The expanded chronic care model provides a comprehensive framework for developing hypertension prevention and control strategies. The model addresses the roles of healthy public policy, healthy living environments, healthy communities, reorientation of health services delivery toward management of chronic illness, support for improving clinical decisions, enhanced skills of people to prevent and self-manage chronic disease, partnerships of stakeholders and information systems to track the impact of interventions and identify care 'gaps'. The authors advocate that hypertension organizations can lead aspects of hypertension strategy development and implementation. Prevention and control of hypertension requires a strategic approach that could have a central role for hypertension experts and the hypertension community.

  2. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  3. Recent developments in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in a wide variety of research and development, remediation, and production activities at more than 100 sites throughout the United States. The wastes generated cover a diverse spectrum of sanitary, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams, including typical office environments, power generation facilities, laboratories, remediation sites, production facilities, and defense facilities. The DOE's initial waste minimization activities pre-date the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and focused on the defense program. Little emphasis was placed on nonproduction activities. In 1991 the Office of Waste Management Operations developed the Waste Minimization Division with the intention of coordinating and expanding the waste minimization pollution prevention approach to the entire complex. The diverse nature of DOE activities has led to several unique problems in addressing the needs of waste minimization and pollution prevention. The first problem is developing a program that addresses the geographical and institutional hurdles that exist; the second is developing a monitoring and reporting mechanism that one can use to assess the overall performance of the program

  4. Through a public health lens. Preventing violence against women: an update from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffunder, Corinne M; Noonan, Rita K; Cox, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been a key contributor to the growing public health effort to prevent violence. Although CDC and its partners are proud of their many successes, much work remains to be done. Violence continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide for people aged 15-44. Moreover, although many forms of violence garner national concern and resources, much more violence occurs in private domains and receives less attention. These hidden health hazards silently drain our nation's human, economic, and health resources. In this paper, we highlight the current efforts of the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP), housed within CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), to use a public health approach to the prevention of one key hidden health hazard: violence against women (VAW). Building from a recently developed strategic plan and a research agenda, we explain how four core public health principles--emphasizing primary prevention, advancing the science of prevention, translating science into effective programs, and building on the efforts of others--drive current programmatic activities in VAW prevention. Several current programs and projects are described. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future prevention work by deepening our vision of leadership, expanding our partnerships, pursuing comprehensive approaches, and using evidence-based strategies.

  5. Perceptions of capacity for infectious disease control and prevention to meet the challenges of dengue fever in the face of climate change: A survey among CDC staff in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Cameron, Scott; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is an important climate-sensitive mosquito-borne viral disease that poses a risk to half the world's population. The disease is a major public health issue in China where in 2014 a major outbreak occurred in Guangdong Province. This study aims to gauge health professionals' perceptions about the capacity of infectious disease control and prevention to meet the challenge of dengue fever in the face of climate change in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered among staff in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) in Guangdong Province. Data analysis was undertaken using descriptive methods and logistic regression. In total, 260 questionnaires were completed. Most participants (80.7%) thought climate change would have a negative effect on population health, and 98.4% of participants reported dengue fever had emerged or re-emerged in China in recent years. Additionally, 74.9% of them indicated that the capability of the CDCs to detect infectious disease outbreak/epidemic at an early stage was excellent; 86.3% indicated laboratories could provide diagnostic support rapidly; and 83.1% believed levels of current staff would be adequate in the event of a major outbreak. Logistic regression analysis showed higher levels of CDCs were perceived to have better capacity for infectious disease control and prevention. Only 26.8% of participants thought they had a good understanding of climate change, and most (85.4%) thought they needed more information about the health impacts of climate change. Most surveyed staff suggested the following strategies to curb the public health impact of infectious diseases in relation to climate change: primary prevention measures, strengthening the monitoring of infectious diseases, the ability to actively forecast disease outbreaks by early warning systems, and more funding for public health education programs. Vigilant disease and vector surveillance, preventive practice and

  6. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control...

  7. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Rob; Clay-Farrace, Lori; van Zon, Wouter; Yekezare, Mona; Koop, Lars; Ogink, Janneke; Medema, Rene; Pines, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Successful mitosis requires the right protein be degraded at the right time. Central to this is the spindle checkpoint that prevents the destruction of securin and cyclin 131 when there are improperly attached chromosomes. The principal target of the checkpoint is Cdc20, which activates the

  8. Developing the @MINDSET Conflict Prevention Programme in Schools.

    OpenAIRE

    FLETCHER, Bobbie; EMADI-COFFIN, Barbara; HETHERINGTON, Janet

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines issues of conflict in schools by using a systems approach based on the Hackman and Morris (1975) Input-Process-Output Model of group performance and Granovetter’s multiple level perspective on macro, meso and micro group levels (1973). This analysis informs the understanding of a school as a community in order to further develop the diversity management programme for the @MINDSET Erasmus+ project. The @MINDSET Conflict Prevention Programme is based on the extensive work of...

  9. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Hieftje; Lynn E. Fiellin; Tyra Pendergrass; Lindsay R Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process...

  10. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: development, rupture and preventive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Nima; Rinkel, Gabriel J

    2016-12-01

    Saccular unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) have a prevalence of 3% in the adult population, and are being increasingly detected because of improved quality and higher frequency of cranial imaging. Large amounts of data, providing varying levels of evidence, have been published on aneurysm development, progression and rupture, but less information is available on the risks and efficacy of preventive treatment. When deciding how to best manage UIAs, clinicians must consider the age and life expectancy of the patient, the estimated risk of rupture, the risk of complications attributed to preventive treatment, and the level of anxiety caused by the awareness of having an aneurysm. This Review highlights the latest human data on the formation, progression and rupture of intracranial aneurysms, as well as risks associated with preventive treatment. Considering these we discuss the implication for clinical management. Furthermore, we highlight pivotal questions arising from current data on intracranial aneurysms and the implications the data have for future experimental or clinical research. We also discuss data on novel radiological surrogates for rupture for those aneurysms that do not require preventive occlusion. Finally, we provide guidance for clinicians who are confronted with patients with incidentally detected UIAs.

  11. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  12. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  13. Preventing Stroke Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Higher opioid prescribing puts patients at risk for addiction and overdose. Learn what can be done about this serious problem.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  14. CDC-reported assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates may mislead the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Choi, Jennifer; Darmon, Sarah K; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publicly reports assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates (LBR) for each US fertility clinic under legal mandate. The 2014 CDC report excluded 35,406 of 184,527 (19.2%) autologous assisted reproductive technology cycles that involved embryo or oocyte banking from LBR calculations. This study calculated 2014 total clinic LBR for all patients utilizing autologous oocytes two ways: including all initiated assisted reproductive technology cycles or excluding banking cycles, as done by the CDC. The main limitation of this analysis is the CDC report did not differentiate between cycles involving long-term banking of embryos or oocytes for fertility preservation from cycles involving short-term embryo banking. Twenty-seven of 458 (6%) clinics reported over 40% of autologous cycles involved banking, collectively performing 12% of all US assisted reproductive technology cycles. LBR in these outlier clinics calculated by the CDC method, was higher than the other 94% of clinics (33.1% versus 31.1%). However, recalculated LBR including banking cycles in the outlier clinics was lower than the other 94% of clinics (15.5% versus 26.6%). LBR calculated by the two methods increasingly diverged based on proportion of banking cycles performed by each clinic reaching 4.5-fold, thereby, potentially misleading the public. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... every trip, no matter how short. Obey speed limits. Never use a cell phone or text while driving. Parents can Understand that most teens ... teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get your copy of CDC's parent-teen driving ...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Heart Diseases MedlinePlus – Coronary Artery Disease MedlinePlus – High Blood Pressure MedlinePlus – Dietary Sodium ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  17. Predisposition for and prevention of subjective tinnitus development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Ahlf

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of the inner ear as caused by presbyacusis, injuries or noise traumata may result in subjective tinnitus, but not everyone suffering from one of these diseases develops a tinnitus percept and vice versa. The reasons for these individual differences are still unclear and may explain why different treatments of the disease are beneficial for some patients but not for others. Here we for the first time compare behavioral and neurophysiological data from hearing impaired Mongolian gerbils with (T and without (NT a tinnitus percept that may elucidate why some specimen do develop subjective tinnitus after noise trauma while others do not. Although noise trauma induced a similar permanent hearing loss in all animals, tinnitus did develop only in about three quarters of these animals. NT animals showed higher overall cortical and auditory brainstem activity before noise trauma compared to T animals; that is, animals with low overall neuronal activity in the auditory system seem to be prone to develop tinnitus after noise trauma. Furthermore, T animals showed increased activity of cortical neurons representing the tinnitus frequencies after acoustic trauma, whereas NT animals exhibited an activity decrease at moderate sound intensities by that time. Spontaneous activity was generally increased in T but decreased in NT animals. Plastic changes of tonotopic organization were transient, only seen in T animals and vanished by the time the tinnitus percept became chronic. We propose a model for tinnitus prevention that points to a global inhibitory mechanism in auditory cortex that may prevent tinnitus genesis in animals with high overall activity in the auditory system, whereas this mechanism seems not potent enough for tinnitus prevention in animals with low overall activity.

  18. Predisposition for and prevention of subjective tinnitus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlf, Sönke; Tziridis, Konstantin; Korn, Sabine; Strohmeyer, Ilona; Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction of the inner ear as caused by presbyacusis, injuries or noise traumata may result in subjective tinnitus, but not everyone suffering from one of these diseases develops a tinnitus percept and vice versa. The reasons for these individual differences are still unclear and may explain why different treatments of the disease are beneficial for some patients but not for others. Here we for the first time compare behavioral and neurophysiological data from hearing impaired Mongolian gerbils with (T) and without (NT) a tinnitus percept that may elucidate why some specimen do develop subjective tinnitus after noise trauma while others do not. Although noise trauma induced a similar permanent hearing loss in all animals, tinnitus did develop only in about three quarters of these animals. NT animals showed higher overall cortical and auditory brainstem activity before noise trauma compared to T animals; that is, animals with low overall neuronal activity in the auditory system seem to be prone to develop tinnitus after noise trauma. Furthermore, T animals showed increased activity of cortical neurons representing the tinnitus frequencies after acoustic trauma, whereas NT animals exhibited an activity decrease at moderate sound intensities by that time. Spontaneous activity was generally increased in T but decreased in NT animals. Plastic changes of tonotopic organization were transient, only seen in T animals and vanished by the time the tinnitus percept became chronic. We propose a model for tinnitus prevention that points to a global inhibitory mechanism in auditory cortex that may prevent tinnitus genesis in animals with high overall activity in the auditory system, whereas this mechanism seems not potent enough for tinnitus prevention in animals with low overall activity.

  19. Tobacco Use Prevention for the Young (TUPY-S): Development,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zin, Faridah; Hillaluddin, Azlin Hilma; Mustaffa, Jamaludin

    2017-05-01

    Objective: This study aims to develop, validate and determine the reliability of an interactive multimedia strategy to prevent tobacco use among the young (TUPY-S) from an adolescents’ perspective. Methods: A descriptive study design was utilized. A modular instruction guideline by Russel (1974) was followed in the entire process, comprising a feasibility study, a review of existing modules, specification of the objectives, identification of the construct criterion items, learner analysis and entry behavior specification, establishment of the sequence instruction and media selection, a tryout with students and a field test. Result: Feasibility was agreed among the researchers and the school authorities. Culturally suitable rigorously developed tobacco use preventive strategies delivered using information technology (IT) are lacking in the literature. The objective of TUPY-S is to prevent tobacco use among adolescents living in Malaysia. Identified construct criterion items include knowledge, attitude, intention to use, self-efficacy, and refusal skill. The target population was early adolescents belonging to generation-Z. Content was developed from the adolescents’ perspective and delivered using IT in Malay language. Content validity, assessed by six experts in the field and module development, was good at 86%. The students’ tryout showed satisfactory face validity subjectively and objectively (85.5%) and high alpha Cronbach reliability (0.91). Conclusion: TUPY-S was confirmed to suit early adolescents of the current generation living in Malaysia. It demonstrated good content validity among the experts, satisfactory face validity and reliability among the target population. TUPY-S is ready to be evaluated for its effectiveness among early adolescents. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. CDC Vital Signs–Native Americans With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This podcast is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  1. CDC Vital Signs–Too Loud for Too Long!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Being around too much loud noise—like a leaf blower or rock concert—can cause permanent hearing loss. Learn how to prevent hearing loss.  Created: 2/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/7/2017.

  2. The main issues preventing Kosovo’s economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Lima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an analysis of several problematic factors preventing Kosovo’s economic development. Several sectors that could have been the main pillars of economic development, such as manufacturing, energy, mines and minerals, and other economic sectors have been neglected from the development by domestic institutions or were used clandestinely by certain interest groups, whose focus was not in the development of the country but rather their personal gain. Trade remained the preferred activity throughout these years, which cannot be considered a beneficial sector for economic development, as much as manufacturing, which remains to date as Kosovo’s most underdeveloped sector. As long as Kosovo’s exports cover only 12% of total imports, no economic growth can be expected. Kosovo’s failure to attract strategic investors in years, which could open new jobs, has also contributed its lack of sufficient economic development. Thus, the most concerning issue during this period is the decline in foreign direct investments, which were expected to increase after the declaration of independence. In the lack of a long-term development strategy for certain sectors or priority activities, such as mines, energy, industry etc., there is no progress in the country's economic development. The main issue is that we should only favor those activities or identify segments where we have competitive advantages compared to other countries.

  3. 13 CFR 120.851 - CDC ethical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CDC ethical requirements. 120.851... Company Loan Program (504) Other Cdc Requirements § 120.851 CDC ethical requirements. CDCs and their Associates must act ethically and exhibit good character. They must meet all of the ethical requirements of...

  4. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  5. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  6. 75 FR 14447 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory... Decision Making Regarding Allocation of Mechanical Ventilators During a Severe Influenza Pandemic.'' Other agenda items will include updates from the ACD, CDC subcommittees; CDC organizational improvement; the...

  7. Development of rock fall prevention and protection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, S. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan). Resources Dept.

    2006-03-15

    Rock falls are frequently occurring events in coal mines. They are profoundly influenced by the geological conditions of the coal mine and thus very difficult to prevent altogether. With the system that is being developed at present by JCOAL it will be possible to ascertain the roof conditions to some extent. Such prediction should make it possible to prevent major accidents that would otherwise claim lives. The use of this system is also capable of improving the efficiency of mining operations. The system under development involves a logging system for detecting cracks and discontinuities which consists of a Transmaster 1 bolting machine, a data logger and an analysis software program. Several methods are being researched to obtain data for predicting and monitoring rock fall. Field tests have been conducted at the Kushiro Coal Mine in Japan and the Ulan Coal Mine in NSW, Australia to gather data by PCs through the internet. Data from microtremors and P-wave velocities are being analysed to give early indication of rock fall. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  9. Vaccines for the prevention of dengue: development update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen J; Endy, Timothy P

    2011-06-01

    The dengue viruses (DENV) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses which cause a spectrum of clinical disease known as "dengue," and have emerged and re-emerged as a significant global health problem. It is estimated more than 120 countries currently have endemic DENV transmission, 55% of the world's population is at risk of infection, and there are between 70-500 million infections of which 2.1 million are clinically severe resulting in 21,000 deaths annually. By all estimates the global dengue problem will continue to worsen due to the increasing mobility of the population, ecological changes, and the inability to effectively sustain vector control. There are no licensed antivirals or vaccines to treat or prevent dengue. The development and widespread use of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine is required to significantly reduce the global dengue burden. In this review the authors discuss dengue vaccines currently in the pre-clinical and clinical development pipeline.

  10. Cdc48: A Swiss Army Knife of Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guem Hee Baek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cdc48 (also called VCP and p97 is an abundant protein that plays essential regulatory functions in a broad array of cellular processes. Working with various cofactors, Cdc48 utilizes its ATPase activity to promote the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. Here, we review key biological functions and regulation of Cdc48 in ubiquitin-related events. Given the broad employment of Cdc48 in cell biology and its intimate ties to human diseases (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, studies of Cdc48 will bring significant insights into the mechanism and function of ubiquitin in health and diseases.

  11. The prevention research centers' managing epilepsy well network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiIorio, Colleen K; Bamps, Yvan A; Edwards, Ariele L; Escoffery, Cam; Thompson, Nancy J; Begley, Charles E; Shegog, Ross; Clark, Noreen M; Selwa, Linda; Stoll, Shelley C; Fraser, Robert T; Ciechanowski, Paul; Johnson, Erica K; Kobau, Rosemarie; Price, Patricia H

    2010-11-01

    The Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network was created in 2007 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Prevention Research Centers and Epilepsy Program to promote epilepsy self-management research and to improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. MEW Network membership comprises four collaborating centers (Emory University, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, University of Michigan, and University of Washington), representatives from CDC, affiliate members, and community stakeholders. This article describes the MEW Network's background, mission statement, research agenda, and structure. Exploratory and intervention studies conducted by individual collaborating centers are described, as are Network collaborative projects, including a multisite depression prevention intervention and the development of a standard measure of epilepsy self-management. Communication strategies and examples of research translation programs are discussed. The conclusion outlines the Network's role in the future development and dissemination of evidence-based epilepsy self-management programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  13. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Junni, E-mail: junxinni@163.com [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hansen, Alana, E-mail: alana.hansen@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Zhang, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhang@sydney.edu.au [Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Hong [Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030001 Shanxi (China); Liu, Qiyong, E-mail: liuqiyong@icdc.cn [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Sun, Yehuan, E-mail: yhsun@sina.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui (China); Bi, Peng, E-mail: peng.bi@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  14. Educating coaches about concussion in sports: evaluation of the CDC's "Heads Up: concussion in youth sports" initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Sarmiento, Kelly

    2012-05-01

    Concussions remain a serious public health concern. It is important that persons involved in youth sports, particularly coaches, be made aware and educated on the signs and symptoms of concussion. This study assessed the perceptions of youth sport coaches who have received the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) "Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports" materials in preventing, recognizing, and responding to concussions. A 22-item survey was developed with questions pertaining to demographics, awareness of sports-related concussion, and the usefulness of the CDC's "Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports" initiative and materials. A total of 340 youth sport coaches completed the survey, for a response rate of 34.0%. All youth sport coaches reported having the "Heads Up" materials for approximately 6 months before completing the survey. Seventy-seven percent of youth sports coaches reported being better able to identify athletes who may have a concussion, with 50% reported having learned something new about concussion after reviewing the materials. Sixty-three percent of youth sport coaches viewed concussions as being more serious, while 72% of coaches reporting that they are now educating others on concussion. The "Heads Up" materials demonstrated that youth sports coaches' were able to appropriately prevent, recognize, and respond to sports-related concussions after reviewing the materials. Future studies should concentrate on evaluating the impact of concussion policies, laws and media coverage on coaches' awareness and prevention, recognition, and response to concussions using a rigorous design including a control group. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  15. Cdc42 GTPase dynamics control directional growth responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alexandra C.; Morrison, Emma; Milne, Stephen; Gonia, Sara; Gale, Cheryl A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized cells reorient their direction of growth in response to environmental cues. In the fungus Candida albicans, the Rho-family small GTPase, Cdc42, is essential for polarized hyphal growth and Ca2+ influx is required for the tropic responses of hyphae to environmental cues, but the regulatory link between these systems is unclear. In this study, the interaction between Ca2+ influx and Cdc42 polarity-complex dynamics was investigated using hyphal galvanotropic and thigmotropic responses as reporter systems. During polarity establishment in an applied electric field, cathodal emergence of hyphae was lost when either of the two Cdc42 apical recycling pathways was disrupted by deletion of Rdi1, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, or Bnr1, a formin, but was completely restored by extracellular Ca2+. Loss of the Cdc42 GTPase activating proteins, Rga2 and Bem3, also abolished cathodal polarization, but this was not rescued by Ca2+. Expression of GTP-locked Cdc42 reversed the polarity of hypha emergence from cathodal to anodal, an effect augmented by Ca2+. The cathodal directional cue therefore requires Cdc42 GTP hydrolysis. Ca2+ influx amplifies Cdc42-mediated directional growth signals, in part by augmenting Cdc42 apical trafficking. The Ca2+-binding EF-hand motif in Cdc24, the Cdc42 activator, was essential for growth in yeast cells but not in established hyphae. The Cdc24 EF-hand motif is therefore essential for polarity establishment but not for polarity maintenance. PMID:24385582

  16. Regulating Cdc42 and Its Signaling Pathways in Cancer: Small Molecules and MicroRNA as New Treatment Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xing-Hua; Lv, Lin-Chen; Duan, Jing; Wu, Ye-Meng; He, Shu-Jin; Hu, Zhen-Zhen; Xiong, Li-Xia

    2018-03-29

    Despite great improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of neoplasms, metastatic disease is still the leading cause of death in cancer patients, with mortality rates still rising. Given this background, new ways to treat cancer will be important for development of improved cancer control strategies. Cdc42 is a member of the Rho GTPase family and plays an important role in cell-to-cell adhesion, formation of cytoskeletal structures, and cell cycle regulation. It thus influences cellular proliferation, transformation, and homeostasis, as well as the cellular migration and invasion processes underlying tumor formation. Cdc42 acts as a collection point for signal transduction and regulates multiple signaling pathways. Moreover, recent studies show that in most human cancers Cdc42 is abnormally expressed and promoting neoplastic growth and metastasis. Regarding possible new treatments for cancer, miRNA and small molecules targeting Cdc42 and related pathways have been recently found to be effective on cancer. In this review, we analyze the newly recognized regulation mechanisms for Cdc42 and Cdc42-related signal pathways, and particularly new treatments using small molecules and miRNAs to inhibit the abnormal overexpression of Cdc42 that may slow down the metastasis process, improve cancer therapy and lead to novel strategies for development of antineoplastic drugs.

