WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention cdc aids

  1. CDC WONDER: AIDS Public Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AIDS Public Information Data Set (APIDS) for years 1981-2002 on CDC WONDER online database contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases...

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not use the device. Include warning statements in marketing materials about the risk of using the device. ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.16 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  4. CDC Vital Signs-Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This podcast is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  5. 77 FR 23733 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In... and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS and other STDs. Matters To Be...

  6. 75 FR 39264 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In... and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS and other STDs. Matters To Be...

  7. CDC Vital Signs–Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    This podcast is based on the September 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Each year, more than 140,000 people die and many survivors face disability. Eighty percent of strokes are preventable. Learn the signs of stroke and how to prevent them.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0:60 seconds] On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Teenage Pregnancy MedlinePlus – Birth Control The Doctor’s Channel: CDC Vital Signs Long Acting Reversible Contraception [VIDEO – 3:30 minutes] Top of Page Get Email Updates To receive ... USA.gov TOP

  9. 76 FR 22708 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee..., regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health...

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  12. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  13. 75 FR 62844 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... CDC. Matters to be Discussed: The ACD, CDC will receive updates from the Global Workgroup; State... for More Information: Carmen Villar, M.S.W., Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nurses could use this opportunity to discuss advantages and disadvantages of different contraceptive methods and the ... Director for Communications (OADC) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  15. CDC Signos Vitales-Una pastilla diaria puede prevenir el VIH (Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    Este podcast se basa en la edición del 24 de noviembre del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. La profilaxis prexposición, o PrEP, es un medicamento diario que se puede usar para prevenir contraer el VIH. La PrEP es para las personas que no tienen el VIH, pero que están en alto riesgo de contraerlo mediante las relaciones sexuales o el consumo de drogas inyectables. Desafortunadamente, muchas de las personas que se pueden beneficiar de la PrEP no la están tomando.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  16. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Radiation Hazard Scale Data Product Review Feedback Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alai, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    In support of the Department of Energy (DOE) National nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) assisted in the development of new data templates for disseminating and communicating FRMAC1 data products using the CDC Radiation Hazard Scale communication tool. To ensure these data products will be useful to stakeholders during a radiological emergency, LLNL facilitated opportunities for product socialization and review.

  18. 77 FR 19018 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 61 (Thursday, March 29, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 19018] [FR Doc No: 2012-7551] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance...

  19. 78 FR 60876 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...

  20. 78 FR 64503 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cancellation: This notice was published in the Federal...

  1. 78 FR 18602 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...

  2. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...

  3. CDC international HIV prevention research activities among injection drug users in Thailand and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alan E; Tappero, Jordan; Choopanya, Kachit; van Griensven, Frits; Martin, Mike; Vanichseni, Suphak; Santibanez, Scott; Molotilov, Valerie; Hader, Shannon; Broyles, Laura N

    2005-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has participated in collaborative HIV prevention research activities in injection drug users (IDUs) with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) in Bangkok, Thailand, from 1995 to the present and with the Orel AIDS Center in Orel Oblast, Russia, from 2001 to 2003. Studies in Bangkok have included an HIV prevention trial preparatory cohort from 1995 to 1998, a seroconverter cohort from 1998 to the present, a phase III trial of the AIDSVAX B/E gp120 HIV vaccine from 1999 to 2003, and a phase II/III HIV prophylaxis trial with tenofovir scheduled to begin in 2005. Activities in Orel included a review of HIV surveillance data in 2001, focus group discussions and a case-control study with HIV-infected and -uninfected IDUs in 2001, a cross-sectional study with the female sex partners of male IDUs in 2002, and a community outreach intervention in 2002-2003. In Bangkok, 1,209 IDUs were enrolled in the preparatory cohort which revealed an HIV incidence of 5.8% per 100 person-years; 133 HIV-infected IDUs have been followed in the seroconverter cohort with >85% follow-up and HIV and tuberculosis care provided; 2,546 IDUs were enrolled in the HIV vaccine efficacy trial which was successfully completed with a follow-up rate of >95%, although the vaccine was not shown to be effective at reducing HIV incidence; and 1,600 IDUs will be enrolled in the daily tenofovir HIV prophylaxis trial in 2005. In Orel, initial focus group discussions and epidemiologic studies revealed low HIV knowledge and high rates of unsafe injecting and sexual practices among IDUs and their female sex partners; and educational campaigns and the community outreach intervention were developed and implemented. A steady decline in new HIV infections in IDUs was then observed in Orel in 2002-2003. CDC has participated in the conduct of successful collaborative HIV prevention research activities in Thailand and Russia over the past decade. The

  4. 75 FR 7483 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES); Correction AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting; meeting...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  6. 77 FR 58847 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... Person for More Information: Carmen Villar, MSW, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road...

  7. 76 FR 20354 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD.... Contact Person for More Information: Carmen Villar, MSW, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600...

  8. 75 FR 7606 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... Information: Anne C. Haddix, PhD, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S D14...

  9. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  10. Make a Difference at Your School! CDC Resources Can Help You Implement Strategies to Prevent Obesity Among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews scientific evidence to determine which school-based policies and practices are most likely to improve key health behaviors among young people, including physical activity and healthy eating. In this document, the CDC identifies ten strategies to help schools prevent obesity by promoting…

  11. 75 FR 4830 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES..., CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs...

  12. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  13. Norovirus Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    If you’re suffering from vomiting and diarrhea, you might be among the millions of Americans who get sick from norovirus each year. In this podcast, Dr. Aron Hall discusses ways to prevent norovirus outbreaks from contaminated food.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  14. Preventing Pneumonia (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-09

    Pneumonia is a lung infection that can result in severe illness and even death. Common symptoms include cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Farrar discusses ways to prevent pneumonia.  Created: 11/9/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/9/2017.

  15. Norovirus Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    Nearly one in 15 people in the U.S. gets sick from norovirus each year and up to 800 die. This podcast discusses the importance of hand washing, and other ways to prevent the spread of noroviruses.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  16. Stroke Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-29

    Worldwide, strokes are the second leading cause of death among people over 60, and they are among the leading causes of disability. In the U.S., nearly 800,000 people suffer a stroke each year. In this podcast, Dr. Sallyann King discusses ways to prevent strokes.  Created: 10/29/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/29/2014.

  17. 77 FR 76046 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... subcommittee will provide advice to the CDC Director through the ACD on strategic and other broad issues facing... More Information: Leandris Liburd, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.A., Designated Federal Officer, HDS, ACD, CDC, 1600...

  18. 75 FR 61505 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... to the ACD on strategic and other broad issues facing CDC. Matters To Be Discussed: Policy brief on..., ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S E-67, Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Telephone (404) 498-2310, E- mail...

  19. 77 FR 34046 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs... ethics standards to the accreditation process for public health departments; ethical considerations...

  20. 75 FR 72831 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from... strategy for addressing its charge to provide a preliminary overview to the ACD on ethical issues related...

  1. 77 FR 2549 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and... territorial health departments in their efforts to address public health ethics challenges, approaches for...

  2. 76 FR 29755 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs, scientists and practitioners... April 28, 2011, ACD, CDC meeting; discussion of next steps on addressing potential public health ethical...

  3. 75 FR 57044 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and...; efforts to support state, tribal, local and territorial health departments address ethical issues in the...

  4. 76 FR 55678 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES... provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues... in their efforts to address public health ethics challenges. The agenda is subject to change as...

  5. CDC Vital Signs–Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    This podcast is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  6. Prevention and control of tuberculosis in correctional and detention facilities: recommendations from the CDC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available roles of shared responsibility. The recommendations in this report can assist officials of federal, state, and local correctional facilities in preventing trans- mission of TB and controlling TB among inmates and facility employees. The target...-care professionals. The report is intended to assist policymakers in reaching informed decisions regarding the pre- vention and control of TB in correctional facilities. Methods To update the existing guidelines, with assistance from ACET, CDC organized...

  7. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  8. AIDS prevention: what are we talking about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N

    1991-11-01

    A psychiatrist from Calcutta objects to the colonial culture which still dominates India. Specifically the call for prevention of AIDS and the spread of HIV made by developed countries, yet socioeconomic conditions in India hinder any prevention efforts. India faces other more common and preventable fatal diseases. The basic needs (food, shelter, health, and education) of most people cannot even be met. Thus an AIDS prevention program is an expensive luxury and probably would not reach those whose needs are already not met. 65% of AIDS cases are in Africa especially central Africa and almost 90% of AIDS cases in developing countries are in the most productive age group (20-49 years). The HIV/AIDS epidemic is indeed dealing countries an economic blow. For example, in 1988, AIDS related medical costs in the US stood at US$8.5 billion; lost wages US$55.6 billion; and research, education, and blood screening US$2.3 billion. Developing countries cannot absorb such an economic impact. The AIDS epidemic can strain a developing country's health system such as Zaire. For example, the cost of providing proper care for only 10 AIDS patients is higher than the entire budget of the largest hospital. Yet this hospital's physicians diagnose as many as 15 new cases daily. Economic loss/year due to AIDS deaths in Zaire will equal 8% of the gross national product by 1995. The poor often do not have access to health services. illiteracy (88%) in Brazil impedes AIDS prevention messages from reaching remote rural populations. Brazil already faces a high infant mortality rate and 33% of the population has malaria. Health and social problems in developing countries are so common that AIDS is just 1 more disease. Another obstacle to AIDS prevention in developing countries is that the poor cannot afford to buy condoms. The root cause of AIDS in developing countries is poverty.

  9. 76 FR 66721 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section l0(a)(2) of the... the Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health...

  10. 75 FR 78997 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee... and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and...

  11. [Ethical issues and countermeasures in AIDS prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Teng, Fei

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid spread of AIDS, the ethical issues of its prevention is intensify more and more, it mainly reflected in the four areas such as discrimination of disease and moral panic, individual rights and public health, privacy and right to know, social responsibility and behavior guidance. To resolve these ethical conflicts and safeguard legitimate rights of AIDS patients, we must adhere to love and tolerance, favorable and fair, the principles of autonomy and coordination, thus promoting AIDS prevention, maintaining social ethics and justice, equal and harmonious reconstruction of the ethical relationship.

  12. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  13. An HIV/AIDS crisis among African American women: a summary for prevention and care in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michelle A; Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Raliegh, Kathleen; Reid, Laurie; Foley, Megan; Cleveland, Janet

    2008-04-01

    The meeting, HIV/AIDS and African American Women: A Consultation Supporting CDC's Heightened National Response to the HIV/AIDS Crisis among African Americans, provided a forum to address gaps in prevention and HIV/AIDS infection for African American women. Health researchers, community-based organization leaders, and representatives from both healthcare and non-healthcare sectors took this opportunity to discuss and develop a variety of priorities and suggestions for HIV/AIDS prevention. Four focus areas were provided for meeting attendees to promote discussion and strategy development. The resulting list of priorities and suggestions for HIV/AIDS prevention may provide future steps for researchers, communities, and physicians to increase prevention and decrease infection rates. Novel, innovative, and participatory approaches are needed within and outside the public arena to decrease the gaps in HIV/AIDS prevention for African American women.

  14. 75 FR 53703 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 169 (Wednesday, September 1, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 53703] [FR Doc No: 2010-21803] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health...

  15. 76 FR 57744 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on September 8, 2011, Volume 76, Number 174...

  16. 78 FR 64221 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of Meeting In... given of the following virtual committee meeting. Name: CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment Dates and Times: November 13, 2013, 10:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m. November...

  17. AIDS prevention project among women in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, L

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations of a staff member of the Paulina Luisi Movement and member of the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights were six-fold. Being a woman was considered a risk factor for AIDS. AIDS and HIV infection prevention must concentrate on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1) Women's organizations have the responsibility for sensitizing health professionals about STDs and AIDS and break the "culture of silence." 2) Women's health focus must actively include prevention of AIDS/HIV. 3) The Pap test must be included routinely as part of public and individual health services and conducted with high quality standards. 4) The flow of communication about women's health issues must be initiated between health professionals and women advocates with the objective of changing concepts and attitudes and of developing complementary strategies. 5) The strategy of promoting condom use and quality information does not address the larger issue of discrimination against women. Gender relations between spouses and between patient and doctor must be based on responsibility, reciprocity, and autonomy. Strategies must aim to combat the negativity in society that prevents responsible gender relations. 6) Professional women who have an awareness of gender issues must be engaged in international and governmental institutions with decision making power. Sex and women's health have been lesser priorities. The health system has responded to women as "objects" rather than subjects of attention. Women's position sexually and socially makes them more vulnerable to AIDS and HIV infections, which may be transmitted through a single sexual contact. STDs increase the risk of AIDS. Latin American women feel shame about STDS, while men respond to STDs as a condition of their sexual virility or potency. Treatment of STDS, much less AIDS prevention, is inadequate. The health system must stop treating women as objects and give them their right to health.

  18. [AIDS: behavioral contributions to its prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauzo, S; Blanck, J G; Bermudez, G

    1992-01-01

    AIDS is caused by the human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) or lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The latter name has been widely accepted. According to the WHO in 1988 there were 5 million infected persons. In Argentina, there were 300 AIDS patients and 30,000 infected people in 1989 and 60,000 in 1990. Obstacles to prevention of the spread of AIDS are: fear which causes some to conceal its existence; prolonged latency; complacency about future negative outcome; the lack of value of life among drug addicts; adolescent behavior of defiance and confrontation; militant denial by many of the possibility of contracting AIDS; and a criminally low level of measures to combat AIDS in the Third World. Primary prevention includes avoidance of contact with body fluids of an infected person submitting to a serological test if infection is suspected massive educational campaigns, study of subcultures such as drug addicts and adolescents, use of disposable needles and sterilization of all medical instruments use of condoms, and analysis of the blood of donated organs and blood for transfusion. Secondary prevention means making sure that seropositive patients undergo periodic medical checkups and receive medical attention when suspicious symptoms are detected and follow various steps to strengthen their immune systems. Tertiary prevention comprises psychological and psychopharmacological treatment of emotional distress to facilitate a less painful progress of the disease and to avert possible complications and relapses.

  19. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc42p GTPase Is Involved in Preventing the Recurrence of Bud Emergence during the Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Tamara J.; Johnson, Douglas I.

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc42p GTPase interacts with multiple regulators and downstream effectors through an ∼25-amino-acid effector domain. Four effector domain mutations, Y32K, F37A, D38E, and Y40C, were introduced into Cdc42p and characterized for their effects on these interactions. Each mutant protein showed differential interactions with a number of downstream effectors and regulators and various levels of functionality. Specifically, Cdc42D38Ep showed reduced interactions with the Cla4p p21-activated protein kinase and the Bem3p GTPase-activating protein and cdc42D38E was the only mutant allele able to complement the Δcdc42 null mutant. However, the mutant protein was only partially functional, as indicated by a temperature-dependent multibudded phenotype seen in conjunction with defects in both septin ring localization and activation of the Swe1p-dependent morphogenetic checkpoint. Further analysis of this mutant suggested that the multiple buds emerged consecutively with a premature termination of bud enlargement preceding the appearance of the next bud. Cortical actin, the septin ring, Cla4p-green fluorescent protein (GFP), and GFP-Cdc24p all predominantly localized to one bud at a time per multibudded cell. These data suggest that Cdc42D38Ep triggers a morphogenetic defect post-bud emergence, leading to cessation of bud growth and reorganization of the budding machinery to another random budding site, indicating that Cdc42p is involved in prevention of the initiation of supernumerary buds during the cell cycle. PMID:11046150

  1. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... of AIDS prevention information and condoms through social marketing programmes. The existence of a variety of ... A relationship was found between the degree to which a shop exhibited aspects of ... by media and interpersonal commUnications, and whether shopkeepers exhibit characteristics of opinion ...

  2. CDC Signos Vitales-La prevención del melanoma (Preventing Melanoma)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. El cáncer de piel es el tipo de cáncer más común en los Estados Unidos. En el 2011, hubo más de 65 000 casos de melanoma, el tipo de cáncer de piel más mortal. Sepa cómo todos pueden ayudar a prevenir el cáncer de piel.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  3. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Pamela; Redding, Colleen A; Raja, Sheela; Newton, Tamara; Beharie, Nisha; Printz, Destiny

    2018-02-21

    The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership.

  4. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... Director through the ACD on strategic and other health disparities and health equity issues and provide...., Designated Federal Officer, HDS, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-67, Atlanta, Georgia 30333...

  5. 76 FR 3909 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES..., regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs, scientists and... submitted on the ethical considerations document for the allocation of ventilators during a severe pandemic...

  6. 78 FR 32392 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... care setting and integrating STD screening and treatment services in HIV care settings); (2) The test... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92...

  7. AIDS prevention through drama in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A play prepared by a group of Cameroon prostitutes, "Marriage to the Condom," represents an effective innovation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The prostitutes are part of a group, The Friends of Doug and Rose, that seeks to spread awareness of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS, among their peers and the general public and to promote condom use. This group had its origins in an AIDS prevention campaign conducted in Yaounde in 1987 and targeted at prostitutes. Over 125 of these prostitutes, 7% of whom were positive for the AIDS virus, were trained as peer health educators. The idea to produce a play came out of a role-playing exercise aimed at teaching the prostitute peer health educators techniques for motivating their colleagues to use condoms during all commercial sexual encounters. The play presents a true picture of the working lives of prostitutes and the repercussions of sexually transmitted diseases. The play's characters agree to make condom use a prerequisite to accepting clients. The group is joining with a condom social marketing program to travel throughout Cameroon presenting the play to neighborhood associations, health centers, and sexually transmitted diseases clinics. The activity is in keeping with the African tradition of using street theater to spread messages on health and family planning. To ensure that those impacted by the play's message are actually able to obtain condoms, the US Agency for International Development has supplied the Government of Cameroon with 9 million condoms.

  8. HIV Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  9. 77 FR 66469 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a...--Treatment as Prevention; (2) Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Client Level Data Update; (3) Viral Hepatitis... prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with...

  10. Creating supportive environments for AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) argues that AIDS prevention requires a supportive environment, but that discriminatory laws make marginalized people even more vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A country's legal, economic, and social environments can influence the pandemic. A short-term measure could be prostitutes collectively insisting that their clients wear condoms. Long-term measures of AIDS prevention require the improvement of the legal status of women and their access to education. Societies repress or tolerate drug use, prostitution, homosexuality, and casual sex, but often ministries forbid condom advertising, and condom possession by women can be used as evidence of prostitution. Fear of mandatory testing and detention prevents sex workers and drug users from accepting condoms and needles. A recent review of policies in 22 locations around the world found low seroprevalence of HIV among IV drug users in only 5 countries -- exactly the same countries where IV drug users had legal access to sterile needles. In Zambia a national condom promotion campaign was launched only after a 2-year debate, while free condoms had been distributed surreptitiously by a nongovernmental organization. Sex discrimination in many countries forces women to trade sex for money to make a living, and women in sex work are very vulnerable to HIV infection. Overcoming the subordination of women is a long-term undertaking, but an example of successful short-term empowerment of women is a credit scheme operated by a bank for rural women in Bangladesh. Socially, culturally, and economically male infidelity is often condoned, creating the risk of HIV infection and of passing the infection on to wives. Information campaigns stressing shared responsibility can be effective in changing social norms. Some traditional practices, e.g., ritual cleansing in Uganda and Zambia, also expose participants to the risk of HIV infection.

  11. The use of theory based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: formative research for CDC's Prevention Marketing Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M

    1996-01-01

    Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research.

  12. Using folk media in HIV/AIDS prevention in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panford, S; Nyaney, M O; Amoah, S O; Aidoo, N G

    2001-10-01

    The pandemic of HIV/AIDS continues to pose a serious threat to the population of sub-Saharan Africa, despite ongoing public health efforts to control the spread of infection. Given the important role of oral tradition in indigenous settings throughout rural Africa, we are beginning an innovative approach to HIV/AIDS prevention based on the use of folk media. This commentary explains the types of folk media used in the traditional Ghanaian setting and explores their consistency with well-known theories. Folk media will be integrated with broadcast radio for interventions under the HIV/AIDS Behavior Change Communication Project being undertaken as part of the CARE-CDC Health Initiative (CCHI) in 2 districts in Ghana.

  13. Traditional healers and AIDS prevention | Abdool Karim | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Her questionable beliefs included a Nazi conspiracy as the source of AIDS, a string ritual to prevent promiscuity and a conviction that she could treat AIDS. Notwithstanding the latter beliefs, her generally factual knowledge of AIDS indicated that she could be an important source of AIDS information in the community; she ...

  14. Role of Danish general practitioners in AIDS prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe Danish general practitioners' perception of their own role and to register their actual behaviour in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. DESIGN: Data collection was carried out by a) questionnaire and b) prospective registration of consultations dealing with HIV/AIDS in a two...... are taken to strengthen the GPs' role in AIDS prevention. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Dec...

  15. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  16. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction.

  17. NUP98 fusion oncoproteins interact with the APC/C(Cdc20) as a pseudosubstrate and prevent mitotic checkpoint complex binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsi, Valentina; Fantini, Sebastian; Zappavigna, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    NUP98 is a recurrent partner gene in translocations causing acute myeloid leukemias and myelodisplastic syndrome. The expression of NUP98 fusion oncoproteins has been shown to induce mitotic spindle defects and chromosome missegregation, which correlate with the capability of NUP98 fusions to cause mitotic checkpoint attenuation. We show that NUP98 oncoproteins physically interact with the APC/C(Cdc20) in the absence of the NUP98 partner protein RAE1, and prevent the binding of the mitotic checkpoint complex to the APC/C(Cdc20). NUP98 oncoproteins require the GLEBS-like domain present in their NUP98 moiety to bind the APC/C(Cdc20). We found that NUP98 wild-type is a substrate of APC/C(Cdc20) prior to mitotic entry, and that its binding to APC/C(Cdc20) is controlled via phosphorylation of a PEST sequence located within its C-terminal portion. We identify S606, within the PEST sequence, as a key target site, whose phosphorylation modulates the capability of NUP98 to interact with APC/C(Cdc20). We finally provide evidence for an involvement of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase PIN1 in modulating the possible conformational changes within NUP98 that lead to its dissociation from the APC/C(Cdc20) during mitosis. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the aberrant capability of NUP98 oncoproteins to interact with APC/C(Cdc20) and to interfere with its function.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life (CDC HRQOL items in adults with arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeVellis Robert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL is important in arthritis and the SF-36v2 is the current state-of-the-art. It is only emerging how well the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HRQOL measures HRQOL for people with arthritis. This study's purpose is to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item CDC HRQOL (4-item Healthy Days Core Module and 5-item Healthy Days Symptoms Module in an arthritis sample using the SF-36v2 as a comparison. Methods In Fall 2002, a cross-sectional study acquired survey data including the CDC HRQOL and SF-36v2 from 2 North Carolina populations of adult patients reporting osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia; 2182 (52% responded. The first item of both the CDC HRQOL and the SF-36v2 was general health (GEN. All 8 other CDC HRQOL items ask for the number of days in the past 30 days that respondents experienced various aspects of HRQOL. Exploratory principal components analyses (PCA were conducted on each sample and the combined samples of the CDC HRQOL. The multitrait-multimethod matrix (MTMM was used to compute correlations between each trait (physical health and mental health and between each method of measurement (CDC HRQOL and SF36v2. The relative contribution of the CDC HRQOL in predicting the physical component summary (PCS and the mental component summary (MCS was determined by regressing the CDC HRQOL items on the PCS and MCS scales. Results All 9 CDC HRQOL items loaded primarily onto 1 factor (explaining 57% of the item variance representing a reasonable solution for capturing overall HRQOL. After rotation a 2 factor interpretation for the 9 items was clear, with 4 items capturing physical health (physical, activity, pain, and energy days and 3 items capturing mental health (mental, depression, and anxiety days. All of the loadings for these two factors were greater than 0.70. The CDC HRQOL physical health factor correlated with PCS (r = -.78, p 2

  19. Signos Vitales de los CDC Prevención de las sobredosis de medicamentos recetados (Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de julio del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Todos los días, 46 personas mueren en los EE. UU. de una sobredosis de analgésicos opioides recetados. Infórmese sobre lo que se puede hacer para que la prescripción de analgésicos sea segura y para ayudar a prevenir las sobredosis.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  20. AIDS Prevention for the Underserved Majority : the Choice Disabled ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will document the extent of choice-disability, including sexual violence, and identify protective associations with local AIDS prevention efforts. Using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT), they will test the impact of various AIDS prevention interventions on the choice-disabled, with a special focus on ...

  1. Making AIDS prevention a national priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, M H

    1994-12-01

    During the period from August 1993 through August 1994, it was estimated that another 3 million persons had been infected with HIV, with the global total exceeding 17 million then. In Asia infections increased from 12% to 16% with a corresponding decrease in North America and Europe. Over 60% of all infections had occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In south and southeast Asia, HIV infections were estimated at over 2.5 million in mid-1994. Estimated infections in Thailand had risen 10-fold since early 1990, with rates of 4% among young men and 1.5% among pregnant women. Yet in Thailand reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) fell by 77% between 1986 and 1993, which was attributed to media promotion of condom use. In east Asia and the Pacific, the estimated number of infections had reached 50,000 in mid-1994, a doubling in one year. There had been a steep rise in the rate of reported STDs in China. The countries of eastern Europe and central Asia in mid-1994 had over 50,000 infections, but many of the factors associated with rapid HIV spread were present: economic crisis, rising unemployment, armed conflicts, and major population movements. To date (mid-1994), there have been an estimated 100,000 infections in north Africa and the Middle East. As of mid-1994, 190 countries worldwide had reported close to 1 million AIDS cases to the World Health Organization. But an estimated 4 million adults and children had developed AIDS since the start of the pandemic. By 2000, the cumulative case total is projected to reach nearly 10 million. A retrospective analysis of the epidemic in Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Zambia showed that by the 12th year of the epidemic, youth under 25 accounted for up to 3/4 of all new infections. Implementing basic prevention programs in Asia would cost between 0.75 and 1.5 billion US dollars a year to avert an estimated 5 million infections by the year 2000 alone.

  2. CDC's Prevention Status Reports: Monitoring the Status of Public Health Policies and Practices for Improved Performance and Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea C; Lowry, Garry; Mumford, Karen; Graaf, Christine

    Increasing the adoption and implementation of evidence-based policies and practices is a key strategy for improving public health. Although there is widespread agreement about the importance of implementing evidence-based public health policies and practices, there are gaps between what has been shown to be effective and what is implemented at the state level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Prevention Status Reports (PSRs), a performance measurement system, to highlight evidence-based public health policies and practices and catalyze state performance and quality improvement efforts across the nation. CDC selected a set of 10 topics representing some of the most important public health challenges in the nation. Stakeholders, including state health departments and other partners, helped conceptualize the PSRs and informed the development of the PSR framework, which provides an organizational structure for the system. CDC subject matter experts developed criteria for selecting policies and practices, indicators for each policy and practice, and a criteria-based rating system for each indicator. The PSRs were developed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The PSRs were developed and serve as a performance measurement system for monitoring the adoption, reach, and implementation fidelity of evidence-based public health policies and practices nationwide. The PSRs include 33 policy and practice indicators across the 10 health topics. They use a simple 3-level rating system-green, yellow, and red-to report the extent to which each state (and the District of Columbia) has implemented the policy or practice in accordance with supporting evidence or expert recommendations. Results from aggregate analyses show positive change or improvement. The PSRs are a unique part of CDC's work to improve the performance and accountability of the public health system, serving as both a monitoring tool and a call to action to improve health

  3. Building African Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network : Building African Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials. The Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network (CAPT Network) was formed through a capacity building grant from the Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI). The Network comprises eight African centres (four in Uganda, ...

  4. AIDS Prevention for the Underserved Majority : the Choice Disabled ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With HIV rates as high as 33%, prevention should be a central component of strategies to tackle the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet health resources are generally poorly optimized for prevention and almost without exception focused on the decision-enabled: those who have the agency to take preventive ...

  5. HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials Capacity Building Grants - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada's international response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic is largely built around the work of the Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiative (CHVI). CHVI proposes to increase the capacity of Canada and low- and middle-income countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic by developing new HIV vaccines and other preventive ...

  6. AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community : Policy Research and Decision Support. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is at the epicentre of the AIDS pandemic. The regional adult HIV prevalence is approximately 11%, twice the average in other African countries. Scores of ...

  7. Training Manual for HIV/AIDS Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Patricia H.; Vallenari, Allison

    This manual includes all necessary information for implementing the Champs program, which trains older elementary school students or middle/high school students to operate puppets to deliver an HIV/AIDS message to kindergarten through sixth graders. Relying on a peer approach, the Program provides scripted, prerecorded lessons intended to reach…

  8. Depression and AIDS Preventive Self-efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Effectively reducing adolescents' risky sexual behaviors has been an urgent need since the HIV/AIDS infections among young people has been acknowledged as a priority. Self-efficacy has been considered playing an essential role in behavioral changes, and depressed individuals may demonstrate lower self-efficacy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to gain insights into self-reported depression among 16-18 years-old Taiwanese adolescents as well as to explore psychosocial predictors of AIDS preventive self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 734 adolescents from southern Taiwan was recruited, and several reliable and valid questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio, independent t-test, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to analyze data. Results showed that the differences in self-reported depression and in the AIDS preventive self-efficacy varied by gender, substance use, and having sexual experience. Furthermore, depression was a significant predictor of AIDS preventive self-efficacy while controlling the covariates. This study suggests that gender and mental health status such as depression may play significant roles in AIDS preventive self-efficacy. Nurses and health care providers should take the influence of mental health into consideration when designing AIDS preventive interventions for male and female Taiwanese adolescents. The provided information may also enhance psychiatric nurses' capability to provide care and to enhance the prevention of HIV infection for adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Awareness : The Major Preventive Tools Against Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Srivastava

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available AIDS might have started as a bush fire but is now spreading across the world like a forest conflagration that we are finding difficult to extinguish. In a matter of decades the HIV has reached a high level with about 40.3 million affected globally. The year 2005 alone saw an addition of 5 millions with over all estimated adult population below one percent. According WHO and UNAIDS estinates, dispite improved access to anti-Retroviral treatment and the care in many region of the world, the acquired immune defieiency syndrome (AIDS claimed 3.1 million lives in the year 2005, more than a million of them are children.The AIDS epidemic in India is marked by heterogenecity. The epidemie shift from high risk population to bridge population (Clients of Sex workers, STD patients and partners of drug U'sers and then to general population. There is timelag of 2-3 years between the shift from one group to another. Currently, the estimated HIV INFECTION RATE among adult population between 15-19 years of age is 0.7%

  10. African Development of AIDS Prevention Trials (ADAPT2) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Development of AIDS Prevention Trials (ADAPT2) capacity building initiative is an African-Canadian partnership that aims to increase the number and quality of HIV prevention trials led by African researchers. Building on experience gained during ADAPT1 - funded by the Global Health Research Initiative ...

  11. African Development of AIDS Prevention Trials (ADAPT2) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Development of AIDS Prevention Trials (ADAPT2) capacity building initiative is an African-Canadian partnership that aims to increase the number and quality of HIV prevention trials led by African researchers. Building on experience gained during ADAPT1 - funded by the Global Health Research Initiative ...

  12. Taking Steps to Prevent Falls (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-22

    For older adults, falls can mean serious injury, loss of independence, or even death. Certain changes associated with aging increase the risk for falls, but falls can be prevented. In this podcast, Elizabeth Burns discusses falls among older adults and ways to prevent them.  Created: 9/22/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/22/2016.