  17. THE CDC-CDCR DOCUMENTATION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WADDELL, M S

    1964-01-01

    A progress report on an experiment in mechanized methods for the storage and retrieval of communicable diseases information. The project, supported by National Institutes of Health grants and begun in 1958, is being conducted by the Center for Documentation and Communication Research (CDCR), School of Library Science, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, in cooperation with the Communicable Disease Center (CDC), United States Public Health Service, Atlanta, Georgia. Initial phases have been completed. Seventy-seven questions submitted by the CDC Documentation Committee have been searched by CDCR on their GE-225 computer. For seventy-three of the seventy-seven questions, the system responded with at least one appropriate answer. The combined pertinent and peripheral responses totaled 94.7 percent. The file of abstracted literature is being increased preparatory to large-scale testing. Further investigation and evaluation are necessary before the project can be fairly appraised.

  18. Assessing the impact of federal HIV prevention spending on HIV testing and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linas, Benjamin P; Zheng, Hui; Losina, Elena; Walensky, Rochelle P; Freedberg, Kenneth A

    2006-06-01

    The United States allocates more than $900 million annually for the prevention of HIV infection. We assessed the impact of this funding on HIV testing and knowledge. We linked data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with tracking of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV prevention funding. We developed and validated regression models of the relation between HIV prevention funding to a respondent's state and the odds that the respondent (1) had been tested for HIV, and (2) was aware of methods to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT). The odds of having been tested for HIV increased with increased CDC funding to states (P=.009), as did awareness of prevention of MTCT (P=.002). We estimate that CDC HIV prevention funds led to 12.8 million more people being tested for HIV between 1998 and 2003 than would have been tested had all states received funds equal to the lowest quintile of funding. Federal HIV prevention funds independently correlate with increased HIV testing and knowledge of prevention of MTCT. Proposed reductions in HIV prevention spending would likely have adverse public health consequences.

  19. Art Therapy. Prevention Against the Development of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The aim in this research study was to focus on art therapy as a method to explore the inner life as prevention against the development of depression and to address the possibility for art therapy to be used as an early intervention tool related to depression. A Jungian epistemology was used...... as a frame for the overall understanding of well-being together with a holistic approach, including the biological, psychological, social and spiritual domains in life. Art therapy processes in the clinical part of the study aimed to include all these levels as the activation of these are considered...... to support therapeutic change. A systematic literature review was carried out, and an integrative theoretical approach was used, which included evolutionary psychology, neuropsychology, analytical psychology, transformative learning and anthropology. I chose to use a bricolage methodology, consisting of (a...

  20. Development of a Lubricant Therapy to Prevent Development of Osteoarthritis after Acute Injury of Synovial Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The UCSD IACUC animal protocol (#S10018) was updated to include 3 doses of chelation therapy based on preliminary ​in vitro​ cytotoxicity...development has the project provided? Undergraduate and graduate students were trained in animal procedures, biochemical...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0562 TITLE: Development of a Lubricant Therapy to Prevent Development of Osteoarthritis after Acute Injury of Synovial

  1. The internal Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 facilitates both spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Zhang, Gang; Sedgwick, Garry G

    2014-01-01

    Improperly attached kinetochores activate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and by an unknown mechanism catalyse the binding of two checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, to Cdc20 forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Here, to address the functional role of Cdc20 kinetochore localization...... in the SAC, we delineate the molecular details of its interaction with kinetochores. We find that BubR1 recruits the bulk of Cdc20 to kinetochores through its internal Cdc20 binding domain (IC20BD). We show that preventing Cdc20 kinetochore localization by removal of the IC20BD has a limited effect...... on the SAC because the IC20BD is also required for efficient SAC silencing. Indeed, the IC20BD can disrupt the MCC providing a mechanism for its role in SAC silencing. We thus uncover an unexpected dual function of the second Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 in promoting both efficient SAC signalling and SAC...

  2. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  3. Mechanisms of Cdc42-mediated rat MSC differentiation on micro/nano-textured topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwen; Song, Yanyan; Shi, Mengqi; Du, Yuanhong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-02-01

    /nano-textured topography and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study shows that the micropitted/nanotubular hierarchical topography produced by etching and anodic oxidation treatment drives fusiform cell morphology, cytoskeletal reorganization as well as better MSCs osteogenic differentiation. The cross-talk between Cdc42 pathway and Wnt/β-catenin pathway though GSK3β modulates the osteoinductive effect of the micro/nano-textured topography on MSCs. This finding sheds light on a novel mechanism involved in micro/nano-textured surface-mediated MSCs osteogenic differentiation and is a major step in the development of new surface modifications aiming to accelerate and enhance the process of osseointegration. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunomodulatory strategies prevent the development of autoimmune emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraskauskiene Vita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies and pathogenic T cells may reflect an autoimmune component in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Whether immune modulatory strategies can protect against the development of emphysema is not known. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were immunized with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC to induce autoimmune emphysema and treated with intrathymic HUVEC-injection and pristane. Measurements of alveolar airspace enlargement, cytokine levels, immuno histochemical, western blot analysis, and T cell repertoire of the lung tissue were performed. Results The immunomodulatory strategies protected lungs against cell death as demonstrated by reduced numbers of TUNEL and active caspase-3 positive cells and reduced levels of active caspase-3, when compared with lungs from HUVEC-immunized rats. Immunomodulatory strategies also suppressed anti-endothelial antibody production and preserved CNTF, IL-1alpha and VEGF levels. The immune deviation effects of the intrathymic HUVEC-injection were associated with an expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Pristane treatment decreased the proportion of T cells expressing receptor beta-chain, Vβ16.1 in the lung tissue. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that interventions classically employed to induce central T cell tolerance (thymic inoculation of antigen or to activate innate immune responses (pristane treatment can prevent the development of autoimmune emphysema.

  5. Poverty and health among CDC plantation labourers in Cameroon: Perceptions, challenges and coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Maat, Harro; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Creating better access to good quality healthcare for the poor is a major challenge to development. In this study, we examined inter-linkages between poverty and disease, referred to as poverty-related diseases (PRDs), by investigating how Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) camp dwellers respond

  6. Hepatitis Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-27

    Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that’s usually caused by a virus. It can result in chronic illness and even death. In this podcast, Dr. Francisco Averhoff discusses hepatitis.  Created: 7/27/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/27/2017.

  7. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. The seasonal flu vaccination is the best way to protect both mother and baby. In this podcast Dr. Stacie Greby discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  8. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. This podcast discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  9. Preventing Strokes (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-05

    Strokes are the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., and they don’t just occur in older adults. This podcast discusses ways to lessen your chances of having a stroke.  Created: 6/5/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/5/2014.

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men who have sex with men (MSM) as gay or bisexual. Sexually active refers to people who have had sex in the past year. Top of Page On ... for getting HIV: 1 in 4 sexually active gay and bisexual adult men without ... unknown and Have anal sex without a condom, or Recently had a sexually ...

  11. Preventing Strokes (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-05

    Strokes are the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., and they don’t just occur in older adults. Anyone can have a stroke at any age. In this podcast, Dr. Mary George discusses ways to decrease your chances of having a stroke.  Created: 6/5/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/5/2014.

  12. HPV Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-07

    Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a virus that can cause certain cancers and is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. In this podcast, Dr. Laura Viens discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against HPV.  Created: 7/7/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/7/2016.

  13. HPV Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-07

    Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. and is associated with almost 39,000 cancers each year. This podcast discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/7/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/7/2016.

  14. Evidence and the Politics of Deimplementation: The Rise and Decline of the "Counseling and Testing" Paradigm for HIV Prevention at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, David Merritt; Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L

    2016-03-01

    In situations of scientific uncertainty, public health interventions, such as counseling for HIV infection, sometimes must be implemented before obtaining evidence of efficacy. The history of HIV counseling and testing, which served as the cornerstone of HIV prevention efforts at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for a quarter of a century, illustrates the influence of institutional resistance on public health decision making and the challenge of de-implementing well-established programs. In 1985, amid uncertainty about the accuracy of the new test for HIV, public health officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and AIDS activists agreed that counseling should always be provided both before and after testing to ensure that patients were tested voluntarily and understood the meaning of their results. As the "exceptionalist" perspective that framed HIV in the early years began to recede, the purpose of HIV test counseling shifted over the next 30 years from emphasizing consent, to providing information, to encouraging behavioral change. With this increasing emphasis on prevention, HIV test counseling faced mounting doubts about whether it "worked." The CDC finally discontinued its preferred test counseling approach in October 2014. Drawing on key informant interviews with current and former CDC officials, behavioral scientists, AIDS activists, and others, along with archival material, news reports, and scientific and governmental publications, we examined the origins, development, and decline of the CDC's "counseling and testing" paradigm for HIV prevention. Disagreements within the CDC emerged by the 1990s over whether test counseling could be justified on the basis of efficacy and cost. Resistance to the prospect of policy change by supporters of test counseling in the CDC, gay activists for whom counseling carried important ethical and symbolic meanings, and community organizations dependent on federal funding made it

  15. Abortion surveillance at CDC: creating public health light out of political heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, W; Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F

    2000-07-01

    In the late 1960s, states began to liberalize their abortion laws, and a new era in women's health began. Under the leadership of Jack Smith, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established a voluntary abortion surveillance system that provided the first nationwide information on the numbers and characteristics of women having abortions. Studies of abortion morbidity done by the CDC revealed that suction curettage was safer than sharp curettage, local anesthesia was safer than general anesthesia, free-standing clinics were safer than hospitals, and dilation and evacuation (D&E) was safer than the alternative of labor induction for early second-trimester abortions. This evidence, which contradicted traditional medical tenets, rapidly changed the practice of abortion in the United States. CDC also established a surveillance system for abortion deaths. This demonstrated a rapid improvement in the safety of abortion in the early 1970s. Lessons learned from mortality investigations helped to change practice as well.Today, more is known about the epidemiology of abortion than any other operation in the history of medicine. In the midst of strident debate over the abortion issue, CDC abortion surveillance data have helped to guide judicial rulings, legislative actions, and Surgeon General's reports, which have supported safer choices for women of reproductive age. When medical historians of the future look back on this century, the increasing availability of safe, legal abortion will stand out as a public health triumph.

  16. Experience in programming Assembly language of CDC CYBER 170/750 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, A.D.

    1987-10-01

    Aiming to optimize processing time of BCG computer code in the CDC CYBER 170/750 computer, the FORTRAN-V language of INTERP subroutine was converted to Assembly language. The BCG code was developed for solving neutron transport equation by iterative method, and the INTERP subroutine is innermost loop of the code carrying out 5 interpolation types. The central processor unit Assembly language of the CDC CYBER 170/750 computer and its application in implementing the interpolation subroutine of BCG code are described. (M.C.K.)

  17. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  19. The Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) Model: Developing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Susan J.; Gieck, Joe; Fang, Wei Li; Freedman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD p...

  20. CDC Vital Signs–HIV and Injection Drug Use

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-29

    This podcast is based on the December 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Sharing needles, syringes, and other injection equipment puts you at risk for getting HIV and other infections, including hepatitis. Learn how to reduce your HIV risk.  Created: 11/29/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Tuberculosis Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/29/2016.

  1. CDC Signos Vitales: Piense en la septicemia. El tiempo es crucial. (Think Sepsis. Time Matters.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de agosto del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. La septicemia es una emergencia médica y puede ocurrir rápidamente. Conozca los signos de la septicemia y la forma de prevenirla.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  2. CDC Vital Signs–Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE BEVERAGE INDUSTRY PREVENTIVE ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nepovinnykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Market demand for foods with low fat content has been expanding, but for low-fat foods good organoleptic properties need new food ingredients and solutions. Food hydrocolloids, polysaccharides and milk proteins, now are widely used in various industries, including the dairy industry, performing various functions: to thicken aqueous solutions, foaming and stabilizing foams and others. We studied the functional and technological properties and developed technology of new types of oxygencontaining beverages (smoothies on the basis of cheese whey, natural fruit and berry juices and purees and dietary fibres «Citri-Fi», including non-starch polysaccharides (guar gum and xanthan gum, contributing to the formation of a specific texture and drink as stabilizers oxygen foam. When creating new kinds of smoothies performed construction flavored beverage profile, the definition of rational parameters of preparation and entering dietary fibres; selection of the optimal concentration of dietary fiber for the formation of the desired consistency (texture drink; study of quality and safety of new types of drinks and justification expiration dates. Based on the studies found that the use as stabilizers structure oxygen smoothie dietary fibres «Citri-Fi» in concentrations of 0.8 – 1 % and non-starch polysaccharides at concentrations of 0.1 - 0.3 % contributes to the production of foams drinks with a sufficiently high magnification. Increasing the dose of dietary fibres in making smoothies viscosity increases and weighting system, drink bad whipped, there is separation of the product into phases, the system becomes thermodynamically unstable. Production technology and recipes for new types of smoothies with dietary fibres. Preventive orientation developed oxygenated drinks allows to include them in the diet of patients with chronic heart failure, which is confirmed by appropriate investigations.

  4. Perseguir al SRAG: CDC en acción (Stalking SARS: CDC at Work)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-29

    En este podcast los niños de Kidtastics hablan sobre el brote del SRAS y cómo trabajaron los CDC para resolver el misterio.  Created: 4/29/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/10/2016.

  5. Human CDT1 associates with CDC7 and recruits CDC45 to chromatin during S phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabeni, Andrea; Zamponi, Raffaela; Caprara, Greta

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a tightly controlled process that involves the formation of distinct complexes at origins of DNA replication at specific periods of the cell cycle. Pre-Replicative Complexes are formed during telophase and early G1. They rearrange at the start of S phase to fo...... to chromatin is regulated by CDC7. We propose a model in which chromatin bound CDT1 is first stabilized and subsequently displaced by CDC7 activity, thereby ensuring the timely execution of DNA replication.......The initiation of DNA replication is a tightly controlled process that involves the formation of distinct complexes at origins of DNA replication at specific periods of the cell cycle. Pre-Replicative Complexes are formed during telophase and early G1. They rearrange at the start of S phase to form...... pre-Initiation Complexes, which are a prerequisite for DNA replication. The CDT1 protein is required for the formation of the pre-Replicative Complexes. Here we show that human CDT1 associates with the CDC7 kinase and recruits CDC45 to chromatin. Moreover, we show that the amount of CDT1 bound...

  6. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Epidemiology, Analysis, and Library Services (DEALS) Disparities Analytics CDC Disability and Health, Health Care Data & Statistics Healthy People 2020 HHS National Partnership for Action (NPA) AHRQ ...

  7. Cdc42 promotes host defenses against fatal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Keunwook; Boyd, Kelli L; Parekh, Diptiben V

    2013-01-01

    attempted to specifically delete it in these cells by crossing the Cdc42(fl/fl) mouse with a FSP-1 cre mouse, which is thought to mediate recombination exclusively in fibroblasts. Surprisingly, the FSP-1cre;Cdc42(fl/fl) mice died at 3 weeks of age due to overwhelming suppurative upper airway infections...... showed that in addition to fibroblasts, the FSP-1 cre deleted Cdc42 very efficiently in all leukocytes. Thus, by using this non-specific cre mouse we inadvertently demonstrated the importance of Cdc42 in host protection from lethal infections and suggest a critical role for this small GTPase in innate...

  8. Mesenchymal-epithelial transition during somitic segmentation is regulated by differential roles of Cdc42 and Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yukiko; Kuroda, Shinya; Katagiri, Yuji T; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2004-09-01

    Mesenchymal-epithelial transitions (MET) are crucial for vertebrate organogenesis. The roles of Rho family GTPases in such processes during actual development remain largely unknown. By electroporating genes into chick presomitic mesenchymal cells, we demonstrate that Cdc42 and Rac1 play important and different roles in the MET that generates the vertebrate somites. Presomitic mesenchymal cells, which normally contribute to both the epithelial and mesenchymal populations of the somite, were hyperepithelialized when Cdc42 signaling was blocked. Conversely, cells taking up genes that elevate Cdc42 levels remained mesenchymal. Thus, Cdc42 activity levels appear critical for the binary decision that defines the epithelial and mesenchymal somitic compartments. Proper levels of Rac1 are necessary for somitic epithelialization, since cells with activated or inhibited Rac1 failed to undergo correct epithelialization. Furthermore, Rac1 appears to be required for Paraxis to act as an epithelialization-promoting transcription factor during somitogenesis.

  9. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 3

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  10. [Development of a regional program for prevention of children's disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeeva, I A

    2001-01-01

    Pressing problems (social, socio-hygienic, medical, legal, etc.) of childhood disability are discussed for a typical Russian territory. Causes of disability from the viewpoint of its prevention are analyzed. Experience gained in organization of complex measures, inter-department approach to formation and realization of relevant programs with emphasis on prevention is presented on the model of the Republic of North Ossetia--Alania.