  13. Ethiopia: hard work for successful AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An innovative AIDS control program targeting sex workers and clients in Ethiopia has shown that hard work and government support are essential for the success of a program. Serosurveys conducted in 1988 and 1989 had shown that certain groups were particularly vulnerable to HIV infection: women who engage in formal or informal prostitution and their clients -- often migrant workers or truck drivers. So in mid-1990, Ethiopia's Department of AIDS Control (DAC) launched an intervention effort targeting these high-risk groups, a program entitled the Multiple Partner Sexual Contact (MPSC) Female and Male Mobilization and Condom Promotion Project. The program had a 3-layer strategy: 1) establishing a "trickle down" training process, which would create a network of MPSC peer educators and organizers; 2) identifying MPSC men to serve as educators for other men; and 3) ensuring the widespread availability of condoms for both men and women. As site for its pilot project, DAC selected Nazareth, a trading city of more than 30% among MPSC females. After 6 months of operation, the program's effectiveness convinced DAC to expand the project to 9 additional sites. An evaluation of the project has revealed several important findings: 1) retraining and motivation sessions must be constantly maintained; 2) men's resistance to condom use may be diminished by targeting them with education at the same time as the women; 3) interventions that take into account the socioeconomic issues faced by MPSC women make the program more effective; 4) it is important to develop new educational materials periodically; and 5) involving the owners and managers of sex-related businesses makes the program more effective.

  14. Emerging nanotechnology approaches for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Tewodros; Moseman, E Ashley; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Salvador-Morales, Carolina; Shi, Jinjun; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Langer, Robert; von Andrian, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is no cure and no preventive vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved treatment, but it has to be taken for a lifetime, has major side effects and is ineffective in patients in whom the virus develops resistance. Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary field that is revolutionizing medicine in the 21st century. It has a vast potential to radically advance the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. In this review, we discuss the challenges with the current treatment of the disease and shed light on the remarkable potential of nanotechnology to provide more effective treatment and prevention for HIV/AIDS by advancing antiretroviral therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, vaccinology and microbicides. PMID:20148638

  15. Taking Steps to Prevent Falls (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-22

    More than one in four adults U.S. adults over 65 fell at least once in the preceding year. This podcast discusses the importance of preventing falls among older Americans.  Created: 9/22/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/22/2016.

  16. [Female juvenile prostitution and AIDS prevention programs in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cristiane Paulin; Silva, Rosalina Carvalho da; Paiva, Vera

    2002-08-01

    To investigate perception of AIDS and to obtain information for developing AIDS prevention programs targeting female juvenile prostitution. Thirteen young women aged 18 to 21 years working as prostitutes in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire focused on sociodemographic aspects, HIV-related knowledge, sexual behavior, relations with clients and other sexual partners, and suggestions for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS prevention programs. Though all subjects demonstrated knowledge of safe sex and HIV transmission, this contrasted with their belief that destiny determines who gets infected and their search for affection in their relationships with partners and clients. These contradictions act as possible factors preventing safe sex behavior. The strategies of HIV/AIDS prevention should incorporate the need of allowing room for discussion in order to clarify this group's social imaginary beliefs and concepts about AIDS. In addition, discussions about the belief in the safety of affective relationships should take place since this encourages unsafe sexual practices. Another key issue is how to approach this group and strategies sensitive to their individualities should be applied.

  17. AIDS prevention in the sex industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C

    1992-01-01

    Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully

  18. Use of the CDC autocidal gravid ovitrap to control and prevent outbreaks of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Veronica; Caban, Belkis; Felix, Gilberto; Mackay, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Populations ofAedes aegypti (L.) can be managed through reductions in adult mosquito survival, number of offspring produced, or both. Direct adult mortality can be caused by the use of space sprays or residual insecticides to mosquito resting sites, and with a variety of residual insecticide-impregnated surfaces that are being tested, such as curtains, covers for water-storage vessels, bednets, and ovitraps. The fertility ofAe. aegypti populations can be reduced by the use of autocidal oviposition cups that prevent the development of mosquitoes inside the trap by mechanical means or larvicides, as well as by releasing sterile, transgenic, and para-transgenic mosquitoes. Survival and fertility can be simultaneously reduced by capturing gravid female Ae. aegypti with sticky gravid traps. We tested the effectiveness of the novel Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitrap (CDC-AGO trap) to control natural populations ofAe. aegypti under field conditions in two isolated urban areas (reference vs. intervention areas) in southern Puerto Rico for 1 yr. There were significant reductions in the captures of female Ae. aegypti (53-70%) in the intervention area The presence of three to four AGO control traps per home in 81% of the houses prevented outbreaks of Ae. aegypti, which would be expected after rains. Mosquito captures in BG-Sentinel and AGO traps were significantly and positively correlated, showing that AGO traps are useful and inexpensive mosquito surveillance devices. The use of AGO traps to manage Ae. aegypti populations is compatible with other control means such as source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding, sterile insect techniques, induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, and dominant lethal gene systems.

  19. AIDSCAP. Saving a generation: Ethiopian youth rally to prevent AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, K

    1997-01-01

    Afraid that they were infected with HIV and would die in several years, several young adults formed the Save Your Generation Association (SYGA) to warn other young people about the threat of HIV/AIDS. SYGA has since become a registered Ethiopian nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a paid staff of 14 and more than 6000 dues-paying members. It is one of seven NGOs which received support from the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) project over 3 years to bring HIV/AIDS prevention education to out-of-school youth in six urban areas of Ethiopia. The projects recruited young volunteers and enlisted the aid of community organizations to inform and motivate the tens of thousands of school dropouts and other unemployed young people. Bored and hopeless, these youths often turn to dangerous escape mechanisms involving drugs, alcohol, and sex with multiple partners. The local government helped the NGOs find their target population and provided meeting space for HIV/AIDS prevention activities.

  20. AIDS and promiscuity: muddles in the models of HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, R

    1992-05-01

    AIDS has been blamed on promiscuity and the promiscuous, and a major goal of many HIV-prevention programs has been to induce people to reduce the number of their sexual partners. Despite the salience of this concept in the AIDS discourse of scientists, policymakers, the media, religious leaders, and the gay community, critical analysis of the role of promiscuity in this epidemic has been lacking. Following a review of promiscuity in various genres of AIDS discourse, this article discusses promiscuity in American society and in HIV-prevention campaigns. The relative risks associated with monogamy, abstinence and promiscuity are examined, and the author concludes that the partner-reduction strategy, instead of contributing to a reduction in HIV transmission has been an impediment to AIDS prevention efforts, exacerbating the problem by undermining the sex-positive approaches to risk reduction that have proven effective. Responsibility for this misguided strategy is attributed to a moralistic approach to AIDS and to the misapplication of epidemiological concepts and inappropriate social science models to the task of promoting healthy forms of sexuality.

  1. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  2. Defending children's rights: an AIDS prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, A

    1993-12-01

    In Brazil, the murder of seven homeless children sleeping near a cathedral in the heart of Rio de Janeiro shocked the international community but came as no surprise to Brazilians who were aware of the risks faced by their country's approximately seven million street children. Now, in addition to the threat of violence and abuse, street children in cities around the world also face the danger of becoming infected with HIV. Estimates of seroprevalence in Rio range from 1.5% to 7.5%, and the children place themselves at risk by engaging in prostitution for survival as well as by having sex with each other. Their vulnerability is also increased by their use of inhalant drugs, which can lead to a loss of control. The Brazilian Center for the Defense of Children and Adolescents (CDCA), which has been working with street children since 1987, added HIV prevention to its mandate in 1989. CDCA gets each youth a birth certificate as a first step in building self-esteem. For a time, CDCA operated a permanent "drop-in" center that offered health treatment and counseling and provided special services to young transvestites and girls. Local authorities forced CDCA to close the center when the children began sleeping in its doorway (indicating that their primary need was for shelter). After the drop-in center closed, CDCA began identifying health professionals in governmental and nongovernmental clinics who agreed to treat the street children. In return, CDCA shares its resources with clinic staff. CDCA also encouraged the government to open its first shelters for the children and advised shelter staff on how to work with the children. In 1990, CDCA achieved legislation that requires the government to give the children access to free medical care, food, and shelter. This action has multiplied the number of youth who receive services and the number of professionals trained to work with them.

  3. Community Based Organizations in HIV/AIDS Prevention, Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this review is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of community-based organizations (CBOs) to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention, care/support and control programs in Ethiopia. In order to put CBOs and programs in the context of HIV transmission and spread, the role of the Multisectoral ...

  4. Cultural Practices of Hispanics: Implications for the Prevention of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, James K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Among 190 Hispanic Americans in Nevada, condom use as an AIDS prevention measure appeared to be a male prerogative associated with "being the one who buys the condoms" (mostly males) and machismo practices such as protection of women. Adherence to Hispanic cultural traits was related to education and acculturation. (SV)

  5. factors associated with AIDS preventive and risky behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-05-01

    May 1, 2000 ... behaviours among different cultural groups in South Africa. The purpose of ... affecting youth today(2). A number of ..... T. The impact of knowledge, norms, and self-efficacy on intentions to engage in AIDS-preventive behaviours among young incarcerated African. American males. J. Black Psych. 1993; 19: ...

  6. Courting success in HIV/AIDS prevention: the challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents findings from a study of HIV/AIDS programmes for urban sex workers in Dakar, Senegal. The objective of the research was to assess HIV prevention and treatment efforts to date, and to identify challenges that must be overcome in the long term to reduce the spread of HIV in Senegal. The research team ...

  7. HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials Capacity Building Grants

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    work involve Canadian researchers collaborating with researchers and decision- makers in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Latin America, and the. Caribbean. About this booklet. This booklet presents projects being carried out with grants from GHRI's HIV/AIDS. Prevention Trials Capacity Building Grants ...

  8. Capacity Building for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is funding the Africa HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials Capacity Building Program under the umbrella of the Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI). The aim of the program is to build the capacity of African researchers and institutions to conduct anticipated clinical trials ...

  9. Building Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A relatively small number of African sites have the clinical and laboratory capacity to design, manage and carry out HIV/AIDS prevention trials. This project is based on the premise that many of the required skills are already present at additional locations, but need further development. The grant will facilitate interaction ...

  10. HIV/AIDS prevention through peer education and support in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation and evaluation of a peer education and support programme in secondary schools to prevent and reduce high-risk sexual behaviour amongst adolescents is discussed.The aims of the programme were to provide accurate information about HIV/AIDS, discuss and reconsider peer group norms, and ...

  11. SUBSCAPULAR AND TRICEPS SKINFOLDS REFERENCE VALUES OF HISPANIC AMERICAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH THE REFERENCE OF CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrodán Serrano, María Dolores; González-Montero de Espinosa, Marisa; Herráez, Ángel; Alfaro, Emma Laura; Felipe Bejarano, Ignacio; Carmenate, María Margarita; Prado, Consuelo; Beatriz Lomaglio, Delia; López-Ejeda, Noemí; Martínez, Antonio; Mesa, María Soledad; Méndez Pérez, Betty; Meléndez, Juana María; Moreno Romero, Susana; Pacheco, Jose Luis; Vázquez, Vanessa; Dipierri, José E

    2015-12-01

    the assessment of the skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. Therefore, it is a useful tool for nutritional diagnosis and prevention of metabolic risk associated with excess fat in chilhood and adolescence. to provide percentiles of subscapular and triceps skinfolds for Hispanic American schoolchildren and compare them with those published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from United States, that it have been commonly used as a reference in most of these countries. subscapular and triceps skinfolds were measured in 9.973 schoolchildren 4-19 aged from Spain, Argentina, Cuba, Venezuela and Mexico with Holtain caliper with 0.2 mm accuracy. Percentiles were obtained with the LMS statistical method and were presented in tables divided in stages of 6 months and in curves graphics. The difference between Hispanic American and CDC mean values were provided for P3, P50 and P97 in mm and also were graphically represented. skinfolds measurements obviously increased with age in both sexes but, in boys, this increase is much more marked in highest percentiles between 8 and 13 years; this maximum is reached earlier than what occurs in CDC reference. In both sexes, all percentiles analized in Hispanic American schoolchildren were higher than the CDC reference except P97 up to 10 or 13 years that was notably smaller. the skinfolds percentiles of Hispanic American children and adolescents differ from CDC that are usually used as reference. The values of subscapular and triceps skinfolds provided in this study, could be applied to populations of a similar ethnic background, especially in comparative studies of body composition. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Hispanic Health: CDC Vitalsigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  13. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

    2015-01-01

    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preventable with more effective water management. Problem Water management problems can lead to Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks. What ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  15. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  16. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  17. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  18. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  19. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  20. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  1. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  2. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  3. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  4. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  5. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  6. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  7. HIV/AIDS/STD prevention intervention messages: An evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate HIV/AIDS/STD prevention intervention messages on a rural adult (25-49 years) sample in South Africa over a period of 15 months. A representative community sample of 398 adults at time 1 and 382 at time 2 (25-49 years) participated in the study using a three-stage cluster sampling ...

  8. Perceptions of malaria control and prevention in an era of climate change: a cross-sectional survey among CDC staff in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-31

    Though there was the significant decrease in the incidence of malaria in central and southwest China during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of malaria since 2000. A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst the staff of eleven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China to gauge their perceptions regarding the impacts of climate change on malaria transmission and its control and prevention. Descriptive analysis was performed to study CDC staff's knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and suggestions for malaria control in the face of climate change. A majority (79.8%) of CDC staff were concerned about climate change and 79.7% believed the weather was becoming warmer. Most participants (90.3%) indicated climate change had a negative effect on population health, 92.6 and 86.8% considered that increasing temperatures and precipitation would influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases including malaria. About half (50.9%) of the surveyed staff indicated malaria had re-emerged in recent years, and some outbreaks were occurring in new geographic areas. The main reasons for such re-emergence were perceived to be: mosquitoes in high-density, numerous imported cases, climate change, poor environmental conditions, internal migrant populations, and lack of health awareness. This study found most CDC staff endorsed the statement that climate change had a negative impact on infectious disease transmission. Malaria had re-emerged in some areas of China, and most of the staff believed that this can be managed. However, high densities of mosquitoes and the continuous increase in imported cases of malaria in local areas, together with environmental changes are bringing about critical challenges to malaria control in China. This study contributes to an understanding of climate change related perceptions of malaria control and prevention amongst CDC staff. It may help to formulate in-house training guidelines, community health promotion

  9. Health Department HIV Prevention Programs That Support the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Hoyte, Tamika; Purcell, David W; Van Handel, Michelle; Williams, Weston; Krueger, Amy; Dietz, Patricia; Stratford, Dale; Heitgerd, Janet; Dunbar, Erica; Wan, Choi; Linley, Laurie A; Flores, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project was the first initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Health departments in 12 U.S. cities with a high prevalence of AIDS conducted comprehensive program planning and implemented cost-effective, scalable HIV prevention interventions that targeted high-risk populations. We examined trends in health department HIV prevention programs in these cities during the project. We analyzed the number of people who received partner services, condoms distributed, and people tested for HIV, as well as funding allocations for selected HIV prevention programs by year and by site from October 2010 through September 2013. We assessed trends in the proportional change in services and allocations during the project period using generalized estimating equations. We also conducted thematic coding of program activities that targeted people living with HIV infection (PLWH). We found significant increases in funding allocations for HIV testing and condom distribution. All HIV partner services indicators, condom distribution, and HIV testing of African American and Hispanic/Latino populations significantly increased. HIV tests associated with a new diagnosis increased significantly among those self-identifying as Hispanic/Latino but significantly decreased among African Americans. For programs targeting PLWH, health department activities included implementing new program models, improving local data use, and building local capacity to enhance linkage to HIV medical care, retention in care, and treatment adherence. Overall, these findings indicate that health departments in areas with a high burden of AIDS successfully shifted their HIV prevention resources to scale up important HIV programs and make progress toward NHAS goals.

  10. Adaptation of a U.S. evidence-based Positive Prevention intervention for youth living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J.L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C.E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    Effective HIV prevention programs for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are important to reduce new infections and to ensure PLWH remain healthy. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of a U.S.-developed Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of Adaption Process for use at a Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The adapted intervention, Supporting Youth and Motivating Positive Action or SYMPA, a six-session risk reduction intervention targeted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) in Kinshasa was adapted from the Healthy Living Project and guided by the Social Action Theory. This paper describes the process of implementing the first four steps of the ADAPT framework (Assess, Select, Prepare, and Pilot). Our study has shown that an EBI developed and implemented in the U.S. can be adapted successfully for a different target population in a low-resource context through an iterative process following the CDC ADAPT framework. This process included reviewing existing literature, adapting and adding components, and focusing on increasing staff capacity. This paper provides a rare, detailed description of the adaptation process and may aid organizations seeking to adapt and implement HIV prevention EBIs in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. PMID:23063699

  11. Signos Vitales de los CDC Cómo prevenir los brotes de norovirus (Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los norovirus infectan cada año a cerca de 20 millones de personas en los Estados Unidos. Sepa cómo protegerse y proteger a su familia de esta enfermedad que es muy contagiosa y potencialmente grave.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  12. Sacred messages for AIDS prevention. Principles into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, J

    1991-01-01

    In Brazil, alternative religious approaches are being used to spread the message of AIDs prevention. The concepts and practices of traditional Afro--Brazilian religion are being used in a newly released booklet for religious leaders of Candomble, a traditional spirit cult that traces its origins to the Yoruba of western Africa. There is a fusion of this spirit cult with Catholicism. The practice of all night dancing ceremonies where initiates appeal to orixas for guidance is coupled with private daily obligations. Orixas offer to cure the spirit and the body and are often used after Western medicine has failed to provide a cure. Candomble and Umbanda are the most widely observed religions in Brazil. There is a saying that everyone in Brazil is Catholic, but believers in Afro-Brazilian religion. Catholic parishes account for 19,000 places of worship throughout the country, but in 3 of the largest states, excluding the most "African" state Bahia, there are 55,000 Afro--Brazilian religious centers. 30,000 are in Rio de Janeiro, 16,00 in Sao Paulo, and 11,700 in Rio Grande do Sul. Although these religious centers are part of Brazilian identity and culture, government officials and the Catholic Church have repressed or looked unfavorably upon them. The group, Religious Support Against AIDS (ARCA), sponsored by the Institute for Religious Studies, provides education and consciousness raising through religious and social activities. ARCA hosted a meeting with Candomble religious leaders in May 1989 to explore options for dealing with AIDs, since their contact was with the poorer segments of the population and they possessed knowledge of traditional cures and medicinal plants. The meeting was successful, and ARCA was asked to provide educational materials. The problem was that ceremonial, rites were private and an AIDs stigma might emerge among the priests and priestesses, who were thought to be mainly homosexuals. With the expertise of anthropologist and a historian

  13. The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women's intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ

    1998-01-01

    Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest

  14. Role of women in prevention and control of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, E P; Singh, A C

    1991-04-01

    Women in India and AIDS prevention and control are discussed in terms of vulnerability, victimization, required knowledge, reproductive impact, care and prevention after birth, and the demands of the prevailing situation. A WHO world estimate is that 3 million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV out of 8-10 million. Indian women are vulnerable because of their reduced status and lack of power in private and marital life. Also, pregnant women receive blood transfusions, which may be inadequately screened, for anemia. The use of oral contraceptives with estrogen reduces immunity. The use of IUDs may cause inflammation or injury which provides a point of entry for HIV into the bloodstream. Prostitution is an outlet for lack of money, education, and skills, and places women at risk. The transmission from men to women is higher than the reverse. Every women should know their risks and modes of transmission. Women need to know that the risk of fetal infection from an HIV-positive mother is 20-40%, and that the risk is highest if HIV infection occurs or AIDS symptoms occur during pregnancy. Infant mortality from HIV may occur within the 1st several years. The following needs to be understood about reproduction and HIV: the risk of infection is very high when impregnated by an HIV male partner, and if children are desired, artificial insemination should be the preferred method. The reverse holds true, because penetrative sex without a condom allows transmission of the virus. The best option is for avoidance of childbearing if a partner has HIV. Abortion should be provided. Women need to develop the skills in language and confidence to negotiate safer sex, should be particular about choosing a loyal partner, and protect themselves by urging male condom use. The mode of transmission to babies is not from cuddling or handling. Breast feeding carries a meager risk of transmission, and should be continued if HIV infection occurs; the baby should be immunized. All

  15. Use of chemotaxonomy as an aid to differentiate among Capnocytophaga species, CDC group DF-3, and aerotolerant strains of Leptotrichia buccalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, K; Cooper, C; Tessier, S; Ewan, E P

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of fastidious gram-negative rods, thought to be Capnocytophaga species (formerly CDC group DF-1 or Bacteroides ochraceus) or CDC group DF-3 on the basis of conventional phenotypic criteria, were also analyzed for cellular fatty acid (CFA) composition. It was found that the CFA compositions of these strains were qualitatively incorrect for those taxa. Subsequently, it was determined that all four bacteria were in fact aerotolerant strains of Leptotrichia buccalis, based on biochemical reactions, CFA composition, and lactic acid as the major end product of glucose fermentation. It is recommended that, in addition to conventional cultural and biochemical criteria, all strains of Capnocytophaga or CDC group DF-3 should also be tested for metabolic end products of fermentation and CFA composition as essential adjuncts for identification. PMID:1939582

  16. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  17. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  18. Signos Vitales de los CDC-¡El cáncer de cuello uterino se puede prevenir! (Cervical Cancer is Preventable!)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de noviembre del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Cada cita médica es una oportunidad para prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino. Las mujeres pueden hacerse la prueba de Papanicoláu y la del VPH para ayudar a prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino, y los niños y las niñas adolescentes pueden recibir la vacuna contra el VPH para ayudar a prevenir esta enfermedad y otros tipos de cáncer.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Cobtrol (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  19. CDC Lab Values

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-02

    More than fifteen hundred scientists fill the lab benches at CDC, logging more than four million hours each year. CDC’s laboratories play a critical role in the agency’s ability to find, stop, and prevent disease outbreaks. This podcast provides a brief overview of what goes on inside CDC’s labs, and why this work makes a difference in American’s health.  Created: 2/2/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/2/2015.

  20. A Review of HIV/AIDS Awareness and Knowledge of Preventive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper reviews HIV/AIDS awareness, knowledge and preventive methods in Ghana over the past two decades drawing heavily on the 2003 and ..... HIV/AIDS Awareness and Knowledge in Ghana. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2013 (Special Edition on HIV/AIDS); 17(4): 76. Education. 141.49***.

  1. CDC's Response to Zika: Enjoy Your Vacation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your destination has Zika, check the CDC Travelers’ Health site for current travel notices: cdc. gov/ travel Pack to prevent • Insect repellent (Look for these ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol, or 2-undecanone ) • ...

  2. Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of older women in HIV/AIDS prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Silva Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the knowledge, religious beliefs and the adoption of preventive measures against HIV/AIDS of non-Catholic elderly women. Method: A qualitative study, carried out in religious institutions of a municipality in the state of Ceará, Northeast Brazil, with 78 elderly women. Of these, 64 were evangelicals, seven spiritualists and seven Jehovah's Witnesses. A semi-structured interview script was used followed by thematic content analysis of participants' responses. Results: After analyzing the empirical data, three categories were elaborated: the first presented the knowledge they had about AIDS; the second, highlighted the beliefs attributed to people with HIV/AIDS; and the third, presented the preventive measures to HIV/AIDS adopted by them. Final considerations: There were participants with knowledge gaps and failure to use preventive measures against HIV/AIDS. They suggested that religious institutions can be venues for lectures on HIV/AIDS prevention.

  3. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonathan E; Benson, Constance; Holmes, King K; Brooks, John T; Pau, Alice; Masur, Henry

    2009-04-10

    This report updates and combines earlier versions of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected adults (i.e., persons aged >/=18 years) and adolescents (i.e., persons aged 13--17 years), last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. It has been prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). The guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care providers, HIV-infected patients, and policy makers in the United States. These guidelines address several OIs that occur in the United States and five OIs that might be acquired during international travel. Topic areas covered for each OI include epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; and special considerations during pregnancy. These guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists from the United States government and academic institutions. For each OI, a small group of specialists with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the guidelines were last published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting held at NIH in June 2007. After these presentations and discussion, the revised guidelines were further reviewed by the co-editors; by the Office of AIDS Research, NIH; by specialists at CDC; and by HIVMA of IDSA before final approval and publication. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of

  4. Gender Issues in STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial sex workers are the second target group benefiting from special programmes designed to address their particular needs in STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention and control. By targeting male workers and commercial sex workers, the agencies have failed to address married women's issues in STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention ...

  5. Fear and Guilt in HIV and AIDS Prevention | Gwandure | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social learning theory concepts of fear and guilt are regarded as inhibitory factors in disease prevention, and this article examines the possibility of incorporating fear and guilt training courses into HIV and AIDS prevention programmes. HIV and AIDS educators could help participants understand the role of fear and guilt ...

  6. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  7. Rumor, gossip and blame: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention in the South African lowveld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic provides fertile breeding ground for theories of the origin of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and the allocation of blame. Drawing on ethnographic research in the Bushbuckridge region of the South African lowveld, this article examines the articulation of AIDS through gossip and rumor. These oral forms create moral readings of behavior and shape folk discourses of AIDS that resist dominant epidemiological explanations. Significantly, constructions of AIDS are not uniform. Although elders claim AIDS as traditional and curable, younger men and women support theories of AIDS as a modern, foreign disease. Witchcraft beliefs are popular in explaining why certain people die and not others. At times, rumor may escalate into a moral panic. The implications of these findings for social responses to the AIDS epidemic and HIV/AIDS prevention are explored.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  9. AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Centro de Investigación de Enfermedades Tropicales (CIET) has collected, selected, critically appraised and extracted findings relevant to AIDS ... This grant will help CIET continue this work by supporting the design of a computer-assisted decision tool linking multiple meta-analyses of international AIDS trials and ...

  10. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including a p...... of such consultations initiated by the GPs. CONCLUSIONS: Medical audit had no observed effect on AIDS prevention in general practice. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Oct......OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including....... One hundred and thirty-three GPs completed the project. The main outcome measures were the number of consultations involving AIDS prevention and the number of talks about AIDS initiated by the GP, and some elements of the content were registered on a chart. RESULTS: No statistically significant...

  11. 30 Years of HIV/AIDS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-02

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses the 30 year anniversary of the first reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Dr. Fenton also reflects on the HIV/AIDS epidemic – past, present, and future.  Created: 6/2/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/2/2011.

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  2. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  7. Engineering and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, G Scott; Reed, Laurence D; Conover, D; Estill, C; Gjessing, C; Gressel, M; Hall, R; Hudock, S; Hudson, H; Kardous, C; Sheehy, J; Topmiller, J; Trout, D; Woebkenberg, M; Amendola, A; Hsiao, H; Keane, P; Weissman, D; Finfinger, G; Tadolini, S; Thimons, E; Cullen, E; Jenkins, M; McKibbin, R; Conway, G; Husberg, B; Lincoln, J; Rodenbeck, S; Lantagne, D; Cardarelli, J

    2006-12-22

    Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. Using imagination, judgment, and reasoning to apply science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience, engineers develop the design, production, and operation of useful objects or processes. During the 1940s, engineers dominated the ranks of CDC scientists. In fact, the first CDC director, Assistant Surgeon General Mark Hollis, was an engineer. CDC engineers were involved in malaria control through the elimination of standing water. Eventually the CDC mission expanded to include prevention and control of dengue, typhus, and other communicable diseases. The development of chlorination, water filtration, and sewage treatment were crucial to preventing waterborne illness. Beginning in the 1950s, CDC engineers began their work to improve public health while developing the fields of environmental health, industrial hygiene, and control of air pollution. Engineering disciplines represented at CDC today include biomedical, civil, chemical, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mining, and safety engineering. Most CDC engineers are located in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Engineering research at CDC has a broad stakeholder base. With the cooperation of industry, labor, trade associations, and other stakeholders and partners, current work includes studies of air contaminants, mining, safety, physical agents, ergonomics, and environmental hazards. Engineering solutions remain a cornerstone of the traditional "hierarchy of controls" approach to reducing public health hazards.

  8. A review of HIV/AIDS awareness and knowledge of preventive methods in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Afful-Mensah, Gloria

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews HIV/AIDS awareness, knowledge and preventive methods in Ghana over the past two decades drawing heavily on the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS). The review reveals that there is almost a universal awareness of HIV/AIDS in Ghana although there are still some deficiencies in comprehensive knowledge of the epidemic. Nevertheless, there seem to be some gender differences in the level of awareness since men have more knowledge on HIV/AIDS including its prevention than women. Besides, it is revealed that knowledge of preventive measures lagged behind awareness of the epidemic. In addition, male respondents between 15 and 24 years are more aware of the preventive measures than their female counterparts. Against the backdrop that women are more affected by the epidemic than men, there is the need to intensify the knowledge and preventive methods of HIV/AIDS especially among the women in their reproductive age.

  9. 1-L-MT, an IDO inhibitor, prevented colitis-associated cancer by inducing CDC20 inhibition-mediated mitotic death of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuting; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Yang; Du, Qianming; Hu, Rong

    2018-04-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), known as IDO, catabolizes tryptophan through kynurenine pathway, whose activity is correlated with impaired clinical outcome of colorectal cancer. Here we showed that 1-L-MT, a canonical IDO inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inducing mitotic death. Our results showed that inhibition of IDO decreased the transcription of CDC20, which resulted in G2/M cycle arrest of HCT-116 and HT-29. Furthermore, 1-L-MT induced mitochondria injuries and caused apoptotic cancer cells. Importantly, 1-L-MT protected mice from azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis, with reduced mortality, tumor number and size. What is more, IDO1-/- mice exhibited fewer tumor burdens and reduced proliferation in the neoplastic epithelium, while, 1-L-MT did not exhibit any further protective effects on IDO-/- mice, confirming the critical role of IDO and the protective effect of 1-L-MT-mediated IDO inhibition in CRC. Furthermore, 1-L-MT also alleviated CRC in Rag1-/- mice, demonstrating the modulatory effects of IDO independent of its role in modulating adaptive immunity. Taken together, our findings validated that the anti-proliferation effect of 1-L-MT in vitro and the prevention of CRC in vivo were through IDO-induced cell cycle disaster of colon cancer cells. Our results identified 1-L-MT as a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of CRC. © 2018 UICC.

  10. Older Americans and AIDS: Transmission Risks and Primary Prevention Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Growing number of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases among older Americans is of increasing concern. In context of primary prevention, reviews findings that bear on modes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (blood transfusions, sexual) among older individuals and knowledge of magnitude of the AIDS problem represented…

  11. A Model Human Sexuality--HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Service-Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…

  12. Influencing preventive behavior with regard to HIV/AIDS among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV/AIDS has emerged as one of the serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. This disease has individual and institutional impacts, making difficult for the police services to act effectively in protecting the public from crime. Objective: To assess factors that influence HIV/AIDS prevention among police ...

  13. CDC Vital Signs–HIV and Injection Drug Use

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-29

    This podcast is based on the December 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Sharing needles, syringes, and other injection equipment puts you at risk for getting HIV and other infections, including hepatitis. Learn how to reduce your HIV risk.  Created: 11/29/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Tuberculosis Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/29/2016.

  14. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir, E-mail: lhadjisk@umich.edu; Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10{sup 9} annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  15. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10 9 annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  16. Opportunities for AIDS prevention in a rural state in criminal justice and drug treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabee, D; Leukefeld, C G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the likelihood that drug users would receive HIV/ AIDS prevention information and supplies (e.g., condoms and bleach) in the rural state of Kentucky. Despite evidence of high HIV risk among criminal justice and substance-using populations, incarceration and substance-user treatment were only minimally associated with prior HIV prevention exposure or HIV testing. These data strongly support the use of criminal justice and treatment settings to provide AIDS prevention interventions for the high-risk drug-using populations they serve, and to target HIV prevention services in rural as well as urban areas.