  11. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  12. Continuous cell injury promotes hepatic tumorigenesis in cdc42-deficient mouse liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hengel, Jolanda; D'Hooge, Petra; Hooghe, Bart

    2008-01-01

    : Mice lacking Cdc42 in their hepatocytes were born at Mendelian ratios. They did not show increased mortality but showed chronic jaundice. They developed hepatomegaly soon after birth, and signs of liver transformation, such as formation of nodules and tumors, became visible macroscopically at age 6...

  13. Isolation of a cdc28 mutation that abrogates the dependence of S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have isolated a mutation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisisae CDC28 gene that allows cdc13 cells, carrying damaged DNA, to continue with the cell division cycle. While cdc13 mutant cells are arrested as large-budded cells at the nonpermissive temperature 37°C, the cdc13 cdc28 double mutant culture ...

  14. The implementation of the CDC version of RELAP5/MOD1/019 on an IBM compatible computer system (AMDAHL 470/V8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, W.; Brewka, W.

    1984-01-01

    RELAP5/MOD1 is an advanced one-dimensional best estimate system code, which is used for safety analysis studies of nuclear pressurized water reactor systems and related integral and separate effect test facilities. The program predicts the system response for large break, small break LOCA and special transients. To a large extent RELAP5/MOD1 is written in Fortran, only a small part of the program is coded in CDC assembler. RELAP5/MOD1 was developed on the CDC CYBER 176 at INEL*. The code development team made use of CDC system programs like the CDC UPDATE facility and incorporated in the program special purpose software packages. The report describes the problems which have been encountered when implementing the CDC version of RELAP5/MOD1 on an IBM compatible computer systems (AMDAHL 470/V8)

  15. Prevention That Works! A Guide for Developing School-Based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Cynthia R.

    This book helps educators produce assessments of their schools' drug and violence prevention programs. It contains over 30 separate resources that can be adapted to specific evaluations (e.g., sample youth and adult participant feedback sheets, sample classroom observation sheets and teacher implementation logs, sample en-route participant…

  16. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic beta cell delamination and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiat......Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked...... to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell...... constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis....

  17. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Colette; Zou, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Marston, Adele L

    2017-01-05

    Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This "licensing" ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of cyclical events at the meiosis I to meiosis I

  18. A New Genetically Encoded Single-Chain Biosensor for Cdc42 Based on FRET, Useful for Live-Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dianne; Hodgson, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Cdc42 is critical in a myriad of cellular morphogenic processes, requiring precisely regulated activation dynamics to affect specific cellular events. To facilitate direct observations of Cdc42 activation in live cells, we developed and validated a new biosensor of Cdc42 activation. The biosensor is genetically encoded, of single-chain design and capable of correctly localizing to membrane compartments as well as interacting with its upstream regulators including the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. We characterized this new biosensor in motile mouse embryonic fibroblasts and observed robust activation dynamics at leading edge protrusions, similar to those previously observed for endogenous Cdc42 using the organic dye-based biosensor system. We then extended our validations and observations of Cdc42 activity to macrophages, and show that this new biosensor is able to detect differential activation patterns during phagocytosis and cytokine stimulation. Furthermore, we observe for the first time, a highly transient and localized activation of Cdc42 during podosome formation in macrophages, which was previously hypothesized but never directly visualized. PMID:24798463

  19. A CDC45 Homolog in Arabidopsis Is Essential for Meiosis, as Shown by RNA Interference–Induced Gene Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rebecca; Grelon, Mathilde; Vezon, Daniel; Oh, Jaesung; Meyer, Peter; Perennes, Claudette; Domenichini, Severine; Bergounioux, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    CDC45 is required for the initiation of DNA replication in yeast and cell proliferation in mammals and functions as a DNA polymerase α loading factor in Xenopus. We have cloned a CDC45 homolog from Arabidopsis whose expression is upregulated at the G1/S transition and in young meiotic flower buds. One-third of Arabidopsis 35S:CDC45 T1 RNA interference lines are partially to completely sterile, and the proportion of sterile plants is increased by using a dmc1 promoter. T1 plants have decreased levels of the CDC45 transcript and contain 21- to 23-bp RNA fragments specific to the CDC45 gene. T2 transgenic lines, in which small RNA fragments are still present, were used to analyze S-phase entry by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, which was not altered compared with that in the wild type. However, microarray data show that other cell cycle genes are upregulated or downregulated. T2 plants also have highly reduced fertility. The severity of the phenotype is correlated with the levels of the CDC45 transcript and small RNA fragments. Severe chromosome fragmentation arising during meiosis, which is not the result of a defect in the repair of SPO11-induced double strand breaks, leads to abnormal chromosome segregation and defective pollen and ovule development. PMID:14660803

  20. Developing and Negotiating Effective School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavela, Kathleen J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated effective drug prevention strategies for school-aged populations from drug prevention programs funded by the Department of Health and Human Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Interviews with model programs' directors and staff highlighted 15 strategies essential for developing effective programs. Strategies focused on…

  1. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  2. Development of preventative streamside landslide buffers on managed timberlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason S. Woodward; Matthew R. House; David W. Lamphear

    2017-01-01

    Shallow streamside landslides are a principle source of sediment on managed timberlands in northern California. Using an adaptive management process, LiDAR, and a detailed field-based landslide inventory, Green Diamond Resource Company (GDRCo) has redefined the interim preventative landslide tree-retention buffers it applies to steep streamside slopes along...

  3. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic β cell delamination and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant; Öhlin, Zarah Löf; Johansson, Jenny Kristina; Li, Wan-Chun; Lommel, Silvia; Greiner, Thomas Uwe; Semb, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell delamination and differentiation. These processes are normally associated with junctional actin and cell-cell junction disassembly and the expression of fate-determining transcription factors, such as Isl1 and MafA. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of N-WASP in β cells expressing constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis. PMID:24449844

  4. Coordination by Cdc42 of Actin, Contractility, and Adhesion for Melanoblast Movement in Mouse Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodham, Emma F; Paul, Nikki R; Tyrrell, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The individual molecular pathways downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Rho GTPases are well documented, but we know surprisingly little about how these pathways are coordinated when cells move in a complex environment in vivo. In the developing embryo, melanoblasts originating from the neural crest must...... null cells lacked the ability to polarize their Golgi and coordinate motility systems for efficient movement. Loss of Cdc42 de-coupled three main systems: actin assembly via the formin FMNL2 and Arp2/3, active myosin-II localization, and integrin-based adhesion dynamics.......The individual molecular pathways downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Rho GTPases are well documented, but we know surprisingly little about how these pathways are coordinated when cells move in a complex environment in vivo. In the developing embryo, melanoblasts originating from the neural crest must...... traverse the dermis to reach the epidermis of the skin and hair follicles. We previously established that Rac1 signals via Scar/WAVE and Arp2/3 to effect pseudopod extension and migration of melanoblasts in skin. Here we show that RhoA is redundant in the melanocyte lineage but that Cdc42 coordinates...

  5. Top syndicated pages from CDC.gov by weekly page views

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC Content Syndication site at https://tools.cdc.gov/syndication/ allows you to import content from CDC websites directly into your own website or application....

  6. Identification of the quinolinedione inhibitor binding site in Cdc25 phosphatase B through docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yushu; van der Kamp, Marc; Malaisree, Maturos; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yi; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2017-11-01

    Cdc25 phosphatase B, a potential target for cancer therapy, is inhibited by a series of quinones. The binding site and mode of quinone inhibitors to Cdc25B remains unclear, whereas this information is important for structure-based drug design. We investigated the potential binding site of NSC663284 [DA3003-1 or 6-chloro-7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethylamino)-quinoline-5, 8-dione] through docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Of the two main binding sites suggested by docking, the molecular dynamics simulations only support one site for stable binding of the inhibitor. Binding sites in and near the Cdc25B catalytic site that have been suggested previously do not lead to stable binding in 50 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In contrast, a shallow pocket between the C-terminal helix and the catalytic site provides a favourable binding site that shows high stability. Two similar binding modes featuring protein-inhibitor interactions involving Tyr428, Arg482, Thr547 and Ser549 are identified by clustering analysis of all stable MD trajectories. The relatively flexible C-terminal region of Cdc25B contributes to inhibitor binding. The binding mode of NSC663284, identified through MD simulation, likely prevents the binding of protein substrates to Cdc25B. The present results provide useful information for the design of quinone inhibitors and their mechanism of inhibition.

  7. Field evaluation of CDC and Mosquito Magnet X traps baited with dry ice, CO2 sachet, and octenol against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Doyle, Melissa A; Kline, Daniel L

    2008-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnet X (MMX) traps baited with dry ice, octenol, and a new formulation (granular) of carbon dioxide (CO2) were evaluated against adult mosquitoes in the field. The results showed that the MMX traps (68.6%) baited with dry ice collected more mosquitoes compared to the CDC light traps (32.4%) only. The CDC traps baited with dry ice (64%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (11%) or octenol (23%). The MMX traps baited with dry ice (85.5%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (6.5%) or octenol (9%). The CDC traps baited with the formulations of normal and slow release CO2 sachets collected more mosquitoes than the formulation of fast release sachets. The CDC traps baited with fresh sachets and 24-h-exposed sachets collected significantly more mosquitoes than the traps baited with 48-h- and 72-h-exposed sachets.

  8. [Current developments in prevention of coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windler, E

    1996-02-01

    The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S-Studie) has provided proof beyond any doubt that reduction of plasma cholesterol decreases mortality. The enormous rise of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in both gender calls for preventative measures as an urgent task. With a reduction of cardiac events by 30-40% and of mortality in the same order of magnitude, cholesterol lowering and increase in HDL-cholesterol are most effective measures for the treatment of coronary artery disease. However, not treatment of late stages of the disease, but primary prevention to reduce the incidence of coronary artery disease in this country should be the principle aim. Thus, the international guidelines for the treatment of lipid disorders considering the individual patient's risk profile have been revised.

  9. Evaluation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Concussion Initiative for High School Coaches: "Heads up: Concussion in High School Sports"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Mitchko, Jane; Klein, Cynthia; Wong, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: To reduce the number of sports-related concussions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with the support of partners and experts in the field, has developed a tool kit for high school coaches with practical, easy-to-use concussion-related information. This study explores the success of the tool kit in changing…

  10. Cdc20/p55 mediates the resistance to docetaxel in castration-resistant prostate cancer in a Bim-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Lin, Yun; Cui, Peng; Li, Hongyun; Zhang, Lechao; Sun, Zeqiang; Huang, Shengliang; Li, Shun; Huang, Shiming; Zhao, Qingli; Liu, Qingyong

    2018-03-31

    At least to date, no effective treatment for advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has been established. Recent studies indicated that cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of Cdc20 in the development of docetaxel resistance in CRPC remains elusive. In this study, the transcription of Cdc20 was confirmed in three independent CRPC cell lines derived from different tissues, including LNCaP, PC3, and DU145. Docetaxel resistant (DR) cell lines were generated within the background of DU145 and PC3. The protein levels of Cdc20 and the biological phenotype were detected in both wild-type and DR cell lines. To further explore the mechanism of Cdc20 overexpression, stable cell lines with Cdc20 or Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) deprivation were generated and examined for biological parameters. In addition, a specific Cdc20 inhibitor was used in DR cell lines to explore the potential solution for docetaxel resistant CRPC. Here, we identified Cdc20 is overexpressed in docetaxel resistant CRPC cell lines, including LNCaP, PC3, and DU145. We also reported that DR cell lines, which mimic the recurrent prostate cancer cells after docetaxel treatment, have higher levels of Cdc20 protein compared with the CRPC cell lines. Interestingly, the protein levels of Bim, an E3 ligase substrate of Cdc20, were decreased in DR cell lines compared with the wild-type, while the mRNA levels were similar. More importantly, in DR cell lines, the biological phenotype induced by Cdc20 deletion could be significantly reversed by the additional knockdown of Bim. As a result, docetaxel resistant prostate cancer cells treated with the pharmacological Cdc20 inhibitor became sensitive to docetaxel treatment. In conclusion, our data collectively demonstrated that Cdc20 overexpression facilitates the docetaxel resistant of the CRPC cell lines in a Bim

  11. Comparing U.S. Injury Death Estimates from GBD 2015 and CDC WONDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine consistency in injury death statistics from the United States CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (CDC WONDER with those from GBD 2015 estimates. Methods: Differences in deaths and the percent difference in deaths between GBD 2015 and CDC WONDER were assessed, as were changes in deaths between 2000 and 2015 for the two datasets. Results: From 2000 to 2015, GBD 2015 estimates for the U.S. injury deaths were somewhat higher than CDC WONDER estimates in most categories, with the exception of deaths from falls and from forces of nature, war, and legal intervention in 2015. Encouragingly, the difference in total injury deaths between the two data sources narrowed from 44,897 (percent difference in deaths = 41% in 2000 to 34,877 (percent difference in deaths = 25% in 2015. Differences in deaths and percent difference in deaths between the two data sources varied greatly across injury cause and over the assessment years. The two data sources present consistent changes in direction from 2000 to 2015 for all injury causes except for forces of nature, war, and legal intervention, and adverse effects of medical treatment. Conclusions: We conclude that further studies are warranted to interpret the inconsistencies in data and develop estimation approaches that increase the consistency of the two datasets.

  12. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beneden, Chris A; Pietz, Harald; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Koonin, Lisa M; Uyeki, Timothy M; Oster, Alexandra M; Levy, Deborah A; Glover, Maleeka; Arduino, Matthew J; Merlin, Toby L; Kuhar, David T; Kosmos, Christine; Bell, Beth P

    2016-07-08

    In response to the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC prepared for the potential introduction of Ebola into the United States. The immediate goals were to rapidly identify and isolate any cases of Ebola, prevent transmission, and promote timely treatment of affected patients. CDC's technical expertise and the collaboration of multiple partners in state, local, and municipal public health departments; health care facilities; emergency medical services; and U.S. government agencies were essential to the domestic preparedness and response to the Ebola epidemic and relied on longstanding partnerships. CDC established a comprehensive response that included two new strategies: 1) active monitoring of travelers arriving from countries affected by Ebola and other persons at risk for Ebola and 2) a tiered system of hospital facility preparedness that enabled prioritization of training. CDC rapidly deployed a diagnostic assay for Ebola virus (EBOV) to public health laboratories. Guidance was developed to assist in evaluation of patients possibly infected with EBOV, for appropriate infection control, to support emergency responders, and for handling of infectious waste. CDC rapid response teams were formed to provide assistance within 24 hours to a health care facility managing a patient with Ebola. As a result of the collaborations to rapidly identify, isolate, and manage Ebola patients and the extensive preparations to prevent spread of EBOV, the United States is now better prepared to address the next global infectious disease threat.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  13. [Depression and Bipolar Disorder: Risk Factors and Potential Prevention of Developing Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that suffering from depression and bipolar disorder may be risk factors for developing dementia. A mechanism of interactions of several factors, such as vascular disease and glucocorticoid, has been speculated to play a role in the development of dementia. It is suggested that the onset of dementia can be prevented or delayed by preventing the onset and recurrence of depression and bipolar disorder. In the prevent of depression, the management of daily life, such as diet and exercise, is important. Recently, the possibility of preventive effects of antidepressants and lithium on developing dementia has been suggested, and a future intervention study is expected.

  14. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD...... thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from......) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies...

  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Social & Digital Tools Mobile Apps CDC-TV CDC Feature Articles CDC Jobs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Social & Digital Tools Mobile Apps CDC-TV CDC Feature Articles CDC Jobs About CDC Science Morbidity and Mortality ...

  16. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  17. 78 FR 57391 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Times and Dates...

  18. Extracts of Benincasa hispida prevent development of experimental ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, J K; Adiga, G; Vats, V; Rathi, S S

    2001-12-01

    Benincasa hispida (B. hispida) is recommended in Ayurveda for the management of peptic ulcers. Therefore, anti-ulcerogenic activity of different extracts of B. hispida (fresh juice, supernatant and residue fraction of centrifuged juice, alcoholic and petroleum ether extract) were studied in aspirin plus restraint, swimming stress, indomethacin plus histamine and serotonin-induced ulcers in rats and mice. The oral feeding of different doses of the extract significantly reduced the ulcer index produced by various ulcerogens. The anti-ulcerogenic effect was dose-dependent in stress induced model of ulcer and not in other models. B. hispida probably has a CNS component in prevention of stress induced ulceration. However, antihistaminic, anti-cholinergic effects and prevention of disturbance in gastric micro-circulation as possible modes of action cannot be ruled out. Chronic toxicity studies carried out for 3 months revealed no deleterious effect of fresh juice of B. hispida on various hematological and biochemical parameters studied. Thus, extracts of B. hispida may be considered to be a drug of natural origin possessing anti-ulcer activity.

  19. Developing Online Family Life Prevention and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert, Jr.; Bowers, Jill R.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Curtiss, Sarah; Ebata, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis…

  20. Scientific evidence is just the starting point: A generalizable process for developing sports injury prevention interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Donaldson

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.

  1. Development of a method to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of particular pollution prevention opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) is obligated by House Joint Resolution 453 passed in 1995 by Virginia's General Assembly to develop and implement a pollution prevention (P2) program. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a...

  2. Cdc20 is critical for meiosis I and fertility of female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome missegregation in germ cells is an important cause of unexplained infertility, miscarriages, and congenital birth defects in humans. However, the molecular defects that lead to production of aneuploid gametes are largely unknown. Cdc20, the activating subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, initiates sister-chromatid separation by ordering the destruction of two key anaphase inhibitors, cyclin B1 and securin, at the transition from metaphase to anaphase. The physiological significance and full repertoire of functions of mammalian Cdc20 are unclear at present, mainly because of the essential nature of this protein in cell cycle progression. To bypass this problem we generated hypomorphic mice that express low amounts of Cdc20. These mice are healthy and have a normal lifespan, but females produce either no or very few offspring, despite normal folliculogenesis and fertilization rates. When mated with wild-type males, hypomorphic females yield nearly normal numbers of fertilized eggs, but as these embryos develop, they become malformed and rarely reach the blastocyst stage. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we uncover that the vast majority of these embryos have abnormal chromosome numbers, primarily due to chromosome lagging and chromosome misalignment during meiosis I in the oocyte. Furthermore, cyclin B1, cyclin A2, and securin are inefficiently degraded in metaphase I; and anaphase I onset is markedly delayed. These results demonstrate that the physiologically effective threshold level of Cdc20 is high for female meiosis I and identify Cdc20 hypomorphism as a mechanism for chromosome missegregation and formation of aneuploid gametes.

  3. Stage-specific functions of the small Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 for adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadodaria, Krishna C; Brakebusch, Cord; Suter, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation, maturation, and integration of new granule cells generated throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus remain poorly understood. Small Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42 and Rac1, have been implicated previously in neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC......) proliferation and neuronal maturation during embryonic development. Here we used conditional genetic deletion and virus-based loss-of-function approaches to identify temporally distinct functions for Cdc42 and Rac1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We found that Cdc42 is involved in mouse NSPC proliferation......, initial dendritic development, and dendritic spine maturation. In contrast, Rac1 is dispensable for early steps of neuronal development but is important for late steps of dendritic growth and spine maturation. These results establish cell-autonomous and stage-specific functions for the small Rho GTPases...

  4. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  5. Joint Statement on Insect Repellents by EPA and CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA and the CDC are recommending the public to use insect repellents and take other precautions to avoid biting insects that carry serious diseases. This statement discusses diseases of concern, government roles, and repellent selection and use.

  6. CDC WONDER: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination, by...

  7. CDC WONDER: Compressed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979...

  8. CDC WONDER: Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are...

  9. CDC WONDER: Daily Air Temperatures and Heat Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Air Temperature and Heat Index data available on CDC WONDER are county-level daily average air temperatures and heat index measures spanning the years...

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Making Food Safer to Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where food is grown to cutting boards in kitchens. What we eat and how we eat have ... Sprouts, leafy greens, roots, fish, grains-beans, shellfish, oil-sugar, and dairy. Source: CDC National Outbreak Reporting ...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Smoking among People with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evidence shows that there has been direct tobacco marketing to people with mental illness and other vulnerable ... Associate Director for Communications (OADC) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  12. Research capacity development for CVD prevention: the role of partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchinda, Thomas C

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an increase in the burden of cardiovascular diseases on developing countries. This increased disease prevalence and health burden has far exceeded the technical and human capacity of developing countries to use existing global knowledge, and to generate new strategies for their own countries to use in combating these diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to assist developing countries in building indigenous research capacity in order to undertake studies within their own boundaries, the results of which will lead to the development of appropriate local management and control strategies. It is important to explore ways of enhancing research capacity in developing countries, in order to narrow the research gap between the rich, developed countries, and the poor, developing countries. Partnerships, both North-South, and South-South, lend themselves to the use of suitable modern tools and strategies, as well providing a promotional approach for strengthening research capacity in developing countries. This review describes prerequisites for building successful research capacity, and, in particular, details the process for building such capacity in the area of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Some of the constraints and challenges in research capacity strengthening (RCS) have also been summarized. When correctly utilized, partnerships are probably the most egalitarian form of research collaboration, offering mutual advantages to both partners. International and bilateral agencies funding research in developing countries are urged to include a RCS component in new projects, in order to ensure the sustainability of these projects through the training of those who will carry out the research, and to support the national institutional framework where the research will be conducted.

  13. CDC28, NETI, and HFII are required for checkpoints in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltovaya, N.A.; Kadyshevskaya, E.Yu.; Roshina, M.P.; Devin, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of SRM genes selected as genes affecting genetic stability and radiosensitivity in a cell cycle arrest under the action of damaging agents was studied. It was shown that the srm5/cdc28-srm, srm8/netI-srm, and srmI2/hfiI-srm mutations prevent checkpoint activation by DNA damage, particularly the G 0 /S (srm5, srm8), G 1 /S (srm5, srm8, srm12), S (srm8, srm12) and S/G 2 (srm5) checkpoints. It seems that in budding yeast the CDC28, HFII/ADAI, and NETI genes mediate cellular response induced by DNA damage with checkpoint control. The well-known checkpoint-genes RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, and RAD53, and the genes CDC28, and NETI have been found to belong to one epistasis group named RAD9-group as regards cell sensitivity to γ radiation. An analysis of the radiosensitivity of double mutants has revealed that the mutation cdc-28-srm is hypostatic to each of mutations rad9Δ, and rad24Δ, and additive to rad17Δ. The mutation netI-srm is hypostatic to the mutations rad9Δ but additive to rad17Δ, rad24Δ, and rad53. The mutation hfiI-srm has an additive effect in compound with the mutations rad24Δ and rad9Δ. So, investigations of epistatic interactions have demonstrated a branched RAD9-dependent pathway. The analyzed genes can also participate in a minor mechanism involved in determining cell radiation sensitivity independently of the mentioned RAD9-dependent pathway

  14. The prevention of the anemia development during malignant diseases therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Priesolová, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of this work explains the importance of aknowledging the process of diagnostics and a treatment of the cases with an anemia during malignant diseases. The predictive factors of the anemia development and the general condition negative effects are presented. The chapter two brings the definition of an anemia, how to evaluate the blood count and the biochemical examination, tells the compensational mechanisms of the organism and describes the clinical features of the developed ...

  15. Developing an evidence-based fall prevention curriculum for community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Julie A; Shubert, Tiffany E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Rosemond, Cherie A; Howell, Doris A; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-01-01

    This perspective paper describes processes in the development of an evidence-based fall prevention curriculum for community health workers/promotores (CHW/P) that highlights the development of the curriculum and addresses: (1) the need and rationale for involving CHW/P in fall prevention; (2) involvement of CHW/P and content experts in the curriculum development; (3) best practices utilized in the curriculum development and training implementation; and (4) next steps for dissemination and utilization of the CHW/P fall prevention curriculum. The project team of CHW/P and content experts developed, pilot tested, and revised bilingual in-person training modules about fall prevention among older adults. The curriculum incorporated the following major themes: (1) fall risk factors and strategies to reduce/prevent falls; (2) communication strategies to reduce risk of falling and strategies for developing fall prevention plans; and (3) health behavior change theories utilized to prevent and reduce falls. Three separate fall prevention modules were developed for CHW/P and CHW/P Instructors to be used during in-person trainings. Module development incorporated a five-step process: (1) conduct informal focus groups with CHW/P to inform content development; (2) develop three in-person modules in English and Spanish with input from content experts; (3) pilot-test the modules with CHW/P; (4) refine and finalize modules based on pilot-test feedback; and (5) submit modules for approval of continuing education units. This project contributes to the existing evidence-based literature by examining the role of CHW/P in fall prevention among older adults. By including evidence-based communication strategies such as message tailoring, the curriculum design allows CHW/P to personalize the information for individuals, which can result in an effective dissemination of a curriculum that is evidence-based and culturally appropriate.

  16. CDC's Emergency Management Program activities - worldwide, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    In 2003, recognizing the increasing frequency and complexity of disease outbreaks and disasters and a greater risk for terrorism, CDC established the Emergency Operations Center (EOC), bringing together CDC staff members who respond to public health emergencies to enhance communication and coordination. To complement the physical EOC environment, CDC implemented the Incident Management System (IMS), a staffing structure and set of standard operational protocols and services to support and monitor CDC program-led responses to complex public health emergencies. The EOC and IMS are key components of CDC's Emergency Management Program (EMP), which applies emergency management principles to public health practice. To enumerate activities conducted by the EMP during 2003-2012, CDC analyzed data from daily reports and activity logs. The results of this analysis determined that, during 2003-2012, the EMP fully activated the EOC and IMS on 55 occasions to support responses to infectious disease outbreaks, natural disasters, national security events (e.g., conventions, presidential addresses, and international summits), mass gatherings (e.g., large sports and social events), and man-made disasters. On 109 other occasions, the EMP was used to support emergency responses that did not require full EOC activation, and the EMP also conducted 30 exercises and drills. This report provides an overview of those 194 EMP activities.

  17. Pollution prevention and its role in sustainable economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos de Lemos, H.

    1992-01-01

    The recent United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was the largest gathering of governments and heads of states to date. This paper describes the preparatory process for this meeting as well as the recommendations of UNCED. This Conference was essentially about changing behavior -- specifically economic behavior. The implications of sustainable development was among the subjects explored during the 9th World Clean Air Congress in Montreal in September 1992. At a plenary session on the topic, Professor de Lemos, President of Brazil's UNEP Institute, reported on the 1992 UNCED Conference and what it revealed about the impact of business, poverty, and population on the goals of sustainable development. His remarks are included in the article. 8 refs

  18. Update on Campylobacter jejuni vaccine development for preventing human campylobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta Katarzyna; Łaniewski, Paweł; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka

    2009-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis constitutes a serious medical and socioeconomic problem worldwide. Rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains compels us to develop alternative therapeutic strategies and to search for efficient immunoprophylactic methods. The vast majority of Campylobacter infections in developed countries occur as sporadic cases, mainly caused by eating undercooked Campylobacter-contaminated poultry. The most efficient strategy of decreasing the number of human Campylobacter infections is by implementing protective vaccinations for humans and/or chickens. Despite more than 10 years of research, an effective anti-Campylobacter vaccine has not been developed. This review highlights our increasing knowledge of Campylobacter interaction with host cells and focuses on recently published data describing the efficacy of anti-Campylobacter vaccine prototypes.

  19. Depletion of cdc-25.3, a Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of cdc25, increases physiological germline apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minhee; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2017-07-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites, physiological germline apoptosis is higher in cdc-25.3 mutants than in wild-type. The elevated germline apoptosis in cdc-25.3 mutants seems to be induced by accumulation of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Both DNA damage and synapsis checkpoint genes are required to increase the germline apoptosis. Notably, the number of germ cells that lose P-granule components, PGL-1 and PGL-3, increase in cdc-25.3 mutants, and the increase in germline apoptosis requires the activity of SIR-2.1, a Sirtuin orthologue. These results suggest that elevation of germline apoptosis in cdc-25.3 mutants is induced by accumulation of DSBs, leading to a loss of PGL-1 and PGL-3 in germ cells, which promotes cytoplasmic translocation of SIR-2.1, and finally activates the core apoptotic machinery. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. The Development of Videos in Culturally Grounded Drug Prevention for Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L.; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the…

  1. The G2/M DNA damage checkpoint inhibits mitosis through Tyr15 phosphorylation of p34cdc2 in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X S; Fincher, R R; Tang, A; Osmani, S A

    1997-01-02

    It is possible to cause G2 arrest in Aspergillus nidulans by inactivating either p34cdc2 or NIMA. We therefore investigated the negative control of these two mitosis-promoting kinases after DNA damage. DNA damage caused rapid Tyr15 phosphorylation of p34cdc2 and transient cell cycle arrest but had little effect on the activity of NIMA. Dividing cells deficient in Tyr15 phosphorylation of p34cdc2 were sensitive to both MMS and UV irradiation and entered lethal premature mitosis with damaged DNA. However, non-dividing quiescent conidiospores of the Tyr15 mutant strain were not sensitive to DNA damage. The UV and MMS sensitivity of cells unable to tyrosine phosphorylate p34cdc2 is therefore caused by defects in DNA damage checkpoint regulation over mitosis. Both the nimA5 and nimT23 temperature-sensitive mutations cause an arrest in G2 at 42 degrees C. Addition of MMS to nimT23 G2-arrested cells caused a marked delay in their entry into mitosis upon downshift to 32 degrees C and this delay was correlated with a long delay in the dephosphorylation and activation of p34cdc2. Addition of MMS to nimA5 G2-arrested cells caused inactivation of the H1 kinase activity of p34cdc2 due to an increase in its Tyr15 phosphorylation level and delayed entry into mitosis upon return to 32 degrees C. However, if Tyr15 phosphorylation of p34cdc2 was prevented then its H1 kinase activity was not inactivated upon MMS addition to nimA5 G2-arrested cells and they rapidly progressed into a lethal mitosis upon release to 32 degrees C. Thus, Tyr15 phosphorylation of p34cdc2 in G2 arrests initiation of mitosis after DNA damage in A. nidulans.

  2. Predisposition for and Prevention of Subjective Tinnitus Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlf, Sönke; Tziridis, Konstantin; Korn, Sabine; Strohmeyer, Ilona; Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction of the inner ear as caused by presbyacusis, injuries or noise traumata may result in subjective tinnitus, but not everyone suffering from one of these diseases develops a tinnitus percept and vice versa. The reasons for these individual differences are still unclear and may explain why different treatments of the disease are beneficial for some patients but not for others. Here we for the first time compare behavioral and neurophysiological data from hearing impaired Mongolian ger...

  3. The plasticity of intellectual development: insights from preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J

    1984-10-01

    Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.

  4. Are there factors preventing cancer development during embryonic life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einhorn, L.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the following literature observations, a hypothesis is advanced that the development of cancer is actively inhibited during embryonic life. Although the processes of cell differentiation and proliferation are - without comparison - most pronounced during embryonic life, cancer is rarely found in the newborn and is seldom a cause of neonatal death or spontaneous abortion. Attempts to induce cancer in early-stage animal embryos by irradiation or by transplacental chemical carcinogenesis have been unsuccessful, even when exposed animals have been observed throughout their lifetime. After the period of major organogenesis, however, the embryos become susceptible to carcinogenesis. In humans, the most common embryonic tumors arise in tissues which have an unusually late ongoing development and are still partly immature at or shortly before birth. For many human embryonic tumors the survival rates are higher, and spontaneous regression more frequent, in younger children, i.e. prognosis is age-dependent. Thus, although cancer generally appears in tissues capable of proliferation and differentiation, induction of malignancy in the developmentally most active tissues seems to be beset with difficulty. One possible explanation for this paradox could be that cancer is controlled by the regulators influencing development, regulators that are most active during embryonic life. (Auth.)

  5. CDC Signos Vitales-Las medidas hospitalarias afectan la lactancia materna (Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-06

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de octubre del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los hospitales pueden implementar los "Diez Pasos hacia una Feliz Lactancia Natural" para obtener la designación de "Amigo del Niño" y así apoyar a más mamás en su decisión de amamantar.  Created: 10/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/6/2015.

  6. CDC Signos Vitales: Mortalidad por choques automovilísticos (Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de julio de 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. En los Estados Unidos, aproximadamente 90 personas mueren en choques automovilísticos cada día y miles sufren lesiones, lo cual resulta en cientos de millones de dólares en costos médicos directos cada año. Sepa qué puede hacer para mantenerse seguro.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  7. CDC Vital Signs–Legionnaires’ Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-07

    This podcast is based on the June 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. People can get Legionnaires’ disease, a serious type of lung infection, from breathing in small water droplets of water contaminated with Legionella germs. Learn what can be done to help prevent Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks and keep people safe.  Created: 6/7/2016 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/7/2016.

  8. CDC: Tips from Former Smokers – Tiffany PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-28

    When Tiffany was 16, her mother—a cigarette smoker—died of lung cancer. Tiffany quit smoking at 34 because she wanted to be around for her own daughter, who had just turned 16. In this 60 second PSA from CDC's Tips From Former Smokers campaign, Tiffany offers tips on how to quit.  Created: 3/28/2013 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  9. Signos Vitales de los CDC-El humo de segunda mano (Secondhand Smoke)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de febrero del 2015 del informe de Signos Vitales de los CDC. El humo de segunda mano mata a más de 400 bebés y 41 000 adultos no fumadores al año. Sepa qué se puede hacer para prevenir la exposición al humo de segunda mano.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  10. Development of interventions for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia: the European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Craig W; Molinuevo, José Luis; Truyen, Luc; Satlin, Andrew; Van der Geyten, Serge; Lovestone, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's dementia affects more than 40 million people worldwide with substantial increases in prevalence anticipated. Interventions that either modify risk or reduce the development of early disease could delay the onset of dementia or reduce the rate of cognitive and functional decline. The European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) is a public-private consortium, funded by the Innovative Medicines Initiative, designed to increase the likelihood of successful development of new treatments for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia. EPAD will help with testing of different agents in this pre-dementia population through four components: improvement of access to existing cohorts and registries, development of the EPAD Registry of approximately 24,000 people who might be at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia, establishment of the EPAD Longitudinal Cohort Study of 6000 people at any one time, and establishment of an adaptive, proof-of-concept trial including 1500 participants at any given time. The need for EPAD and its key design elements are described, and we discuss EPAD in relation to similar projects in progress. These parallel efforts reflect the need for a coordinated, worldwide battle against dementia, in which EPAD will play a crucial role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders: barriers, developments and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; López-Guimerà, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    The serious consequences of obesity and eating disorders (ED), difficulties encountered in treatment and the high prevalence of these conditions are important reasons to develop efforts aimed at their prevention. The implementation of integrated interventions aimed at preventing risk factors for both obesity and ED constitutes a very exciting development. In the present paper we discuss and review the main reasons for an integrated approach to the spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, anorexic and bulimic behaviours, unhealthy dieting practices, body dissatisfaction, binge-eating disorder, overweight and obesity. Given differences between the fields with regard to current perspectives and objectives, key barriers to an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. In order to show the possibilities of development of this approach, we review the main contributions made to date in the fields of both obesity and ED prevention. In particular, environmental approaches in the prevention of obesity and ED are reviewed, given their potential for preventing a broad spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems. Furthermore, several examples of initiatives that have utilized an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. Narrative review. We recommend a scenario in which the two fields share knowledge to enhance the difficult work of preventing and treating both ED and obesity.

  12. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T; Huysmans, Maaike A; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; van Mechelen, Willem; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; van der Molen, Henk F; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter

    2017-11-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD burden. This may partly be caused by insufficient knowledge of etiological mechanisms and/or a lack of adequately feasible interventions (theory failure and program failure, respectively), possibly due to limited integration of research disciplines. A research framework could link research disciplines thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from other research fields (ie, sports injury prevention and public health). Results The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of (i) incidence and severity of MSD, (ii) risk factors for MSD, and (iii) underlying mechanisms; and the (iv) development, (v) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies for work-related MSD.

  13. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD...... thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from...... other research fields (ie, sports injury prevention and public health). Results The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of (i) incidence and severity of MSD, (ii) risk factors for MSD, and (iii) underlying mechanisms; and the (iv) development, (v...

  14. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  15. Decreased uv mutagenesis in cdc8, a DNA replication mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.; Hinkle, D.; Prakash, S.

    1978-01-01

    A DNA replication mutant of yeast, cdc8, was found to decrease uv-induced reversion of lys2-1, arg4-17, tryl and ural. This effect was observed with all three alleles of cdc8 tested. Survival curves obtained following uv irradiation in cdc8 rad double mutants show that cdc8 is epistatic to rad6, as well as to rad1; cdc8 rad51 double mutants seem to be more sensitive than the single mutants. Since uv-induced reversion in cdc8 rad1 and cdc8 rad51 double mutants is like that of the cdc8 single mutants, we conclude that CDC8 plays a direct role in error-prone repair. To test whether CDC8 codes for a DNA polymerase, we have purified both DNA polymerase I and DNA polymerase II from cdc8 and CDC+ cells. The purified DNA polymerases from cdc8 were no more heat labile than those from CDC+, suggesting that CDC8 is not a structural gene for either enzyme

  16. Decreased uv mutagenesis in cdc8, a DNA replication mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, L.; Hinkle, D.; Prakash, S.

    1978-01-01

    A DNA replication mutant of yeast, cdc8, was found to decrease uv-induced reversion of lys2-1, arg4-17, tryl and ural. This effect was observed with all three alleles of cdc8 tested. Survival curves obtained following uv irradiation in cdc8 rad double mutants show that cdc8 is epistatic to rad6, as well as to rad1; cdc8 rad51 double mutants seem to be more sensitive than the single mutants. Since uv-induced reversion in cdc8 rad1 and cdc8 rad51 double mutants is like that of the cdc8 single mutants, we conclude that CDC8 plays a direct role in error-prone repair. To test whether CDC8 codes for a DNA polymerase, we have purified both DNA polymerase I and DNA polymerase II from cdc8 and CDC+ cells. The purified DNA polymerases from cdc8 were no more heat labile than those from CDC+, suggesting that CDC8 is not a structural gene for either enzyme.