  17. Current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future.

  18. HIV/AIDS fatalism, beliefs and prevention indicators in Gabon:comparisons between Gabonese and Malians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rosanna F; Mbavu, Martin

    2010-06-01

    HIV/AIDS fatalism may impact on individuals' health-seeking behaviour and HIV-prevention efforts. This descriptive study measured levels of HIV/AIDS fatalism and documented HIV/AIDS beliefs and practices among a sample of Gabonese and Malians living in Gabon, West Africa. The Powe Fatalism Inventory-HIV/AIDS version was used to measure levels of fatalism, while a short-answer survey was used to document personal beliefs and behaviours related to HIV and AIDS among 160 people in Gabon. The mean score of HIV/AIDS fatalism for the total sample was 6.8 on a 15-point scale. Malians had a more fatalistic outlook than Gabonese (mean scores 9.4 versus 5.3), Muslims were more fatalistic than persons of other religions (mean scores 9.2 versus 5.3), while healthcare providers were less fatalistic than non-providers (mean scores 3.8 versus 7.4). People that did not believe that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God had a lower mean score of fatalism than those who did. Most of the sample believed that AIDS is a real disease, and most did not think that only immoral people discuss HIV and AIDS. The HIV-prevention indicators that related to lower scores of fatalism included knowing HIV-positive people, having had more years of formal education, a willingness to disclose one's HIV status (if known), and experience of HIV/AIDS education. Respondents who had tested for HIV were no less fatalistic than those who had never tested. The findings provide data from a part of the world where HIV/AIDS beliefs have rarely been documented. The results indicate a need for additional studies on correlations between HIV/ AIDS fatalism, HIV-prevention behaviours, and religious belief systems.

  19. Microfinance and HIV/AIDS prevention: assessing its promise and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Blankenship, Kim

    2009-06-01

    Researchers increasingly argue that poverty and gender inequality exacerbate the spread of HIV/AIDS and that economic empowerment can therefore assist in the prevention and mitigation of the disease, particularly for women. This paper critically evaluates such claims. First, we examine the promises and limits of integrated HIV/AIDS prevention and microfinance programs by examining the available evidence base. We then propose future research agendas and next steps that may help to clear current ambiguities about the potential for economic programs to contribute to HIV/AIDS risk reduction efforts.

  20. Integrating Social Marketing Into Fijian HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs: Lessons From Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewak, Aarti; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-01-01

    Social marketing techniques have been tested and proven useful within the health sector worldwide. In Fiji, social marketing was introduced in the early 1990s, and more rapidly during the last decade to improve national response to an increasing incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Given the limited amount of research in the area of program evaluation in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), this study systematically analyzes five Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs through Andreasen's benchmark criteria, in order to identify gaps in program design that ultimately impact program effectiveness. Assessment results unveil some interesting trends regarding the focus and applications of past Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the past decade. This article discusses these findings and other valuable lessons for future HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Fiji and elsewhere.

  1. Scientific approaches to AIDS prevention and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, T; Shao, Y

    2011-04-01

    The HIV epidemic in China started among intravenous drug users in the late 1980s. The second wave of the epidemic was caused by an outbreak in the paid plasma donors in central China in the mid-1990s. Sexually transmitted HIV cases have steadily increased and comprised more than half the reported HIV/AIDS infections since 2007. In the last 5 years, there has been a sharp increase of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. The HIV epidemic in China has expanded from high-risk groups to the general population and from rural regions to urban areas. This brief article discusses the history of HIV epidemics in China and the challenges facing the current AIDS control efforts in the country. It explains that only scientific approaches can sustain the national AIDS control programs and introduce the type of research needed to address those challenges. The selected research areas include molecular epidemiology, drug resistance surveillance, and the Chinese HIV vaccine research.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durongritichai, Vanida

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people.

  3. Shifting Resources and Focus to Meet the Goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, David W.; Fisher, Holly H.; Belcher, Lisa; Carey, James W.; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Dunbar, Erica; Eke, Agatha N.; Galindo, Carla A.; Glassman, Marlene; Margolis, Andrew D.; Neumann, Mary Spink; Prather, Cynthia; Stratford, Dale; Taylor, Raekiela D.; Mermin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In September 2010, CDC launched the Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning (ECHPP) project to shift HIV-related activities to meet goals of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Twelve health departments in cities with high AIDS burden participated. These 12 grantees submitted plans detailing jurisdiction-level goals, strategies, and objectives for HIV prevention and care activities. We reviewed plans to identify themes in the planning process and initial implementation. Planning themes included data integration, broad engagement of partners, and resource allocation modeling. Implementation themes included organizational change, building partnerships, enhancing data use, developing protocols and policies, and providing training and technical assistance for new and expanded activities. Pilot programs also allowed grantees to assess the feasibility of large-scale implementation. These findings indicate that health departments in areas hardest hit by HIV are shifting their HIV prevention and care programs to increase local impact. Examples from ECHPP will be of interest to other health departments as they work toward meeting the NHAS goals. PMID:26843670

  4. An integrated stewardship model : Antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant Nannan; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship

  5. An integrated stewardship model: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant N.; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Niesters, Hubert G.M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2015-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship

  6. HIV/AIDS knowledge amongst gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.K.; Sethi, S.M.; Kokab, F.; Qureshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5 +- 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention. (author)

  7. AIDS prevention research in Chile and implications for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, L H; Mullin, M

    1996-01-01

    Chile holds interest for researchers due to the relatively low but increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and existence of an extensive infrastructure for implementing an affordable acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention strategy. To facilitate the development of a pragmatic, affordable AIDS intervention plan for Chile, the following data sources were reviewed: mandatory case reporting data collected by the Chilean Ministry of Health, findings of the Chilean version of the World Health Organization AIDS general population survey, studies of the validity of the official HIV transmission classification system used for national planning purposes, interviews with people with AIDS, and a study of HIV testing in Santiago's health care system. By June 1994, 1016 cases of AIDS had been reported and 1627 people had been identified as HIV-positive. 93% of those with AIDS were men; homosexual/bisexual transmission accounted for 66.2% of cases and heterosexual transmission another 19.4%. In-depth interviews with AIDS patients revealed they were a well-defined population subgroup with few linkages to other sectors. This finding calls into question the current government strategy of broad-based mass media campaigns. Preferable would be campaigns that target homosexual men. A strength of the Chilean primary health care system is its effective utilization of nurses. Nurses manage about 1/3 of clinic visits, with no input from physicians, and their involvement in AIDS prevention should be strengthened.

  8. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs CDC SEALS Software CDC State Strategies: Preventing Tooth Decay CDC Oral Health Data Other Sites MedlinePlus – Child Dental Health MedlinePlus – Tooth Decay American Dental Association – Evidence-based clinical practice guideline ...

  9. Constructing publics, preventing diseases and medicalizing bodies: HIV, AIDS, and its visual cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizzio Mc Manus

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper we analyze the visual cultures surrounding HIV and AIDS; we are especially interested in tracking the actors, discourses and visual cultures involved in AIDS prevention in Mexico for a period of twenty years: from 1985 to 2005. We use media studies to better comprehend how HIV and AIDS further medicalized human bodies by mobilizing specific discourses, metaphors and visual resources that, though promoting a better understanding of how HIV could be acquired and how it could be prevented, also generated new representations of sexuality, bodies and persons living with HIV or AIDS often biased in favor of different systems of value. Moreover, we try to offer a general characterization of the different publics that were targeted and preconceptions involving ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, geography and membership in different sociocultural groups.

  10. Culture and African contexts of HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture and African contexts of HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support. ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... Vu que l'effet du VIH/SIDA, en Afrique, reste toujours élevé, une approche de prévention, de soin et de soutien basée sur la culture est de plus en plus reconnue comme strategie essentielle à ...

  11. [Women of Guatemala City: facilitating AIDS prevention in a vulnerable group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, A; Arathoon, E; Lundgren, R; Bezmalinovic, B

    1992-01-01

    Despite the mistaken belief in Central America that AIDS is primarily a disease of male homosexuals, some 21% of reported cases in Guatemala have been women 15-44 years old. Many Guatemalan women are at risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) because of their lack of sexual bargaining power and negotiating skills, the widespread acceptance of male infidelity in marriage, tolerance of bisexual relations and frequenting of prostitutes, and ignorance of women about sexuality. Condom use is infrequent in Guatemala. Most men and women lack knowledge of AIDS and other STDs and have no perception of their own vulnerability. Male alcohol use and violence against women diminishes the ability of women to protect themselves. Sex education and information about STDs should be provided for both men and women to slow the spread of AIDS. AIDS educators should direct their messages to women toward promoting condom use, increasing knowledge of AIDS and STDs, providing basic sex education, questioning stereotypes of AIDS patients as persons with disordered lifestyles, encouraging realistic assessment of risks, and assisting women to increase their negotiating ability in sexual relations. Three crucial ways of helping women protect themselves are by making them aware of the influence of gender roles in their reproductive lives, teaching them communication and negotiating skills, and providing strategies for them to confront alcohol abuse and gender violence. Survey results indicate that Guatemalan women were extremely motivated to protect their children and secondarily to maintain their homes and be good wives. Motivational messages for AIDS prevention should be related to children and the family. Men were found to be concerned about their families as well and to fear the stigma of HIV infection. Educational techniques for AIDS prevention should be accessible to the illiterate and should focus on life stories or similar methods that make AIDS seem less abstract to

  12. The use of interactive media for HIV/AIDS prevention in the military community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, W L; Toth, F J; Allely, E B

    1990-06-01

    Over 50 years of risk-reduction efforts for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) exist as a foundation for Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs in the military, yet very few innovative prevention concepts have been generated. However, the military has used interactive media successfully in medical education to supplement instructional lessons, demonstrate surgical procedures, and train soldiers in mass casualty and combat trauma. The Department of Defense plans to use interactive media in the military's STD clinics for AIDS education. The media combines the visual flexibility of an interactive videodisc with the storage and retrieval capabilities of a computer to display text, graphics, photos, and full-motion media. Rather than a completely descriptive or didactic approach to STD and AIDS prevention activities, a novice user can see and interact with an immediate-motion video representation on the screen. This is important in modifying behavior patterns and demonstrating their relationship to the transmission of the AIDS virus. The development of an interactive videodisc on HIV prevention for use in the military's STD clinics will be discussed, as well as the expedience of their multifaceted use in delivering AIDS information.

  13. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  14. [AIDS/education and prevention: methodologic proposal for the development of educational games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M F; de Almeida, M I; da Silva, R M

    2000-01-01

    The development of educational resources to mediate actions in health education and AIDS prevention has been a challenge to health's educators. Due to the undeniable importance of this kind of material in environments favourable to learning, the authors created a methodological proposal to be used in the elaboration of educative games with the purpose of mediating educational measures and the prevention of HIV/AIDS. For theoretical framework, the study relied on the ideas/premises about problem solving, adapted from Charles Manguerez's "arch method", which where put into practice in public schools and health institutions in the state of Ceara, having as study population a group of students (180), aged 13 to 19 years, from the period of 1995 to 1997. Data collection occurred during four workshops, according to a predefined scheme. The results dealing with the meaning of the game, place of action and social environment were obtained from the teenagers while they were engaged in the games and further analysed by them, resulting in the formulation of (03) educative games (memor AIDS, baralhAIDS and dominAIDS). The authors conclude that the proposal is favourable to participatory action, encouraging during its entire process the development of intellectual and creative skills, by way of mobilizing human capacities and exercising associations related to the AIDS epidemic. Due to its clarity, the authors consider the proposal scientifically acceptable as a methodological guideline for the elaboration of educative games.

  15. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  16. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  17. HIV/AIDS Interventions in an Aging U.S. Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 25 percent of people living with HIV in the United States in 2006 were age 50 and older. HIV prevention for people over 50 is an important health concern, especially as the U.S. population grows older. Scholarly research has identified the need for HIV/AIDS interventions in the…

  18. Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

  19. Determinants of Male Circumcision for HIV/AIDS Prevention in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For better results, the benefits SMC for children as well as adults require emphasis. Wider coverage of SMC services should entail adequate equipping of public and where feasible, private facilities and appropriate training of health personnel countrywide. Keywords: Male circumcision, HIV/AIDS prevention, Uganda.

  20. Cultural Strategies for Teaching HIV/AIDS Prevention to American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Dannette R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe what tools and strategies Native Americans who live in Oklahoma believe are important in learning about HIV/AIDS, to determine if culturally specific information is important in developing prevention programs, and to ascertain learning strategies. Data collection was a two-part process. First, the Cultural…

  1. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one third of live deliveries can be reduced to <2% through antiretroviral prophylaxis. The study was done to determine the effectiveness of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea where skilled care delivery is less than 30%. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the use of ...

  2. Knowledge Of HIV/AIDS And Preventive Measures Use By City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of the drivers and conductors on HIV/AIDS epidemic and its preventive measures. Methods: This descriptive study was prospectively conducted among randomly selected city commuter-bus drivers and conductors from. December 2006 to April 2007 in Dar Es ...

  3. Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP): 2006 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    and unprotected sex; safe sex to prevent transmission of HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections, and un- wanted pregnancy; harm reduction...tary. In addition to this, the GAF has installed 6 HIV awareness billboards throughout the country and pro- duced a cassette tape with music and lyrics

  4. People's perception regarding HIV/AIDS prevention: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regarding the prevention of HIV/AIDS, the respondent s perceived that the fol lowing factors should be considered: gender inequality, denial, stereotype, initiation rites, multiple sex partners, polygamous marriage, confidential ity, prostitution, poverty, unemployment, migra nt labour, education about condom use and the role ...

  5. Influencing preventive behavior with regard to HIV/AIDS among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Conclusion: The study participants were at risk of HIV because of their sexual behavior and misconceptions related to the risk factors and means of prevention. Hence, basic police training should include BCC on HIV/AIDS, expansion of. HIV counseling and testing services, strengthening of peer education and establishing ...

  6. Preventing HIV/AIDS through education: the role of primary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, opinion and practices of Nigerian primary and secondary school teachers on HIV/AIDS education. Method: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, training on HIV transmission ...

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living HIV / AIDS Injury, Violence & Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... Child Injury Prevention Protect the Ones You Love Color Me Safe Child Injury: What You Need to ...

  8. [AIDS/HIV prevention and control among long-distance drivers in China: a Meta analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Luan, Rong-sheng; Li, Jia-yuan; Liu, Qi-yong; Wang, Ling

    2010-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of HIV/AIDS prevention and control among long-distance drivers in China. Based on the principles and methods of Cochrane systematic reviews, we searched literature from CBM (from 1978 to 2009), VIP (1989 to 2009) CNKI (1980 to 2009), and MEDLINE (1950 to 2009) and also assessed the risk of bias of the included before-after studies according to Newcastle-Ottawa scale and their characteristics. Cochrane Collaboration's software RevMan 5.0 was used for Meta-analysis. 13 studies were included, with most of them were of low quality as having high risk of bias. (1) Knowledge index 1: We included 7 'pre-post' studies. Meta-analysis showed that AIDS/HIV prevention and control was effective in promoting the knowledge index 1 among long-distance drivers (RD = 0.15, 95%CI: 0.04 - 0.26). (2) Knowledge index 2: We included 10 pre-post studies, in which the results from Meta-analysis showed that AIDS/HIV prevention and control was effective in promoting the knowledge index 2 among long-distance drivers (RD = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.17 - 0.30). (3) Behavior index: We included 6 pre-post studies in which the results from Meta-analysis showed that AIDS/HIV prevention and control was effective in promoting the behavior index among long-distance drivers (RD = 0.15, 95%CI: 0.10 - 0.19). Current evidence demonstrated that HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs were effective.

  9. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

    2014-05-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  10. Prevention of low back pain and its consequences among nurses' aides in elderly care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2013-01-01

    to the multi-factorial origin of low back pain. Participatory ergonomics, cognitive behavioral training and physical training have previously shown promising effects on prevention and rehabilitation of low back pain. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to examine whether a multi-faceted workplace...... intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioral training can prevent low back pain and its consequences among nurses' aides. External resources for the participating workplace and a strong commitment from the management and the organization support......A high prevalence of low back pain has persisted over the years despite extensive primary prevention initiatives among nurses' aides. Many single-faceted interventions addressing just one aspect of low back pain have been carried out at workplaces, but with low success rate. This may be due...

  11. Resistance patterns and outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia. Validation of European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification of multidrug resistant organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Torres, Antonio; Rinaudo, Mariano; Terraneo, Silvia; de Rosa, Francesca; Ramirez, Paula; Diaz, Emili; Fernández-Barat, Laia; Li Bassi, Gian Luigi; Ferrer, Miquel

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial resistance has become a major public health problem. To validate the definition of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) based on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification. Prospective, observational study in six medical and surgical Intensive-Care-Units (ICU) of a University hospital. Three-hundred-and-forty-three patients with ICU-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP) were prospectively enrolled, 140 patients had no microbiological confirmation (41%), 82 patients (24%) developed ICUAP for non-MDRO, whereas 121 (35%) were MDROs. Non-MDRO, MDRO and no microbiological confirmation patients did not present either a significant different previous antibiotic use (p 0.18) or previous hospital admission (p 0.17). Appropriate antibiotic therapy was associated with better ICU survival (105 [92.9%] vs. 74 [82.2%]; p = 0.03). An adjusted multivariate regression logistic analysis identified that only MDRO had a higher ICU-mortality than non-MDRO and no microbiological confirmation patients (OR 2.89; p < 0.05; 95% CI for Exp [β]. 1.02-8.21); Patients with MDRO ICUAP remained in ICU for a longer period than MDRO and no microbiological confirmation respectively (p < 0.01) however no microbiological confirmation patients had more often antibiotic consumption than culture positive ones. Patients who developed ICUAP due to MDRO showed a higher ICU-mortality than non-MDRO ones and use of ICU resources. No microbiological confirmation patients had more often antibiotic consumption than culture positive patients. Risk factors for MDRO may be important for the selection of initial antimicrobial therapy, in addition to local epidemiology. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measures needed to strengthen strategic HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information.

  13. Building the Capacity of the HIV Prevention Workforce

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-29

    This podcast provides an overview of CDC's HIV prevention capacity building efforts with community-based organizations and health departments.  Created: 7/29/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 7/29/2010.

  14. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.

  15. CDC Vital Signs–Opioid Prescribing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Higher opioid prescribing puts patients at risk for addiction and overdose. Learn what can be done about this serious problem.  Created: 7/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/6/2017.

  16. HIV/AIDS Risk and Prevention Issues Among Inuit Living in Nunavut Territory of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alexander

    HIV infections occur across the Arctic but their incidence among aboriginal populations varies vastly. At the time this research was initiated there were no data on their occurrence, risk of HIV/AIDS or preventive strategies among Inuit living in the Nunavut territory of Canada. This review is the first to assess the risk of HIV infection among Inuit and evaluate current prevention strategies among Canadian-Inuit populations. The contents of this article are based on the author's own research, undertaken during 3 visits to the Canadian Arctic and the published literature. Disproportionately high rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea within Inuit communities confirm the potential threat of silent HIV transmission. Inuit awareness of HIV/AIDS issues remains inadequate. It is easy to blame distorted perceptions fuelled by the media, religious influence and socio-cultural factors. Aboriginal and Inuit groups, including youth, women and injection drug abusers are at increased risk of infection. The adaptability of proven prevention methods including condom use and male circumcision are discussed. Access to treatment, adherence and resistance issues in the North Canada, require attention. HIV/AIDS poses a considerable threat to Canadian Inuit public health. The most important problem to be addressed is Inuit lack of awareness and understanding of HIV. Education is the single most effective means of prevention. Inuit-specific and culture-sensitive interventions are recommended. Further research opportunities exist to investigate Inuit understanding over HIV/AIDS issues and to assess local prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Empowerment of Waria Ludruk Artists in AIDS/HIV Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimunah Maimunah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Waria or transgender is one of the key population which has a significant role in the success of HIV/AIDS prevention program in East Java. It is estimated that the biggest waria community is in East Java, particularly in Surabaya. The main objective of this research is improving capacity building of ludruk artist waria through HIV/AIDS prevention program. The study has two objectives; firstly to find the effective strategies in improving waria’s feminine skills such as knitting, hair dressing. Secondly to find the effective programs both on-stage and off-stage to improve the quality of ludruk performance such as revitalizing their marketing management, using social media to promote their schedule to the young generation. Some inportant points can be conluded from this study. Firstly, integrated coordinating system between ludruk artist waria and waria communities such as Perwakos and Iwama should be improved. HIV/AIDS prevention programs become uneffective without coordination. In this point, ludruk artist waria need to know that HIV/AIDS prevention programs such as VCT, HIV testing is free of charge. Secondly, in terms of management internal system, ludruk needs to revitalize the content of the story in their performance to be more compatible with the younger audience. To do so, the cooperation is needed among all the stakeholeders to make ludruk survive in the capitalist industrial show business in Indonesia.Salah satu populasi kunci yang memberi kontribusi tingginya prevalensi HIV dan AIDS di JATIM adalah komunitas waria karena di propinsi ini estimasi jumlah waria terbesar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini akan membahas bagaimana waria seniman ludruk dilibatkan dalam pencegahan HIV/AIDS. Program yang telah dilakukan adalah revitalisasi baik on-stage (diatas panggung dan off-stage (di luar panggung. On-stage memfokuskan pada upaya revitalisasi pertunjukan ludruk dengan sistem dan manajemen pertunjukan yang lebih modern, menarik penonton generasi

  18. CDC 7600 Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The CDC 7600 has been created by Seymour Cray. It was designed to be compatible with the 6600, which allows for a substantial increase in performance. Furthermore the rise of new technologies has enabled this performance by reducing the minor cycle clock period from 100 ns to 27.5 ns (4 time faster). A very large machine, the 7600 had over 120 miles of hand-wired interconnections. It was the most powerful computer of its time. However, this speed caused a ground-loop problem causing intermittent faults, and eventually requiring all modules to be fitted with sheathed rubber bands. The CDC 7600 was replaced in 1983 by CRAY-1A.

  19. Thinking about "Think Again" in Canada: assessing a social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A

    2007-06-01

    The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign.

  20. [Questionnaire to assess advertising campaigns impact about HIV/AIDS prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón-López, Juana; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2006-08-01

    Present work is concerned with a questionnaire aimed to the impact evaluation of a selection of Spanish advertising campaigns about HIV/AIDS prevention. The work objective is to determine reliability and factorial structure of the instrument. It is described the designed questionnaire and its three scales (affective impact scale, cognitive impact scale and behavioural intention impact scale). The sample was composed by 405 high school teenagers to who were projected the advertising campaigns. So, teenagers filled the designed questionnaire. From a theoretical and psychometric point of view, data show the instrument is appropriate about internal consistency and factorial structure. The final goal of the questionnaire is to become useful tool to assess the persuasive effectiveness of the advertising campaigns within the HIV/AIDS network, as an intervention of primary prevention to reduce the expansion of epidemic.

  1. Traditional knowledge in HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention program in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Adyanga Akena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Uganda’s health care sector is choking with various challenges, such as poor physical infrastructure, inadequate professionals to run the few existing health centers, poor culture of adherence to professional ethical standards by some health care practitioners, shortages of medicines in most government hospitals/health centers, and corruption. Most of the challenges are more endemic in rural areas. It is on the above premise that this article discusses some of the challenges that health centers face in provision of care to the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients in hard-to-reach rural communities in northern Uganda and the implications of such challenges on the economy. Uganda’s success in the fight against HIV/AIDS in the early 1990s was globally applauded because of its aggressive grassroots behavioral change crusades aimed at reducing the number of sexual partners. The success inspired a wave of financial aid programs from the US government to fight the disease across the developing world. However, the success was short-lived as the rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Uganda is currently rising, with the health care system struggling to provide care for the ballooning number of patients. To contribute to the curtailing cases of new infections, this article discuses the integration of the traditional authority and knowledge system in the national HIV/AIDS care and prevention program along with the biomedical approach currently being used.

  2. Iranian key informants' perspectives towards gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention service delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahmanian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 340 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections occur throughout the world every year. The average annual STIs growth rate was 17%from 1998 to 2006 in Iran. As this epidemic has progressed, relevant literatures shown that, gender has a critical element in implementation and impact of these programs. Most reproductive health programs haven’t integrated gender mainstreaming to their service deliveries. In order to explore key informants perspectives towards gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention service delivery, this study was done. Participants including health managers, health policy makers and reproductive health providers were selected purposefully and continued by snow ball sampling. 43 semi-structured in depth interviews with 37 key informants analyzed according to content analysis. Main categories were generated after processing and organizing the codes. Key informants clearly explained the gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention structure in three domains: training gender sensitive providers, facilities and management. In our country, transforming gender neural to more complete gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention services needs structural reforms that make these interventions more effective.

  3. [Resource allocation analysis for international cooperation program for HIV/AIDS prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xue, Hui; Liu, Hui; Guo, Hao-yan; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jiang-ping

    2008-12-01

    To provide evidence for resource allocation and cooperation between domestic and international HIV/AIDS programs in China by analyzing the needs and current levels of resource input in provinces. National and provincial international cooperation program investment and allocation data from 2000 to 2006 were collected. Several factors in each province were analyzed through multiple regression analysis in order to determine whether they had a statistical correlation to the distribution of international HIV/AIDS program resources in China, including: the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the number of accumulated people living with HIV/AIDS, and the number of accumulated people living with AIDS. Then the Z values were calculated at each provincial level and compared with related international investment. The resource allocation in different program areas were compared with the level of resource input by international and central government HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs through Chi-square test. The international cooperation program investment at local level from 2000 to 2006 were 4893, 24 669, 50 567, 52 950, 112 143, 363 396 and 247 045 thousand RMB respectively, and at national level were 3007, 19 726, 29 035, 37 530, 77 500, 105 786 and 77 035 thousand RMB respectively. There was a statistical correlation between international HIV/AIDS program resource input and the accumulated number of people living with AIDS (R is 0.56 and 0.69 accordingly, and P international resource input and the GDP of each province. International HIV/AIDS cooperation programs did not invest in each province according to its practical needs (R = 0.066, P = 0.725). The international cooperation program investments and needs in different province could not meet completely. The ranks of Z value in Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu were 3, 5 and 6, but the ranks of international cooperation program in those provinces were 18, 13 and 28 respectively. The investment proportion for national

  4. CDC Vital Signs-Heroin Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-07

    This podcast is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  5. Mining industry enters a new era of AIDS prevention. Eye witness: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, M

    1996-06-01

    Miners in South Africa are now more at risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than of being in a mining accident. Some epidemiologists predict that the mines could be experiencing 12,000-40,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2010. In 1986, HIV infection among mineworkers was 1/3500. Gencor medical personnel now estimate that 20% of the company's employees are HIV-positive and that 30 workers are dying of AIDS each month. In August 1995, the Chamber of Mines, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization (WHO) held a seminar to discuss the potential impact of the epidemic; it was followed by a workshop, "Research Needs and Priorities for the Management of HIV/AIDS Transmission in the Mining Industry," which was organized by the Epidemiology Unit in Johannesburg. Although the seminar invited no people with HIV, mineworkers, or government representatives, the workshop did; however, no representatives of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), or the Chamber of Mines, came. In spite of this, a new, holistic approach to HIV-prevention is emerging in the mining sector. A decade of education has not changed risk behaviors, so more emphasis will be placed on outreach programs to the communities, including the prostitutes, with which the miners interact, and on treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mining sector is in a unique position to fight HIV because it already has an extensive medical infrastructure with the capacity to treat STDs effectively, a unionized workforce to provide a pool of peer educators, and recruitment agencies to extend HIV-prevention into rural areas. Obstacles to effective HIV/AIDS education include discrimination (Workers are tested for HIV without consent, and dismissed, if found to be positive, regardless of union agreements.); a psychological factor that is related to underground work and produces recklessness; poor living conditions; and illiteracy. Many myths remain about

  6. INTEGRATING THE ROLES OF STAKEHOLDERS IN PREVENTING THE HIV/AIDS TRANSMISSION IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toetik Koesbardiati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS prevention is very important and absolutely necessary. HIV transmission is now entering a fairly alarming level, in which people with HIV/AIDS in certain subpopulations are emerging. Special steps and resources are thus needed to cope with the condition. There are some phenomena potentially encourage HIV transmissions, such as the increasingly common free sex, homosexuality, the use of unsafe and unsterile syringes in narcotics consumption, commercial sex workers and various high-risk sexual activities. One of the crucial concerns that arises when sending prostitutes back to their hometowns without any coordinated and holistic mechanism is that the prostitutes may cause the spreading of HIV/AIDS in their hometowns. The research objective is to provide the material (input how the prostitutes themselves may cause the spreading of HIV/AIDS. The research employed descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The results showed that the implementation and the role division in the closure have been highly coordinated and holistic. The leading sector in the role division is the Social Welfare epartment of the Government in Surabaya. In terms of health aspects for the former prostitutes sent back to their hometowns, there has been no policies related to medical screening designed to identify the disease early. Screening is very important for early diagnosis during the post-closure phase. The screening mechanism is that the Provincial Health Department has to optimize the monitoring, coordination, cooperation, agreements and partnerships with stakeholders such as the Local Health Department and the National/Provincial/Distric AIDS Commission, NGOs that are concerned with the problems of HIV-AIDS, international organizations, professional organizations, community leaders, religious leaders and universities.

  7. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  8. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  10. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  12. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure. The...

  13. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  14. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  15. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  16. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure....

  17. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  20. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption. The...

  1. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The STATE...

  2. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption....

  3. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  4. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed.

  5. Role of traditional health workers in prevention and control of AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staugaard, F

    1991-01-01

    The WHO held an Expert Committee Meeting in Botswana to identify ways by which traditional health practitioners might contribute to AIDS prevention and treatment. Medium Term Plans for AIDS control in Botswana, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Uganda have already defined areas of community-based care, counseling and symptomatic treatment appropriate for traditional healers. Traditional healers and midwives often play central roles in maintenance of social stability, provide valuable information on sexual behavior, teach young people about sexual roles, and act as informal networks for women, especially in Islamic communities. Many indigenous concepts on the cause and transmission of HIV/AIDS are compatible with modern scientific concepts, although expressed in different terms and conceptual frameworks. AIDS is often considered an indigenous disease, caused by contact of blood and semen, therefore treatable by indigenous methods. In their role as informal community leaders and guardians of social norms, healers and midwives can channel educational messages and act as change agents. Healers can convey technically appropriate home care, dispense symptomatic care, treat opportunistic infections and counsel young people about control of HIV.

  6. ABC for AIDS prevention in Guinea: migrant gold mining communities address their risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Adam Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Contrary to expectation when compared with other migrant mining zones of sub-Saharan Africa, the nation of Guinea has a comparatively low and stable HIV rate. In addition, the regions with the largest gold, diamond, and bauxite mining operations report the lowest HIV rates within the country. This research set out to explain practices and beliefs within gold mining communities near Siguiri, Guinea--the highest-producing gold mining zone in the country--that may contribute to this phenomenon, particularly as they relate to the Abstinence, Be faithful, use a Condom approach to AIDS prevention. Structured interviews on a randomly selected sample of 460 adults and regular visitation to 16 pharmacies and health clinics within the mining zone yielded data showing that abstinence and condom use are minimally practiced for AIDS prevention. Instead, faithfulness to partners was overwhelmingly reported as the method of choice for AIDS avoidance. In addition, this research explored ways in which local conceptions of fidelity differed from those generally understood in other contexts, including engagement in short-term marriages at the gold mining sites.