  17. Development of nitric oxide sensor for asthma attack prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, M. Rei; El-Beghdadi, J.; Debontridder, F.; Naaman, R.; Arbel, A.; Ferraria, A.M.; Do Rego, A.M. Botelho

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a NO sensor for asthma control and medication monitoring. The transducer is a Molecular Controlled Semiconductor Resistor (MOCSER), which is a GaAs based heterostructure. Protoporphyrins IX, containing carboxylic groups to chemisorb on GaAs, were used as sensing molecules. Characterization of the protoporphyrin monolayers was held using Attenuated Total Reflection in Multiple Internal Reflection (ATR/MIR), High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) in the vibrational and electronic domain and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Degreasing and etching of the GaAs substrates were accomplished before adsorption. Interfacial bonding investigated by ATR/MIR shows that protoporphyrin adsorbs to the GaAs (100) through a unidentate complex and remains mostly vertically oriented. The electronic domain of the HREELS spectra exhibits the Q band with α and β components on the same position as in the UV/Vis spectrum. Soret band is blue shifted showing a face to face stacking of the protoporphyrin molecules on the GaAs substrates. XPS spectra reveal the presence of Cobalt in monolayers prepared with 8 x 10 -5 M CoPP solutions. Kinetics is best fitted by an Elovich equation, showing some hindrance due to the previous adsorbed molecules. Thickness found from XPS data ranges from 1.3 to 1.5 nm, which fits with the molecular dimensions. Using the GaAs preparation methods developed here, an NO sensor prototype was assembled and tested for NO sensitivity and repeatability. Relative to NO, tests reveal a good sensitivity between 1.6 and 200 ppb. NO sensitivity was also measured towards CO, CO 2 and O 2 . Pure nitrogen sweeps NO from the porphyrin layer, opening the possibility of the sensor reutilization

  18. Development of nitric oxide sensor for asthma attack prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, M. Rei [ITODYS, CNRS-Universite Denis Diderot, Paris (France)]. E-mail: reivilar@paris7.jussieu.fr; El-Beghdadi, J. [ITODYS, CNRS-Universite Denis Diderot, Paris (France); Debontridder, F. [ITODYS, CNRS-Universite Denis Diderot, Paris (France); Naaman, R. [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot (Israel); Arbel, A. [Chiaro Networks, Jerusalem (Israel); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Do Rego, A.M. Botelho [CQFM, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-03-15

    The aim of this work is the development of a NO sensor for asthma control and medication monitoring. The transducer is a Molecular Controlled Semiconductor Resistor (MOCSER), which is a GaAs based heterostructure. Protoporphyrins IX, containing carboxylic groups to chemisorb on GaAs, were used as sensing molecules. Characterization of the protoporphyrin monolayers was held using Attenuated Total Reflection in Multiple Internal Reflection (ATR/MIR), High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) in the vibrational and electronic domain and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Degreasing and etching of the GaAs substrates were accomplished before adsorption. Interfacial bonding investigated by ATR/MIR shows that protoporphyrin adsorbs to the GaAs (100) through a unidentate complex and remains mostly vertically oriented. The electronic domain of the HREELS spectra exhibits the Q band with {alpha} and {beta} components on the same position as in the UV/Vis spectrum. Soret band is blue shifted showing a face to face stacking of the protoporphyrin molecules on the GaAs substrates. XPS spectra reveal the presence of Cobalt in monolayers prepared with 8 x 10{sup -5} M CoPP solutions. Kinetics is best fitted by an Elovich equation, showing some hindrance due to the previous adsorbed molecules. Thickness found from XPS data ranges from 1.3 to 1.5 nm, which fits with the molecular dimensions. Using the GaAs preparation methods developed here, an NO sensor prototype was assembled and tested for NO sensitivity and repeatability. Relative to NO, tests reveal a good sensitivity between 1.6 and 200 ppb. NO sensitivity was also measured towards CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Pure nitrogen sweeps NO from the porphyrin layer, opening the possibility of the sensor reutilization.

  19. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  20. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resulting in nearly 11,000 deaths in 2009. Driving drunk is never OK. Choose not to drink and ... interlocks prevent drivers who were convicted of alcohol-impaired driving from operating their vehicles if they have been ...

  2. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschi Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.

  3. Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. More than 800,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and stroke. Learn how to manage all the major risk factors.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  4. Computer program CDCID: an automated quality control program using CDC update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, G.L.; Aguilar, F.

    1984-04-01

    A computer program, CDCID, has been developed in coordination with a quality control program to provide a highly automated method of documenting changes to computer codes at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The method uses the standard CDC UPDATE program in such a manner that updates and their associated documentation are easily made and retrieved in various formats. The method allows each card image of a source program to point to the document which describes it, who created the card, and when it was created. The method described is applicable to the quality control of computer programs in general. The computer program described is executable only on CDC computing systems, but the program could be modified and applied to any computing system with an adequate updating program

  5. Chilling outweighs photoperiod in preventing precocious spring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Julia; Sparks, Tim H; Estrella, Nicole; Höfler, Josef; Ankerst, Donna P; Menzel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that increased spring temperatures cause earlier onset dates of leaf unfolding and flowering. However, a temperature increase in winter may be associated with delayed development when species' chilling requirements are not fulfilled. Furthermore, photosensitivity is supposed to interfere with temperature triggers. To date, neither the relative importance nor possible interactions of these three factors have been elucidated. In this study, we present a multispecies climate chamber experiment to test the effects of chilling and photoperiod on the spring phenology of 36 woody species. Several hypotheses regarding their variation with species traits (successional strategy, floristic status, climate of their native range) were tested. Long photoperiods advanced budburst for one-third of the studied species, but magnitudes of these effects were generally minor. In contrast to prior hypotheses, photosensitive responses were not restricted to climax or oceanic species. Increased chilling length advanced budburst for almost all species; its effect greatly exceeding that of photoperiod. Moreover, we suggest that photosensitivity and chilling effects have to be rigorously disentangled, as the response to photoperiod was restricted to individuals that had not been fully chilled. The results indicate that temperature requirements and successional strategy are linked, with climax species having higher chilling and forcing requirements than pioneer species. Temperature requirements of invasive species closely matched those of native species, suggesting that high phenological concordance is a prerequisite for successful establishment. Lack of chilling not only led to a considerable delay in budburst but also caused substantial changes in the chronological order of species' budburst. The results reveal that increased winter temperatures might impact forest ecosystems more than formerly assumed. Species with lower chilling requirements, such as pioneer or invasive

  6. Hurricane Season Public Health Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Guidance for Health Care Providers, Response and Recovery Workers, and Affected Communities - CDC, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-22

    CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) have guidance and technical materials available in both English and Spanish to help communities prepare for hurricanes and floods (Table 1). To help protect the health and safety of the public, responders, and clean-up workers during response and recovery operations from hurricanes and floods, CDC and ATSDR have developed public health guidance and other resources; many are available in both English and Spanish (Table 2).

  7. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smit...

  8. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 4

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the fourth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about strategies that should serve as the cornerstone for partnership development.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  9. Inhibition of Cdc42 and Rac1 activities in pheochromocytoma, the adrenal medulla tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisé, Pauline; Brunaud, Laurent; Tóth, Petra; Gasman, Stéphane; Ory, Stéphane

    2017-04-03

    Altered Rho GTPase signaling has been linked to many types of cancer. As many small G proteins, Rho GTPases cycle between an active and inactive state thanks to specific regulators that catalyze exchange of GDP into GTP (Rho-GEF) or hydrolysis of GTP into GDP (Rho-GAP). Recent studies have shown that alteration takes place either at the level of Rho proteins themselves (expression levels, point mutations) or at the level of their regulators, mostly RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs. Most reports describe Rho GTPases gain of function that may participate to the tumorigenesis processes. In contrast, we have recently reported that decreased activities of Cdc42 and Rac1 as well as decreased expression of 2 Rho-GEFs, FARP1 and ARHGEF1, correlate with pheochromocytomas, a tumor developing in the medulla of the adrenal gland (Croisé et al., Endocrine Related Cancer, 2016). Here we highlight the major evidence and further study the correlation between Rho GTPases activities and expression levels of ARHGEF1 and FARP1. Finally we also discuss how the decrease of Cdc42 and Rac1 activities may help human pheochromocytomas to develop and comment the possible relationship between FARP1, ARHGEF1 and the 2 Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 in tumorigenesis.

  10. Integrating Early Child Development and Violence Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2018-01-01

    Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…

  11. "something we'd rather not talk about": findings from CDC exploratory research on sexually transmitted disease communication with girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Bloodgood, Bonny

    2010-10-01

    Chlamydia is a leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Annual Chlamydia screening is recommended for all sexually active women aged ≤ 25 years, yet only about 40% of eligible women are screened each year in the United States. To promote Chlamydia screening for the prevention of infertility, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is developing direct-to-consumer efforts for sexually active young women and key influencers. To inform this effort, CDC sought to explore girls'/women's understandings of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and Chlamydia testing and STD communications and information sources. Two waves of one-on-one interviews (n = 125) were conducted in 10 metropolitan areas with African American, Caucasian, and Latina females, aged 15-25 years. Most participants were not knowledgeable about Chlamydia or its screening; their discussions about it suggested low levels of perceived susceptibility or relevance to Chlamydia and screening. STDs are rarely discussed in home or social settings or with partners or close friends; yet young women may turn to interpersonal sources if concerned about an STD. Providers are the primary and preferred source of STD information for girls and women, although missed opportunities for engaging young women in STD/sexual health discussions were identified in clinical and other settings. Providers, family members, friends, and partners may serve as important intermediaries for reaching young women and encouraging STD/Chlamydia screening. Resources are identified that could be leveraged and/or developed to facilitate such interactions.

  12. History of “health risk” and its place in the development of preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.Е. Shigan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of the introduction and development of preventive medicine and the term HEALTH RISK are described. The “risk” definition is related to the works by Max Fasmer and Frank Knight. The development of preventive medicine was also influenced by the works of scientists and physicians of the ancient world and the Middle Ages. Particular attention is paid to the appearance, formation and development of the medical school of Salerno, and the impact of its work and the activities of scientists and teachers on further development of prevention and treatment. The relationship of these two concepts and their history is shown. The author dwells on the prevention development in Russia, paying particular attention to domestic researchers, especially after the victory of the Great October Revolution. Works by N.A. Semashko, Z.P. Soloviev, G.V. Khlopin, A.N. Sysin and F.G. Krotkov played a huge role in the development of preventive medicine in Russia and in the world. The article also represents the prevention medicine development facts in the post-war years – the creation of large schools of medicine, aimed at the prevention of diseases and epidemiological studies of the risk incurred. The article also pays attention to the foundation of International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, some areas of its work, especially in relation to research on the health risks. The itegration at mathematical modeling and forecasting with medicine in general and health in particular, as well as the study of the health concepts of risks at individual nosological examples are written.

  13. Geomorphology, natural hazards, vulnerability and prevention of natural disasters in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2002-10-01

    The significance of the prevention of natural disasters is made evident by the commemoration of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). This paper focuses on the role of geomorphology in the prevention of natural disasters in developing countries, where their impact has devastating consequences. Concepts such as natural hazards, natural disasters and vulnerability have a broad range of definitions; however, the most significant elements are associated with the vulnerability concept. The latter is further explored and considered as a key factor in understanding the occurrence of natural disasters, and consequently, in developing and applying adequate strategies for prevention. Terms such as natural and human vulnerabilities are introduce and explained as target aspects to be taken into account in the reduction of vulnerability and for prevention and mitigation of natural disasters. The importance of the incorporation not only of geomorphological research, but also of geomorphologists in risk assessment and management programs in the poorest countries is emphasized.

  14. Vectorization of transport and diffusion computations on the CDC Cyber 205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Shumays, I.K.

    1985-01-01

    This work focuses on development and testing of alternative numerical methods and computational algorithms specifically designed for the vectorization of transport and diffusion computations on a Control Data Corporation (CDC) Cyber 205 vector computer. The first part of the report summarizes and compares two solution methods for the discrete ordinates approximation to the transport equation. Factors of 4 to 7 reduction in run times for certain large transport problems were achieved on a Cyber 205 as compared with run times on a CDC-7600. The second part of the paper deals with the solution of tridiagonal systems of linear equations which is a central part for several efficient numerical methods for multidimensional diffusion computations and which is also essential for fluid flow and other physics and engineering problems. Among the methods tested, a combined odd-even cyclic reduction and modified Cholesky factorization algorithm for solving linear symmetric positive definite tridiagonal systems is found to be the most effective for these systems on a Cyber 205. For large tridiagonal systems, computation with this algorithm is an order of magnitude faster on a Cyber 205 than computation with the best algorithm for tridiagonal systems on a CDC-7600

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VitalSigns – Childhood Obesity [PSA – 0:60 seconds] VitalSigns – Obesidad en niños: [PODCAST – 1:15 minutes] Childhood Overweight ... Prevention and Control MedlinePlus – Obesity in Children MedlinePlus – Obesidad en niños Top of Page Get Email Updates ...

  16. Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Docking Analysis of the Molecular Chaperone-Kinase Interactions: Towards Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Kinases by Targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Verkhivker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone system in mediating maturation of protein kinase clients and supporting kinase functional activity is essential for the integrity and viability of signaling pathways involved in cell cycle control and organism development. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, the molecular mechanisms and guiding principles of kinase recruitment to the chaperone system are lacking quantitative characterization. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with protein kinase clients by modern experimental techniques is highly challenging, owing to a transient nature of chaperone-mediated interactions. In this work, we used experimentally-guided protein docking to probe the allosteric nature of the Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 kinase clients. The results of docking simulations suggest that the kinase recognition and recruitment to the chaperone system may be primarily determined by Cdc37 targeting of the N-terminal kinase lobe. The interactions of Hsp90 with the C-terminal kinase lobe may provide additional “molecular brakes” that can lock (or unlock kinase from the system during client loading (release stages. The results of this study support a central role of the Cdc37 chaperone in recognition and recruitment of the kinase clients. Structural analysis may have useful implications in developing strategies for allosteric inhibition of protein kinases by targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone machinery.

  17. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  18. Effectiveness Of Defect Prevention In I.T. For Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    V., Suma; Nair, T. R. Gopalakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Defect Prevention is the most critical but most neglected component of the software quality assurance in any project. If applied at all stages of software development, it can reduce the time, cost and resources required to engineer a high quality product. Software inspection has proved to be the most effective and efficient technique enabling defect detection and prevention. Inspections carried at all phases of software life cycle have proved to be most beneficial and value added to the attri...

  19. Developing Family Healthware, a Family History Screening Tool to Prevent Common Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Paula W.; Scheuner, Maren T.; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Khoury, Muin J.

    2008-01-01

    Family health history reflects the effects of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is an important risk factor for a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed Family Healthware, a new interactive, Web-based tool that assesses familial risk for 6 diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancer) and provides a "prevention plan" with pe...

  20. 78 FR 54432 - Development of Inward Leakage Standards for Half-Mask Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...)? 3. Does your company use a panel or portion of a panel to develop respirators for a defined user... implementation of fit testing standards for defined user groups? 4. Does your company use a panel or a portion of... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces a public meeting concerning inward leakage performance requirements...

  1. Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2017-05-11

    Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.

  2. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Development and Evaluation of a Clinic-Based Screening and Brief Intervention for Changing Behaviors Related to Cytomegalovirus... ``Development and Evaluation of a Clinic-Based Screening and Brief Intervention for Changing Behaviors Related...

  3. The prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: the systematic development of an intervention and its feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development

  4. Family Factors in the Development, Treatment, and Prevention of Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that anxiety disorders run in families, and current etiological models have proposed both genetic and environmental pathways to anxiety development. In this paper, the familial role in the development, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders in children is reviewed. We focus on three anxiety disorders in youth,…

  5. Loneliness literacy scale; development and evaluation of an early indicator for loneliness prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, de R.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Bos-Oude Groeniger, I.; Hooft Van Huysduynen, E.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Veer, van 't P.

    2014-01-01

    To develop and evaluate the Loneliness Literacy Scale for the assessment of short-term outcomes of a loneliness prevention programme among Dutch elderly persons. Scale development was based on evidence from literature and experiences from local stakeholders and representatives of the target group.

  6. Main issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and its prevention method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, N.; Tan, K. Y.; Syahrom, N.

    2017-12-01

    Pile foundation is widely used in construction and building marine structures. This is because pile foundation is an important structure and should have long-term durability. However, in waterfront development, a lot of issues from the seawater should be considered distinctively because it consists of many problems that can affect the building structure especially the foundation of the building. Thus, a research should be conducted to identify issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and determine its prevention methods. The research was carried out through interviews with the developers and contractors from the projects of Lexis Hibiscus at Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan and Redevelopment for Deep-Water Facilities at Quay 6 in Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. The objectives of this research are to identify issues of pile foundation and to determine the prevention methods of pile foundation issues at waterfront development. All respondents agreed that the main issues of pile foundations at waterfront development are the wave and tide condition. The prevention methods of the issue faced at waterfront development that are most frequently used for the pile foundation are coating system and concrete cover. This research is beneficial to all developers and contractors to ensure pile foundations at waterfront development can be protected by using the prevention methods.

  7. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  8. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast [version 2; referees: 3 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Fox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This “licensing” ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of

  9. Smokeout (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-19

    Cigarette use in the U.S. has been cut by more than half since the Surgeon General issued the first report on smoking over 50 years ago. However, smoking is still the leading cause of preventable death. In this podcast, Dr. Shanna Cox discusses strategies for quitting smoking.  Created: 11/19/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/19/2015.

  10. Prevention of cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanga, Witness; Elhakeem, Ahmed; Feresu, Shingairai A; Maseko, Fresier; Chipato, Tsungai

    2017-04-24

    Over 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in developing countries. HIV-seropositive women are more likely to develop precancerous lesions that lead to cervical cancer than HIV-negative women. However, the literature on cervical cancer prevention in seropositive women in developing countries has not been reviewed. The aim of this study is to systematically review cervical cancer prevention modalities available for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. This protocol was developed by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement, and the systematic review will be reported in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library will be searched from inception up to date of final search, and additional studies will be located through citation and reference list tracking. Eligible studies will be randomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control and cross-sectional studies carried out in developing countries. Studies will be included if they are published in English and examine cervical cancer prevention modalities in HIV-seropositive women. Results will be summarised in tables and, where appropriate, combined using meta-analysis. This review will address the gap in evidence by systematically reviewing the published literature on the different prevention modalities being used to prevent cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. The findings may be used to inform evidence-based guidelines for prevention of cervical cancer in seropositive women as well as future research. PROSPERO CRD42017054678 .

  11. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  12. The potential of socio-psychological models for the development of prevention programs (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovina I.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of designing prevention programs in health and disease. We note that smoking cessation on the planet would reduce mortality from various types of cancer by 25%, and would also save the lives of hundreds of thousands of people who die each year from heart attacks. Losing weight by only 10% through proper nutrition and exercise would reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease, as well as certain types of cancer. Based on the literature review, we reveal the different types of prevention, show the importance of preventive measures aimed at the patient's immediate environment. Among the main difficulties associated with the development of effective prevention programs we discuss the following: 1 ignoring the psychological mechanisms of behavior change; 2 irrelevance of media broadcast methods in prevention campaigns; 3 the time between the problem behavior and its negative effects on health. We discuss the potential of social influence models for the development of prevention programs in the field of health and disease.

  13. Development of STEADI: a fall prevention resource for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Judy A; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-01

    Falls among people aged ≥65 years are the leading cause of both injury deaths and emergency department visits for trauma. Research shows that many falls are preventable. In the clinical setting, an effective fall intervention involves assessing and addressing an individual's fall risk factors. This individualized approach is recommended in the American and British Geriatrics Societies' (AGS/BGS) practice guideline. This article describes the development of STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries), a fall prevention tool kit that contains an array of health care provider resources for assessing and addressing fall risk in clinical settings. As researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Injury Center, we reviewed relevant literature and conducted in-depth interviews with health care providers to determine current knowledge and practices related to older adult fall prevention. We developed draft resources based on the AGS/BGS guideline, incorporated provider input, and addressed identified knowledge and practice gaps. Draft resources were reviewed by six focus groups of health care providers and revised. The completed STEADI tool kit, Preventing Falls in Older Patients-A Provider Tool Kit, is designed to help health care providers incorporate fall risk assessment and individualized fall interventions into routine clinical practice and to link clinical care with community-based fall prevention programs.

  14. Overweight and Obesity in Local Media: An Analysis of Media Coverage in CDC-Funded Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher N; Inokuchi, Derek; Lehman, Thomas; Ledsky, Rebecca; Weldy, Andre

    2017-12-07

    We conducted a content analysis of newspaper and television news coverage in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grantee locations from June 2011 through May 2013. After searching 2 databases for news stories related to overweight or obesity, we coded and analyzed stories for valence (how the author/reporter framed overweight and obesity control strategies), descriptors, causes and solutions, and populations mentioned. Of almost 3,000 stories analyzed, most had a neutral or positive valence, depicted overweight and obesity as epidemic, discussed individual causes and environmental solutions most frequently, and mentioned children most often. Earned media can be part of addressing overweight and obesity by emphasizing prevention and by emphasizing both environmental and individual causes and solutions.

  15. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  16. Dangerous Creatures - A Visit to the CDC Insectary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-07

    Tour CDC’s insectary with Sofi, a young host, and learn from CDC researchers about mosquitoes and insecticide resistance.  Created: 11/7/2012 by Center for Global Health (CGH).   Date Released: 12/20/2012.

  17. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  18. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives, Protecting People

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-04

    24/7, CDC provides health information, responds to public health emergencies and natural disasters, and monitors disease.  Created: 6/4/2012 by Office of the Associate Director of Communciation (OADC).   Date Released: 6/4/2012.

  19. Leveraging geospatial data, technology, and methods for improving the health of communities: priorities and strategies from an expert panel convened by the CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Kim; Flanagan, Barry; Jones, Nicholas F; Heitgerd, Janet L

    2010-04-01

    In 2008, CDC convened an expert panel to gather input on the use of geospatial science in surveillance, research and program activities focused on CDC's Healthy Communities Goal. The panel suggested six priorities: spatially enable and strengthen public health surveillance infrastructure; develop metrics for geospatial categorization of community health and health inequity; evaluate the feasibility and validity of standard metrics of community health and health inequities; support and develop GIScience and geospatial analysis; provide geospatial capacity building, training and education; and, engage non-traditional partners. Following the meeting, the strategies and action items suggested by the expert panel were reviewed by a CDC subcommittee to determine priorities relative to ongoing CDC geospatial activities, recognizing that many activities may need to occur either in parallel, or occur multiple times across phases. Phase A of the action items centers on developing leadership support. Phase B focuses on developing internal and external capacity in both physical (e.g., software and hardware) and intellectual infrastructure. Phase C of the action items plan concerns the development and integration of geospatial methods. In summary, the panel members provided critical input to the development of CDC's strategic thinking on integrating geospatial methods and research issues across program efforts in support of its Healthy Communities Goal.

  20. CDC Vital Signs-Alcohol and Pregnancy: Why Take the Risk?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-02

    This podcast is based on the February 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. More than three million women in the U.S. are at risk for exposing their developing baby to alcohol. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities that can affect a child’s whole life. Learn what can be done to keep developing babies healthy.  Created: 2/2/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 2/2/2016.

  1. Biochemical characterization of two Cdc6/ORC1-like proteins from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Mariarita; Esposito, Luca; Rossi, Mosè; Pisani, Francesca M

    2006-02-01

    The biological role of archaeal proteins, homologous to the eukaryal replication initiation factors of cell division control (Cdc6) and origin recognition complex (ORC1), has not yet been clearly established. The hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (referred to as Sso) possesses three Cdc6/ORC1-like factors, which are named Sso Cdc6-1, Cdc6-2 and Cdc6-3. This study is a report on the biochemical characterization of Sso Cdc6-1 and Cdc6-3. It has been found that either Sso Cdc6-1 or Cdc6-3 behave as monomers in solutions by gel filtration analyses. Both factors are able to bind to various single-stranded and double-stranded DNA ligands, but Sso Cdc6-3 shows a higher DNA-binding affinity. It has also been observed that either Sso Cdc6-1 or Cdc6-3 inhibit the DNA unwinding activity of the S. solfataricus homo-hexameric mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM)-like DNA helicase (Sso MCM); although they strongly stimulate the interaction of the Sso MCM with bubble-containing synthetic oligonucleotides. The study has also showed, with surface plasmon resonance measurements, that Sso Cdc6-2 physically interacts with either Sso Cdc6-1 or Sso Cdc6-3. These findings may provide important clues needed to understand the biological role that is played by each of these three Cdc6 factors during the DNA replication initiation process in the S. solfataricus cells.

  2. Formative research to inform intervention development for diabetes prevention in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, L M; Gittelsohn, J; Alfred, J; Palafox, N A

    2001-12-01

    Formative research was conducted in the Republic of the Marshall Islands to help develop a diabetes prevention intervention. Methods included in-depth interviews, semistructured interviews, and direct observation of household behaviors in urban and remote settings. Foods were classified into two main conceptual spheres: foods from the islands/Marshallese foods and imported/American foods. Diabetes (nanimij in tonal) is a highly salient illness and is believed to be caused by foods high in fat and sugar, consumption of imported/American foods, family background, and the atomic bomb testing. Physical activity and eating a traditional diet were viewed as important for preventing diabetes. The traditional belief system links a large body with health, and a thin body with illness; however, perceptions are changing with increased acculturation and education about the health risks of obesity. These findings were used to develop a diabetes prevention home visit intervention currently being implemented and evaluated in Marshallese households.

  3. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2012-01-01

    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis A and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information about hepatitis A, visit www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hav . The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Academy of Pediatrics strongly recommend all children receive their vaccines according ...

  5. Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention: Data Trends & Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention's Data Trends & Maps online tool allows searching for and view of health indicators related to Heart...

  6. Shedding light on the expansion and diversification of the Cdc48 protein family during the rise of the eukaryotic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Nickias; Kloepper, Tobias H; Fasshauer, Dirk

    2016-10-18

    A defining feature of eukaryotic cells is the presence of various distinct membrane-bound compartments with different metabolic roles. Material exchange between most compartments occurs via a sophisticated vesicle trafficking system. This intricate cellular architecture of eukaryotes appears to have emerged suddenly, about 2 billion years ago, from much less complex ancestors. How the eukaryotic cell acquired its internal complexity is poorly understood, partly because no prokaryotic precursors have been found for many key factors involved in compartmentalization. One exception is the Cdc48 protein family, which consists of several distinct classical ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) proteins with two consecutive AAA domains. Here, we have classified the Cdc48 family through iterative use of hidden Markov models and tree building. We found only one type, Cdc48, in prokaryotes, although a set of eight diverged members that function at distinct subcellular compartments were retrieved from eukaryotes and were probably present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Pronounced changes in sequence and domain structure during the radiation into the LECA set are delineated. Moreover, our analysis brings to light lineage-specific losses and duplications that often reflect important biological changes. Remarkably, we also found evidence for internal duplications within the LECA set that probably occurred during the rise of the eukaryotic cell. Our analysis corroborates the idea that the diversification of the Cdc48 family is closely intertwined with the development of the compartments of the eukaryotic cell.

  7. Caffeine stabilizes Cdc25 independently of Rad3 in S chizosaccharomyces pombe contributing to checkpoint override

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, John P; Sjölander, Johanna J; Baar, Juliane; Özbaki-Yagan, Nejla; Kakoschky, Bianca; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2014-01-01

    Cdc25 is required for Cdc2 dephosphorylation and is thus essential for cell cycle progression. Checkpoint activation requires dual inhibition of Cdc25 and Cdc2 in a Rad3-dependent manner. Caffeine is believed to override activation of the replication and DNA damage checkpoints by inhibiting Rad3-related proteins in both S chizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian cells. In this study, we have investigated the impact of caffeine on Cdc25 stability, cell cycle progression and checkpoint override. Caffeine induced Cdc25 accumulation in S . pombe independently of Rad3. Caffeine delayed cell cycle progression under normal conditions but advanced mitosis in cells treated with replication inhibitors and DNA-damaging agents. In the absence of Cdc25, caffeine inhibited cell cycle progression even in the presence of hydroxyurea or phleomycin. Caffeine induces Cdc25 accumulation in S . pombe by suppressing its degradation independently of Rad3. The induction of Cdc25 accumulation was not associated with accelerated progression through mitosis, but rather with delayed progression through cytokinesis. Caffeine-induced Cdc25 accumulation appears to underlie its ability to override cell cycle checkpoints. The impact of Cdc25 accumulation on cell cycle progression is attenuated by Srk1 and Mad2. Together our findings suggest that caffeine overrides checkpoint enforcement by inducing the inappropriate nuclear localization of Cdc25. PMID:24666325

  8. Dropout Prevention: Diversified Satellite Occupations Program and Career Development. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hilda B.

    The Diversified Satellite Occupations Program Career Development sought to prevent dropout through these strategies: registration at a school situation away from the normal school setting, creation of a close teacher-student relationship, and raise achievement levels and lower anxiety levels. Program emphases at elementary, junior and senior high…

  9. Fenugreek Prevents the Development of STZ-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Jin

    2014-01-01

    evidently reduced by fenugreek treatment. Furthermore, the upregulation of TGF-β1 and CTGF at a transcriptional and translational level in DN rats was distinctly inhibited by fenugreek. Consequently, fenugreek prevents DN development in a STZ-induced diabetic rat model.

  10. Effective Dropout Prevention Strategies Developed by the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers that address the High/Scope Foundation's approach to risk reduction and dropout prevention. Examines High/Scope's history and describes various High/Scope efforts (e.g., the Michigan School Readiness Program Evaluation, preschool and elementary curriculum development and training, movement and music curriculum…

  11. National Strategy for Violence Prevention in the Austrian Public School System: Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, Christiane; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a quick succession of several spectacular events in schools, and the ensuing public discussion on the high rates of bullying in Austria, a national strategy for violence prevention in schools and preschools has been developed. In formulating the strategy, a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local…

  12. Methods used for prevention of white spot lesion development during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, A.E.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Mulder, J.; Sanden, W.J.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to survey methods that Dutch orthodontists use to prevent development or progression of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre-tested questionnaire was sent by post to all orthodontists in the Netherlands with a

  13. The prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: the systematic development of an intervention and its feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Background: A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic

  14. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…

  15. A "Common Factors" Approach to Developing Culturally Tailored HIV Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna

    2016-01-01

    The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…

  16. The prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball : the systematic development of an intervention and its feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic

  17. The Development of an Osteoporosis Prevention Education Intervention: Its Effectiveness, Conclusions, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Waigandt, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis prevention education interventions have been found to be ineffective. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a developed intervention based on the health belief model, which emphasized its visible severity and proximal time of onset. Method: A sample of 109 college women were randomly assigned to either a treatment or…

  18. Building company health promotion capacity: a unique collaboration between Cargill and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E; Hersey, James C; Isenberg, Karen L; Lynch, Christina M; Majestic, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) helps protect the health and safety of all people. The workplace can be used to reach millions of workers and their families with programs, policies, and benefits that promote health. We describe a CDC-led project to build Cargill's workplace health promotion capacity and identify the importance of a company liaison in the public-private relationship. The project goals were to engage diverse Cargill personnel, conduct a workplace health assessment, aid in the development of a workplace health program action plan, and develop Cargill's internal capacity using knowledge and skill-building. CDC partnered with Cargill on a workplace health promotion project to build Cargill's capacity. A multicomponent assessment was conducted to determine priority employee health issues, stakeholder meetings were held to engage and educate Cargill management and employees, and technical assistance was provided regularly between CDC and Cargill. Identifying a company liaison to work with an external assessment team is critical to building capacity for a successful workplace health project. This relationship creates an understanding of company culture and operations, facilitates access to key stakeholders and data, and provides opportunities to enhance capacity and sustainability. Employers undertaking workplace health promotion projects should identify a senior-level person to serve as the company health leader or liaison and who can devote the time necessary to build trusting relationships with partners to ensure project success. This person is valuable in facilitating communications, data collection, logistical support, troubleshooting, and influencing employer workplace health practices.

  19. Profile: the KEMRI/CDC Health and Demographic Surveillance System--Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Frank O; Laserson, Kayla F; Sewe, Maquins; Hamel, Mary J; Feikin, Daniel R; Adazu, Kubaje; Ogwang, Sheila; Obor, David; Amek, Nyaguara; Bayoh, Nabie; Ombok, Maurice; Lindblade, Kimberly; Desai, Meghna; ter Kuile, Feiko; Phillips-Howard, Penelope; van Eijk, Anna M; Rosen, Daniel; Hightower, Allen; Ofware, Peter; Muttai, Hellen; Nahlen, Bernard; DeCock, Kevin; Slutsker, Laurence; Breiman, Robert F; Vulule, John M

    2012-08-01

    The KEMRI/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in Rarieda, Siaya and Gem Districts (Siaya County), lying northeast of Lake Victoria in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. The KEMRI/CDC HDSS, with approximately 220 000 inhabitants, has been the foundation for a variety of studies, including evaluations of insecticide-treated bed nets, burden of diarrhoeal disease and tuberculosis, malaria parasitaemia and anaemia, treatment strategies and immunological correlates of malaria infection, and numerous HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and diarrhoeal disease treatment and vaccine efficacy and effectiveness trials for more than a decade. Current studies include operations research to measure the uptake and effectiveness of the programmatic implementation of integrated malaria control strategies, HIV services, newly introduced vaccines and clinical trials. The HDSS provides general demographic and health information (such as population age structure and density, fertility rates, birth and death rates, in- and out-migrations, patterns of health care access and utilization and the local economics of health care) as well as disease- or intervention-specific information. The HDSS also collects verbal autopsy information on all deaths. Studies take advantage of the sampling frame inherent in the HDSS, whether at individual, household/compound or neighbourhood level.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  1. Childhood Obesity – Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-02

    This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

  2. Development of a Multilevel Prevention Program for Improved Relationship Functioning in Active Duty Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) July 2008 – July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of a Multilevel Prevention Program for Improved...members have been tremendously strained by deployments and high operations’ tempo. This study involves the first steps in developing a multilevel approach

  3. The radiation like preventive methods of the ectopic development after hip surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez Garcia, J.C.; Delgado Macias, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the prevalence of ectopic bone development after hip surgery, a review has been done on the reports appearing in the literature dealing with the use of irradiation, at different doses and postoperative intervals, as a method to prevent this complication. The results demonstrate the efficacy of radiotherapy in preventing ectopic bone formation, the need to begin its application within the first four days of surgical treatment and the fact that satisfactory results can be obtained with relatively low and, thus, theoretically innocuous doses. 17 refs

  4. Development of a Preventive Maintenance Program for Tooling Used in Powder Slush Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL

    2016-07-19

    ORNL collaborated with Faurecia Interior Systems to investigate the feasibility of developing a thermomagnetic preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling used in powder slush molding. It was found that thermal treatments at temperatures greater than 500°C can anneal strain hardening in nickel tooling and a range of temperatures and times for effective thermal annealing were identified. It was also observed that magnetic fields applied during thermal annealing do not alter the kinetics of strain hardening annealing. The results obtained in this investigation provide a foundation for establishing a preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling.

  5. Investigation of Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) with Swirl for Gas Turbine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil Hasan, Ahmed Essam ElDin

    Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) with swirl is investigated for gas turbine engine applications due to its benefits for ultra-low pollutants emission, improved pattern factor and thermal field uniformity, low noise emission, and stable combustion with the alleviation of combustion instabilities. Adequate and fast mixing between the injected air and internally recirculated hot reactive gases to form hot and diluted oxidant is critical for CDC, followed by rapid mixing with the fuel. This results in distributed reaction zone instead of a concentrated thin flame front as observed in conventional diffusion flames, leading to avoidance of hot spot regions and providing reduced NOx and CO emissions. The focus of this dissertation is to develop and demonstrate CDC in a cylindrical combustor for application to stationary gas turbine combustors. The dissertation examines the sequential development of ultra-low emission colorless distributed combustor operating at a nominal thermal intensity of 36MW/m3-atm. Initially, the role of swirl is evaluated through comparing the performance of swirling and non-swirling configurations with focus on pollutants emission, stability, and isothermal flowfield through particle image velocimetry. Different fuel injection locations have also been examined, and based on performance a swirling configuration have been down selected for further investigations demonstrating emissions as low as 1 PPM of NO with a 40% reduction compared to non-swirling configuration. Further investigations were performed to outline the impact of inlet air temperature and combustor pressure on reaction distribution and combustor performance. Next, Fuel flexibility has been examined with view to develop CDC combustors that can handle different gaseous and liquid fuels, both traditional and renewable. These fuels included diluted methane, hydrogen enriched methane, propane, ethanol, kerosene, JP-8, Hydrogenated Renewable Jet fuel, and novel biofuel. Swirling CDC

  6. CDC Grand Rounds: global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Samira; Song, Yang; Cohen, Joanna; Eriksen, Michael; Pechacek, Terry; Cohen, Nicole; Iskander, John

    2014-04-04

    During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable.

  7. The development of videos in culturally grounded drug prevention for rural native Hawaiian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Seventy-four middle- and high-school-aged youth in 15 focus groups adapted and validated the details of the scripts to make them more realistic. Specifically, youth participants affirmed the situations described in the scripts and suggested changes to details of the scripts to make them more culturally specific. Suggested changes to the scripts also reflected preferred drug resistance strategies described in prior research, and varied based on the type of drug offerer described in each script (i.e., peer/friend, parent, or cousin/sibling). Implications for culturally grounded drug prevention are discussed.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR OPTIMAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE POLICY IN A STEEL INDUSTRY : SIX SIGMA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. R. Naidu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a critical evaluation of the Preventive Maintenance system in steel industry. This study helps in implementing Six Sigma solutions to reduce the down time of two critical machines i.e., Electric Arc Furnace (EAF and Billet Casting Machine (BCM. It is clear from the analysis of EAF and BCM respectively that, variations in output are quite possible because the machines output not only depend on maintenance time but also on several other variables. Further, the objective is to design a preventive maintenance programme on the same equipment situated in the plant using Six Sigma. The breakdown of these equipments could very well affect the production rate. For this, the mathematical models have been developed and these models are used to obtain the optimum preventive maintenance frequency for minimizing the down time and maximizing the profits.