  7. Education for AIDS Prevention: Bibliography--Supplement No. 1=Education pour la prevention du SIDA: Bibliographie--Supplement No. 1=Educacion para la Prevencion del SIDA: Bibliografia--Suplemento No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Documentation and Information Service.

    This supplement to the Education for AIDS Prevention Bibliography provides a list of titles received by ASERC (AIDS School Education Resource Centre) from August 1991 to December 1992, consisting mainly of educational material for schools. It also includes documents of a more general nature on AIDS and AIDS prevention. ASERC is a documentation…

  8. HIV/AIDS prevention: knowledge, attitudes and education practices of secondary school health personnel in 14 cities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools.

  9. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  10. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyerges, Jana R

    2006-01-01

    ...) to modify individual behavior. In Africa, as in many underdeveloped countries, various country-specific studies report that a majority of the population is knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS and how to prevent transmission...

  11. CDC 6600 Cordwood Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    The CDC 6600 cordwood module containing 64 silicon transistors. The module was mounted between two plates that were cooled conductive by a refrigeration unit via the front panel. The construction of this module uses the cord method, so called because the resistors seem to be stacked like cord between the two circuit boards in order to obtain a high density. The 6600 model contained nearly 6,000 such modules.

  12. HIV/AIDS prevention in "Indian country": current practice, indigenist etiology models, and postcolonial approaches to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Bonnie; Walters, Karina L

    2004-06-01

    Many tribal and urban American Indians and Alaska Native communities have initiated HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services. The richness, depth, and scope of these efforts, however, are not well known and have not been sufficiently documented in the academic literature. In this article we assess the strengths and weakness of the published literature using the constructs of the socioecological framework. We discuss the need to apply an "indigenist" etiology paradigm to HIV/AIDS risk and protection. Finally, we define and discuss the varied postcolonial approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and healing.

  13. Progress in the Prevention and Treatment of AIDS Associated with Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wenlong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is an influential risk factor for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb, the rapid progression of the initial infection to active tuberculosis (TB, and the reactivation of latent TB infection. MTb infection is also one of the most common opportunistic infections in people with HIV, including AIDS patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy. Given the prevalence of HIV infection, the incidence of TB infection, which had begun to decline, is facing a severe situation. HIV associated with TB exerts an immense burden on the public health-care system, especially in countries with high incidences of HIV infection. Therefore, the global policies for the prevention and control of TB should be revised. Moreover, an increased investment in TB control has to be guaranteed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the prevention, treatment, and control of HIV and TB co-infection.

  14. [Knowledge, contraceptive practice and HIV/AIDS prevention among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria da Trindade Ferreira; Costa, Alinne Vieira dos Santos; Carvalho, Karla Andréia da Costa; Melo, Rosa Laura Reis; Nunes, Benevina Maria Teixeira Vilar; Nogueira, Lydia Tolstenho

    2007-01-01

    Descriptive research of qualitative approach, with the study object about college medicine and nursing students concerning the contraceptive choice and DST/SIDA control. Identifying the contraceptive method choice between these graduating, and to evidence if they associate the methods to the prevention of the DST's/SIDA or not. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews in ribbon cassette. The produced data were reorganized and analyzed based on theoretical referencial. Results alert for changes in students attitudes needs either in current education way, to offer support so that they really understand the importance and necessity of safe sexual practical, and associates contraceptive methods to sexual diseases, HIV/AIDS control beyond planned pregnancy prevention.

  15. Oil, migration, and the political economy of HIV/AIDS prevention in Nigeria's Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A

    2013-01-01

    In most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is driven by endemic structural problems such as unemployment, poverty, forced migration, sexual exploitation, and concurrent sexual partnerships. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria, the epidemic is exacerbated by recurring regional conflict and negative environmental externalities resulting from 50 years of oil exploration. This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta. We develop a conceptual framework to understand how oil politics and economic systems affect HIV risks in Nigeria. We then evaluate evidence of how environmental exposures can amplify risks. Using 10 semi-structured interviews, with 85 focus group participants, we test the argument that HIV transmission in the Niger Delta is related to a manipulative "divide and rule" power dynamic that characterizes multinational oil companies' role in shaping conflict contours in oil communities. Oil exploration destroys livelihoods, institutions, and values and forces impoverished and illiterate girls and women to migrate or be trafficked to urban centers as child laborers and sex workers. The elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Niger Delta brings into focus the political economy of resource extraction, globalization, and indigenous, minority rights and struggles.

  16. Building laboratory infrastructure to support scale-up of HIV/AIDS treatment, care, and prevention: in-country experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimiku, Alash'le G

    2009-06-01

    An unprecedented influx of funds and support through large programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis and the World Health Organization's and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has made it possible for more than 1 million persons in resource-limited settings to access AIDS treatment and several million more to be in care and prevention programs. Nevertheless, there remain major challenges that prevent AIDS drugs and care from reaching many more in need, especially in rural settings. The roll-out of a high-quality treatment, care, and prevention program depends on an effective and reliable laboratory infrastructure. This article presents a strategy used by the Institute of Human Virology (IHV)-University of Maryland and its affiliate IHV-Nigeria to establish a multifaceted, integrated tier laboratory program to support a PEPFAR-funded scale-up of its AIDS Care Treatment in Nigeria program, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Nigerian government, as a possible model for overcoming a key challenge that faces several resource-limited countries trying to roll out and scale-up their HIV/AIDS treatment, care, and prevention program.

  17. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  18. Validation of educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Ibiapina Cordeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the process of manufacturing and validation of an educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults Methods: Methodological study developed in two phases - manufacturing of the booklet and validation of the educational material by judges. The manufacturing process involved a situational diagnosis with older adults, and its result indicated gaps in the knowledge with respect to HIV/Aids. The validation process was performed by nine judges, selected by convenience. It was considered an agreement index of at least 0.80, analyzed through the content validity index. Results: We opted for a dialogue between two older adults divided into three categories: myths and taboos; ignorance; and prevention and importance of diagnosis. The average of the items was 0.90. The suggestions made by the judges were observed and modified for the final version. Conclusion: The material had relevant content for the judges, in addition to being able to be used by health professionals in the education and clarification of issues on the subject.

  19. [Sexual responsibility: a key concept in the prevention of AIDS, abortion and adolescent pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, A

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 300,000 people have AIDS, and there are 50-100 infections for each case. Responsible sexual behavior is crucial for prevention, since sexual transmission is the principal route of contracting AIDS. The major causes of maternal mortality in the 15-39 year age group in Latin America are complications from induced abortion which is also responsible for 40% of global maternal mortality, i.e., 200,000 women die because of induced abortion complications out of 500,000 women who succumb to pregnancy- and birth-related caused annually. In the 1980s 38% of deaths in Chile were related to abortion of women who died in reproductive age. In developing countries almost 50% of hospital admissions occur because of abortion sequelae. Infant mortality is higher in 20-year old mothers giving birth compared with the 20-29 age group. 40,000 children are born/year in Chile to mothers 20. In 1980 these births made up 16.7% of all births. 45% of births of mothers 20 are illegitimate. These young mothers are often unprepared for the parental role: 80% of children hospitalized for malnutrition were children of adolescent mothers according to a survey. The Catholic Church's view opposing contraceptives and sexuality outside of marriage conflicts with contemporary opinion backed by mass media favoring sexuality as leading to personal enrichment and advocating contraception. More than 60% of boys and more than 30% of girls start sexual relations 20. Young people do not use contraceptives because of misinformation, difficulty in getting appropriate information, and male machismo. AIDS prevention mandate sex education stressing responsible sexuality with abstinence, condom use, and monogamy.

  20. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  1. SCFCyclin F-dependent degradation of CDC6 suppresses DNA re-replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, David; Hoffmann, Saskia; Komseli, Eirini-Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    origin licensing, however, it is poorly understood how CDC6 activity is constrained in higher eukaryotes. Here we report that the SCF(Cyclin F) ubiquitin ligase complex prevents DNA re-replication by targeting CDC6 for proteasomal degradation late in the cell cycle. We show that CDC6 and Cyclin F...... interact through defined sequence motifs that promote CDC6 ubiquitylation and degradation. Absence of Cyclin F or expression of a stable mutant of CDC6 promotes re-replication and genome instability in cells lacking the CDT1 inhibitor Geminin. Together, our work reveals a novel SCF(Cyclin F...

  2. Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Abnormal Pap Test Experiences Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Friedman, Daniela B; Bond, Sharon M; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Richter, Donna L; Glover, Saundra H; Hébert, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA's cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern USA between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n = 3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n = 14) and observations with missing data (n = 22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3 ± 10.9 years. Half (50%) had ≤ high school education. One third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83 %) had a Pap test Pap test every year, once two tests are normal. Many (68%) have had an abnormal Pap test. Abnormal Pap test follow-up care knowledge varied. While 86% knew follow-up care could include a repeat Pap test, only 56% knew this could also include an HPV test. Significantly, more women who had an abnormal Pap test knew follow-up care could include a biopsy (p = 0.001). For WLHA to make informed/shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia.

  3. Validation of educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Luana Ibiapina; Lopes, Thais de Oliveira; Lira, Luciane Elise de Abreu; Feitoza, Sarah Maria de Sousa; Bessa, Maria Eliana Peixoto; Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte; Feitoza, Aline Rodrigues; Souza, Adriano Rodrigues de

    2017-01-01

    To describe the process of manufacturing and validation of an educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults. Methodological study developed in two phases - manufacturing of the booklet and validation of the educational material by judges. The manufacturing process involved a situational diagnosis with older adults, and its result indicated gaps in the knowledge with respect to HIV/Aids. The validation process was performed by nine judges, selected by convenience. It was considered an agreement index of at least 0.80, analyzed through the content validity index. We opted for a dialogue between two older adults divided into three categories: myths and taboos; ignorance; and prevention and importance of diagnosis. The average of the items was 0.90. The suggestions made by the judges were observed and modified for the final version. The material had relevant content for the judges, in addition to being able to be used by health professionals in the education and clarification of issues on the subject. Descrever o processo de construção e validação de cartilha educativa para prevenção de HIV/Aids em idosos. Estudo metodológico desenvolvido em duas etapas - construção da cartilha e validação do material educativo por juízes. O processo de construção envolveu um diagnóstico situacional com idosos, cujo resultado apontou lacunas no conhecimento com relação ao HIV/Aids. Já o processo de validação foi realizado por nove juízes, selecionados por conveniência. Considerou-se uma concordância de no mínimo 0,80, analisado pelo índice de validade de conteúdo. Optou-se por um diálogo entre dois idosos dividido em três categorias: mitos e tabus; desconhecimento; e prevenção e importância do diagnóstico. A média dos itens foi de 0,90. As sugestões realizadas pelos juízes foram acatadas e modificadas para a versão final. O material apresentou conteúdo relevante para os juízes, além de poder ser utilizado pelos profissionais de sa

  4. CDC Vital Signs–HIV Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast is based on the December 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 15 percent of people who have HIV don't know they have it. Learn about the importance of testing, early diagnosis, and treatment.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  5. CDC Vital Signs–African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  6. CDC Vital Signs–Cancer and Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-04

    This podcast is based on the October 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. Unfortunately, two out of three U.S. adults weigh more than recommended. Find out what can be done to help people get to and keep a healthy weight.  Created: 10/4/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2017.

  7. Community empowerment paradigm drift and the primary prevention of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeker, C; Guenther-Grey, C; Raj, A

    1998-04-01

    Long discussed in the public health arena, the concept of empowerment has only recently entered the discourse on the primary prevention of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Despite its broad appeal, empowerment has not been systematically incorporated into theory-based interventions, which may reflect a lack of consensus on the meaning of empowerment, how to measure it, and the intervention strategies it implies. The purpose of this paper is to consider the relevance of empowerment to community interventions for persons at risk for HIV, particularly women. The origins of empowerment are reviewed; community empowerment as an intervention framework is described and its core assumptions defined. There is some evidence of the growing influence of empowerment and related concepts in recent HIV-related policy, research, and programs funded through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, adoption of an empowerment framework for HIV prevention will require further theory and measurement development, as well as changes in how public health researchers and practitioners work with the communities they serve.

  8. Transcutaneous Immunization with a Band-Aid Prevents Experimental Otitis Media in a Polymicrobial Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Laura A; Clements, John D; Goodman, Steven D; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2017-06-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease, and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic OM, recurrent OM, and OM associated with treatment failure. OM is also a polymicrobial disease, wherein an upper respiratory tract viral infection predisposes to ascension of NTHI from the nasopharynx, the site of colonization, to the normally sterile middle ear, resulting in disease. Using a clinically relevant viral-bacterial coinfection model of NTHI-induced OM, we performed transcutaneous immunization (TCI) via a band-aid delivery system to administer each of three promising NTHI vaccine candidates derived from bacterial adhesive proteins and biofilm mediators: recombinant soluble PilA (rsPilA), chimV4, and integration host factor. Each immunogen was admixed with the adjuvant LT(R192G/L211A), a double mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, and assessed for relative ability to prevent the onset of experimental OM. For each cohort, the presence of circulating immunogen-specific antibody-secreting cells and serum antibody was confirmed prior to intranasal NTHI challenge. After bacterial challenge, blinded video otoscopy and tympanometry revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of animals with signs of OM compared to levels in animals receiving adjuvant only, with an overall vaccine efficacy of 64 to 77%. These data are the first to demonstrate the efficacy afforded by TCI with a band-aid vaccine delivery system in a clinically relevant polymicrobial model of OM. The simplicity of TCI with a band-aid and the significant efficacy observed here hold great promise for reducing the global burden of OM in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. What public school teachers teach about preventing pregnancy, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D; Silverman, J

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-three percent of public school teachers in five specialties-biology, health education, home economics, physical education and school nursing--who teach grades 7-12 report that their schools offer sex education or AIDS education in some form. Almost all the teachers believe that a wide range of topics related to the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be taught in the public schools, and most believe these topics should be covered by grades 7-8 at the latest. In practice, however, sex education tends not to occur until the ninth or 10th grades. Moreover, there is often a gap between what teachers think should be taught and what actually is taught. For example, virtually all the teachers say that school sex education should cover sexual decision-making, abstinence and birth control methods, but only 82-84 percent of the teachers are in schools that provide instruction in those topics. The largest gap occurs in connection with sources of birth control methods: Ninety-seven percent of teachers say that sex education classes should address where students can go to obtain a method, but only 48 percent are in schools where this is done. Forty-five percent of teachers in the five specialties currently provide sex education in some form. The messages they most want to give to their students are responsibility regarding sexual relationships and parenthood, the importance of abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become sexually active, and information about AIDS and other STDs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasi...

  11. A systematic review of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the scope of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. A systematic review was carried out of literature published between 1986 and 2012 from EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald, and JSTOR. The search included original research articles that presented evaluated interventions. Books, dissertations, gray literature, and theoretical reviews were excluded. Findings revealed a total of fourteen studies focused on the evaluation of: the IMAGE project, female sex workers, life skills and risk behavior reduction, adherence to treatment, and children and their families. Most of these interventions have shown to have beneficial effects, although results depend on: the type of program, monitoring, sustainability of microcredits, and contextual conditions. The findings of this review should be complemented with interventions carried out by various NGOs and microfinance institutions in different countries that present their results in a dissimilar way.

  12. CDC Vital Signs–Opioid Overdoses Treated in Emergency Departments

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Opioid overdoses continue to increase in the United States. Learn what can be done to help prevent opioid overdose and death.  Created: 3/6/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2018.

  13. NEK11: linking CHK1 and CDC25A in DNA damage checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Melixetian, Marina; Klein, Ditte Kjaersgaard

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage induced G(2)/M checkpoint is an important guardian of the genome that prevents cell division when DNA lesions are present. The checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis by degrading CDC25A, a key CDK activator. CDC25A proteolysis is controlled by direct phosphorylation events...

  14. An assessment of community readiness for HIV/AIDS preventive interventions in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Frances; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Larson, Charles P; Ottisova, Livia

    2010-02-01

    Efforts to prevent HIV from becoming widespread among the youth population 15-24 years in Bangladesh are in the early stages. However, conservative religious and cultural norms may curtail the dissemination of needed information about sexuality and condoms. The community-readiness stages model was adopted as a framework for assessing the level of preparedness of community leaders to facilitate planned HIV prevention efforts. Six focus group discussions with three professional groups (teachers, businessmen, drugshop vendors) in Hobiganj district were conducted in late 2005, and a single multi-professional group made up of teachers, imams, and drugshop vendors was convened in early 2007 to assess changes. The audio recordings in Bangla were coded as were English translations. Everyone had heard of AIDS and regarded it as a potential catastrophe for the health, economy and social fabric of Bangladesh. Remarks concerning Stage 1-Vulnerability indicated that most did not believe their community to be at risk, though Bangladesh was. Remarks at Stage 2-Knowledge of Transmission were mostly vague but accurately identified sex, blood and needles as the main means of spread; however sex with sex workers was also mentioned in each group. Remarks at Stage 3-Prevention showed strong opposition to condoms for unmarried males and a preference for current means of forbidding sex outside of marriage. A few in each group recognized the importance of condoms for wayward youth. Stage 4-Planning discussions centered on raising awareness and fear, and a desire for government and media to take the lead. By 2007 participants articulated more realistic strategies that they themselves could, and had, implemented, but also raised barriers that authorities should help them overcome. The findings provide formative information on the constraints and opportunities of community groups as partners in HIV preventive interventions and strategies to help them move to a higher stage of readiness

  15. Masculinidade hegemônica, vulnerabilidade e prevenção ao HIV/AIDS Hegemonic masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Santana Marques Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivo analisar as relações entre masculinidade, vulnerabilidade e prevenção do HIV/AIDS, com a ancoragem em narrativas de homens jovens pertencentes às chamadas classes trabalhadoras urbanas, levando em conta não só os sentidos atribuídos à prevenção por parte desses sujeitos, mas também considerando a relação dialética entre individuo e sociedade. O referencial conceitual engloba três eixos masculinidade hegemônica, prevenção e vulnerabilidade. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa baseada na perspectiva da hermenêutica dialética que utiliza o método de interpretação de sentidos. A análise produziu dois eixos como resultados: A masculinidade hegemônica como fator de vulnerabilidade; Mitos e preconceitos como fatores de vulnerabilidade ao HIV/AIDS; Em termos de conclusão, reforça-se a necessidade da discussão acerca da prevenção encampar a necessidade de colocar na ordem do dia a construção do sistema sexo/gênero em volta do qual se articulam os significados sociais da masculinidade e da feminilidade que influenciam estruturalmente o plano das relações afetivo sexuais, em geral, e a prevenção do HIV/AIDS, em específico.The study aims to examine the relationship between masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS, based on reports from young men from the so-called urban working classes, taking into account not only the meanings attributed to prevention by these subjects, but also considering the dialectical relationship between the individual and society. The conceptual framework encompasses the three main aspects of hegemonic masculinity, prevention and vulnerability. This involves qualitative research based on the perspective of dialectical hermeneutics that uses the method of interpretation of meanings. The analysis yielded two main results, namely hegemonic masculinity as a vulnerability factor, and myths and prejudices as factors of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. By way of

  16. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  17. Peer mentorship program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes among orphaned adolescents: an evidence based practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabunya, Proscovia; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Byansi, William; Nattabi, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are particularly vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection. Adolescents orphaned as a direct result of HIV/AIDS are at an elevated risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. However, limited empirical evidence exists on HIV knowledge and prevention programs, especially those designed to address HIV information gaps among adolescents. This study evaluates the effect of a peer mentorship program provided in addition to other supportive services on HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes, among school-going orphaned adolescents in southern Uganda. We utilize data from the Bridges to the Future Study, a 5-year longitudinal randomized experimental study funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Out of the 1410 adolescents enrolled in the study (average age = 12.7 at study initiation), 855 of them participated in a nine-session, curriculum based peer mentorship program. We analyzed data collected at baseline and 12-months post intervention initiation. The results from bivariate and regression analysis indicate that, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, adolescents who participated in a peer mentorship program were more likely than non-participants to report increased scores on HIV/AIDS knowledge(b = .86, 95%CI = .47 – 1.3, p ≤ .001); better scores on desired HIV/AIDS-related beliefs (b = .29, 95%CI = .06 – .52, p ≤ .01); and better scores on HIV/AIDS prevention attitudes (b = .76, 95%CI = .16 – 1.4, p ≤ .01). Overall, the study findings point to the potential role a of peer mentorship program in promoting the much-desired HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes among orphaned adolescents. Future programs and policies that support AIDS-orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa should consider incorporating peer mentoring programs that provide

  18. Randomized controlled trials of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Africa: results from the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalwa Zani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To effectively address HIV/AIDS in Africa, evidence on preventing new infections and providing effective treatment is needed. Ideally, decisions on which interventions are effective should be based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our previous research described African RCTs of HIV/AIDS reported between 1987 and 2003. This study updates that analysis with RCTs published between 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To describe RCTs of HIV/AIDS conducted in Africa and reported between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register in September 2009. Two researchers independently evaluated studies for inclusion and extracted data using standardized forms. Details included location of trials, interventions, methodological quality, location of principal investigators and funders. RESULTS: Our search identified 834 RCTs, with 68 conducted in Africa. Forty-three assessed prevention-interventions and 25 treatment-interventions. Fifteen of the 43 prevention RCTs focused on preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. Thirteen of the 25 treatment trials focused on opportunistic infections. Trials were conducted in 16 countries with most in South Africa (20, Zambia (12 and Zimbabwe (9. The median sample size was 628 (range 33-9645. Methods used for the generation of the allocation sequence and allocation concealment were adequate in 38 and 32 trials, respectively, and 58 reports included a CONSORT recommended flow diagram. Twenty-nine principal investigators resided in the United States of America (USA and 18 were from African countries. Trials were co-funded by different agencies with most of the funding obtained from USA governmental and non-governmental agencies. Nineteen pharmaceutical companies provided partial funding to 15 RCTs and African agencies co-funded 17 RCTs. Ethical approval was reported in 65 trials and informed consent in 61 trials. CONCLUSION: Prevention trials dominate the trial

  19. Computer Center CDC Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    34 Introduction *"- 1. For card decks, the following job card requirements apply at the DTNSRDC site: MFF - CDC CYBER 176 - orange (Carderock) yellow ...stripe (Annapolis) * MFE - CDC CYBER 750 - blue or purple (Carderock) yellow stripe (Annapolis) * No other cards in the deck should be any of the above...semi-private files day -OFF -Turn off dayfile messages for individual MSAUDITs for LO=FP (could generate wallpaper ). Has no effect on other options

  20. Structural actions toward HIV/AIDS prevention in Cartagena, Colombia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina; Krumeich, Anja; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Pastrana-Salcedo, Eduardo Manuel; van den Borne, Hubertus

    2011-07-01

    To obtain a thorough understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the social determination of HIV infection among inhabitants of Cartagena, Colombia, as well as their views on necessary actions and priorities. In a five-year ethnography of HIV/AIDS in collaboration with 96 citizens of Cartagena, different methods and data collection techniques were used. Through 40 in-depth interviews and 30 life histories of inhabitants, the scenario of HIV vulnerability was summarized in a diagram. This diagram was evaluated and complemented through group discussions with key representatives of local governmental and nongovernmental organizations and with people who were interested in the epidemic or affected by it. The diagram illustrates the dynamic and complex interrelationships among structural factors (i.e., social determinants) of HIV infection, such as machismo; lack of work, money, and social services; local dynamics of the performance of the state; and international dynamics of the sexual tourism industry. On the basis of the diagram, groups of key representatives proposed prioritizing structural actions such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities and providing access to health care and education. The social determinants displayed in the diagram relate to historic power forces that have shaped vulnerable scenarios in Cartagena. Collaboration between participants and researchers generates conceptual frameworks that make it possible to understand and manage the complexity of HIV's social determination. This way of understanding effectively connects local inequalities with international flows of power such as sexual tourism and makes evident the strengths and limitations of current approaches to HIV prevention.

  1. The HIV/AIDS pandemic: new ways of preventing infection in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    2004-01-01

    Nelson Mandela has recently said that HIV/AIDS is the greatest health crisis in human history. At the end of 2001, UNAIDS estimated that there were 40 million people living with the infection, with 5 million new cases, and 3 million deaths per year. About half the infected individuals are men, and heterosexual intercourse is the commonest route of infection. Although condoms remain the first line of defence, they are unpopular in parts of Africa, where the pandemic is worst, so an alternative is needed. Post-coital penile hygiene has received little attention. Wiping the glans penis and inner foreskin immediately after intercourse with an acidic solution like lemon or lime juice, or even vinegar, should immediately kill the virus and might prevent infection; clinical trials are urgently needed. Several studies in Africa and India have now conclusively demonstrated a 2-7-fold protective effect of male circumcision against HIV infection. Circumcision removes the inner foreskin and the frenulum, which are the prime sites of HIV entry into the penis. Since male circumcision also protects men from human papilloma virus infection, and their wives from cervical carcinoma, the procedure should be encouraged in developed and developing countries.

  2. The Politics of Prevention: Lessons from the Neglected History of US HIV/AIDS Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padamsee, Tasleem J

    2017-02-01

    The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups. These histories illuminate three key lessons. First, scientific evidence has less power to drive public health policy in the United States than in the United Kingdom, which is used as a comparison case to contextualize US choices within a broader range of options. Second, moral concerns weigh so heavily in the United States that a publicly articulated moral argument can countermand the dictates of solid scientific evidence, the voices of experts, and practical considerations to push public health policy in entirely oppositional directions. Third, having the ear of the presidential administration is usually a necessary-although not always sufficient-condition for the success of advocates trying to move US policy in the public health-indicated direction. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  3. Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP): a theoretically based approach for teaching HIV prevention to adolescents through an exploration of popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann

    2010-05-01

    Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue-student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness.

  4. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors.

  5. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  6. Hypothermia: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wet clothing. Replace wet things with warm, dry coats or blankets. If further warming is needed, do ... Control and Prevention. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/winter/staysafe/hypothermia.asp. Accessed Feb. 17, 2015. Litin ...

  7. CDC Vital Signs–Safe Sleep for Babies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-09

    This podcast is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.  Created: 1/9/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/9/2018.

  8. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2006-05-03

    In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01-2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49-3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce

  9. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and

  10. Key issues in sex work-related HIV / AIDS / STD prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P

    1992-01-01

    In the last 20 years prostitutes, or sex workers, have formed self-help and advocacy organizations in a number of countries that could have an effect on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention efforts. It is essential when planning a sex work-related intervention to identify sex workers, clients, or third parties as well as any factors that affect the safety of existing sex and drug use practices. It is important to know where sex workers and clients contact each other, where they go to engage in sex, and the working conditions of sex work establishments. Other considerations include the accessibility of condoms and health care; the impact of laws, regulations, and enforcement practices; and the impact of migration of both sex workers and clients. Many projects have involved members of the target audiences in the assessment as interviewers as well as in the design and implementation of the project. All interventions should include current information, education, and communication consisting of media strategies as well as person-to-person strategies. A combination of sites can help to reach the maximum proportion of the population at risk. Several projects have provided bulk supplies in order to ensure access to condoms at no cost or inexpensively to hotels, bars, brothels and other sex work businesses. Projects have also promoted the use of sterile injection equipment where injecting drug use is common. Functioning outreach and education projects emphasize STD service, such as sensitivity training for health care providers to improve services and diagnostic procedures and to motivate sex workers to utilize the health care system. Voluntary utilization may the boosted by offering STD services in a stationary or mobile clinic in the sex work neighborhoods during the afternoon and early evening and combining them with family planning, primary health care, and child health care.

  11. Life skills training as HIV/AIDS preventive strategy in secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A life skills and HIV/AIDS education programme was implemented in secondary schools as a strategy to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among school-going young people in South Africa. As part of a joint effort of the Departments of Health and Education, two teachers per school were trained to implement life skills training ...

  12. Knowledge and practice of condom in preventing HIV/AIDS infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV/AIDS is a serious problem in Ethiopia. Currently, about 2.6 million people are living with the virus. The majority of the studies on HIV/AIDS and condom use carried out elsewhere in this country have very much limited themselves in big urban centers. This study is aimed at investigation of the knowledge and ...

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the restroom. Use utensils and single-use disposable gloves to avoid touching ready-to-eat foods with ... Visit www.FoodSafety.gov for the latest information. Top of Page Science Behind the Issue MMWR Science ...

  14. From 'what' to 'how' -- capacity building in health promotion for HIV/AIDS prevention in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; MacLaren, David; Isihanua, Angela; MacLaren, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a capacity building process undertaken within the HIV/AIDS prevention project of the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) in the Solomon Islands. ADRA HIV/AIDS has recently reoriented its project structure, moving beyond its awareness raising approach to incorporate health promotion frameworks, theories, strategies and assumptions. These have been used to inform project practice in project planning, delivery and evaluation. This paper shares what has worked and not worked in the capacity building process, including a project evaluation of the initial HIV/AIDS awareness raising project and the application of a number of capacity building strategies, including utilising a volunteer Australian Youth Ambassador for Development (AYAD) funded by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). Existing and new projects are outlined. The underlying theme is that any capacity building exercise must include structural support (e.g. management, national frameworks) to ensure the incorporation of new initiatives and approaches. With time this enables ownership by counterparts and external partnerships to develop. The presence of an AYAD volunteer has been an effective strategy to achieve this. Reflections from the evaluators, the AYAD volunteer and the HIV/AIDS team are included.

  15. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smit...

  16. CDC Vital Signs–Arthritis in America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-07

    This podcast is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.  Created: 3/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/7/2017.

  17. Masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS among male adolescents: social representations in a land reform settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Oliveira Arraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship of masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD / HIV / AIDS among adolescent males of a land reform settlement in central Brazil. METHOD: a qualitative study using as precepts the strands of social representations with teenagers between 12 to 24 years. RESULTS: three categories emerged - Perception of vulnerability; Gender and vulnerability; and, Prevention and vulnerability to STD / HIV / AIDS. Adolescents felt invulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases anchored in the social representations in favor of the male hegemony. An ignorance about forms of prevention for STD / HIV / AIDS was demonstrated in their statements. It is believed that institutional projects such as the School Health Program and the Men's Health Care Program constitute essential tools to minimize factors of vulnerability in this population, since the school is recognized as a social facility that promotes socialization of experiences and contributes to the construction of the identity of the adolescent. CONCLUSION: the social representations of masculinity collaborate for the vulnerable behavior of the adolescents for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. One hopes that this study can contribute to the production of knowledge and technical-scientific improvement of the professionals, especially the nurse, in order to discuss issues related to male sexuality of adolescents in the situation of the land reform settlement.