  9. Indications and outcome of childhood preventable bowel resections in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu Obiora Ezomike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While many bowel resections in developed countries are due to congenital anomalies, indications for bowel resections in developing countries are mainly from preventable causes. The aim of the following study was to assess the indications for, morbidity and mortality following preventable bowel resection in our centre. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all cases of bowel resection deemed preventable in children from birth to 18 years from June 2005 to June 2012. Results: There were 22 preventable bowel resections with an age range of 7 days to 17 years (median 6 months and male:female ratio of 2.1:1. There were 2 neonates, 13 infants and 7 older children. The indications were irreducible/gangrenous intussusceptions (13, abdominal gunshot injury (2, gangrenous umbilical hernia (2, blunt abdominal trauma (1, midgut volvulus (1, necrotizing enterocolitis (1, strangulated inguinal hernia (1, post-operative band intestinal obstructions (1. There were 16 right hemicolectomies, 4 small bowel resections and 2 massive bowel resections. Average duration of symptoms before presentation was 3.9 days (range: 3 h-14 days. Average time to surgical intervention was 42 h for survivors and 53 h for non-survivors. Only 19% presented within 24 h of onset of symptoms and all survived. For those presenting after 24 h, the cause of delay was a visit to primary or secondary level hospitals (75% and ignorance (25%. Average duration of post-operative hospital stay is 14 days and 9 patients (41% developed 18 complications. Seven patients died (31.8% mortality which diagnoses were irreducible/gangrenous intussusceptions (5, necrotising enterocolitis (1, midgut volvulus (1. One patient died on the operating table while others had overwhelming sepsis. Conclusion: There is a high rate of morbidity and mortality in these cases of preventable bowel resection. Typhoid intestinal perforation did not feature as an indication for bowel resection in this

  10. Awareness and trust of the FDA and CDC: Results from a national sample of US adults and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah D Kowitt

    Full Text Available Trust in government agencies plays a key role in advancing these organizations' agendas, influencing behaviors, and effectively implementing policies. However, few studies have examined the extent to which individuals are aware of and trust the leading United States agencies devoted to protecting the public's health. Using two national samples of adolescents (N = 1,125 and adults (N = 5,014, we examined demographic factors, with a focus on vulnerable groups, as correlates of awareness of and trust in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and the federal government. From nine different weighted and adjusted logistic regression models, we found high levels of awareness of the existence of the FDA and CDC (ranging from 55.7% for adolescents' awareness of the CDC to 94.3% for adults' awareness of the FDA and moderate levels of trust (ranging from a low of 41.8% for adults' trust in the federal government and a high of 78.8% for adolescents' trust of the FDA. In the adolescent and adult samples, awareness was higher among non-Hispanic Blacks and respondents with low numeracy. With respect to trust, few consistent demographic differences emerged. Our findings provide novel insights regarding awareness and trust in the federal government and specific United States public health agencies. Our findings suggest groups to whom these agencies may want to selectively communicate to enhance trust and thus facilitate their communication and regulatory agendas.

  11. CDC Vital Signs-Communication Can Save Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This podcast is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  12. A continuum of approaches toward developing culturally focused prevention interventions: from adaptation to grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Steiker, Lori K Holleran; Dustman, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual model of methods used to develop culturally focused interventions. We describe a continuum of approaches ranging from non-adapted/surface-structure adapted programs to culturally grounded programs, and present recent examples of interventions resulting from the application of each of these approaches. The model has implications for categorizing culturally focused prevention efforts more accurately, and for gauging the time, resources, and level of community engagement necessary to develop programs using each of the different methods. The model also has implications for funding decisions related to the development and evaluation of programs, and for planning of participatory research approaches with community members.

  13. Study of the predominant defect development in rails of underground systems after preventive grinding and lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Serhii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the method of contact surface treatment and to define the rational surface roughness in the wheel/rail contact for the minimal growth rate of contact fatigue defects the program of experiments in operational conditions was developed. On the basis of the results and calculations the coefficients of regression equations, which describe dependencies of the wear rate on the parameters of the contact surface treatment in real operational conditions were obtained. Besides, the diagrams of dependencies of the friction coefficient on the roughness of railhead contact surface of the high rails with and without lubrication, when laid in curves of underground systems, were built. The experiments conducted in operational conditions of Kharkiv Metro revealed the influence of roughness of the railhead side surface of the high rails in curves on the contact fatigue defect development after preventive grinding and lubrication. According to the results of the experiments it was established that the rail preventive grinding with simultaneous lubrication led to slower contact fatigue defect development in rails of underground systems. The rational roughness of the railhead side surface of the high rails in curves after preventive grinding, which led to the minimal rate of defect development, was defined.

  14. User input in iterative design for prevention product development: leveraging interdisciplinary methods to optimize effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kate M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara E; Guillen, Melissa; Steger, Arielle L; Getz, Melissa L; Smith, Kelley A; Ramirez, Jaime J; Kojic, Erna M

    2017-10-01

    The development of HIV-preventive topical vaginal microbicides has been challenged by a lack of sufficient adherence in later stage clinical trials to confidently evaluate effectiveness. This dilemma has highlighted the need to integrate translational research earlier in the drug development process, essentially applying behavioral science to facilitate the advances of basic science with respect to the uptake and use of biomedical prevention technologies. In the last several years, there has been an increasing recognition that the user experience, specifically the sensory experience, as well as the role of meaning-making elicited by those sensations, may play a more substantive role than previously thought. Importantly, the role of the user-their sensory perceptions, their judgements of those experiences, and their willingness to use a product-is critical in product uptake and consistent use post-marketing, ultimately realizing gains in global public health. Specifically, a successful prevention product requires an efficacious drug, an efficient drug delivery system, and an effective user. We present an integrated iterative drug development and user experience evaluation method to illustrate how user-centered formulation design can be iterated from the early stages of preclinical development to leverage the user experience. Integrating the user and their product experiences into the formulation design process may help optimize both the efficiency of drug delivery and the effectiveness of the user.

  15. CDC Signos Vitales-Edad del corazón (Heart Age)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de septiembre del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. La "edad del corazón" es la edad que tienen su corazón y vasos sanguíneos como resultado de sus factores de riesgo de ataque cardiaco y accidente cerebrovascular. Si usted fuma o tiene la presión arterial alta, la edad de su corazón será mucho mayor que su edad real. Sepa qué puede hacer para disminuir la edad de su corazón y mantenerla baja.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  16. CDC: Consejos de exfumadores: El Consejo de Jessica Sobre el Asma PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    La exposición al humo de segunda mano puede provocar un ataque de asma que puede ser mortal. Este anuncio de servicio público de 30 segundos de la campaña de los CDC “Consejos de exfumadores”, muestra a Jessica, la madre de un niño pequeño que tiene ataques de asma por la exposición al humo de segunda mano. Su consejo es que las personas no sientan pena de decirles a otras que no fumen cerca de sus hijos.  Created: 3/19/2012 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  17. Signos Vitales de los CDC-Epidemia de heroína (Heroin Epidemic)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-07

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de julio del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. El consumo de heroína y las muertes por sobredosis relacionadas con esta droga están aumentando. La mayoría de las personas están consumiendo heroína con otras drogas, especialmente analgésicos opioides recetados. Sepa qué se puede hacer para prevenir y tratar el problema.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  18. Evidence-Based Update to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection: Developmental Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    2016-04-01

    Recommendations in the "Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999" were based on experts' selective interpretation of the scientific evidence. Effective 2009, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) updated their guideline development process. This is a narrative summary of the updated process focusing on key changes and challenges specific to the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. The guideline development process now incorporates evidence-based methodology and provides explicit links between the evidence and the recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method. There is also participation by professional surgical societies, an updated guideline structure (core and procedure-specific sections), additional planned related manuscripts (introductions to the guideline and research opportunities), and new proposed venues for publication. The new CDC and HICPAC "Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection" represents a substantial advancement from recommendations for infection control practices based on expert opinion to evidence-based practices. The new structure is meant to facilitate future updates, in particular, those addressing specialty or procedure-specific surgical site infection prevention questions. Increased presence by the surgical community through the professional surgical societies' engagement in the guideline development process, lead authorship of related manuscripts, and proposed publication in the surgical literature not only increase adherence by the surgical community, but also promote an ongoing collaboration with public health and other partners in a multidisciplinary approach to SSI prevention.

  19. Recommendations for policy development regarding sport-related concussion prevention and management in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémont, Pierre; Bradley, Lindsay; Tator, Charles H; Skinner, Jill; Fischer, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Concussion Collaborative (CCC) is composed of health-related organisations concerned with the recognition, treatment and management of concussion. Its mission is to create synergy between organisations concerned with concussion to improve education and implementation of best practices for the prevention and management of concussions. Each of the organisations that constitute the CCC has endorsed two recommendations that address the need for relevant authorities to develop policies about concussion management in sports. The recommendations were developed to support advocacy for regulations, policies or legislation to improve concussion prevention and management at all levels of sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Using drama to prevent teen smoking: development, implementation, and evaluation of crossroads in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschke, Diane B; Loebl, Karen; Tatafu, Elitei; Matsunaga, Doris Segal; Cassel, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    The use of drama as a preventive education measure has demonstrated success in various health promotion venues and offers promise in promoting positive youth attitudes and behavior change related to tobacco use. Especially important is a need to implement culturally relevant methods to reach youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a tobacco prevention drama for Asian and Pacific Islander youth. The resulting play, Crossroads, features a soap opera-style drama interspersed with humorous vignettes and multimedia effects and incorporates cultural cues, mannerisms, dress, and values consistent with Asian and Pacific Islander youth culture. Evaluation data indicate that the drama has an effect on audience knowledge, attitudes, and intended behavior, including a change in future intent to smoke cigarettes and the ability of audience members to develop connections with the characters in the play and apply concepts that are presented in the play to their own lives.

  1. Parent Engagement in Youth Drug Prevention in Chinese Families: Advancement in Program Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  2. Diabetes Awareness (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-17

    More than 29 million people have diabetes in the United States; 86 million people are at risk for developing it. In this podcast, Tanya Johnson discusses ways to prevent or control the onset of diabetes.  Created: 3/17/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/17/2016.

  3. Epilepsy Awareness (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-07

    Approximately 150,000 people in the U.S. develop epilepsy each year, and more than two million have been diagnosed with it. Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. In this podcast, Rosemarie Kobau discusses ways to control and prevent epilepsy.  Created: 11/7/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/7/2013.

  4. Developing a Mobile App for Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Geraldo Magela; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-01

    This descriptive study describes the planning and development of a mobile application (app) for prevention and treatment of pressure injuries for use by providers in a university research center. The app delineates risk factors for pressure injury development, provides an evaluation of the wound, recommends wound cleansing procedures, performs pressure injury staging, and recommends treatment interventions. A mobile app was developed using a contextualized instructional design, which involves a constructivist proposal and planning, developing, and applying specific didactic situations, thus incorporating mechanisms that favor contextualization. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies for the construction of the mobile app. The development process involved the selection of app tools, definition of the navigation structure, and planning of the environment configuration. The environment for downloading the app software on the Internet and installing it on the mobile device was created. The literature search yielded 18 articles, 2 books, and 1 master's degree thesis. A mobile app was created with an easy-to-use graphic interface. The app stores the patient's demographic characteristics and provides an evaluation of his/her wound, a list of risk factors for pressure injury development, wound cleansing procedures, and treatment interventions. The developed app may be useful in clinical practice, helping to prevent pressure injuries and promote select nursing interventions for the treatment of patients with pressure injury.

  5. The development and validation of the childhood obesity prevention self-efficacy (COP-SE) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Natalie K; Nietfeld, John L; Goodell, L Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    Physicians can play an important role in preventing and treating childhood obesity. There are currently no validated measures of medical students' self-efficacy in these skills; therefore, we sought to develop a valid and reliable computerized survey to measure medical students' self-efficacy in skills needed to prevent and treat childhood obesity. We developed the Childhood Obesity Prevention Self-Efficacy (COP-SE) survey with input from two expert panels and cognitive interviews with medical students. We administered the 43-item COP-SE computerized survey to a nation-wide sample of medical students. The final sample consisted of 444 medical students from 53 medical schools. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure with a correlation of 0.637 between factors and high reliability within factors. The correlation between the COP-SE and a measure of general self-efficacy was moderate (0.648), and reliability within factors was high (Factor 1=0.946; Factor 2=0.927). The 18-item COP-SE is a valid and reliable measure of childhood obesity prevention self-efficacy. Factor 1 assesses self-efficacy in nutrition counseling, and Factor 2 measures self-efficacy to assess readiness to change and initiate nutrition lifestyle changes. The correlation between the COP-SE and a measure of general self-efficacy indicates that the COP-SE is a distinct, valid assessment of domain-specific self-efficacy. The high reliability of items within factors indicates the items measure the same constructs. Therefore, medical schools can use this valid and reliable instrument as a formative or summative assessment of students' self-efficacy in childhood obesity prevention and treatment.

  6. Scorecard for spina bifida research, prevention, and policy - A development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Walani, Salimah R; Weakland, Aliki P; Bauwens, Lieven; Oakley, Godfrey P; Warf, Benjamin C

    2017-06-01

    Spina bifida is a serious and largely preventable neural tube birth defect and an important cause of mortality and lifelong disability. The People and Organizations United for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus (PUSH!) Global Alliance was formed in 2014 to provide a common platform for various organizations worldwide to raise the visibility of spina bifida and hydrocephalus. In its formative phase, the alliance recognized that in order to accelerate surveillance, prevention, and care for these conditions, there was a need to provide an evidence-based assessment of how nations are performing in specific areas. In this paper, we describe the impetus for, and the process of, developing country-level scorecards for spina bifida surveillance, prevention and care. The PUSH! Executive Committee formulated a comprehensive list of six actionable indicators measuring availability of published studies on population-based folate studies; surveillance of prevalence and mortality; prevention-based policies; access to care; and quality of life associated with spina bifida. Rubrics were developed to score each country on the aforementioned indicators. Country scores were pooled across each indicator and the composite scores ranged between zero and three if there was a need for improvement, four and five if they were in good standing, or six for an excellent status. The scorecard included country-specific recommendations assimilated from the literature and published guidelines to aid policy makers in accelerating surveillance and prevention, and improving the care and quality of life indicators. For comparison, country-level scorecards were grouped by WHO-regions. Score cards were made available publicly through the website "www.pu-sh.org". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Program for suicidal prevention, mental disorder treatment, and mental health development for resident doctors

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Jiménez López; Jesús Arenas Osuna

    2017-01-01

    High demand of care and the academic burden of courses of specialization in medicine affect the mental health of medical residents with events ranging from simple emotional discomfort to development of affective disorders in susceptible individuals. The suicide of physicians has produced programs for their attention in some countries. We present the first mental health clinic for residents of a high specialty hospital in Mexico, focused on the prevention of suicide and depression, treatment o...

  8. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.

  9. Sporadic colorectal cancer: microbial contributors to disease prevention, development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Julia L; Housseau, Franck; Sears, Cynthia L

    2016-07-26

    The gut microbiota has been hailed as an accessory organ, with functions critical to the host including dietary metabolic activities and assistance in the development of a proper functioning immune system. However, an aberrant microbiota (dysbiosis) may influence disease processes such as colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the contributions of the microbiota to prevention, initiation/progression, and treatment of colorectal cancer, with a major focus on biofilms and the antimicrobial and antitumoural immune response.

  10. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  11. Short message service (SMS) applications for disease prevention in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déglise, Carole; Suggs, L Suzanne; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-12

    The last decade has witnessed unprecedented growth in the number of mobile phones in the developing world, thus linking millions of previously unconnected people. The ubiquity of mobile phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention efforts. The aim of this review was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of SMS interventions for disease prevention in developing countries and provide recommendations for future work. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was performed for papers published in English, French, and German before May 2011 that describe SMS applications for disease prevention in developing countries. A total of 34 SMS applications were described, among which 5 had findings of an evaluation reported. The majority of SMS applications were pilot projects in various levels of sophistication; nearly all came from gray literature sources. Many applications were initiated by the project with modes of intervention varying between one-way or two-way communication, with or without incentives, and with educative games. Evaluated interventions were well accepted by the beneficiaries. The primary barriers identified were language, timing of messages, mobile network fluctuations, lack of financial incentives, data privacy, and mobile phone turnover. This review illustrates that while many SMS applications for disease prevention exist, few have been evaluated. The dearth of peer-reviewed studies and the limited evidence found in this systematic review highlight the need for high-quality efficacy studies examining behavioral, social, and economic outcomes of SMS applications and mobile phone interventions aimed to promote health in developing country contexts.

  12. Peer education, gender and the development of critical consciousness: participatory HIV prevention by South African youth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Campbell, C

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available 55 (2002) 331?345 Peer education, gender and the development of critical consciousness: participatory HIV prevention by South African youth Catherine Campbella,*, Catherine MacPhailb a Department of Social Psychology, London School of Economics... of empowerment, which believesthat people can be empowered at the individual level through methods such as assertiveness training courses. Others have been fiercely critical of the psychological reduction- ism inherent in this understanding of empowerment...

  13. A Qualitative Study to Inform the Development of a Videogame for Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    We used qualitative methods to inform the development of an interactive videogame focused on behavior change to reduce risk and promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in young minority adolescents. Guided by community-partnered research principles, we conducted and analyzed 16 individual interviews and six focus groups with 10–15 year-old boys and girls (36 unique participants) at a neighborhood-based nonprofit organization serving youth from low-resource neighborhoods. Three r...

  14. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  15. Arginase inhibition prevents the development of hypertension and improves insulin resistance in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, Kelly J; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Shebib, Ahmad R; Johnson, Fruzsina K; Johnson, Robert A; Durante, William

    2018-04-27

    This study investigated the temporal activation of arginase in obese Zucker rats (ZR) and determined if arginase inhibition prevents the development of hypertension and improves insulin resistance in these animals. Arginase activity, plasma arginine and nitric oxide (NO) concentration, blood pressure, and insulin resistance were measured in lean and obese animals. There was a chronological increase in vascular and plasma arginase activity in obese ZR beginning at 8 weeks of age. The increase in arginase activity in obese animals was associated with a decrease in insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of arginine and NO. The rise in arginase activity also preceded the increase in blood pressure in obese ZR detected at 12 weeks of age. Chronic treatment of 8-week-old obese animals with an arginase inhibitor or L-arginine for 4 weeks prevented the development of hypertension and improved plasma concentrations of arginine and NO. Arginase inhibition also improved insulin sensitivity in obese ZR while L-arginine supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, arginase inhibition prevents the development of hypertension and improves insulin sensitivity while L-arginine administration only mitigates hypertension in obese animals. Arginase represents a promising therapeutic target in ameliorating obesity-associated vascular and metabolic dysfunction.