  18. Gênero, adolescências e prevenção ao HIV/aids Gender, adolescences and HIV/aids prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araci Asinelli-Luz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O advento da aids e sua íntima relação com os estudos da sexualidade humana apontam para a importância das questões de gênero para o sucesso da prevenção diante da epidemia. O enfoque fortemente centrado no uso do preservativo masculino evidencia que, além do conhecimento sobre o corpo e a sexualidade, relações de poder entre homens e mulheres precisam ser redimensionadas para que as estratégias que privilegiam o sexo seguro possam ser incorporadas no cotidiano das relações sexuais. Este artigo, fruto de pesquisa realizada entre adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades de 17 e 19 anos, na cidade de Curitiba, ajuda-nos a entender como elas/eles pensam a sua sexualidade e a prevenção da infecção pelo HIV, indicando em que situações vivenciam comportamentos de prevenção e quando negligenciam diante da sua condição peculiar de vulnerabilidade.The advent of AIDS and its close relation with the studies of human sexuality point to the importance of gender issues for successful prevention to face this epidemic. The approach that is strongly focused on the use of male condoms shows that besides the knowledge of the body and sexuality, power relations between men and women need to be revised so that strategies that emphasize safer sex can be incorporated to everyday sexual relations. This article results from a research conducted among adolescents from both genders, aged 17 and 19, in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. It is intended to help us understand how they think about sexuality and prevention against HIV infection, indicating situations in which they engage in preventive behaviors and when they are neglectful in face of their peculiar situation of vulnerability.

  19. PHAMIT: A program on hiv/aids prevention among migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thongphit Pinyosinwat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand – or “PHAMIT,” which in Thai means “friendly skies”.  The program led by the Raks Thai Foundation with seven NGO partners and one government agency focuses on HIV prevention and health services for migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia in the fisheries, seafood and related industries.  The program demonstrates the complexity of working with undocumented migrant workers and the need to address barriers to the access to health services, migrant rights and policy. The trained migrant health assistants play a significant role in implementation of the program at migrant communities and their workplaces.  Migrant health volunteers distribute information, education and communication materials, as well as condoms.  To increase migrant access to health and reproductive health care, all participating partners support the Department of Health Service Supports in organizing migrant-friendly health services at government health facilities.  These activities include sexual transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing.  The services are based on the rights of migrant workers to basic services and migrants becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. Over a five year period beginning in October 2003, the program has reached 442,000 migrants and more than 20,800 entertainment workers with information about HIV and reproductive health. A total of 6,878,500 condoms has been distributed.  In addition, over 155,080 migrant workers received information on health and labor rights, including regular updates about migrant registration policy. At the same time, through PHAMIT activities, over 13,330 government officials, employers and journalists attended sensitization workshops on issues of migrants’ rights and policies.Le programme PHAMIT (Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand, qui signifie « cieux amicaux » en thaï, est

  20. "Drugs and AIDS--reaching for help": a videotape on AIDS and drug abuse prevention for criminal justice populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M; DeJong, W; Lamb, D; Enos, T; Mason, T; Weitzman, E

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development of a videotape targeted at persons under supervision of the criminal justice system. The videotape seeks to encourage those who use illicit drugs to enter drug treatment and to motivate those at risk for exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to alter behaviors that may transmit infection. The criminal justice system presents an important opportunity to deliver such messages, particularly to a large population of persons briefly detained in a jail or lockup and released without subsequent incarceration. Evidence suggests that, even in this audience, knowledge of how to prevent exposure to HIV is widespread, yet those at risk often fail to take appropriate precautions: motivating behavior change demands more than imparting information. In order to shape this videotape, we analyzed the target audience and developed a drama-based approach that applies the framework of social learning theory, the health belief model, and principles of social marketing. This article describes the integration of that theoretical framework into the production process, content, and strategy of the videotape.

  1. Informe Signos Vitales de los CDC Obesidad infantil - (Childhood Obesity)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Signos Vitales de los CDC de agosto del 2013. La tasa de obesidad entre los niños en edad prescolar de bajos ingresos ha disminuido, pero todavía uno de cada seis niños hispanos es obeso. Este programa habla brevemente sobre lo que se puede hacer.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  2. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea where skilled care delivery is ... before the introduction of PMTCT in 2002, while the prospective study followed up children born to pregnant HIV positive .... HIV testing a routine antenatal care investigation, combination ...

  3. An evaluation of instructional strategies used in hiv/aids preventive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS instructional strategies on JSS and SSS Students' knowledge, attitude and intentions about future sexual behaviour. Construct validity of the 12-item attitude scale was tested using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was utilised to determine ...

  4. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huey T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU, and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  5. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: review of current situation, prevention and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-02-01

    Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  6. Stalking SARS: CDC at Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the SARS outbreak and how CDC worked to solve the mystery.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  7. A psychoeducational approach for prevention of burnout among teachers dealing with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon Mary; Naidoo, Anthony Vernon

    2017-01-01

    Teaching is one of the most stressful occupations, with high stress and burnout levels of teachers necessitating intervention. This is especially relevant for South African teachers tasked with additional responsibilities of dealing with HIV/AIDS issues, as well as attending to normal curricula duties. A burnout prevention intervention, based on Paulo Freire's adult educational approach, using transpersonal psychology techniques, was introduced to HIV/AIDS coordinator teachers (n = 27) at high-risk schools in the Western Cape, South Africa, who attended six three-hour weekly workshops. This paper presents the bottom-up thematic analyses of the group, as well as individual global analysis (n = 10) of the qualitative data, derived from focus group interviews and workshop evaluations after the intervention, providing insights into the experiences of workshop participants and their teaching contexts. The mind map of one participant is illustrated. The findings of the study confirmed that transpersonal practices (TP) presented in psychoeducation workshops were helpful in mediating stress and burnout in the work and personal contexts of teachers dealing with HIV/AIDS. TP offer practical applications of right brain emotional and social intelligence practices that could be incorporated into care and wellness school programmes for teachers vulnerable to stressors related to HIV/AIDS.

  8. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansilla Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary

  9. How Much Knowledge Can They Gain? Women's Information Behavior on Government Health Websites in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Women in the U.S. and all over the world are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because of both behavioral and contextual factors. HIV/AIDS prevention education on government health websites plays an important role in reducing this health inequality for women. However, contrary to the assumption of Rimal and Real's (2003) Risk Perception Attitude…

  10. NEK11: linking CHK1 and CDC25A in DNA damage checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Melixetian, Marina; Klein, Ditte Kjaersgaard

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage induced G(2)/M checkpoint is an important guardian of the genome that prevents cell division when DNA lesions are present. The checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis by degrading CDC25A, a key CDK activator. CDC25A proteolysis is controlled by direct phosphorylation events...... is required for beta-TrCP mediated CDC25A polyubiquitylation and degradation. The activity of NEK11 is in turn controlled by CHK1 that activates NEK11 via phosphorylation on serine 273. Since inhibition of NEK11 activity forces checkpoint-arrested cells into mitosis and cell death, NEK11 is, like CHK1...

  11. CDC Vital Signs–Legionnaires’ Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-06

    This podcast is based on the June 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Legionnaires’ disease is a serious, often deadly lung infection. People most commonly get it by breathing in water droplets containing Legionella germs. Learn how to prevent infections from Legionella.  Created: 6/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/6/2017.

  12. Tracking the evolution of HIV/AIDS in China from 1989-2009 to inform future prevention and control efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989-2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44% and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women as well as among permanent (36% and urban residents (33%. Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥ 65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants.

  13. THE IMPACT OF STIGMA ON THE PREVENTION OF HIV/AIDS K ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    INTRODUCTION. HIV/AIDS had remained the topical disease condition that has afflicted man in recent times. The search for a definite cure still continues even as varying statistical data continue to expose the devastation caused by the disease worldwide. A significant proportion of the worlds' population is burdened by the ...

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) and process simulation tools has become established industry practice to predict simulation software, new opportunities are available for the creation of a wide range of ancillary tools that can be used from within multiple sim...

  15. USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOL IN POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-Aided Process Engineering has become established in industry as a design tool. With the establishment of the CAPE-OPEN software specifications for process simulation environments. CAPE-OPEN provides a set of "middleware" standards that enable software developers to acces...

  16. Influencing preventive behavior with regard to HIV/AIDS among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    In Ethiopia, according to recent data from the Federal. Police Hospital, 25% of women attending antenatal services were HIV/AIDS positive (4). The Behavioral. Surveillance Survey (BSS) that was conducted in. Ethiopia among the police forces indicated that 19% of their members were regular alcohol consumers and 51%.

  17. Farmers' awareness level of HIV/AIDS prevention in Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the level of HIV/AIDS awareness among rural farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria and its implication for food security. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents from 5 LGAs and 20 villages and descriptive statistics was used to analyze data collected. A total of 77.5% of ...

  18. THE IMPACT OF STIGMA ON THE PREVENTION OF HIV/AIDS K ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    landmark book “Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity” the described stigma as. “an attribute that is ... Americans still associate AIDS with homosexuality and bisexuality (b) persons contracting HIV sexually are blamed for their infection-especially so for homosexual and bisexual men. (c). Sizable majority of people ...

  19. Aids prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: as easy as ABC? | Bertrand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The failure to stem HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and the unique epidemiological modes of infection within this region have demonstrated that unique strategies for combatting the virus are required. This review article discusses why international AIDS campaigns in sub- Saharan Africa have largely been ...

  20. Positive prevention: reducing HIV transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalichman, Seth C

    2005-01-01

    ... of New South Wales, Australia Rise Goldstein, Center for HIV Identification, Prevention, and Treatment Services, Department of Psychiatry University of California, Los Angeles Lauren K. Gooden,...

  1. Encouraging innovation: ten research priorities for achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in Europe by 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Atun, Rifat A

    2008-01-01

    there have been many declarations and strategies addressing HIV/AIDS, today the goal is universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support services by 2010. The articles included in this thematic issue of the Central European Journal of Public Health on HIV/AIDS reflect this, while the ten...... priorities listed below are immediate and sometimes innovative research needs in the context of preventing HIV among the most-at-risk populations. While by no means exhaustive, they are intended to point out gaps in existing knowledge and thus serve as inspiration for future research efforts....

  2. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981–1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact ...

  3. Prevention for those who have freedom of choice – or among the choice-disabled: confronting equity in the AIDS epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Neil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the exception of post-exposure prophylaxis for reported rape, no preventive strategy addresses the choice disabled – those who might like to benefit from AIDS prevention but who are unable to do so because they do not have the power to make and to act on prevention decisions. In southern African countries, where one in every three has been forced to have sex by the age of 18 years, a very large proportion of the population is choice disabled. This group is at higher risk of HIV infection and unable to respond to AIDS prevention programmes; they represent a reservoir of infection. Reduction of sexual violence would probably decrease HIV transmission directly, but also indirectly as more people can respond to existing AIDS prevention programmes.

  4. 2008 Annual Report: Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    group of military medical officers. In FY08, 2 members of the RCAF attended the Asia -Pacific Regional HIV/AIDS Lab Infrastructure and Capacity...Building (Train the Trainer in Lab and Diagnostics) Course in August 2008. Also in FY08, 2 RCAF members attended the Asia -Pacific Regional Support and...over Kashmir, massive overpopulation , environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife. The GDP per capita is $2,900

  5. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A; Stammen, Ronald M; Mantell, Joanne E

    2008-08-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed.

  6. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A.; Stammen, Ronald M.; Mantell, Joanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed. PMID:17906312

  7. Bereavement, silence and culture within a peer-led HIV/AIDS-prevention strategy for vulnerable children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Ingrid; Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-04-01

    In addressing the psychosocial effects of the HIV and AIDS pandemic among vulnerable children, the issue of bereavement appears inadequately addressed. Amid the global discourse on children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS, this paper explores how cultural contexts and social environments in South Africa shape children's experience of grief. The argument draws on a number of qualitative studies and uses empirical evidence from an evaluation of a peer-led HIV/AIDS-prevention strategy aimed at providing psychosocial support for 10- to 13-year-old South African children living in resource-poor communities. The paper reveals a central paradox regarding how the intervention's objective of talking about death and eliciting memories of deceased loved ones with young children is confounded by cultural practices located in notions of silence and the need to protect children. The paper acknowledges the 'culture of silence' surrounding death in some African contexts, but concludes that peer-led strategies have the potential to naturally circumvent these cultural taboos, simultaneously creating a much-needed space for young children to cry and talk among themselves, even if remaining silent at home in the presence of adults.

  8. Prevenção da Aids com adolescentes encarcerados em São Paulo, SP AIDS prevention among incarcerated teenagers, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Alves Peres

    2002-08-01

    family support, drug use, and knowledge, practices and attitudes related to AIDS and its prevention among male teenagers. METHODS: Participants were 275 male teenagers interned in a youth detention center (FEBEM - State Foundation for Juvenile Well-Being in São Paulo, Brazil. There were two segments. In segment 1, semi-structured interviews with 20 detainees took place. In segment 2, close-end self-administered questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, criminal records, sexual practices, drug use, attitudes, knowledge and AIDS-related practices were applied. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the detainees lived previously with their families. All of them had attended public schools, although 61% had already dropped out. Twelve percent had never used drugs, and 5.5% were intravenous drug users. Most (98% were sexually active; 35% had had more than 15 sexual partners, 8% had homosexual experiences (inside or outside the center, 12% had exchanged sex for material return and 22% were fathers. Many said that getting HIV infected "that's life " and that they face greater risks in their lives, such as surviving on the streets. They think condoms are easily broken (83% and interfere with sex (58%; 72% had used condoms but only 9% used them with all their partners. CONCLUSIONS: These teenagers have a very high risk of HIV infection. It is necessary to integrate AIDS prevention programs to their life ills and related problems such as racism, expectations for the future, criminality, drug use, basic rights including sexual and reproductive rights, and show them there are alternatives other than exposing themselves to HIV infection or dying as criminals.

  9. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zanzibar: The Role of Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upvall, Michele J.

    1993-01-01

    A postgraduate community health nursing program in Zanzibar will incorporate human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome concepts and will integrate counseling and community prevention programs as part of its curriculum. (JOW)

  10. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  11. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand the motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescents in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreeyesus Hadera, H.; Boer, Hendrik; Kuiper, Wilmad

    2007-01-01

    Various studies indicate that school- or university-based HIV prevention curricula can reduce the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour among adolescent youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective HIV/AIDS prevention education may be problematic, if the needs of youth are not served adequately. To

  12. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Gets Fungal Infections? People living with HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis ...

  13. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Application CDC Legionella Healthy Swimming CDC Vessel Sanitation Program Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks (URDO) European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) Prevention Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  14. Articles Published and Downloaded by Public Health Scientists: Analysis of Data From the CDC Public Health Library, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Bang, Gail; Stupp, Emma; Connick, Kathy; Gomez, Onnalee; Gidudu, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To describe scientific information usage and publication patterns of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Public Health Library and Information Center patrons. Administratively collected patron usage data and aggregate data on CDC-authored publications from the CDC Library for 3 consecutive years were analyzed. The CDC Public Health Library and Information Center, which serves CDC employees nationally and internationally. Internal patrons and external users of the CDC Library. Three-year trends in full-text article publication and downloads including most common journals used for each purpose, systematic literature searches requested and completed, and subscriptions to a weekly public health current literature awareness service. From 2011 to 2013, CDC scientists published a total of 7718 articles in the peer-reviewed literature. During the same period, article downloads from the CDC Library increased 25% to more than 1.1 million, completed requests for reviews of the scientific literature increased by 34%, and electronic subscriptions to literature compilation services increased by 23%. CDC's scientific output and information use via the CDC Library are both increasing. Researchers and field staff are making greater use of literature review services and other customized information content delivery. Virtual public health library access is an increasingly important resource for the scientific practice of public health.

  15. [Cost-benefit analysis: HIV/AIDS prevention in migrants in Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarid-Escudero, Fernando; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Fernández, Bertha; Galárraga, Omar

    2013-07-01

    To quantify the costs and benefits of three HIV prevention interventions in migrants in Central America: voluntary counseling and testing, treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and condom distribution. The methods were: a) identification and quantification of costs; b) quantification of benefits, defined as the potential savings in antiretroviral treatment of HIV cases prevented; and c) estimation of the cost-benefit ratio. The model estimated that 9, 21 and 8 cases of HIV were prevented by voluntary counseling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and condom distribution per 10 000 migrants, respectively. In Panama, condom distribution and treatment for sexually transmitted infections had a return of US$131/USD and US$69.8/USD. Returns in El Salvador were US$2.0/USD and US$42.3/USD in voluntary counseling and testing and condom distribution, respectively. The potential savings on prevention have a large variation between countries. Nevertheless, the cost-benefit estimates suggest that the HIV prevention programs in Central America can potentially result in monetary savings in the long run.

  16. The Community Health Care Focused on Prevention and Care for HIV/AIDS in Phayao

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 順子

    2001-01-01

    HIV(感染者)AIDS(発病者)(HIV/AIDS)のケア実際を学ぶために,HIV/AIDSの数が約10年前に爆発的に増加したタイ北部で,HIV/AIDSの予防とケアに関する面接調査と情報収集を行った.HIV/AIDSの予防とケアに関して最も重要なことは,感染予防に加えて精神的サポートや,免疫保持のための自己管理を大切にし,QOLを高めることであると考えられた.HIV/AIDSのケアに対する看護職の役割は,家族への感染予防の指導や免疫力を低下させない日常生活への助言に加え,PWA(HIV感染者及びAIDS発病者のグループ)などへの教育や地域全体の見守り等,HIV/AIDSと家族の生活の質を維持していく地域全体でのケア体制の確立などが課題と思われた...

  17. CDC Vital Signs-Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-06

    This podcast is based on the October 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Hospitals can implement the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding to be designated as "Baby-Friendly" and support more moms in a decision to breastfeed.  Created: 10/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/6/2015.

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Safer Food Saves Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This podcast is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  19. CDC Vital Signs-Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  20. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  1. The PASHA Program Sourcebook: Promising Teen Pregnancy and STD/HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Josefina J., Ed.; Becker, Stephani R., Ed.; Hill, Denise M. K., Ed.

    By providing in-depth descriptions of the 23 promising programs available from the Program Archive on Sexuality, Health and Adolescence (PASHA), the "PASHA Program Sourcebook" offers practitioners a detailed look at "what works" to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency…

  2. Effectiveness of a School HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…

  3. Determinants of Male Circumcision for HIV/AIDS Prevention in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    perceived health and sexual benefits and desire to conform to social norms7. Findings of earlier studies in Uganda revealed that reasons for MC were mainly associated with culture and religion12,13,14, although HIV prevention benefits are still realized. Ethnicity is a significant predictor of Male Circumcision (MC) in ...

  4. Disabled persons and HIV/ AIDS prevention: A case study of deaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (ii) to examine the extent to which the Government includes leprosy and deaf persons in HIV prevention programmes; (iii) To identify immediate needs of leprosy and deaf patients in settlements (iv) to determine possible areas for improving services so as to explore potential solutions Methods: Total sample of 227 inmates ...

  5. Enhancing Community-Based Organizations' Capacity for HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Robert M.; Daniels, Pamela; Yancey, Elleen M.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Berry, Jamillah; Clark, Nicole; Dawaghreh, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic potential of community-based organizations to promote health, prevent disease, and address racial, ethnic, and socio-economic disparities in local communities is well recognized. However, many CBOs, particularly, small- to medium-size organizations, lack the capacity to plan, implement, and evaluate their successes. Moreover, little…

  6. Job Aids for Using Preventive Radiological/Nuclear Detection Equipment for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haynes, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood-Zika, Annmarie R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klemic, Gladys [US Department of Homeland Security National Urban

    2017-10-02

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection equipment (PRND) to provide state and local agencies with guidance on how to best use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation.

  7. Issues in AIDS Primary Prevention for Late-Middle-Aged and Elderly Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A risk reduction model for preventing Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in older adults has three steps: (1) mass media information about transmission factors, risk groups, and need for testing; (2) group counseling and education about benefits of risk reduction, testing, and condom use; and (3) teaching of communication skills regarding…

  8. Women of courage: commercial sex workers mobilize for HIV / AIDS prevention in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E E

    1994-05-01

    The Calabar Project in Nigeria, which seeks to reduce the vulnerability of prostitutes to HIV infection, began informally in 1987. By 1988, a formal, community-based intervention was created to promote condom use, provide health education as well as literacy and vocational training, and seek better working and living conditions for the prostitutes. The first task of the Calabar Project was to overcome the resistance of the hotel owners and managers where the prostitutes work and to win the confidence of the women. The owners and managers had to be convinced that it was in their best interest for the women to insist on condom use by their clients. The women had to be informed about the nature of HIV/AIDS and to be convinced that the project sought improvements in their general welfare. This was accomplished by helping the prostitutes improve both their relationship with the local police and their access to health services. Negotiations with hotel owners stabilized the prostitutes' rent for a year to enable the women to increase their charges for services and reduce the number of clients they needed so they could insist on condom use. Peer educators were trained to provide health education and to teach prostitutes techniques to get clients to use condoms. Clients were reached through the prostitutes and by providing information to small groups in hotel bars. Condoms were initially distributed for free and eventually were sold through a social marketing program. Peer educators also encouraged prostitutes and their clients to use a clinic the project established to diagnose and treat sexually transmitted diseases. In 1993, the Calabar Project helped create a vocational and literacy training center to improve the women's ability to understand the complex issues related to HIV/AIDS and to give the women a way to supplement their income and improve their self-esteem. By this time, more than 60% of the women reported using condoms for all sex acts.

  9. HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and sexually-transmitted infection prevention among Egyptian substance users

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhoum, Atef

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores cultural influences in high-risk behaviour among Egyptian substance users in the Middle Eastern, conservative, male-dominated and predominantly Muslim society in which they live. It investigates why they practice unprotected sex despite the risk of infection by blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), and the factors influencing their risk practices. The study seeks to inform policy and to improve methods of preventing BBVs/STI...

  10. [Social actors in HIV/AIDS prevention: opposition and interests in educational policy in Mexico, 1994-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Nasaiya, Kittipong; Brambila, Alberto Torres

    2007-03-01

    Studies and recommendations by health agencies have emphasized the importance of education in HIV-AIDS prevention. Mexico has included topics on sexuality and HIV-AIDS in school programs, triggering resistance by some social actors. The current study seeks to clarify the various positions and interests and their influence on the textbook content. A literature search was conducted on the period during which the last educational reform was implemented in Mexico. The discourse analysis focused on the ethnography of communication, which identified: the various actors' positions, arguments, actions, economic and political power, and relations to others. The results show that those who oppose the inclusion of these themes in the school curriculum base their position on tradition, contrary to modernization and secularization of social life, and that their positions range from refusal to raising conditions. Networks have been formed that provide such groups with significant economic and political power. Government has given in to some demands by partially modifying the textbook contents. The current analysis proposes to reflect on the potential repercussions of such actions on the control of the epidemic.

  11. Was the intervention implemented as intended?: a process evaluation of an AIDS prevention intervention in rural zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, S M; Van Den Borne, B; Kok, G; Woelk, G

    1996-01-01

    End-point evaluations are still the most commonly used method of assessing the success or failure of interventions. This article describes how a process evaluation was used to measure "what happened" during an HIV/AIDS prevention program for farm workers in Zimbabwe. The intervention was developed according to the Paulo Freirian theory of Social Change and the Ecological Model for health promotion. The stages of the intervention were cyclical; in the first stage innovative methods were used to encourage appraisal of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS through activities which raised critical thinking and dialogue. In the next phase, emphasis was placed on developing cognitive and attitude change in the target group. Self-protective behavior was encouraged through condom use and an increase in self-efficacy with respect to negotiating safe sex, especially among women. In the last stage of the intervention, efforts were made to create a climate for maintenance of behavior and socially responsible action within the community. The process evaluation provided valuable insight into factors which, when aggregated, provided an overview of a program whose successes and failures may well have been determined by issues outside the scope of the intervention. The effect of seasonal fluctuations of labor, income, and farming activity on program activity, patterns of STD, and condom demand were marked. This leads back to the researchers' initial question: "Was the intervention implemented as planned?" and the answer-only partially.

  12. Homelessness prevention: the effect of a shallow rent subsidy program on housing outcomes among people with HIV or AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, Lisa K; Speiglman, Richard

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents results of an evaluation of Project Independence (PI), a shallow rent subsidy program with services coordination support for very low income people with HIV or AIDS who live in Alameda County in the San Francisco Bay Area. By providing a small rental subsidy to eligible individuals and their families who are already stably housed, the philosophy of the program is to prevent homelessness before it starts. The housing outcomes of 185 PI clients were compared to those of 218 people who were not enrolled in the program but were presumed eligible for it, controlling for sociodemographic, HIV disease, and behavioral health characteristics. Using survival analysis techniques, non-program participants were found to be more likely to leave their rental housing at any given point in time compared to PI program participants. After one year of follow-up, while 99% of PI clients remained stably housed in their program-subsidized rental unit, only 32% of comparison group clients were still in rental housing. At two years, 96% of PI participants remained independently housed, compared to only 10% of non-participants. The success of the program suggests that Project Independence should be replicated and evaluated in other jurisdictions where a relatively high incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS is combined with a lack of affordable housing for low income households.

  13. Descriptive analysis of toothbrushing used as an aid for primary prevention: a population-based study in Sebha, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Singh, A J A Ranjith; Alagamuthu, G; Abdalla, Khaled Awidat; Naveen Kumar, P G

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess toothbrushing behavior and descriptively analyze the effect of age and gender. Two thousand and six people from the city of Sebha, Libya, aged 1 to 64 years (mean age 26.9 ± 11.6 years, 1,463 females and 543 males) constituted the study sample. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 85.3% were using a toothbrush and toothpaste as a cleaning aid, whereas 6.3% never brushed their teeth. Only 36.1% brushed twice daily. Age and gender were significantly associated with use of a toothbrush and frequency of toothbrushing. This data serves as a baseline to implement a "preventive self-care instruction program."

  14. Evidence and the Politics of Deimplementation: The Rise and Decline of the "Counseling and Testing" Paradigm for HIV Prevention at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, David Merritt; Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L

    2016-03-01

    In situations of scientific uncertainty, public health interventions, such as counseling for HIV infection, sometimes must be implemented before obtaining evidence of efficacy. The history of HIV counseling and testing, which served as the cornerstone of HIV prevention efforts at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for a quarter of a century, illustrates the influence of institutional resistance on public health decision making and the challenge of de-implementing well-established programs. In 1985, amid uncertainty about the accuracy of the new test for HIV, public health officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and AIDS activists agreed that counseling should always be provided both before and after testing to ensure that patients were tested voluntarily and understood the meaning of their results. As the "exceptionalist" perspective that framed HIV in the early years began to recede, the purpose of HIV test counseling shifted over the next 30 years from emphasizing consent, to providing information, to encouraging behavioral change. With this increasing emphasis on prevention, HIV test counseling faced mounting doubts about whether it "worked." The CDC finally discontinued its preferred test counseling approach in October 2014. Drawing on key informant interviews with current and former CDC officials, behavioral scientists, AIDS activists, and others, along with archival material, news reports, and scientific and governmental publications, we examined the origins, development, and decline of the CDC's "counseling and testing" paradigm for HIV prevention. Disagreements within the CDC emerged by the 1990s over whether test counseling could be justified on the basis of efficacy and cost. Resistance to the prospect of policy change by supporters of test counseling in the CDC, gay activists for whom counseling carried important ethical and symbolic meanings, and community organizations dependent on federal funding made it

  15. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines on the prevention and management of metabolic diseases in HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Battegay, M; Behrens, G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic diseases are frequently observed in HIV-infected persons and, as the risk of contracting these diseases is age-related, their prevalence will increase in the future as a consequence of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). SUMMARY OF GUIDELINES: All HIV...... interactions and compromised adherence. Specialists in HIV and specialists in metabolic diseases should consult each other, in particular in difficult-to-treat cases. CONCLUSION: Multiple and relatively simple approaches exist to prevent metabolic diseases in HIV-infected persons; priority should be given...

  16. [Risk-taking and HIV/Aids prevention: a biographical approach to sexual behavior in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboim, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of a representative survey carried out in 2007 of the Portuguese population aged between 18 and 65, this study investigates the impact of factors during the course of sexual life on risk-taking behavior and perceptions among 3055 heterosexual men and women. A number of sexual biography profiles were identified through cluster analysis of indicators related to the identity, number and sequence of partners throughout life. We discovered different profiles, from systematic occasional partnerships and use of paid sex, more frequent among men, to the single partner profile, which is more prevalent among women. By carrying out several linear regression analyses, we were able to evaluate the predictive impact of biographical factors on condom use and prevention behavior. Our results indicate that sexual biographies are more important in explaining the prevalence of condom use with different sexual partners. On the other hand, fear of infection and information on HIV transmission seem to influence the cognitive mobilization of prevention strategies and change of sexual behavior. However, condom use is still more dependent on sexual life pattern and interaction with sexual partners.

  17. Condom social marketing program to prevent HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A O; Jubwe, S; Kennedy, S B; Taylor, C H; Martin, R B; Bee, E M; Perry, O S; Massaquoi, M T; Woods, D V; Barbu, E M

    2011-08-01

    Youths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) account for a large burden of the global HIV/STI crises. As such, strategies directed at promoting behavioral modifications would be critical to reducing the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors among high risk adolescents in post-conflict environments. This study describes a condom promotion strategy to prevent HIV/STIs among highly vulnerable urban youth in a post-conflict, resource-constrained environment via the provision of both male and female condoms to nontraditional venues like music and photo shops, ice cream parlors, money exchange centers and beauty salons. Community members in the designated catchment areas volunteered their services and the use of their small businesses to support this endeavor. In this paper, we describe the condom promotion strategy and its implications within the context of a community-based participatory social marketing program to prevent risky sexual behaviors among highly vulnerable urban youth in a post-conflict country. We postulate that this approach may likely increase condom use among urban youth in Monrovia, the capital city of Liberia.

  18. Transitioning a Large Scale HIV/AIDS Prevention Program to Local Stakeholders: Findings from the Avahan Transition Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bennett

    Full Text Available Between 2009-2013 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation transitioned its HIV/AIDS prevention initiative in India from being a stand-alone program outside of government, to being fully government funded and implemented. We present an independent prospective evaluation of the transition.The evaluation drew upon (1 a structured survey of transition readiness in a sample of 80 targeted HIV prevention programs prior to transition; (2 a structured survey assessing institutionalization of program features in a sample of 70 targeted intervention (TI programs, one year post-transition; and (3 case studies of 15 TI programs.Transition was conducted in 3 rounds. While the 2009 transition round was problematic, subsequent rounds were implemented more smoothly. In the 2011 and 2012 transition rounds, Avahan programs were well prepared for transition with the large majority of TI program staff trained for transition, high alignment with government clinical, financial and managerial norms, and strong government commitment to the program. One year post transition there were significant program changes, but these were largely perceived positively. Notable negative changes were: limited flexibility in program management, delays in funding, commodity stock outs, and community member perceptions of a narrowing in program focus. Service coverage outcomes were sustained at least six months post-transition.The study suggests that significant investments in transition preparation contributed to a smooth transition and sustained service coverage. Notwithstanding, there were substantive program changes post-transition. Five key lessons for transition design and implementation are identified.

  19. Acceptability of male circumcision for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo O Brito

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC is an effective strategy to prevent HIV infection in heterosexual men. To our knowledge, there are no studies of the acceptability of this procedure in the Dominican Republic (DR. The main objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of MC to prevent HIV transmission among men ages 18 to 50 years in the Altagracia Province in the Dominican Republic. Because differences in culture and beliefs between Haitians and Dominicans could potentially influence their acceptability of MC, we conducted a comparative analysis based on national origin.A survey was administered to a convenience sample of 368 men. The questionnaire was divided in 3 sections: 1 Background demographics (including national origin, 2 Male circumcision and 3 Sexual health. Stratified and logistic multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC.The sample consisted of 238 (65% Dominicans and 130 (35% Haitian immigrants. Almost all participants were uncircumcised (95% and about half (52% were single. The overall acceptability of MC was 29%. The number of men willing to be circumcised increased to 67% after an information session explaining the benefits of the procedure. 74% of men reported that they would be willing to circumcise their sons after hearing that information. In multivariate analysis, Haitian nationality (OR=1.86, 95% CI 1.01-3.41, knowing that circumcision improves hygiene (OR=2.78, 95% CI 1.29-6.0 and not believing that circumcision decreases sexual pleasure (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.20-3.94 were associated with a higher acceptability of the procedure. Although age was not significantly associated with the willingness to be circumcised in the multivariate analysis, stratified analysis based on national origin suggested that younger Dominicans (<30 years of age are more likely to accept the procedure when compared to their older counterparts (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.14-4.12.An important number

  20. Aligning HIV/AIDS communication with the oral tradition of Africans: a theory-based content analysis of songs' potential in prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing recognition of songs as a useful HIV/AIDS campaign strategy, little research has investigated their potential and/or actual impact. In this study, through a theory-based content analysis, we have assessed the prevention domains covered and the health-relevant constructs promoted by 23 AIDS songs widely used to aid prevention efforts in Ethiopia. To identify the health-relevant constructs and reveal their potential to facilitate or inhibit positive changes, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has been used. The findings revealed that the songs cover most of the prevention domains that constitute the current agenda of behavior change communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, although all the EPPM variables have been found in almost every song, there were significantly more efficacy messages than threat messages. This suggests that although the songs may lead to positive changes in HIV/AIDS-related outcomes among audiences who have already perceived the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, they are less likely to motivate and thereby generate responses from audiences who have less or no threat perceptions. It is argued that given their potential as a culturally appropriate strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa where oral channels of communication play significant roles, songs could be harnessed for better outcomes through a theory-based design.

  1. “HealthOmeter”: An Aid in Advancing Preventive Medicine Media Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Trell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective wellbeing is an important issue on the preventive medicine and political agenda and for mutual communication, information, and interaction in society and its individuals “requires new tools for measuring phenomena previously believed unmeasurable, as well as conceptual frameworks for interpreting such measurements…considering both happiness and misery.” The task is difficult, however, due to the great span of parameters and variables of age and gender, settings, socioeconomic conditions, wellness and illness, activities and functions, roles and habits, thoughts and feelings, and experiences and expectations involved over the panorama. HealthOmeter is a clinically tested and validated instrument with design and capacity in distinct coherent chapters to meet the new measurement and interpretation demands both contentwise and operationwise. Over the range of subjective and objective health it enables, in a uniform normalized layout in quintile balance between positive and negative, an all-round self-assessment and counsel in multimedia, preferably computer/mobile app distribution including storage, collation, and follow-up in full integrity and secrecy on the individual and aggregated level.

  2. AIDS Education: Activities Aimed at the General Public Implemented Slowly. Report to the Honorable Barbara Boxer, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In response to a Congressional concern over delays in implementing a thorough, effective national Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education program, six aspects of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) AIDS education program for the general public were reviewed: (1) CDC AIDS education budget and expenditures; (2) delays in the…

  3. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  4. CDC Vital Signs–Think Sepsis. Time Matters.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    This podcast is based on the August 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Sepsis is a medical emergency and can happen quickly. Learn the signs of sepsis and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  5. CDC Vital Signs–Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-10

    This podcast is based on the November 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. There is a long list of cancers linked to tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of cancer and cancer deaths. Learn more here.  Created: 11/10/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/10/2016.

  6. New Resources on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention, 2002-2004. YouthLens on Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS. Number 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, William, Comp.; Tipton, Margaret, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    As a sequel to YouthLens No. 1, New Resources Available on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention (July 2002), this YouthLens summarizes major reports and resources that have appeared since July 2002. The resources are organized by overview reports, reproductive health resources, and HIV/AIDS resources. [YouthLens is an activity of YouthNet,…

  7. Accessibility to, Acceptability of, and Adherence to HIV/AIDS Prevention Services by Men Who Have Sex with Men: Challenges Encountered at Facility Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. N. Otambo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM in Nairobi has been reported to be 16.4% which is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to determine factors that affected accessibility to, acceptability of, and adherence to HIV/AIDS prevention services by men who have sex with men in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methods. The study used a mixed methods design, applying both quantitative and qualitative methods. Results. Over 70% of MSM reported that TB drugs, antiretroviral drugs, lubricants, condoms, and other STI treatment services were accessible. However, 31.6% of MSM reported that discrimination at the health facility level was a hindrance to accessing HIV/AIDS prevention services while 26.3% reported encountering stigma. 48.4% of MSM consumed alcohol while taking of drugs was reported, at 36.1%. Conclusion. Discrimination and stigma adversely affected MSM seeking HIV/AIDS prevention services in health facilities. MSM engaged in alcohol and substance abuse that likely affected their health seeking behavior. Although most prevention services are reported as accessible, uptake of the same needs to be considered.

  8. CDC Activities for Improving Implementation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, Cervical Cancer Screening, and Surveillance Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, Virginia; Duran, Denise; Loharikar, Anagha; Hyde, Terri B; Markowitz, Lauri E; Unger, Elizabeth R; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-12-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high, particularly in developing countries. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, screening, and timely treatment. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides global technical assistance for implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination pilot projects and programs and laboratory-related HPV activities to assess HPV vaccines. CDC collaborates with global partners to develop global cervical cancer screening recommendations and manuals, implement screening, create standardized evaluation tools, and provide expertise to monitor outcomes. CDC also trains epidemiologists in cancer prevention through its Field Epidemiology Training Program and is working to improve cancer surveillance by supporting efforts of the World Health Organization in developing cancer registry hubs and assisting countries in estimating costs for developing population-based cancer registries. These activities contribute to the Global Health Security Agenda action packages to improve immunization, surveillance, and the public health workforce globally.

  9. Science in Emergency Response at CDC: Structure and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Rose, Dale A; Ghiya, Neelam D

    2017-09-01

    Recent high-profile activations of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) include responses to the West African Ebola and Zika virus epidemics. Within the EOC, emergency responses are organized according to the Incident Management System, which provides a standardized structure and chain of command, regardless of whether the EOC activation occurs in response to an outbreak, natural disaster, or other type of public health emergency. By embedding key scientific roles, such as the associate director for science, and functions within a Scientific Response Section, the current CDC emergency response structure ensures that both urgent and important science issues receive needed attention. Key functions during emergency responses include internal coordination of scientific work, data management, information dissemination, and scientific publication. We describe a case example involving the ongoing Zika virus response that demonstrates how the scientific response structure can be used to rapidly produce high-quality science needed to answer urgent public health questions and guide policy. Within the context of emergency response, longer-term priorities at CDC include both streamlining administrative requirements and funding mechanisms for scientific research.

  10. Effectiveness of self instructional module on awareness about prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS among bachelor level management students in selected colleges at Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Ramtel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background HIV/AIDS is posing the most alarming public health challenges in worldwide. Based on research studies showed that school, pre‐university and university level students are not fully aware of the mode of transmissions, risk behaviour, attitudes, beliefs and prevention of HIV/AIDS. College students should be aware on the basic information, prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS so that they can perceive themselves as having a personal responsibility for maintaining healthy life. Objectives This study was undertaken to evaluate the Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge regarding prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS among bachelor level of management students. Methods Pre experimental research design was done. The samples were 100 bachelor level management students of selected colleges at Bangalore. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples for the study. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and interpreted in terms of objectives and hypothesis of the study. The level of significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results The mean pre‐test knowledge score was 41.8% (SD of ± 10.9 whereas the mean post‐test knowledge score was 84.2% (SD of ±8.2. A significant difference was found between mean pre‐test and post‐test knowledge scores (‘t’ = 39.35, p< 0.05. A significant association was found between age, gender, marital status, stream of education, place of origin, educational level of parents and the source of information received on prevention and transmission HIV/AIDS (χ2 = 5.18, 3.87, 7.68, 7.31, 7.53, 8.67, 7.84 at p< 0.05. Conclusion The samples had inadequate knowledge regarding all the aspects of prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS. The study finding indicates that Self‐Instructional Module was effective in enhancing the knowledge of bachelor level management

  11. Identifying the links between violence against women and HIV/AIDS: ecosocial and human rights frameworks offer insight into U.S. prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Michelle; Chilton, Mariana; Lloyd, Linda; Rubinstein, Susan

    2006-01-01

    While US government-sponsored HIV prevention initiatives have achieved notable successes, challenges remain to serving women effectively. Intimate partner violence hinders women's efforts to decrease their HIV risk behaviors. The global HIV/AIDS epidemic is often viewed as a human rights crisis. An analysis of US HIV prevention strategies based on ecosocial and health and human rights frameworks clarifies women's HIV risk practices and suggests opportunities for progress. These two frameworks help to (1) demonstrate how HIV/AIDS is a clinical manifestation of violence against women, (2) identify safety from violence as a human right necessary for well-being, and (3) suggest ways in which HIV prevention initiatives can more effectively improve women's health and fulfill their basic human rights.

  12. Using High-Impact HIV Prevention to Achieve the National HIV/AIDS Strategic Goals in Miami-Dade County, Florida: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James W; LaLota, Marlene; Villamizar, Kira; McElroy, Tamara; Wilson, M Maximillion; Garcia, Jersey; Sandrock, Robert; Taveras, Janelle; Candio, Darline; Flores, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    : In response to the release of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the "Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning" project, which provided support to health departments in 12 Metropolitan Statistical Areas with the highest AIDS prevalence to strengthen local HIV programs. We describe a case study of how 1 Metropolitan Statistical Area, Miami-Dade County, developed and implemented a locally tailored plan. Examples include actions to reinforce local partnerships and identify neighborhoods with highest unmet needs, an improved condom distribution system to assist local HIV care providers, collaboration with local stakeholders to establish a new walk-in center for transgender client needs, and overcoming incompatibilities in health department and Ryan White Program computer record systems to facilitate faster and more efficient patient services. These examples show how jurisdictions both within Florida and elsewhere can create low-cost and sustainable activities tailored to improve local HIV prevention needs.

  13. Prostituição juvenil feminina e a prevenção da Aids em Ribeirão Preto, SP Female juvenile prostitution and AIDS prevention programs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Paulin Simon

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar as percepções sobre a Aids para o desenvolvimento de programas de prevenção de Aids com a prostituição juvenil feminina. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas 13 jovens com idades entre 18 e 21 anos, que trabalham como prostitutas na cidade de Ribeirão Preto, por meio de um roteiro semi-estruturado com questões referentes a: dados sociodemográficos; conhecimentos sobre Aids; comportamentos sexuais; tipos de relacionamentos com clientes, namorados ou companheiros; e sugestões para programas de prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST e Aids. RESULTADOS: Embora todas as entrevistadas tenham demonstrado conhecimento sobre HIV e práticas sexuais seguras, essas informações se contradizem com a crença no destino como o determinante para a infecção pelo HIV, bem como com a busca de afetividade nos relacionamentos, seja com o companheiro, namorado ou cliente fixo. Essas contradições agem como possíveis fatores impeditivos para adoção de comportamentos preventivos consistentes. CONCLUSÕES: As estratégias de prevenção para o HIV e a Aids devem levar em consideração que é necessário criar espaços nos quais se possibilitem a discussão e reflexão, que facilitem a clarificação de crenças e concepções que ainda fazem parte do imaginário social desse segmento social sobre a Aids. Também são necessárias discussões sobre os envolvimentos afetivos que são percebidos como relacionamentos imunes, dispensando a negociação de práticas preventivas. Outro ponto fundamental é o tipo de abordagem a ser utilizado para contatar as jovens. Estratégias sensíveis às características das jovens deverão ser empregadas.OBJECTIVE: To investigate perception of AIDS and to obtain information for developing AIDS prevention programs targeting female juvenile prostitution. METHODS: Thirteen young women aged 18 to 21 years working as prostitutes in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were interviewed using

  14. Effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on tuberculosis incidence in people living with HIV-AIDS at Hasan Sadikin hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiavan, I.; Hartantri, Y.; Werry, B.; Nababan, Y.; Wisaksana, R.; Alisjahban, B.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is the second largest number of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) as one of the three I’s TB-HIV collaboration to manage TB in people living with HIV / AIDS (PLHIV) has not been fully performed. It is related to doubt to get rid of TB in PLHIV. This study aims to see the effect of IPT on the incidence of TB in PLHIV. This issue is a retrospective cohort study based on medical record data in HIV clinic. Inclusion criteria are PLHIV ≥ 15 years of age who were registered to visit the CST service and obtain IPT with good adherence if they were receiving ART. Of 462 patients, HIV- infected patients receiving IPT were 154 (33.3%). IPT administration has a protective effect on PLHIV where the rate of TB incidence in PLHIV who received IPT were 0.21 times lower than those who did not receive IPT (IRR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.023-0.881, p 0.008). In this population, IPT administration reduces 79% risk of PLHIV to suffer TB.IPT administration reduces the incidence of TB.

  15. Perceptions of Parents on How Religion Influences Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviours in Two Ghanaian Communities: Implications for HIV and AIDS Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement

    2013-01-01

    To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents’ sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents’ sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures—communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed. PMID:23440475

  16. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  17. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  18. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  19. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  20. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  1. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  2. CDC WONDER: Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS) on CDC WONDER contains information on verified tuberculosis (TB) cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control...

  3. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  4. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  5. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2016. Sub-Saharan Africa, which bears the heaviest burden of HIV and ... 232-6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  6. Communications and Web services: What do CDC users desire in partner relationship management and does CDC's PHIN Directory meet the need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, Maria A; Savel, Thomas G

    2006-01-01

    The National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sought to establish a database to proactively manage their partner relationships with external organizations. A user needs analysis was conducted, and CDC's Public Health Information Network Directory (PHINDIR) was evaluated as a possible solution. PHINDIR could sufficiently maintain contact information but did not address customer relationships; however, its flexible architecture allows add-on applications via web services. Thus, NCBDDD's needs could be met via PHINDIR.

  7. Pulmonary manifestation of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Dinkel, E.; Laaff, H.; Wuertemberger, G.; Senn, H.; Vaith, P.; Kroepelin, T.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 28 patients with AIDS staged group IV according to CDC-criteria. Among these, 19 had pulmonary disease: most of them (n=17) had pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (Pcp). 12/17 patients with proven Pcp displayed typical X-ray findings with diffuse perihilar interstitial infiltration sparing lung periphery. 3/17 had atypical features and 2 normal chest x-ray findings. These data are important to identify patients with pulmonary complications of AIDS. (orig.) [de

  8. Meta Analytic Measurement of HIV/AIDS Awareness, Prevention and Accepting Attitude toward People Living with HIV/AIDS in the Seven States of North East India

    OpenAIRE

    Dulumoni Das; Rupak Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to gather momentum in India, destroying innocent lives and imperilling future generations. Controlling spread of HIV is critical. Ignoring this will lead millions of Indians in grip of this pandemic. Despite valiant efforts by government agencies and heritable groups, large cross-sections of Indian society still lack information about the nature of the disease and how individuals can protect themselves against it. As a result, the epidemic is spread...

  9. Life skills as a behaviour change strategy in the prevention of HIV and AIDS: Perceptions of students in an open and distance learning institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapi, B J; Pitsoane, E M

    2017-12-01

    The prevention of HIV and AIDS, especially amongst young people, is very important, as they are the future leaders. South Africa carries a high burden of the HIV and AIDS disease, and efforts at the prevention of the disease need to be intensified. University students are also at risk, and prevention efforts need to be intensified to ensure that students graduate and enter the world of work to become productive citizens. Failure to pay attention to preventative behaviour amongst university students may have negative socio-economic consequences for the country. The paper presents a quantitative study undertaken amongst students at the University of South Africa, an Open and Distance Learning Institution in South Africa. The aim of the study was to explore the perceptions of students regarding life skills as a behaviour change strategy at Unisa. The study was conducted in the three regions of the University: Midlands region, Gautengregion and Limpopo region. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and were analysed by using the Statistical Programme for Social Sciences. The findings revealed that students have a need to attend life skills workshops, which are facilitated by trained student counsellors since they believe that the life skills training will assist them to be assertive and practise behaviours which will not make them vulnerable to the HIV and AIDS infection.

  10. CDC Vital Signs-E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-05

    This podcast is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.  Created: 1/5/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/5/2016.

  11. Qual é a sua atitude?: Narrativas de homens jovens universitários sobre os cuidados preventivos com a AIDS What's your attitude?: College male students' narratives about AIDS preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Emilia Figueiredo de Sousa Rebello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar 22 narrativas de homens jovens universitários, focalizando os sentidos atribuídos à sexualidade e prevenção da AIDS. As narrativas, coletadas em 2009, são parte do acervo da pesquisa Sexualidade Masculina e Cuidados de Saúde realizada (RJ. O marco teórico privilegia os conceitos de masculinidade hegemônica e roteiro sexual. O desenho metodológico é de estudo de narrativas. Partiu-se do pressuposto de que, para além da escolaridade, marcas identitárias masculinas hegemônicas influenciam os sentidos atribuídos e a adesão à prevenção da AIDS. Destaca-se a necessidade de revisão das ações em saúde sexual masculina levando-se em conta aspectos culturais associados à construção da identidade dos sujeitos e espaços de informação e atendimento que favoreçam atitude de prevenção.The objective of this paper is to analyze 22 narratives of collegian young men, focusing on the meaning attributed to sexuality and AIDS prevention. The narratives, registered in 2009, are part of the research Masculine Sexuality and Health Care's collection, whicha was made in Rio de Janeiro.. The theoretical framework adopted is the concept of hegemonic masculinity and sexual script. The methodological design is the study of narratives. The starting point was the assumption that, beyond schooling, hegemonic masculinity marks influence the meanings attributed and the adherence to AIDS' prevention. The need of revising male sexual health care actions is highlighted, in order to include cultural aspects associated to the construction of subjects identity, as well as the need of health care and information services which favor a preventive attitude.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... youth should not drink alcohol. Support effective community strategies to prevent binge drinking, such as those recommended by the Community Guide.* Support local control of the marketing and sale of alcohol. Support the minimum legal drinking age ...

  13. [Private companies: an opportunity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and care in Ivory Coast in the wake of HIV/AIDS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelynck, A

    2015-02-01

    In the 1990s, defenders of "aids exceptionnalism" have promised that the inequities caused by HIV/AIDS could provide leverage in the care of other health issues later. Fifteen years later, this argument can be rethought at the light of the current context of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Ivory Coast. In fact, in this country, the challenges caused by HBVecho those of HIV/AIDS fifteen years ago: high prevalence (8-10%), ignorance of the disease, and high cost of care. To this end, this article compares the role of private companies in the fights against HIV/AIDS in the 2000s and its role in the fight against HBV today. Although some private firms played a critical role in the promotion of universal access to ART, today, they are one of the few places where HBV screening, vaccination and treatment are offered in the country. HIV/AIDS opened the door for private companies to address other diseases through their health care systems. However, many challenges still need to be met: the absence of qualitative ongoing training for health professionals, illness representations and the costs of treatments, which are all related to the lack of international and national collective action. In Ivory Coast, at the early stage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, national authorities took up the leadership in the fight against AIDS in West Africa, by developing extraverted strategies (Xth ICASA's organization, Unaids initiative hosting). The exceptional international mobilization and the creation of innovative funding mechanisms [International Therapeutic Solidarity Fund (ITSF), Global Fund (GM), and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)] have facilitated easy access to ARV. Although 380 million people are infected by chronic HBV in the world, even so, international and national collective actions are fledgling and remained weak. Moreover, private firms have represented leverage for testing, treatment, and the provision of universal access to medication in the context of the HIV/AIDS

  14. CDC Climat - 2011 Sustainable Development Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    CDC Climat is the Caisse des Depots (CDC) subsidiary that is dedicated to combating climate change. Its activities aim to support the transition towards a low resource and low greenhouse gas emission (GHG) economy, through services that are cutting-edge, pro table, and in line with CDC's public policy goals. Through its corporate purpose, CDC Climat embodies the CDC's commitments in the sustainable development field. CDC Climat supports the implementation of public GHG emission reduction policies, primarily through emission trading schemes at the European and international level. Since it was founded in 2010, and throughout 2011, its strategic priorities have consisted in: - developing a long-term policy for investing in carbon credits generated by environmental initiatives, as part of the project mechanisms set up by the Kyoto Protocol, and used in the European Emission Trading Scheme; - supporting the development of its investments in carbon finance operators, like BlueNext, the European carbon exchange, for instance; - broadening the scope of its research into climate economics, which is supported by CDC and available to everyone, in order to serve the public and private players concerned. Its teams have supported French and European governments, international organisations and the United Nations, and various NGOs in their work and thinking on the future of tools for combating climate change. They have specifically contributed reports based on their research and operational feedback. When it was founded, CDC Climat was closely linked to public policies aimed at combating climate change via allowance and carbon trading mechanisms. The difficulties encountered by international negotiations, together with the effects of the economic and financial downturn in Europe, have resulted in a very pronounced fall in the price of carbon assets on these markets since the summer of 2011, with no prospect of recovery for several years. This environment is calling some of the

  15. Prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infections through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: a history of achievements and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Caroline A; Conly, Shanti R; Stanton, David L; Hasen, Nina S

    2012-08-15

    HIV prevention in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) began when both data on HIV prevalence and the toolbox of interventions for prevention of sexual transmission were relatively limited. PEPFAR's early focus was on scaling-up information, education, and communication programs that included messaging on abstinence for youth and faithfulness primarily through nongovernmental organizations, including faith-based organizations. Additional activities included condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing. In epidemics concentrated within key populations, PEPFAR's prevention efforts focused on a minimum package of services including outreach, information, education, and communication programs, STI treatment (where appropriate), and condom promotion and distribution. As more epidemiological data became available and with experience gleaned in these early efforts, the need for tailored and flexible approaches became evident. The next iteration of prevention efforts still emphasized behavioral interventions, but incorporated a sharper focus on key epidemic drivers, especially multiple partners; a data-driven emphasis on high transmission areas and populations, including prevention with people living with HIV; and a more strategic and coordinated approach at the national level. Recently, the paradigm for prevention efforts has shifted yet again. Evidence that biomedical interventions such as male circumcision, treatment for prevention of vertical and horizontal transmission, and treatment itself could lead to declines in incidence has refocused PEPFAR's prevention portfolio. New guidance on sexually transmitted HIV focuses on combination prevention, emphasizing biomedical, behavioral and structural approaches. Landmark speeches by the President and the Secretary of State and new ambitious targets for PEPFAR point toward a new goal: an AIDS-free generation.

  16. 75 FR 63844 - Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment..., Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-07, Atlanta, Georgia 30333...

  17. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not know they have HIV cannot take advantage of HIV care and treatment and may unknowingly ... Disease Control and Prevention Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  18. Chk1 regulates the S phase checkpoint by coupling the physiological turnover and ionizing radiation-induced accelerated proteolysis of Cdc25A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Syljuåsen, Randi G; Falck, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Chk1 kinase coordinates cell cycle progression and preserves genome integrity. Here, we show that chemical or genetic ablation of human Chk1 triggered supraphysiological accumulation of the S phase-promoting Cdc25A phosphatase, prevented ionizing radiation (IR)-induced degradation of Cdc25A...

  19. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    investigators suggested that nitrites depend on “infectious cofactors” to cause AIDS diseases (Haverkos 1988). The perfect correlations between recreational drug use and AIDS became the basis for the hypothesis that drugs, or the drug use-“lifestyle” is the cause of AIDS (Shilts. Table 3. CDC 1983*: Drug use by American ...

  20. Regulated degradation of the APC coactivator Cdc20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins Jonathan A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cdc20 is a highly conserved activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC, promoting cell-cycle-regulated ubiquitination and proteolysis of a number of critical cell-cycle-regulatory targets including securin and mitotic cyclins. APC-Cdc20 activity is tightly regulated, and this regulation is likely important for accurate cell cycle control. One significant component of Cdc20 regulation is thought to be Cdc20 proteolysis. However, published literature suggests different mechanisms and requirements for Cdc20 proteolysis. The degree to which Cdc20 proteolysis is cell-cycle regulated, the dependence of Cdc20 proteolysis on Cdc20 destruction boxes (recognition sequences for APC-mediated ubiqutination, either by Cdc20 or by the related Cdh1 APC activator, and the need for APC itself for Cdc20 proteolysis all have been disputed to varying extents. In animals, Cdc20 proteolysis is thought to be mediated by Cdh1, contributing an intrinsic order of APC activation by Cdc20 and then by Cdh1. One report suggests a Cdh1 requirement for Cdc20 proteolysis in budding yeast; this idea has not been tested further. Results We characterized Cdc20 proteolysis using Cdc20 expressed from its endogenous locus; previous studies generally employed strongly overexpressed Cdc20, which can cause significant artifacts. We analyzed Cdc20 proteolysis with or without mutations in previously identified destruction box sequences, using varying methods of cell cycle synchronization, and in the presence or absence of Cdh1. Cdc20 instability is only partially dependent on destruction boxes. A much stronger dependence on Cdh1 for Cdc20 proteolysis was observed, but Cdh1-independent proteolysis was also clearly observed. Cdc20 proteolysis independent of both destruction boxes and Cdh1 was especially detectable around the G1/S transition; Cdh1-dependent proteolysis was most notable in late mitosis and G1. Conclusions Cdc20 proteolysis is under complex control

  1. Cdc42-mediated tubulogenesis controls cell specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Greiner, Thomas Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how cells polarize and coordinate tubulogenesis during organ formation is a central question in biology. Tubulogenesis often coincides with cell-lineage specification during organ development. Hence, an elementary question is whether these two processes are independently controlled......, or whether proper cell specification depends on formation of tubes. To address these fundamental questions, we have studied the functional role of Cdc42 in pancreatic tubulogenesis. We present evidence that Cdc42 is essential for tube formation, specifically for initiating microlumen formation and later...... for maintaining apical cell polarity. Finally, we show that Cdc42 controls cell specification non-cell-autonomously by providing the correct microenvironment for proper control of cell-fate choices of multipotent progenitors. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data...

  2. Perceptions of capacity for infectious disease control and prevention to meet the challenges of dengue fever in the face of climate change: A survey among CDC staff in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Cameron, Scott; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is an important climate-sensitive mosquito-borne viral disease that poses a risk to half the world's population. The disease is a major public health issue in China where in 2014 a major outbreak occurred in Guangdong Province. This study aims to gauge health professionals' perceptions about the capacity of infectious disease control and prevention to meet the challenge of dengue fever in the face of climate change in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered among staff in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) in Guangdong Province. Data analysis was undertaken using descriptive methods and logistic regression. In total, 260 questionnaires were completed. Most participants (80.7%) thought climate change would have a negative effect on population health, and 98.4% of participants reported dengue fever had emerged or re-emerged in China in recent years. Additionally, 74.9% of them indicated that the capability of the CDCs to detect infectious disease outbreak/epidemic at an early stage was excellent; 86.3% indicated laboratories could provide diagnostic support rapidly; and 83.1% believed levels of current staff would be adequate in the event of a major outbreak. Logistic regression analysis showed higher levels of CDCs were perceived to have better capacity for infectious disease control and prevention. Only 26.8% of participants thought they had a good understanding of climate change, and most (85.4%) thought they needed more information about the health impacts of climate change. Most surveyed staff suggested the following strategies to curb the public health impact of infectious diseases in relation to climate change: primary prevention measures, strengthening the monitoring of infectious diseases, the ability to actively forecast disease outbreaks by early warning systems, and more funding for public health education programs. Vigilant disease and vector surveillance, preventive practice and

  3. [The survival and development conditions of community-based organizations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among men who have sex with men in three Chinese cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Shan, Duo; Qi, Jinlei; Ouyang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jie; Sun, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the survival and development conditions of community-based organizations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chinese cities including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Chongqing. This study employed both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (questionnaire survey) methods to obtain information from 15 MSM CBOs in three Chinese cities. The mean work time of the 15 CBOs for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among MSM was 6.7 years (2.1-11.3 years), and the majority of their funds was from international cooperation projects (80 447 000 RMB, 73.0%) from 2006 to 2013. The survival cost of MSM CBOs apart from expenditure of activities was 2 240-435 360 RMB per year. As it was shown in the graph, the survival and development of MSM CBOs was closely related to the development of international cooperation projects. There was a few small size MSM CBOs taking part in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and their work content was limited before 2006. From 2006 to 2008, some international cooperation projects were launched in China, such as the China Global Fund AIDS project and the China-Gates Foundation HIV Prevention Cooperation program. As a result, the number of MSM CBOs was increased sharply, and both the scale and 2012, the performance of these programs further promote the establishment of new MSM CBOs and the development of all MSM CBOs with regard to the work places, full-time staffs, work contents, work patterns and the specific targeted population. After 2012, most international cooperation programs were completed and the local department of disease prevention and control continued to cooperate with MSM CBOs. However, the degree of support funds from the local department was different among different regions. Where the funds were below the half of program funds, the development of MSM CBOs ceased and work slowed down. Besides, there were still some constraints for the survival and development of MSM CBOs, such

  4. A Survey of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of AIDS Patients with Regard to the Prevention of Disease Transmission in Yazd and Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Baghianimoghadam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of AIDS patients with regard to the prevention of disease transmission in Yazd and Ahvaz, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of 130 patients, selected via simple sampling, with regard to the prevention of disease transmission in Yazd and Ahvaz, Iran (65 cases from each city. Data were collected by researchers, using a questionnaire and a checklist. For statistical analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. Results In this study, the sample included 130 AIDS patients from Yazd and Ahvaz. Overall, 67.6% of the patients were male; on the other hand, 29.2% and 32.3% of the participants from Yazd and Ahvaz were female, respectively. As the findings revealed, 44.6% and 55.4% of the patients from Yazd and Ahvaz were married, respectively. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice of the patients regarding the prevention of HIV transmission were 40.31 ± 3.3, 41.92 ± 8.8, and 43.28 ± 5.3 in Yazd, respectively. Also, the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice with regard to the prevention of HIV transmission were 40.68 ± 3.2.5, 42.52 ± 9.05, and 43.24 ± 6.08 among patients from Ahvaz, respectively. Overall, the results showed that the knowledge, attitude, and practice of most patients were at a medium level. Also, most of the participants from Yazd (70.8% and Ahvaz (56.9% had obtained information at AIDS counseling centers. Conclusions The results highlighted the need to educate patients regarding the prevention of HIV transmission.

  5. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control...

  6. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Rob; Clay-Farrace, Lori; van Zon, Wouter; Yekezare, Mona; Koop, Lars; Ogink, Janneke; Medema, Rene; Pines, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Successful mitosis requires the right protein be degraded at the right time. Central to this is the spindle checkpoint that prevents the destruction of securin and cyclin 131 when there are improperly attached chromosomes. The principal target of the checkpoint is Cdc20, which activates the

  7. Rationale for an HIV / AIDS prevention and mitigation strategy for Africa: combatting the multisectoral impact of the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, W H

    1996-01-01

    Unlike most infectious diseases in Africa, HIV/AIDS affects the urban elite as well as the rural poor, and generally during their most economically productive years. An increase in deaths among young adults of the magnitude predicted is likely to have substantial adverse effects on economic, political, and military/security stability throughout Africa. AIDS is causing increased stress on fragile African economic infrastructures as labor productivity declines, particularly in agricultural, labor-dependent economies. AIDS is causing obstacles to trade, foreign investment and tourism. Health systems and social coping mechanisms already are overburdened. High rates of HIV infection among police and military personnel threaten internal security. Furthermore, the demobilization of military forces in Africa may exacerbate the epidemic when HIV-infected soldiers return home and spread the virus. This presentation will illustrate why African AIDS Programs must be expanded to mitigate the multisectoral impact of the epidemic while preserving its spread.