  16. 2-Aminomethylthieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones bearing 3-methylpyrazole hinge binding moiety: Highly potent, selective, and time-dependent inhibitors of Cdc7 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasawa, Osamu; Homma, Misaki; Oguro, Yuya; Miyazaki, Tohru; Mori, Kouji; Uchiyama, Noriko; Iwai, Kenichi; Ohashi, Akihiro; Hara, Hideto; Yoshida, Sei; Cho, Nobuo

    2017-07-15

    In order to increase the success rate for developing new Cdc7 inhibitors for cancer therapy, we explored a new chemotype which can comply with the previously-constructed pharmacophore model. Substitution of a pyridine ring of a serendipitously-identified Cdc7 inhibitor 2b with a 3-methylpyrazole resulted in a 4-fold increase in potency and acceptable kinase selectivity, leading to the identification of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one as an alternative scaffold. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) study revealed that incorporation of a substituted aminomethyl group into the 2-position improved kinase selectivity. Indeed, a pyrrolidinylmethyl derivative 10c was a potent Cdc7 inhibitor (IC 50 =0.70nM) with high selectivity (Cdk2/Cdc7≥14,000, ROCK1/Cdc7=200). It should be noted that 10c exhibited significant time-dependent Cdc7 inhibition with slow dissociation kinetics, cellular pharmacodynamic (PD) effects, and COLO205 growth inhibition. Additionally, molecular basis of high kinase selectivity of 10c is discussed by using the protein structures of Cdc7 and Cdk2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vital Signs – Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    This podcast is based on the September 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. More than 800,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and stroke. Learn how to manage all the major risk factors.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  18. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejnisman B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benno Ejnisman,1 Gisele Barbosa,1 Carlos V Andreoli,1 A de Castro Pochini,1 Thiago Lobo,2 Rodrigo Zogaib,2 Moises Cohen,1 Mario Bizzini,3 Jiri Dvorak3 1Department of Orthopaedics, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Sports Medicine Department, Santos FC, São Paulo, Brazil; 3FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. Keywords: goalkeeper, shoulder, injury prevention, prevention program

  19. Preventing Obesity in the Military Community (POMC): The Development of a Clinical Trials Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Elena A.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Maurer, Douglas; Johnson, Dawn; Bryant, Edny; Bakalar, Jennifer L.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Ress, Rachel; Seehusen, Dean; Klein, David A.; Stice, Eric; Yanovski, Jack A.; Chan, Linda; Gentry, Shari; Ellsworth, Carol; Hill, Joanne W.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stephens, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC) is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1) pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby), (2) adolescence (POMC-Adolescent), and (3) the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career). Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities. PMID:25648176

  20. Preventing Obesity in the Military Community (POMC: The Development of a Clinical Trials Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Spieker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1 pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby, (2 adolescence (POMC-Adolescent, and (3 the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career. Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities.

  1. Developing Family Healthware, a family history screening tool to prevent common chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Paula W; Scheuner, Maren T; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Khoury, Muin J

    2009-01-01

    Family health history reflects the effects of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is an important risk factor for a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed Family Healthware, a new interactive, Web-based tool that assesses familial risk for 6 diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancer) and provides a "prevention plan" with personalized recommendations for lifestyle changes and screening. The tool collects data on health behaviors, screening tests, and disease history of a person's first- and second-degree relatives. Algorithms in the software analyze the family history data and assess familial risk based on the number of relatives affected, their age at disease onset, their sex, how closely related the relatives are to each other and to the user, and the combinations of diseases in the family. A second set of algorithms uses the data on familial risk level, health behaviors, and screening to generate personalized prevention messages. Qualitative and quantitative formative research on lay understanding of family history and genetics helped shape the tool's content, labels, and messages. Lab-based usability testing helped refine messages and tool navigation. The tool is being evaluated by 3 academic centers by using a network of primary care practices to determine whether personalized prevention messages tailored to familial risk will motivate people at risk to change their lifestyles or screening behaviors.

  2. Development of a monitoring scheme for preventive maintenance of the cement machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajjaji, Malek; Boubeker, Brahim; Eljoumani, Safia; Zamma, Abdellah; Idiri, Mohamed; Atik, Hafsa

    2016-01-01

    It was underscored that the optimization of policies of preventive maintenance has become a subject of much research. This article proposes a new optimal policy of preventive maintenance for the roller shaft system. It is divided into two main sections. The first proposes a new design of the shaft where the effect of preventive maintenance is integrated, and the second is developing a new control technique adapted to the new design. In this regard, we are interested in the shaft of rollers of the rotary kilns of cement. We have noted the stresses imposed to the axis of the roller. These constraints that have stemmed from the contact between tire and its support rollers. Currently the ultrasonic inspection method of the solid shaft in this situation poses disadvantages, for example, the obligation to stop the rotary Kiln and the difficulty of detecting and sizing defects (fatigue cracks). We propose in this study another approach, we recommend opting for a hollow shaft instead of a solid shaft with a minimum diameter that allows the control system to enter hollow shaft to show for inspection purposes. This will allow preventive control, in operation by the non-destructive technique of ultrasound. The analysis shows the different results of comparison between the axis of full and hollow cylinders, having the same dimensions and the same material and ultimately the most interesting is the same operation.

  3. Iterative user centered design for development of a patient-centered fall prevention toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsulis, Zachary; Ergai, Awatef; Leung, Wai Yin; Schenkel, Laura; Rai, Amisha; Adelman, Jason; Benneyan, James; Bates, David W; Dykes, Patricia C

    2016-09-01

    Due to the large number of falls that occur in hospital settings, inpatient fall prevention is a topic of great interest to patients and health care providers. The use of electronic decision support that tailors fall prevention strategy to patient-specific risk factors, known as Fall T.I.P.S (Tailoring Interventions for Patient Safety), has proven to be an effective approach for decreasing hospital falls. A paper version of the Fall T.I.P.S toolkit was developed primarily for hospitals that do not have the resources to implement the electronic solution; however, more work is needed to optimize the effectiveness of the paper version of this tool. We examined the use of human factors techniques in the redesign of the existing paper fall prevention tool with the goal of increasing ease of use and decreasing inpatient falls. The inclusion of patients and clinical staff in the redesign of the existing tool was done to increase adoption of the tool and fall prevention best practices. The redesigned paper Fall T.I.P.S toolkit showcased a built in clinical decision support system and increased ease of use over the existing version. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced neurite remodeling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells implicates the Cdc42 GTPase and is independent of Ras-ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, Celine; Eychene, Alain; Harnois, Thomas; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Constantin, Bruno; Caigneaux, Evelyne; Muller, Jean-Marc; Philippe, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is known to regulate proliferation or differentiation in normal and tumoral cells. SH-SY5Y is a differentiated cell subclone derived from the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell line and possess all the components for an autocrine action of VIP. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes and intracellular signaling pathways occurring upon VIP treatment of SH-SY5Y cells. VIP induced an early remodeling of cell projections: a branched neurite network spread out and prominent varicosities developed along neurites. Although activated by VIP, the Ras/ERK pathway was not required for the remodeling process. In contrast, pull-down experiments revealed a strong Cdc42 activation by VIP while expression of a dominant-negative Cdc42 prevented the VIP-induced neurite changes, suggesting an important role for this small GTPase in the process. These data provide the first evidence for a regulation of the activity of Rho family GTPases by VIP and bring new insights in the signaling pathways implicated in neurite remodeling process induced by VIP in neuroblastoma cells

  5. Urban planning and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochtitzky, Chris S; Frumkin, H; Rodriguez, R; Dannenberg, A L; Rayman, J; Rose, K; Gillig, R; Kanter, T

    2006-12-22

    Urban planning, also called city and regional planning, is a multidisciplinary field in which professionals work to improve the welfare of persons and communities by creating more convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive places now and for the future. The centerpiece of urban planning activities is a "master plan," which can take many forms, including comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, community action plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, economic development plans, and disaster preparedness plans. Traditionally, these plans include assessing and planning for community needs in some or all of the following areas: transportation, housing, commercial/office buildings, natural resource utilization, environmental protection, and health-care infrastructure. Urban planning and public health share common missions and perspectives. Both aim to improve human well-being, emphasize needs assessment and service delivery, manage complex social systems, focus at the population level, and rely on community-based participatory methods. Both fields focus on the needs of vulnerable populations. Throughout their development, both fields have broadened their perspectives. Initially, public health most often used a biomedical model (examining normal/abnormal functioning of the human organism), and urban planning often relied on a geographic model (analysis of human needs or interactions in a spatial context). However, both fields have expanded their tools and perspectives, in part because of the influence of the other. Urban planning and public health have been intertwined for most of their histories. In 1854, British physician John Snow used geographic mapping of an outbreak of cholera in London to identify a public water pump as the outbreak's source. Geographic analysis is a key planning tool shared by urban planning and public health. In the mid-1800s, planners such as Frederick Law Olmsted bridged the gap between the fields by advancing the concept

  6. 77 FR 19019 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Health... 2238494. Purpose: The Subcommittee will provide advice to the CDC Director through the ACD on strategic...

  7. The prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: the systematic development of an intervention and its feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development of the intervention; and (ii) the assessment of its feasibility in terms of relevancy, suitability and usability. The development of the intervention was based on the Intervention Mapping structured and systematic process. First, the needs assessment conducted among the main actors within recreational volleyball revealed that an intervention was needed for injury prevention, ideally embedded prior to a volleyball activity (training or match) within the warm-up, delivered by trainers/coaches, and available in an application for smartphone/tablet or website. Second, the objective and target groups of the intervention were defined, namely to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among both young and adult recreational volleyball players. Third, preventive measures and strategies (e.g. core stability, strength and balance) were selected in order to accomplish a decrease in injury incidence. Last, the intervention 'VolleyVeilig' was finally developed, a warm-up programme including more than 50 distinct exercises and lasting 15 min. A quasi-experimental research based on a one-group post-test design was conducted over a period of 3 weeks among 41 volleyball players and five coaches from five adult recreational teams, who were asked to use the intervention. Degree of relevancy, suitability and usability of the warm-up programme 'VolleyVeilig' were measured among players and coaches on an 11-point scale (varying from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree'). All groups of exercises within the warm-up programme were positively assessed with regard to their relevancy, suitability and usability, mean scores ranging from 7.7 to 8

  8. Delivering risk information in a dynamic information environment: Framing and authoritative voice in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and primetime broadcast news media communications during the 2014 Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kott, Anne; Limaye, Rupali J

    2016-11-01

    During a disease outbreak, media serve as primary transmitters of information from public health agencies to the public, and have been shown to influence both behavior and perception of risk. Differences in news frequency, framing and information source can impact the public's interpretation of risk messages and subsequent attitudes and behaviors about a particular threat. The media's framing of an outbreak is important, as it may affect both perception of risk and the ability to process important health information. To understand how risk communication by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the 2014 Ebola outbreak was framed and delivered and to what extent primetime broadcast news media mirrored CDC's framing and authoritative voice, 209 CDC communications and primetime broadcast transcripts issued between July 24 and December 29, 2014 were analyzed and coded by thematic frame and authoritative voice. Dominant frame and voice were determined for each month and for overall period of analysis. Medical frame was dominant in CDC (60%), Anderson Cooper 360 (49%), The Rachel Maddow Show (47%) and All In with Chris Hayes (47%). The human interest frame was dominant in The Kelly File (45%), while The O'Reilly Factor coverage was equally split between sociopolitical and medical frames (28%, respectively). Primetime news media also changed dominant frames over time. Dominant authoritative voice in CDC communications was that of CDC officials, while primetime news dominantly featured local and federal (non-CDC) government officials and academic/medical experts. Differences in framing and delivery could have led the public to interpret risk in a different way than intended by CDC. Overall, public health agencies should consider adapting risk communication strategies to account for a dynamic news environment and the media's agenda. Options include adapting communications to short-form styles and embracing the concept of storytelling. Copyright © 2016

  9. Using Cognitive Interviews to Enhance Measurement in Empirical Bioethics: Developing a Measure of the Preventive Misconception in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Seils, Damon M; Watson-Ormond, J Kemp; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    We describe our use of cognitive interviews in developing a measure of "preventive misconception" to demonstrate the importance of this approach to researchers developing surveys in empirical bioethics. The preventive misconception involves research participants' false beliefs about a prevention trial, including beliefs that the interventions being tested will certainly be effective. We developed and refined a measure of the preventive misconception using qualitative interviews that focused on cognitive testing of proposed survey items with HIV prevention trial participants. Two main problems emerged during initial interviews. First, the phrase "reduce your risk," used to elicit beliefs about risk reduction from the use of study medications, was interpreted as relating to a reduction of risky behaviors. Second, the phrase "participating in this study," intended to elicit beliefs about trial group assignment, was interpreted as relating to personal behavior changes associated with study participation. Additional interviews using a revised measure were no longer problematic in these ways, and participants felt the response options were appropriate for conveying their answers. These findings underscore the importance of cognitive testing in developing surveys for empirical bioethics.

  10. Using Social Network Theory to Influence the Development of State and Local Primary Prevention Capacity-Building Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Craig, Patricia G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that social network theory and social network analysis has played in assessing and developing effective primary prevention networks across a southeastern state. In 2004 the state began an effort to develop a strategic plan for the primary prevention of violence working with local communities across the state. The…

  11. Stat3/Cdc25a-dependent cell proliferation promotes embryonic axis extension during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzi Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation has generally been considered dispensable for anteroposterior extension of embryonic axis during vertebrate gastrulation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3, a conserved controller of cell proliferation, survival and regeneration, is associated with human scoliosis, cancer and Hyper IgE Syndrome. Zebrafish Stat3 was proposed to govern convergence and extension gastrulation movements in part by promoting Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP signaling, a conserved regulator of mediolaterally polarized cell behaviors. Here, using zebrafish stat3 null mutants and pharmacological tools, we demonstrate that cell proliferation contributes to anteroposterior embryonic axis extension. Zebrafish embryos lacking maternal and zygotic Stat3 expression exhibit normal convergence movements and planar cell polarity signaling, but transient axis elongation defect due to insufficient number of cells resulting largely from reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of cell proliferation during gastrulation phenocopied axis elongation defects. Stat3 regulates cell proliferation and axis extension in part via upregulation of Cdc25a expression during oogenesis. Accordingly, restoring Cdc25a expression in stat3 mutants partially suppressed cell proliferation and gastrulation defects. During later development, stat3 mutant zebrafish exhibit stunted growth, scoliosis, excessive inflammation, and fail to thrive, affording a genetic tool to study Stat3 function in vertebrate development, regeneration, and disease.

  12. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  13. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  14. Secondary prevention after minor stroke and TIA - usual care and development of a support program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leistner

    Full Text Available Effective methods of secondary prevention after stroke or TIA are available but adherence to recommended evidence-based treatments is often poor. The study aimed to determine the quality of secondary prevention in usual care and to develop a stepwise modeled support program.Two consecutive cohorts of patients with acute minor stroke or TIA undergoing usual outpatient care versus a secondary prevention program were compared. Risk factor control and medication adherence were assessed in 6-month follow-ups (6M-FU. Usual care consisted of detailed information concerning vascular risk factor targets given at discharge and regular outpatient care by primary care physicians. The stepwise modeled support program additionally employed up to four outpatient appointments. A combination of educational and behavioral strategies was employed.168 patients in the observational cohort who stated their openness to participate in a prevention program (mean age 64.7 y, admission blood pressure (BP: 155/84 mmHg and 173 patients participating in the support program (mean age 67.6 y, BP: 161/84 mmHg were assessed at 6 months. Proportions of patients with BP according to guidelines were 50% in usual-care and 77% in the support program (p<0.01. LDL<100 mg/dl was measured in 62 versus 71% (p = 0.12. Proportions of patients who stopped smoking were 50 versus 79% (p<0.01. 72 versus 89% of patients with atrial fibrillation were on oral anticoagulation (p = 0.09.Risk factor control remains unsatisfactory in usual care. Targets of secondary prevention were met more often within the supported cohort. Effects on (cerebro-vascular recurrence rates are going to be assessed in a multicenter randomized trial.

  15. Signaling Cascades Governing Cdc42-Mediated Chondrogenic Differentiation and Mensenchymal Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jirong R; Wang, Chaojun J; Xu, Chengyun Y; Wu, Xiaokai K; Hong, Dun; Shi, Wei; Gong, Ying; Chen, Haixiao X; Long, Fanxin; Wu, Ximei M

    2016-03-01

    Endochondral ossification consists of successive steps of chondrocyte differentiation, including mesenchymal condensation, differentiation of chondrocytes, and hypertrophy followed by mineralization and ossification. Loss-of-function studies have revealed that abnormal growth plate cartilage of the Cdc42 mutant contributes to the defects in endochondral bone formation. Here, we have investigated the roles of Cdc42 in osteogenesis and signaling cascades governing Cdc42-mediated chondrogenic differentiation. Though deletion of Cdc42 in limb mesenchymal progenitors led to severe defects in endochondral ossification, either ablation of Cdc42 in limb preosteoblasts or knockdown of Cdc42 in vitro had no obvious effects on bone formation and osteoblast differentiation. However, in Cdc42 mutant limb buds, loss of Cdc42 in mesenchymal progenitors led to marked inactivation of p38 and Smad1/5, and in micromass cultures, Cdc42 lay on the upstream of p38 to activate Smad1/5 in bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced mesenchymal condensation. Finally, Cdc42 also lay on the upstream of protein kinase B to transactivate Sox9 and subsequently induced the expression of chondrocyte differential marker in transforming growth factor-β1-induced chondrogenesis. Taken together, by using biochemical and genetic approaches, we have demonstrated that Cdc42 is involved not in osteogenesis but in chondrogenesis in which the BMP2/Cdc42/Pak/p38/Smad signaling module promotes mesenchymal condensation and the TGF-β/Cdc42/Pak/Akt/Sox9 signaling module facilitates chondrogenic differentiation. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. CDC Signos Vitales- Los alimentos más seguros salvan vidas (Safer Food Saves Lives)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de noviembre del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los alimentos contaminados que se envían a múltiples estados pueden causar brotes de enfermedades y enfermar gravemente a muchas personas. Sepa lo que se puede hacer para prevenir y detener los brotes.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  17. Signos Vitales de los CDC-Muertes por intoxicación por alcohol (Alcohol Poisoning Deaths)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de enero del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. En los Estados Unidos, mueren en promedio seis personas cada día debido a la intoxicación por alcohol. Infórmese sobre lo que puede hacer para prevenir los atracones de alcohol y las intoxicaciones por alcohol.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  18. The development of a network for community-based obesity prevention: the CO-OPS Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-based interventions are a promising approach and an important component of a comprehensive response to obesity. In this paper we describe the Collaboration of COmmunity-based Obesity Prevention Sites (CO-OPS Collaboration) in Australia as an example of a collaborative network to enhance the quality and quantity of obesity prevention action at the community level. The core aims of the CO-OPS Collaboration are to: identify and analyse the lessons learned from a range of community-based initiatives aimed at tackling obesity, and; to identify the elements that make community-based obesity prevention initiatives successful and share the knowledge gained with other communities. Methods Key activities of the collaboration to date have included the development of a set of Best Practice Principles and knowledge translation and exchange activities to promote the application (or use) of evidence, evaluation and analysis in practice. Results The establishment of the CO-OPS Collaboration is a significant step toward strengthening action in this area, by bringing together research, practice and policy expertise to promote best practice, high quality evaluation and knowledge translation and exchange. Future development of the network should include facilitation of further evidence generation and translation drawing from process, impact and outcome evaluation of existing community-based interventions. Conclusions The lessons presented in this paper may help other networks like CO-OPS as they emerge around the globe. It is important that networks integrate with each other and share the experience of creating these networks. PMID:21349185

  19. Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha; Rahm, Gullbritt

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Iodine-Catalyzed Direct Olefination of 2-Oxindoles and Alkenes via Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling (CDC) in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Yan; Wu, Hong-Ru; Wei, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Li

    2015-08-07

    A direct intermolecular olefination of sp(3) C-H bond between 2-oxindoles and simple alkenes via a Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling (CDC) strategy has been developed. In the absence of additional base, moderate to excellent yields have been obtained by using a catalytic amount of iodine with atmospheric oxygen as the reoxidant. Based on the observation of a radical capture experiment, the transformation is proposed to proceed via a radical process.