  8. Vaccines 87, modern approaches to new vaccines: Prevention of AIDS and other viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanock, R.M.; Lerner, R.A.; Brown, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains five sections and a summary. Each section consists of several papers. The section titles are: Immunology, AIDS, Pathogenic Bacteria and Viral Glycoproteins, Pathogenesis and Attenuation, and Recombinant Vectors and Paraviruses.

  9. Trends in HIV seroprevalence, AIDS and prevention policy among intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men, before and after 1990 in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piribauer, Franz; Duer, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    This study reports for the first time on secular trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, and possible associations with prevention policy in Austria. We analysed HIV seroprevalence and AIDS cases among intravenous drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study we found a diminished rate of increase in new cases of AIDS and a decline in HIV seroprevalence among IDU but not among MSM. Among clients visiting HIV counselling and testing centres in Austria between 1987 and 1990, seroprevalence among IDU was estimated at 27.9% as compared to 19.6% between 1990 and 1992 (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45-0.85). Among MSM corresponding prevalence for these two periods was 12.1% and 10.9%, respectively, which was not a significant decline. In the period 1990 to 1994, the increase in AIDS cases per half-year levelled off for IDU (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.01) but to a lesser extent among MSM (IRR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02). The most effective prevention policy intervention was considered to be the national methadone maintenance program (MMTP), started in 1987, and the provision of sterile injection equipment. We observed that in the recent period there was a decline in the frequency of attendance among young (less than 28 years of age) MSM at counselling centres (odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), accompanied by the observation that the rate of seroprevalence among this group did not decline. This is in contrast to young IDU where attendance did not decline but seroprevalence did. Although inference is limited from cross sectional studies, we argue for a reoriented and effectively monitored HIV prevention policy focused on young MSM

  10. A survey of Tennessee veterinarian and physician attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding zoonoses prevention among animal owners with HIV infection or AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Petty, Gregory C; Erwin, Paul C; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-06-15

    To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of Tennessee veterinarians and physicians engaged in clinical practice regarding the risk for and prevention of zoonoses in people with HIV infection or AIDS. Cross-sectional survey. Licensed Tennessee veterinarians and physicians engaged in clinical practice. A survey was mailed in January 2010 to 454 licensed veterinarians and 1,737 licensed physicians. 181 of 419 (43.20%) eligible veterinarians and 201 of 1,376 (14.61%) eligible physicians responded to the survey. A majority of both veterinarians (131/179 [73.18%]) and physicians (97/192 [50.52%]) indicated that veterinarians should always or almost always be involved in advising clients with HIV infection or AIDS. The majority of veterinarians (120/173 [69.36%]) indicated they always or almost always discussed with clients the potential risk to immune-compromised persons after diagnosing a zoonosis. A high proportion (88/94 [93.62%]) of physicians indicated they never or rarely initiated discussions about zoonoses with patients with HIV infection or AIDS. All physicians (94/94 [100%]) indicated they never or rarely contacted veterinarians for advice on zoonoses. Similarly, 174 of 180 (96.76%) veterinarians had never or rarely contacted physicians for advice on zoonoses risks. Only 25.97% of veterinarians and 33.33% of physicians were correctly able to identify zoonotic pathogens of greatest concern to people with HIV infection or AIDS. We identified several implications for veterinary medical and medical practice that may reduce zoonoses transmission risks for people with HIV infection or AIDS, including increased communication between veterinarians and physicians, increased communication between people with HIV infection or AIDS and health-care providers, increased availability of client educational materials, and increased participation in zoonoses continuing education opportunities by health-care providers.

  11. International Skin Tear Advisory Panel: a tool kit to aid in the prevention, assessment, and treatment of skin tears using a Simplified Classification System ©.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kimberly; Baranoski, Sharon; Christensen, Dawn; Langemo, Diane; Sammon, Mary Ann; Edwards, Karen; Holloway, Samantha; Gloeckner, Mary; Williams, Ann; Sibbald, R Gary; Regan, Mary

    2013-10-01

    To enhance the learner's competence with knowledge regarding utilization of a tool kit to aid in the prevention, assessment, and treatment of skin tears. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Demonstrate knowledge of skin tear prevention and classification as presented in the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel's tool kit.2. Apply information from the skin tear tool kit to patient care scenarios. The International Skin Tear Advisory Panel has created a tool kit for the prevention, identification, and treatment of skin tears. The tool kit is based on extensive literature reviews, international input from healthcare professionals, and on expert opinion. It has undergone a modified Delphi process.

  12. Preventing Stroke Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Higher opioid prescribing puts patients at risk for addiction and overdose. Learn what can be done about this serious problem.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  13. CDC-reported assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates may mislead the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Choi, Jennifer; Darmon, Sarah K; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publicly reports assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates (LBR) for each US fertility clinic under legal mandate. The 2014 CDC report excluded 35,406 of 184,527 (19.2%) autologous assisted reproductive technology cycles that involved embryo or oocyte banking from LBR calculations. This study calculated 2014 total clinic LBR for all patients utilizing autologous oocytes two ways: including all initiated assisted reproductive technology cycles or excluding banking cycles, as done by the CDC. The main limitation of this analysis is the CDC report did not differentiate between cycles involving long-term banking of embryos or oocytes for fertility preservation from cycles involving short-term embryo banking. Twenty-seven of 458 (6%) clinics reported over 40% of autologous cycles involved banking, collectively performing 12% of all US assisted reproductive technology cycles. LBR in these outlier clinics calculated by the CDC method, was higher than the other 94% of clinics (33.1% versus 31.1%). However, recalculated LBR including banking cycles in the outlier clinics was lower than the other 94% of clinics (15.5% versus 26.6%). LBR calculated by the two methods increasingly diverged based on proportion of banking cycles performed by each clinic reaching 4.5-fold, thereby, potentially misleading the public. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... every trip, no matter how short. Obey speed limits. Never use a cell phone or text while driving. Parents can Understand that most teens ... teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get your copy of CDC's parent-teen driving ...

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Heart Diseases MedlinePlus – Coronary Artery Disease MedlinePlus – High Blood Pressure MedlinePlus – Dietary Sodium ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  16. Acceptability, feasibility and challenges of implementing an HIV prevention intervention for people living with HIV/AIDS among healthcare providers in Mozambique: results of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiantilal, Prafulta; Gutin, Sarah A; Cummings, Beverley; Mbofana, Francisco; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2015-01-01

    Despite the Mozambique government's efforts to curb human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), national prevalence is 11.5% and support is needed to expand HIV-related services and improve program quality. Positive prevention (PP) programs, which prioritize HIV prevention with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV), have been recognized as an important intervention for preventing new HIV infections. To address this, an evidence-based PP training intervention was implemented with HIV healthcare providers in Mozambique. This study focuses on the acceptability and feasibility of a PP intervention in HIV clinics from the healthcare provider perspective. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 healthcare providers from three provinces who participated in PP trainings in Mozambique. Interview data were coded using content analysis. Study data suggest that healthcare providers found PP acceptable, feasible to implement in their HIV work in clinic settings, and valued this strategy to improve HIV prevention. The PP training also led providers to feel more comfortable counseling their patients about prevention, with a more holistic approach that included HIV testing, treatment and encouraging PLHIV to live positively. While overall acceptance of the PP training was positive, several barriers to feasibility surfaced in the data. Patient-level barriers included resistance to disclosing HIV status due to fear of stigma and discrimination, difficulty negotiating for condom use, difficulty engaging men in testing and treatment, and the effects of poverty on accessing care. Providers also identified work environment barriers including high patient load, time constraints, and frequent staff turnover. Recognizing PP as an important intervention, healthcare providers should be trained to provide comprehensive prevention, care and treatment for PLHIV. Further work is needed to explore the complex social dynamics and cultural challenges such as

  17. cdc-25.4, a Caenorhabditis elegans Ortholog of cdc25, Is Required for Male Mating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division cycle 25 (cdc25 is an evolutionarily conserved phosphatase that promotes cell cycle progression. Among the four cdc25 orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that cdc-25.4 mutant males failed to produce outcrossed progeny. This was not caused by defects in sperm development, but by defects in male mating behavior. The cdc-25.4 mutant males showed various defects during male mating, including contact response, backing, turning, and vulva location. Aberrant turning behavior was the most prominent defect in the cdc-25.4 mutant males. We also found that cdc-25.4 is expressed in many neuronal cells throughout development. The turning defect in cdc-25.4 mutant males was recovered by cdc-25.4 transgenic expression in neuronal cells, suggesting that cdc-25.4 functions in neurons for male mating. However, the neuronal morphology of cdc-25.4 mutant males appeared to be normal, as examined with several neuronal markers. Also, RNAi depletion of wee-1.3, a C. elegans ortholog of Wee1/Myt1 kinase, failed to suppress the mating defects of cdc-25.4 mutant males. These findings suggest that, for successful male mating, cdc-25.4 does not target cell cycles that are required for neuronal differentiation and development. Rather, cdc-25.4 likely regulates noncanonical substrates in neuronal cells.

  18. Involving immigrant religious organizations in HIV/AIDS prevention: The role of bonding and bridging social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, ManChui R; Chin, John J; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant religious organizations in the United States are uniquely positioned to address critical issues beyond religion because of their moral, social and cultural prominence in community life. Increasingly, religious organizations have taken on a leadership role around health issues such as decreasing HIV/AIDS stigma and misinformation. However, there are barriers for some religious leaders and organizations in adopting new health programs, especially if the issue is seen as controversial. Our study examines how social network structures among religious members influence organizational acceptance of new information or controversial ideas, like HIV/AIDS. Using social network analysis methods on data from 2841 contacts in 20 immigrant Chinese Buddhist temples and Christian churches in New York City, we tested whether an immigrant religious organization's likelihood of being involved in HIV/AIDS activities was associated with the presence of bonding or bridging social capital. These two forms of social capital have been found to mediate the levels of exposure and openness to new ideas. We found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have lower levels of bonding social capital as indicated by members having fewer ties and fewer demographic attributes in common. We also found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have higher levels of bridging social capital as indicated by members having significantly more ties to people outside of their organization. Our study highlights the importance of looking beyond religion type and leadership attributes to social network structures among members in order to better explain organization-level receptiveness to HIV/AIDS involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aligning resources to fight HIV/AIDS in the United States: funding to states through the US Department of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansergh, Gordon; Valdiserri, Ronald O; Yakovchenko, Vera; Koh, Howard

    2012-04-15

    In response to the first U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy released in July 2010, we assessed how HIV/AIDS funding is spent by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and how these resources align geographically with the HIV/AIDS epidemic according to various measures. Estimated FY2010 spending information was gathered from HHS agencies, including state/territory-level spending by prevention, care, and treatment services of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) - as well as Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). HHS funding is presented descriptively by state in the context of living HIV and AIDS case numbers and rates. Nearly US$16 billion went to discretionary and entitlement spending, 77% of which supported or provided care and treatment by CMS (Medicare, Medicaid) and HRSA; the remainder to research, prevention, and other activities. For states and territories overall, funding was highly correlated with living AIDS case numbers (R(2) = .88) as well as living HIV case numbers (R(2) = .84); funding was far less correlated with case rates (per 100,000 population) for AIDS (R(2) = .35) or HIV (R(2) = .42). HHS HIV/AIDS funding, overall, is well correlated with the number of HIV/AIDS cases in each state/territory. Future assessments should capture information on who is being served, where, and how.

  20. CDC Vital Signs–Native Americans With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This podcast is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  1. CDC Vital Signs–Too Loud for Too Long!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Being around too much loud noise—like a leaf blower or rock concert—can cause permanent hearing loss. Learn how to prevent hearing loss.  Created: 2/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/7/2017.

  2. 13 CFR 120.851 - CDC ethical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CDC ethical requirements. 120.851... Company Loan Program (504) Other Cdc Requirements § 120.851 CDC ethical requirements. CDCs and their Associates must act ethically and exhibit good character. They must meet all of the ethical requirements of...

  3. Multi-Sector Participation In The National Response To Prevent And Address The Hiv/Aids Epidemic In The Republic Of Cuba, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isora Ramos Valle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has received material and financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Program evaluation is carried out by an independent team at ENSAP (National School of Public Health. This paper reports on results of one part of that evaluation: an assessment of the agencies and sectors who made up the organized social and national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The evaluation primarily used qualitative analyses of the activities and tasks proposed by sectors in their 2006-2008 work plans. Visits were made to the provinces of Ciudad de la Habana, Matanzas, and Holguín. Qualitative techniques included in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, observation, and review of documentary evidence of all kinds (videos, reports, minutes, protocols, results of social research, and radio broadcast messages and varied depending on the particular features of each sector. We noted improvements in multi-sector participation in the prevention and response to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Conscious of their role, sectors generally carried out their programmed activities and had improved their organization, planning, and systematization; integration among the sectors was also better. These local initiatives provided evidence of a multi-sector response characterized by autonomy, emotional involvement, and an identification with the goals of the project; this went beyond simply meeting targets. Cross-sector work showed a marked increase and a

  4. Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia relapse in AIDS patients. The efficacy and tolerability of low-dose sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T L; Jensen, Birgitte Nybo; Nelsing, S

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness and tolerability of Sulfamethoxazole with Trimethoprim (SMX-TMP), a dose of 400mg/80mg given twice a day as secondary prophylaxis (SP) against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was assessed retrospectively in 166 AIDS patients. The mean observation period was 9.7 months (range...

  5. A clinical decision aid for the selection of antithrombotic therapy for the prevention of stroke due to atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaHaye, Stephen Andrew; Gibbens, Sabra Lynn; Ball, David Gerald Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The availability of new antithrombotic agents, each with a unique efficacy and bleeding profile, has introduced a considerable amount of clinical uncertainty with physicians. We have developed a clinical decision aid in order to assist clinicians in determining an optimal antithrombotic regime...

  6. The National Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention/Training Clinic Program and the Training of Health Care Providers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Stephen; Kaetz, Susan

    1989-01-01

    A nationwide network of clinics to educate health care providers about clinical aspects of sexually transmitted diseases has succeeded and led to development of a 13-clinic network for training in the clinical, epidemiological, psychological, and social aspects of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), drawing on the earlier clinic…

  7. European Union and EDCTP strategy in the global context: recommendations for preventive HIV/AIDS vaccines research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehner, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Clerici, Mario; Gotch, Frances; Pedneault, Louise; Tartaglia, Jim; Gray, Clive; Mestecky, Jiri; Sattentau, Quentin; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Toure, Coumba; Osmanov, Saladin; Schmidt, Reinold E.; Debre, Patrice; Romaris, Manuel; Hoeveler, Arnd; Di Fabio, Simonetta

    2005-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) has strong commitments and recognises the need to continue to ensure that HIV/AIDS research efforts receive global attention. The EC is facing this challenge in a global context and has made substantial investments together with European Developing Countries Clinical

  8. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  9. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.S. Mataboge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  10. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.S. Mataboge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  11. 75 FR 14447 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory... Decision Making Regarding Allocation of Mechanical Ventilators During a Severe Influenza Pandemic.'' Other agenda items will include updates from the ACD, CDC subcommittees; CDC organizational improvement; the...

  12. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p risk ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  13. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  14. Cdc48: A Swiss Army Knife of Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guem Hee Baek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cdc48 (also called VCP and p97 is an abundant protein that plays essential regulatory functions in a broad array of cellular processes. Working with various cofactors, Cdc48 utilizes its ATPase activity to promote the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. Here, we review key biological functions and regulation of Cdc48 in ubiquitin-related events. Given the broad employment of Cdc48 in cell biology and its intimate ties to human diseases (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, studies of Cdc48 will bring significant insights into the mechanism and function of ubiquitin in health and diseases.

  15. Understanding the barriers that reduce the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies for Puerto Rican women living in low-income households in Ponce, PR: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, S; Sala, A C; Candelaria, E M; Norman, L R

    2010-02-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been strongly felt in Hispanic/Latino communities. Estimates of AIDS prevalence among Latinos in the US reveal that just nine States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico account for 89% of the Latinos living with AIDS in 2004. Previous research reveals social and cultural factors play an important role in HIV prevention. Four focus groups were conducted, with 39 women, ages 21-67, participating in the discussions. The objectives of this research were to assess knowledge regarding HIV transmission among women living in low-income households, to ascertain barriers to safe sex in this population, and to elicit opinions about effective prevention strategies. Our results suggest that participants recognized HIV/AIDS modes of transmission and risk behaviors, as well as their barriers to practicing safe sex. They identified promiscuity, unprotected sex, infidelity, drug and alcohol use, and sharing syringes as behaviors which would place them at risk of HIV/AIDS transmission. They specifically identified lack of negotiating skills, fear of sexual violence, partner refusal to use condoms, and lack of control over their partner's sexual behavior as barriers to practicing safe sex. Finally results also indicate that current HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Puerto Rico are inadequate for these women. To address these issues the authors suggest cultural and social factors to be considered for the development of more effective HIV/AIDS prevention programs.

  16. Cdc42 GTPase dynamics control directional growth responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alexandra C.; Morrison, Emma; Milne, Stephen; Gonia, Sara; Gale, Cheryl A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized cells reorient their direction of growth in response to environmental cues. In the fungus Candida albicans, the Rho-family small GTPase, Cdc42, is essential for polarized hyphal growth and Ca2+ influx is required for the tropic responses of hyphae to environmental cues, but the regulatory link between these systems is unclear. In this study, the interaction between Ca2+ influx and Cdc42 polarity-complex dynamics was investigated using hyphal galvanotropic and thigmotropic responses as reporter systems. During polarity establishment in an applied electric field, cathodal emergence of hyphae was lost when either of the two Cdc42 apical recycling pathways was disrupted by deletion of Rdi1, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, or Bnr1, a formin, but was completely restored by extracellular Ca2+. Loss of the Cdc42 GTPase activating proteins, Rga2 and Bem3, also abolished cathodal polarization, but this was not rescued by Ca2+. Expression of GTP-locked Cdc42 reversed the polarity of hypha emergence from cathodal to anodal, an effect augmented by Ca2+. The cathodal directional cue therefore requires Cdc42 GTP hydrolysis. Ca2+ influx amplifies Cdc42-mediated directional growth signals, in part by augmenting Cdc42 apical trafficking. The Ca2+-binding EF-hand motif in Cdc24, the Cdc42 activator, was essential for growth in yeast cells but not in established hyphae. The Cdc24 EF-hand motif is therefore essential for polarity establishment but not for polarity maintenance. PMID:24385582

  17. THE CDC-CDCR DOCUMENTATION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WADDELL, M S

    1964-01-01

    A progress report on an experiment in mechanized methods for the storage and retrieval of communicable diseases information. The project, supported by National Institutes of Health grants and begun in 1958, is being conducted by the Center for Documentation and Communication Research (CDCR), School of Library Science, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, in cooperation with the Communicable Disease Center (CDC), United States Public Health Service, Atlanta, Georgia. Initial phases have been completed. Seventy-seven questions submitted by the CDC Documentation Committee have been searched by CDCR on their GE-225 computer. For seventy-three of the seventy-seven questions, the system responded with at least one appropriate answer. The combined pertinent and peripheral responses totaled 94.7 percent. The file of abstracted literature is being increased preparatory to large-scale testing. Further investigation and evaluation are necessary before the project can be fairly appraised.

  18. Strategies of media marketing for "America Responds to AIDS" and applying lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, N H

    1991-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) public service announcement (PSA) campaign on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), entitled "America Responds to AIDS," has provided an opportunity to examine various media marketing techniques and their effectiveness in setting and sustaining a national media agenda for public health. The overall objective was to enlist the media as a partner in the effort to establish a clear national public health agenda on AIDS by reaching as many Americans as possible with disease prevention information in a credible and acceptable way. In order for the media to become interested in a subject traditionally treated as health information rather than a "news story," CDC identified and employed various methods and tools to generate coverage. These included the use of news conferences, video and audio news releases, satellite interviews, and press kits developed for each phase of the campaign. News "hooks" were used to grab attention; for example, the use of well-known public health spokespersons in media events or the promotion of free collateral materials. The marketing approach undertaken for each phase of the campaign varied, and lessons were learned and applied along the way. A model emerged indicating that a combination of techniques could result in maximum exposure in both news stories and public affairs programming. Because the model allowed messages to be delivered credibly and consistently, the result was increased usage of the PSAs to coincide with the media coverage. PMID:1659707

  19. New role for Cdc14 phosphatase: localization to basal bodies in the oomycete phytophthora and its evolutionary coinheritance with eukaryotic flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah-Fong, Audrey M V; Judelson, Howard S

    2011-02-14

    Cdc14 protein phosphatases are well known for regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle, particularly during mitosis. Here we reveal a distinctly new role for Cdc14 based on studies of the microbial eukaryote Phytophthora infestans, the Irish potato famine agent. While Cdc14 is transcribed constitutively in yeast and animal cells, the P. infestans ortholog is expressed exclusively in spore stages of the life cycle and not in vegetative hyphae where the bulk of mitosis takes place. PiCdc14 expression is first detected in nuclei at sporulation, and during zoospore formation the protein accumulates at the basal body, which is the site from which flagella develop. The association of PiCdc14 with basal bodies was supported by co-localization studies with the DIP13 basal body protein and flagellar β-tubulin, and by demonstrating the enrichment of PiCdc14 in purified flagella-basal body complexes. Overexpressing PiCdc14 did not cause defects in growth or mitosis in hyphae, but interfered with cytoplasmic partitioning during zoosporogenesis. This cytokinetic defect might relate to its ability to bind microtubules, which was shown using an in vitro cosedimentation assay. The use of gene silencing to reveal the precise function of PiCdc14 in flagella is not possible since we showed previously that silencing prevents the formation of the precursor stage, sporangia. Nevertheless, the association of Cdc14 with flagella and basal bodies is consistent with their phylogenetic distribution in eukaryotes, as species that lack the ability to produce flagella generally also lack Cdc14. An ancestral role of Cdc14 in the flagellar stage of eukaryotes is thereby proposed.

  20. New role for Cdc14 phosphatase: localization to basal bodies in the oomycete phytophthora and its evolutionary coinheritance with eukaryotic flagella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M V Ah-Fong

    Full Text Available Cdc14 protein phosphatases are well known for regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle, particularly during mitosis. Here we reveal a distinctly new role for Cdc14 based on studies of the microbial eukaryote Phytophthora infestans, the Irish potato famine agent. While Cdc14 is transcribed constitutively in yeast and animal cells, the P. infestans ortholog is expressed exclusively in spore stages of the life cycle and not in vegetative hyphae where the bulk of mitosis takes place. PiCdc14 expression is first detected in nuclei at sporulation, and during zoospore formation the protein accumulates at the basal body, which is the site from which flagella develop. The association of PiCdc14 with basal bodies was supported by co-localization studies with the DIP13 basal body protein and flagellar β-tubulin, and by demonstrating the enrichment of PiCdc14 in purified flagella-basal body complexes. Overexpressing PiCdc14 did not cause defects in growth or mitosis in hyphae, but interfered with cytoplasmic partitioning during zoosporogenesis. This cytokinetic defect might relate to its ability to bind microtubules, which was shown using an in vitro cosedimentation assay. The use of gene silencing to reveal the precise function of PiCdc14 in flagella is not possible since we showed previously that silencing prevents the formation of the precursor stage, sporangia. Nevertheless, the association of Cdc14 with flagella and basal bodies is consistent with their phylogenetic distribution in eukaryotes, as species that lack the ability to produce flagella generally also lack Cdc14. An ancestral role of Cdc14 in the flagellar stage of eukaryotes is thereby proposed.

  1. Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  2. AIDS Impact special issue 2009: HIV prevention through sport: the case of the Mathare Youth Sport Association in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Delva , Wim; Michielsen , Kristien; Meulders , Bert; Groeninck , Sandy; Wasonga , Edwin; Ajwang , Pauline; Temmerman , Marleen; Vanreusel , Bart

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Sport has become a popular tool for HIV prevention, based on claims that it can foster life skills that are necessary to translate knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions into actual behaviour. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention programmes is, however, sorely lacking. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof among 454 youth of the Mathare Youth Sport Association (MYSA)...

  3. Gastrointestinal diseases in HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very common complaint. The most common condition associated with this is candidiasis, followed by viral conditions that are included in the CDC classification as AIDS-defining conditions. Gastroscopy is a cornerstone investigation in patients with advanced immunodeficiency.6. Upper GI endoscopy may yield a diagnosis ...

  4. The internal Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 facilitates both spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Zhang, Gang; Sedgwick, Garry G

    2014-01-01

    Improperly attached kinetochores activate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and by an unknown mechanism catalyse the binding of two checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, to Cdc20 forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Here, to address the functional role of Cdc20 kinetochore localization...... in the SAC, we delineate the molecular details of its interaction with kinetochores. We find that BubR1 recruits the bulk of Cdc20 to kinetochores through its internal Cdc20 binding domain (IC20BD). We show that preventing Cdc20 kinetochore localization by removal of the IC20BD has a limited effect...... on the SAC because the IC20BD is also required for efficient SAC silencing. Indeed, the IC20BD can disrupt the MCC providing a mechanism for its role in SAC silencing. We thus uncover an unexpected dual function of the second Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 in promoting both efficient SAC signalling and SAC...

  5. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  6. A violência nas relações afetivas dificulta a prevenção de DST/AIDS? Does violence in the emotional relationships make STD/AIDS prevention more difficult?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Ruzany

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a ocorrência de situações de violência no cotidiano de adolescentes e jovens de comunidades de baixa renda; pesquisar a relação entre uso de drogas e comportamentos de risco de DST/AIDS; e verificar se a violência nas relações afetivas entre adolescentes e jovens dificulta a prevenção de DST/AIDS. MÉTODOS: estudo epidemiológico com adolescentes e jovens de dois bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, a partir dos dados obtidos de um questionário estruturado que versava sobre perfil da clientela, informações sobre a família, uso de drogas, situações de violência do cotidiano, experiência sexual, entre outras. Para o presente artigo, somente as variáveis que particularizavam agressividade, uso de drogas, comportamentos sexuais de risco e violência nas relações afetivas foram analisadas. Em particular, destacou-se a associação da variável "eu usei camisinha na última relação sexual" com as questões que indicavam ou não atitudes violentas nas relações afetivas. RESULTADOS: participaram 1.041 indivíduos na faixa etária entre 14 e 22 anos, sendo 53,6% do sexo feminino. Entre os resultados mais relevantes, observou-se uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre o não uso de preservativo (pOBJECTIVES: to identify violent situations in the daily life of adolescents and young people of low-income communities; to establish a relation between the use of drugs and STD/AIDS risk behavior; and to verify if violence in the emotional relationships between adolescents and young people make the STD/AIDS prevention more difficult. METHOD: epidemiological study with adolescents and young people of two neighborhoods in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on the results obtained from a structured questionnaire that dealt with subjects' profile, information about the family, use of drugs, daily violent situations, sexual experience, among others. For the present article, only the variables that dealt with

  7. Hepatitis Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-27

    Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that’s usually caused by a virus. It can result in chronic illness and even death. In this podcast, Dr. Francisco Averhoff discusses hepatitis.  Created: 7/27/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/27/2017.

  8. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. The seasonal flu vaccination is the best way to protect both mother and baby. In this podcast Dr. Stacie Greby discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  9. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. This podcast discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  10. Preventing Strokes (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-05

    Strokes are the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., and they don’t just occur in older adults. This podcast discusses ways to lessen your chances of having a stroke.  Created: 6/5/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/5/2014.

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men who have sex with men (MSM) as gay or bisexual. Sexually active refers to people who have had sex in the past year. Top of Page On ... for getting HIV: 1 in 4 sexually active gay and bisexual adult men without ... unknown and Have anal sex without a condom, or Recently had a sexually ...

  12. Preventing Strokes (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-05

    Strokes are the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., and they don’t just occur in older adults. Anyone can have a stroke at any age. In this podcast, Dr. Mary George discusses ways to decrease your chances of having a stroke.  Created: 6/5/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/5/2014.

  13. HPV Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-07

    Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a virus that can cause certain cancers and is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. In this podcast, Dr. Laura Viens discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against HPV.  Created: 7/7/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/7/2016.

  14. HPV Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-07

    Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. and is associated with almost 39,000 cancers each year. This podcast discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/7/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/7/2016.

  15. CDC Grand Rounds: global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Samira; Song, Yang; Cohen, Joanna; Eriksen, Michael; Pechacek, Terry; Cohen, Nicole; Iskander, John

    2014-04-04

    During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable.

  16. Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e Aids entre jogadores juniores Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS among junior professional players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Aparecido Silva

    2002-08-01

    there are few studies describing young male vulnerability to HIV. A study was carried out aiming at developing a STD/AIDS prevention program for junior professional soccer players. METHODS: Study participants were twenty-five junior soccer players of a major league professional team of the city of Campinas, Brazil. There were 2 segments. In segment 1, participants were given a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, specific gender-related behaviors, condom use, HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention, and sports associated exposure risk. In segment 2, 17 sessions of group dynamics were carried out. Many forms of expression (speech, writing, pictures, and videos were encouraged to grasp participants' thoughts on STD/AIDS-related matters. RESULTS: Participants showed good knowledge on HIV transmission but they were poorly informed on reproduction and STDs. Unwanted pregnancy is their main concern. As for condom use, 73% consistently used condoms with casual partners (73%, and only 27% consistently used them with regular partners. Also, 58% considered risky to have HIV-positive players among them. CONCLUSIONS: Young players do not consider themselves vulnerable despite their chances of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. They have poor knowledge about the human body and reproductive health. Soccer milieu as well as other sports milieus create great opportunities for prevention programs, where they may have a multiplier effect since athletes are often regarded as role models for children and youngsters.

  17. Empowering Yoruba Women in Nigeria to Prevent HIV/AIDS: The Relative Significance of Behavioural and Social Determinant Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ige Alo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers the relevance to practice of behavioural and social determinant models of HIV prevention among Yoruba women in Nigeria. Exploring what factors influence health behaviour in heterosexual relationships, the key question raised was whether the women’s experiences support the assumptions and prescriptions for action of these two dominant public health models. Eight focus group discussions and 39 in-depth interviews were conducted, which involved 121 women and men who were chosen purposefully and through self-nomination technique. This study revealed that the women were very much constrained by social environments in negotiating safe sex, despite having at least a basic knowledge of HIV prevention. Limiting factors included the fear of relationship breakup, economic dependence, violence, and the difficulties in justifying why they feel the need to insist on condom use, especially since initiating condom use is antithetical to trust. Furthermore, evidence suggested that improved access to income and education might be vital but it does not automatically constitute a direct means of empowering women to prevent HIV infection. The limitations of both behavioural and social determinants perspectives thus suggests the need for a combination prevention model, which focuses on how social, behavioural and biomedical factors overlap in shaping health outcomes.

  18. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Planning, 32(3): 189-213. 62 Bollinger , L, Cooper-Arnold, K., Stover, J. 2004. Where are the Gaps? The Effects of HIV-Prevention Interventions on...International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Tours, France , 2005. Halperin, Daniel T. et al. 2004. he Time Has Come For Common

  19. Twice-weekly pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine effectively prevents Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia relapse and toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schürmann, D.; Bergmann, F.; Albrecht, H.; Padberg, J.; Grünewald, T.; Behnsch, M.; Grobusch, M.; Vallée, M.; Wünsche, T.; Ruf, B.; Suttorp, N.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed 25mg pyrimethamine--500mg sulfadoxine combination plus 15mg folinic acid given twice weekly for the prevention of relapses of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and primary episodes of toxoplasmic encephalitis. METHODS: Ninety-five

  20. Abortion surveillance at CDC: creating public health light out of political heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, W; Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F

    2000-07-01

    In the late 1960s, states began to liberalize their abortion laws, and a new era in women's health began. Under the leadership of Jack Smith, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established a voluntary abortion surveillance system that provided the first nationwide information on the numbers and characteristics of women having abortions. Studies of abortion morbidity done by the CDC revealed that suction curettage was safer than sharp curettage, local anesthesia was safer than general anesthesia, free-standing clinics were safer than hospitals, and dilation and evacuation (D&E) was safer than the alternative of labor induction for early second-trimester abortions. This evidence, which contradicted traditional medical tenets, rapidly changed the practice of abortion in the United States. CDC also established a surveillance system for abortion deaths. This demonstrated a rapid improvement in the safety of abortion in the early 1970s. Lessons learned from mortality investigations helped to change practice as well.Today, more is known about the epidemiology of abortion than any other operation in the history of medicine. In the midst of strident debate over the abortion issue, CDC abortion surveillance data have helped to guide judicial rulings, legislative actions, and Surgeon General's reports, which have supported safer choices for women of reproductive age. When medical historians of the future look back on this century, the increasing availability of safe, legal abortion will stand out as a public health triumph.

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  2. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  3. CDC Signos Vitales: Piense en la septicemia. El tiempo es crucial. (Think Sepsis. Time Matters.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de agosto del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. La septicemia es una emergencia médica y puede ocurrir rápidamente. Conozca los signos de la septicemia y la forma de prevenirla.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  4. CDC Vital Signs–Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  5. NEK11 regulates CDC25A degradation and the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melixetian, M.; Helin, K.; Klein, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    new genes involved in the G2/M checkpoint we performed a large-scale short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library screen. We show that NIMA (never in mitosis gene A)-related kinase 11 (NEK11) is required for DNA damage-induced G2/M arrest. Depletion of NEK11 prevents proteasome-dependent degradation of CDC25A...... that genetic mutations in NEK11 may contribute to the development of human cancer....

  6. A life-skills-based HIV/AIDS prevention education for rural students of primary schools in China: what changed? What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Yang, Bin; Zeng, Xin; Liao, Su-Su

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate a four-hour life-skills-based HIV/AIDS prevention curriculum among 5th grade students in rural primary schools of Hainan province. The study included two stages. Stage one (September 2006-May 2007) was a pre-post-quasi experimental design; a total of 2,413 students aged 9 to 14 years from fifth grade classes of nine primary schools completed a baseline survey (1,720 students were in the intervention group, 693 in the control group), and over 98% of them took part in a short survey. The experimental curriculum was provided to the intervention group. At stage two (September 2008), a cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 6,923 students in 7th grade classes of eight middle schools in the same study sites. There were 1,437 students in the intervention group when the curriculum was conducted. Students tended to score higher in areas of HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes, if they were younger than average, lived in the county seat, had access to the internet, and their parents had completed higher levels of education. Path analysis showed that, after controlling for characteristics such as family and community factors, the total effects of curriculum on knowledge in the short-term model increased remarkably compared with the baseline, and maintained major contributions to knowledge in the mid-term model. The positive effect of knowledge on attitudes was significantly improved in the short-term model as well. A life-skills based curriculum can improve HIV/AIDS related knowledge and self-perceived level of life-skills among primary school students in rural areas in a short time, and these positive effects can still be observed at least 2 years post participation in the curriculum. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analyzing the sources and nature of influence: how the Avahan program used evidence to influence HIV/AIDS prevention policy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan T; Bennett, Sara C; Bishnu, Rituparna; Singh, Suneeta

    2013-04-17

    Major investments by development partners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) often seek to develop a supportive policy environment. There is limited knowledge about the mechanisms that development partners use to influence government policy, or which mechanisms are effective. This study assessed the influence of Avahan, a large HIV/AIDS prevention program in India supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, on the development of HIV/AIDS policies in India, particularly the National AIDS Control Program III (NACP III). A retrospective assessment of the contributions of Avahan to the development of NACP III was conducted based upon document review and in-depth interviews with key informants, including Avahan staff and staff of implementing partners. This assessment was carried out within a framework centered on three domains: evidence considered by policy and decision-makers; the channel through which influence is exerted; and the target audience for influence. Respondents identified a number of respects in which Avahan influenced NACP III policy, notably, Avahan influenced perception of the feasibility of scaling up services (through a demonstration effect) and Avahan, along with others, helped ensure a strong focus on targeted interventions. Overall Avahan's influence was greatest during policy implementation. While the extent to which research evidence generated by Avahan influenced NACP III was limited, best practice evidence generated by Avahan, including the lessons learned from routine implementation and management, contributed significantly to NACP III. This was largely due to the credibility Avahan had established and strategic 'inside track' communications. While studies of knowledge translation typically focus primarily on scientific evidence, this study suggests that other forms of evidence, notably best practice evidence derived from program experience, and disseminated through personal communication, were particularly influential. The

  8. Perseguir al SRAG: CDC en acción (Stalking SARS: CDC at Work)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-29

    En este podcast los niños de Kidtastics hablan sobre el brote del SRAS y cómo trabajaron los CDC para resolver el misterio.  Created: 4/29/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/10/2016.

  9. Human CDT1 associates with CDC7 and recruits CDC45 to chromatin during S phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabeni, Andrea; Zamponi, Raffaela; Caprara, Greta

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a tightly controlled process that involves the formation of distinct complexes at origins of DNA replication at specific periods of the cell cycle. Pre-Replicative Complexes are formed during telophase and early G1. They rearrange at the start of S phase to fo...... to chromatin is regulated by CDC7. We propose a model in which chromatin bound CDT1 is first stabilized and subsequently displaced by CDC7 activity, thereby ensuring the timely execution of DNA replication.......The initiation of DNA replication is a tightly controlled process that involves the formation of distinct complexes at origins of DNA replication at specific periods of the cell cycle. Pre-Replicative Complexes are formed during telophase and early G1. They rearrange at the start of S phase to form...... pre-Initiation Complexes, which are a prerequisite for DNA replication. The CDT1 protein is required for the formation of the pre-Replicative Complexes. Here we show that human CDT1 associates with the CDC7 kinase and recruits CDC45 to chromatin. Moreover, we show that the amount of CDT1 bound...

  10. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... As the leading U.S. government institute for HIV/AIDS research, NIAID is committed to conducting the research necessary ... Budget & Planning Mission and Planning Overview Councils & Committees AIDS Research Advisory Committee AIDS Research Advisory Committee Agenda AIDS ...

  11. Exposure to the 'SIDA dans la Cité' AIDS prevention television series in Côte' d'Ivoire, sexual risk behaviour and condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D; Meekers, D; Tambashe, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assesses factors associated with viewing of 'SIDA dans la Cite', a weekly television soap opera on AIDS in Côte d'Ivoire, and the relationship between 'SIDA dans la Cite' viewing, sexual risk behaviour and condom use. The study uses across-sectional survey of 2150 respondents aged 15-49 in three regions. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of'SIDA dans la Cite' exposure on condom use. The results show that 65% of the sample had seen at least one 'SIDA dans la Cite' episode. Among viewers, 27% of males and 41% of females had seen ten or more episodes. Persons who had risky sexual partners were particularly likely to watch the programme. Women who had seen ten or more episodes were 1.4 times more likely than non-viewers to have used a condom in last sex. Men who had seen ten or more episodes were 2. 7 times more likely to have used a condom. We conclude that television soap operas on AIDS, such as 'SIDA dans la Cite',can be an important tool for promoting condom use. The programme was most appealing to viewers who engaged in risky behaviour, who are the core transmitters of the virus. HIV prevention programmes that provide continuous information, through multiple media channels or through series of broadcasts, are likely to have the greatest impact on condom use.

  12. Modelling the relationship between antiretroviral treatment and HIV prevention: limitations of the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model in a changing policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2007-08-01

    This paper shows how two publicly available epidemiological modelling packages, namely the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model and the ASSA2003 AIDS and Demographic Model, predict very different impacts from rolling out highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on new HIV infections. Using South Africa as a case study, it shows that the ASSA2003 model predicts a significant drop in new HIV infections as HAART is rolled out, whereas the Spectrum model assumes that HAART does not have a preventative impact (and in fact generates a small increase in new HIV infections). Users will thus draw different conclusions about the public health benefits of HAART depending on which modelling package they use. Despite being presented as a policy-oriented modelling tool capable of exploring 'what if' questions about the impact of different policy choices, the Spectrum model is illequipped to do so with regard to a HAART rollout. Unlike Spectrum, ASSA2003 is more flexible and its assumptions are clear. Better modelling and more information (including about the relationship between HAART and sexual risk behaviour) is required to develop appropriate public-policy modelling for the HAART era.

  13. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Epidemiology, Analysis, and Library Services (DEALS) Disparities Analytics CDC Disability and Health, Health Care Data & Statistics Healthy People 2020 HHS National Partnership for Action (NPA) AHRQ ...

  14. Cdc42 promotes host defenses against fatal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Keunwook; Boyd, Kelli L; Parekh, Diptiben V

    2013-01-01

    attempted to specifically delete it in these cells by crossing the Cdc42(fl/fl) mouse with a FSP-1 cre mouse, which is thought to mediate recombination exclusively in fibroblasts. Surprisingly, the FSP-1cre;Cdc42(fl/fl) mice died at 3 weeks of age due to overwhelming suppurative upper airway infections...... showed that in addition to fibroblasts, the FSP-1 cre deleted Cdc42 very efficiently in all leukocytes. Thus, by using this non-specific cre mouse we inadvertently demonstrated the importance of Cdc42 in host protection from lethal infections and suggest a critical role for this small GTPase in innate...

  15. AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers from the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) work to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related tumors,...

  16. Perceptions of factors associated with condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS among persons with physical disability in an urban town of Cameroon: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis E. Tarkang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with disabilities have been identified as one of the groups vulnerable to HIV, due to several challenges posed by their disabilities. They also suffer external stigma from their able bodied peers. However, they have largely been ignored as part of HIV prevention programs, largely due to the perceptions that they are not at risk, and information is not being accessible. About 5.4% of the Cameroon population lives with a disability. In Cameroon, no official statistics exist on perception of factors associated with condom use to prevent HIV among persons with disabilities, which creates a challenge for understanding the extent of the pandemic in this population. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate perceptions of factors associated with condom use among persons with physical disability in an urban town of Cameroon. The qualitative study from which this paper is based, used semi-structured in-depth interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of ten (5 male and 5 female persons with physical disability, aged 18 years and above, in April 2015. The findings of this study as interpreted according to the components of the Health Belief Model, indicated that perceived susceptibility to HIV, perceived severity of HIV, perceived benefit of condom use, perceived barriers to condom use and perceived self-efficacy for condom use were the factors perceived by persons with physical disability, to be associated with condom use. It is therefore recommended that there should be educational programs in HIV/AIDS targeted specifically at persons with physical disability. These programs should pertinently promote the understanding and perceptions of persons with physical disability of the real threat of HIV/AIDS, and also equip them with condom negotiation skills and strategies to overcome barriers to condom use.

  17. COMPETÊNCIA TÉCNICA NA PREVENÇÃO DO HIV/AIDS: VALIDAÇÃO DE UM INSTRUMENTO COMPETENCIA TÉCNICA EN LA PREVENCIÓN DE HIV/AIDS: VALIDACIÓN DE UN INSTRUMENTO TECHNICAL COMPETENCE IN THE PREVENTION OF HIV/AIDS: VALIDATION OF AN INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson de Vasconcelos Torres

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo construir e validar um instrumento para mensurar a competência técnica das ações educativas desenvolvidas pelo enfermeiro, na prevenção do HIV/AIDS nas unidades básicas de saúde (UBS. As etapas percorridas para a construção e testagem da fidedignidade do instrumento, foram: elaboração de itens relacionados a competência técnica na prevenção do HIV/AIDS; aplicação do instrumento numa amostra de 30 enfermeiros de diferentes instituições hospitalares e de ensino. O instrumento apresentou um nível satisfatório de estabilidade, homogeneidade e reprodutibilidade.El estudio tuvo como objetivo construir y validar un instrumento para medir la competencia de las acciones educativas desarrolladas por el enfermero en la prevención de HIV/AIDS en las unidades básicas de salud (UBS. Las etapas recorridas para la construcción y prueba de fidedignidad del instrumento, fueron: elaboración de ítems relacionados con la competencia técnica en la prevención de HIV/AIDS; aplicación del instrumento en una muestra de 30 enfermeros de diferentes instituciones hospitalarias y de enseñanza. El instrumento presentó un nivel satisfactorio de estabilidad, homogeneidad y reproductibilidad.This study aimed at building and validating an instrument to measure the technical competence of educational actions developed by nurses in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Basic Health Units (BHU. The phases for constructing and testing the fidelity of the instrument were: elaboration of items related to the technical competence in the prevention of HIV/AIDS; application of the instrument in a sample of 30 male nurses from different hospitals and teaching institutions. The instrument presented a satisfactory level of stability, homogeneity and reproduction.

  18. Evaluation of the ZIG-ZAIDS game: a playful-educative resource for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, V T; Monteiro, S; Rebello, S M; Torres, M

    1999-11-01

    This article presents the evaluation process for the ZIG-ZAIDS game, investigating the material's applicability in formal and informal educational contexts, i.e., how the game has been used by health professionals, parents, and the target population (pre-adolescents, or children over 9 years old). The study involved evaluation questionnaires sent to a list of schools and institutions using the game, plus interviews and visits to places where the game was used and tested with groups of students. It also includes an analysis of evaluation previously sent by the authors to people who had requested the game. The results showed that the population's level of information is more relevant than age in relation to the game's impact. Another important aspect relates to ZIG-ZAIDS' applicability to different situations: training of health and teaching professionals; activities with street children; municipal institutions and events, schools, companies, communities, and health care centers. In summary, ZIG-ZAIDS was found to be an entertaining, creative, and innovative alternative for providing information on AIDS and sexuality.

  19. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  20. A Live Threat Violence Simulation Exercise for Psychiatric Outpatient Departments: A Valuable Aid to Training in Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2017-10-30

    Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings is a ubiquitous concern. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a live threat violence simulation exercise, designed to reduce the risk of future outpatient clinic violence and minimize the effects of future incidents on staff. The psychiatric outpatient clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital developed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-hour live violence threat simulation exercise as a companion to a 7-hour violence prevention program. The simulation includes an orientation, two threat simulation scenarios, three debriefings, satisfaction surveys, problem identification, action plans, and annual safety and process improvements. The authors have conducted live violence simulation exercises from 2011-2016, and have collected survey data about our annual simulation exercise from 2014-2016. Each year ≥ 52% of participants responded, and each year ≥ 90% of respondents rated the simulation as "very helpful/helpful", ≥ 86% believed themselves to be "much better/better" prepared to deal with violent episodes, and simulation side effects such as worries about past trauma; anxiety; sleep problems; increase in workplace concerns. From 2011-2016, the clinic experienced 4 major violent episodes and 36 episodes of potential violence with no staff injuries and minimal psychological sequelae to one staff member. Violence prevention efforts and the development of close police/staff relationships may have contributed to these fortunate outcomes. Satisfaction surveys suggest that the simulations are very helpful/helpful, with participants feeling much better/ better prepared to manage violence. The exercises led the authors to initiate staff safety related behavioral changes as well as physical space and safety processes improvements. The violence prevention program and simulation exercises have promoted excellent relationships with police and a consistent safety record over six years. This

  1. Isolation of a cdc28 mutation that abrogates the dependence of S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have isolated a mutation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisisae CDC28 gene that allows cdc13 cells, carrying damaged DNA, to continue with the cell division cycle. While cdc13 mutant cells are arrested as large-budded cells at the nonpermissive temperature 37°C, the cdc13 cdc28 double mutant culture ...

  2. Negotiating Ability of Using Condom to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS of Commercial Sex Worker Woman in Region Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Widodo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data from Board of Health in Surakarta City, on 8 September 2005, from 155 commercial sex worker woman had blood examined, there were 7 persons positive in HIV. One of factor affecting the high infection HIV/AIDS in women commercial sex worker was low use of condom. Aims of this research was to know factor-factor associated with didn’t use of condom and social aspect negotiations about using condom (education, economics status, working experience, devilling place, occupation, ethnic, religious, and income. This research is qualitative research using guided group discussion technique, in-depth interview, and participatory observation. Subject for this research were 30 persons, consist of 25 commercial sex worker, 3 guest, 1 room owner, and 1 parent. Independent variables in this research are social economics characteristic, demography and community characteristics. Dependent variables as PPSK capability in condom using negotiating to prevent sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. Commonly, despite knowing that everyone, including themselves, is vulnerable to AIDS infection, the respondents ignore asking the guest/partners for condom use. Most of them don’t ask for condom use due to their fear of either being the target of the guest anger and bad words, or losing money from them. Women commercial sex worker Silir in using condom and prevent sexual transmitted disease had free education from Board of Health in Surakarta City. In the street prostitutes are low support from peer, room owner, hotel owner, or guest about using condom for women commercial sex worker in illegal place, caused women commercial sex worker in the street more potential and high risk to spread sexual transmitted diseases than they were operated in Silir. The low capability of the street prostitutes for negotiating condom use with the guest customers results from: misperception on "safe-sex" behavior for seeking "help", economic and psychology pressure, free and

  3. Evidence-based HIV/STD prevention intervention for black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Painter, Thomas M; Tomlinson, Hank L; Alvarez, Maria E

    2014-04-18

    This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HIV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs.

  4. AIDS: the global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J

    1987-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic that affects all countries, developing and industrialized. The impacts of AIDS range from social, cultural, psychological to the economic and political. The World Health Organization (WHO) has mobilized international and national interest and resources to work on AIDS control and prevention. AIDS spreads in 3 ways mother to child, through blood, and sexually. Screening blood supplies can prevent the spread of AIDS. In 1987, 105 countries reported 49,132 cases to WHO, and estimated indicated over 100,000 cases. WHO estimate that by 1991 there will be over 1 million cases worldwide. Infant mortality rates due to AIDS may be 10-20/1000 births where 10% of pregnant women are infected. Homosexual, or bisexual men and intravenous drug users from 20 to 49 year old make up most of the cases of AIDS in North and South America, Europe, and Australia. It is estimated that Africa has over 1 million AIDS infected people but accurate counts are not available. There have been a small number of cases reported in Asia, and most of these have resulted from contaminated blood. It is currently estimated that 10- 30% of HIV infected persons will develop AIDS, and 25-50% will develop an AIDS related disease within 5 years. The majority of HIV infected persons will develop AIDS within 10 years and the rest, AIDS related diseases. The cost of a patient can run for $50,000-150,000 in direct medical care in industrialized countries. Since most of the people infected are from 20-49 years of age, their most productive years, a country's social and economic development is threatened. Education is presently the only way to prevent the spread of AIDS, and therefore all governments, as well as health and medical professional must make a extraordinary commitment.

  5. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Colette; Zou, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Marston, Adele L

    2017-01-05

    Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This "licensing" ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of cyclical events at the meiosis I to meiosis I

  6. Building company health promotion capacity: a unique collaboration between Cargill and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E; Hersey, James C; Isenberg, Karen L; Lynch, Christina M; Majestic, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) helps protect the health and safety of all people. The workplace can be used to reach millions of workers and their families with programs, policies, and benefits that promote health. We describe a CDC-led project to build Cargill's workplace health promotion capacity and identify the importance of a company liaison in the public-private relationship. The project goals were to engage diverse Cargill personnel, conduct a workplace health assessment, aid in the development of a workplace health program action plan, and develop Cargill's internal capacity using knowledge and skill-building. CDC partnered with Cargill on a workplace health promotion project to build Cargill's capacity. A multicomponent assessment was conducted to determine priority employee health issues, stakeholder meetings were held to engage and educate Cargill management and employees, and technical assistance was provided regularly between CDC and Cargill. Identifying a company liaison to work with an external assessment team is critical to building capacity for a successful workplace health project. This relationship creates an understanding of company culture and operations, facilitates access to key stakeholders and data, and provides opportunities to enhance capacity and sustainability. Employers undertaking workplace health promotion projects should identify a senior-level person to serve as the company health leader or liaison and who can devote the time necessary to build trusting relationships with partners to ensure project success. This person is valuable in facilitating communications, data collection, logistical support, troubleshooting, and influencing employer workplace health practices.

  7. Improving integration and coordination of funding, technical assistance, and reporting/data collection: recommendations from CDC and USAPI stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; White, Susan F; Rochester, Phyllis F; Holden, Debra J

    2011-03-01

    Current US Federal funding mechanisms may foster program silos that disable sharing of resources and information across programs within a larger system of public health services. Such silos present challenges to USAPI communities where human resources, health infrastructure, and health financing are limited. Integrative and coordinated approaches have been recommended. The CDC Pacific Islands Integration and Coordination project was initiated by the CDC Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC). The project aim was to identify ways for the CDC to collaborate with the USAPI in improving CDC activities and processes related to chronic disease. This article focuses on recommendations for improving coordination and integration in three core areas of health services programming: funding, program reporting/data collection and analysis, and technical assistance. Preliminary information on challenges and issues relevant to the core areas was gathered through site visits, focus groups, key informant interviews, and other sources. This information was used by stakeholder groups from the CDC and the USAPI to develop recommendations in the core programming areas. Recommendations generated at the CDC and USAPI stakeholder meetings were prepared into a single set of recommendations and stakeholders reviewed the document for accuracy prior to its dissemination to CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion programs management and staff. Key recommendations, include: (1) consideration of resources and other challenges unique to the USAPI when reviewing funding applications, (2) consideration of ways to increase flexibility in USAPI use of program funds, (3) dedication of funding and human resources for technical assistance, (4) provision of opportunities for capacity-building across programs and jurisdictions, (5) consideration of ways to more directly link program reporting with technical assistance. This project provided a unique opportunity

  8. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  9. Top syndicated pages from CDC.gov by weekly page views

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC Content Syndication site at https://tools.cdc.gov/syndication/ allows you to import content from CDC websites directly into your own website or application....

  10. Knowledge and Attitudes about HIV/AIDS among Homoeopathic Practitioners and Educators in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Nyamathi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to assess AIDS knowledge among Homeopathy educators and physicians in India, which has not been evaluated previously. India now has the largest number of HIV infected persons worldwide, with an estimated cumulative 5.1 million infections. Homeopathy is the dominant system among the nationally-recognized alternative or complementary systems of medicine, which collectively provide health care to around 600 million people in India. Homeopathy, with its holistic and patient-centered approach, has a wide reach to people at risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Participants were 68 homeopathy physicians (34 educators and 34 practitioners who completed a CDC questionnaire measuring HIV/AIDS Knowledge regarding AIDS. This study reports the current level of knowledge of, and attitudes about, HIV/AIDS among homeopathy educators and practitioners. These findings will assist in the development of an education module to equip homeopathic health care personnel to impart accurate AIDS information and prevention counseling to their patients in an efficient manner.

  11. Identification of the quinolinedione inhibitor binding site in Cdc25 phosphatase B through docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yushu; van der Kamp, Marc; Malaisree, Maturos; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yi; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2017-11-01

    Cdc25 phosphatase B, a potential target for cancer therapy, is inhibited by a series of quinones. The binding site and mode of quinone inhibitors to Cdc25B remains unclear, whereas this information is important for structure-based drug design. We investigated the potential binding site of NSC663284 [DA3003-1 or 6-chloro-7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethylamino)-quinoline-5, 8-dione] through docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Of the two main binding sites suggested by docking, the molecular dynamics simulations only support one site for stable binding of the inhibitor. Binding sites in and near the Cdc25B catalytic site that have been suggested previously do not lead to stable binding in 50 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In contrast, a shallow pocket between the C-terminal helix and the catalytic site provides a favourable binding site that shows high stability. Two similar binding modes featuring protein-inhibitor interactions involving Tyr428, Arg482, Thr547 and Ser549 are identified by clustering analysis of all stable MD trajectories. The relatively flexible C-terminal region of Cdc25B contributes to inhibitor binding. The binding mode of NSC663284, identified through MD simulation, likely prevents the binding of protein substrates to Cdc25B. The present results provide useful information for the design of quinone inhibitors and their mechanism of inhibition.

  12. Field evaluation of CDC and Mosquito Magnet X traps baited with dry ice, CO2 sachet, and octenol against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Doyle, Melissa A; Kline, Daniel L

    2008-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnet X (MMX) traps baited with dry ice, octenol, and a new formulation (granular) of carbon dioxide (CO2) were evaluated against adult mosquitoes in the field. The results showed that the MMX traps (68.6%) baited with dry ice collected more mosquitoes compared to the CDC light traps (32.4%) only. The CDC traps baited with dry ice (64%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (11%) or octenol (23%). The MMX traps baited with dry ice (85.5%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (6.5%) or octenol (9%). The CDC traps baited with the formulations of normal and slow release CO2 sachets collected more mosquitoes than the formulation of fast release sachets. The CDC traps baited with fresh sachets and 24-h-exposed sachets collected significantly more mosquitoes than the traps baited with 48-h- and 72-h-exposed sachets.

  13. Characterization of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: an aid to effective engineering controls and preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E C; Cook, C E

    1998-08-01

    Assessment of strategies for engineering controls for the prevention of airborne infectious disease transmission to patients and to health care and related workers requires consideration of the factors relevant to aerosol characterization. These factors include aerosol generation, particle size and concentrations, organism viability, infectivity and virulence, airflow and climate, and environmental sampling and analysis. The major focus on attention to engineering controls comes from recent increases in tuberculosis, particularly the multidrug-resistant varieties in the general hospital population, the severely immunocompromised, and those in at-risk and confined environments such as prisons, long-term care facilities, and shelters for the homeless. Many workers are in close contact with persons who have active, undiagnosed, or insufficiently treated tuberculosis. Additionally, patients and health care workers may be exposed to a variety of pathogenic human viruses, opportunistic fungi, and bacteria. This report therefore focuses on the nature of infectious aerosol transmission in an attempt to determine which factors can be systematically addressed to result in proven, applied engineering approaches to the control of infectious aerosols in hospital and health care facility environments. The infectious aerosols of consideration are those that are generated as particles of respirable size by both human and environmental sources and that have the capability of remaining viable and airborne for extended periods in the indoor environment. This definition precludes skin and mucous membrane exposures occurring from splashes (rather than true aerosols) of blood or body fluids containing infectious disease agents. There are no epidemiologic or laboratory studies documenting the transmission of bloodborne virus by way of aerosols.

  14. A questão da mulher e a Aids: novos olhares e novas tecnologias de prevenção The issue of the woman and Aids: new views and new technologies of prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Teresinha Alves Amaro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A aids cresce em cifras no Brasil e no mundo. No mundo todo, cerca de 42 milhões de pessoas são soropositivas. Desde o início da década de 80 até setembro de 2003, foram notificados 277.154 casos de aids no Brasil. Atrás desses índices está uma triste realidade: a epidemia cresce 9 vezes mais entre as mulheres. São, no geral, jovens ou mulheres casadas ou que têm relacionamento fixo, sem comportamento promíscuo e que contraíram o vírus dentro de "casa". Junto à descoberta da contaminação pelo vírus, vem a dolorosa verdade da traição do parceiro, a implacável confirmação da fragilidade da relação conjugal vivida, mas principalmente, a morte do mito do amor ideal, guardado numa aliança ou numa união estável. Cada vez mais, vidas femininas são ceifadas assim, com essa história de amor incondicional relativo ao parceiro e total ausência de amor próprio. Devoção de um lado e negligência de outro. Mais do que uma suposta questão filosófica, antropológica ou ontológica, creio que, diante dos números apresentados, o baixo auto-cuidado feminino trata-se de um problema de saúde pública. Mas o que temos feito em termos de prevenção a Aids diante do segmento feminino e suas demandas? Na oportunidade deste relato, teceremos considerações sobre como nós, profissionais de saúde, podemos contribuir na gestão e desenvolvimento de novos programas e tecnologias de prevenção que alcancem o universo feminino e efetivamente desviem-no do comportamento de risco.HIV grows in numbers in Brazil and around the world. In the whole world, about 42 millions people are HIV positive. Since the beginning of the 80's until September of 2003, there were 277.154 cases of HIV confirmed in Brazil. Behind those rates there is a sad reality: the epidemy grows at a rate 9 times higher among women. They are, in general, youngsters or married women or women with stable relationships, without promiscuous behavior and that acquired the

  15. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  16. Knowledge of venomous snakes, snakebite first aid, treatment, and prevention among clinicians in northern Nigeria: a cross-sectional multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Godpower C; Grema, Bukar A; Aliyu, Ibrahim; Alhaji, Mohammed A; Lawal, Teslim O; Ibrahim, Haliru; Fikin, Aminu G; Gyaran, Fatima S; Kane, Kennedy N; Thacher, Thomas D; Badamasi, Abba K; Ogwuche, Emmanuel

    2018-02-01

    Snakebite envenoming causes considerable morbidity and mortality in northern Nigeria. The clinician's knowledge of snakebite impacts outcome. We assessed clinicians' knowledge of snakebite envenoming to highlight knowledge and practice gaps for possible intervention to improve snakebite outcomes. This was a cross-sectional multicentre study of 374 doctors selected from the accident and emergency, internal medicine, family medicine/general outpatient, paediatrics and surgery departments of nine tertiary hospitals in northern Nigeria using a multistage sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their sociodemographics, knowledge of common venomous snakes, snakebite first aid, snake antivenom treatment and prevention. The respondents' mean age was 35.6±5.8 y. They were predominantly males (70.6%) from urban hospitals (71.9%), from the northwest region (35.3%), in family medicine/general outpatient departments (33.4%), of <10 years working experience (66.3%) and had previous experience in snakebite management (78.3%). Although their mean overall knowledge score was 70.2±12.6%, only 52.9% had an adequate overall knowledge score. Most had adequate knowledge of snakebite clinical features (62.3%), first aid (75.7%) and preventive measures (97.1%), but only 50.8% and 25.1% had adequate knowledge of snake species that caused most injuries/deaths and anti-snake venom treatment, respectively. Overall knowledge predictors were ≥10 y working experience (odd ratio [OR] 1.72 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.07 to 2.76]), urban hospital setting (OR 0.58 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.96]), surgery department (OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.24 to 0.81]), northwest/north-central region (OR 2.36 [95% CI 1.46 to 3.82]) and previous experience in snakebite management (OR 2.55 [95% CI 1.49 to 4.36]). Overall knowledge was low. Improvements in overall knowledge may require clinicians' exposure to snakebite management and training of accident and emergency clinicians in the region.

  17. Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: the "HIV Treatment as Prevention" experience in a Canadian setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio S G Montaner

    Full Text Available There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP. However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized.We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals.HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330 and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115. New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004 with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003. Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%.Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines offer a unique opportunity to

  18. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ... Personal Stories Photos PLWHA People Living with HIV/AIDS Podcasts PrEP Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Prevention PWID People Who Inject Drugs Research Research Agenda Ryan White Ryan White HIV/AIDS ...

  19. Perceptions about sexual abstinence and knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention among in-school adolescents in a western Nigerian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayemi Mojisola M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females, selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79% abstained compared with the females (98%. Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative

  20. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Flávia G; Galan, Bryan S M; Santos, Priscila C; Pritchett, Kelly; Pfrimer, Karina; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Papoti, Marcelo; Marchini, Júlio S; de Freitas, Ellen C

    2017-01-01

    not improve aerobic parameters, but was effective in increasing taurine plasma levels and decreasing oxidative stress markers, which suggests that taurine may prevent oxidative stress in triathletes.