Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C
Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kass, Andrea E.; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P.; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Balantekin, Katherine N.; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C. Barr; Wilfley, Denise E.
Purpose Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. Methods 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Results Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Conclusions Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. PMID:27090854
Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E
Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, 2015
As colleges strive to improve student success and completion, helping students delay pregnancy and parenting (or having additional children) means one less factor that can interfere with their college education. However, pregnancy planning and prevention is not something most colleges address, especially at the community college level. There are…
Bouwman, Hindrik; van den Berg, Henk; Kylin, Henrik
Background The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities. Discussion Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT “good”? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is “good” because it saves lives, and “not safe” because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction. Conclusions There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives. PMID:21245017
Bouwman, H.; Berg, van den H.; Kylin, H.
Background: The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective: We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT
Lerman, Stephen J.; Bernardo, John; Daly, Jennifer S.; Husson, Robert
To help college health services in all parts of the country improve their approach to latent tuberculosis, two Listservs were provided for them to post their questions on dealing with TB infection. In this article, the authors present some of the questions posted in the Listservs and their corresponding answers. In their answers, the authors have…
White, Wendi E; Carmody, Dianne
Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students' experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem. © The Author(s) 2016.
Seneres, Alice W.; Kerrigan, John A.
There are specific topics in college calculus that can be major stumbling blocks for students. Having taught college calculus for four years to over a thousand students, we observed that even the students who have already taken pre-calculus or calculus during their high school careers had common misunderstandings. Students may remember a technique…
Gerards, Sanne M P L; Sleddens, Ester F C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Observational studies increasingly emphasize the impact of general parenting on the development of childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of the current literature review was to provide an overview of interventions addressing general parenting in order to prevent or treat childhood obesity. Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies described four different general parenting programs, which were supplemented with lifestyle components (i.e., physical activity and nutrition). All studies showed significant small to moderate intervention effects on at least one weight-related outcome measure. The current review shows that despite the emerging observational evidence for the role of parenting in children's weight-related outcomes, few interventions have been developed that address general parenting in the prevention of childhood obesity. These interventions provide evidence that the promotion of authoritative parenting is an effective strategy for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.
McMahon, Sarah; Hoffman, Melanie Lowe; McMahon, Sheila M.; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander education is an increasingly utilized strategy for addressing sexual assault prevention and intervention on U.S. college campuses. Given the paramount importance of peers among college students, what types of pro-social bystander interventions do students themselves deem feasible in the campus context? Drawing on self-reports from…
Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.
Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…
Fernández Rodríguez, María Del C; Huertas, Ivonne Bayron
Described by Durkheim (1966) as the crudest expression of the social phenomena, suicide is of interest to clinicians, academics and researchers. Within the academic context, this issue has to be addressed and prevented. We are interested in sharing the process of participative action that led to the creation of a Suicide Prevention Program (SPP) for college students. Based on knowledge that was generated through a collaborative effort among all sectors of the academic community, we developed a prevention campaign that is culturally sensitive to our university's environment. This campaign is directed towards overcoming the stigma of seeking help and is characterized by promoting a sense of wellbeing in a holistic manner, paying attention not only to the individual, but also to elements of their sociocultural environment.
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.
Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…
McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie
Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…
Wilson, Judy C.
College student persistence has been a concern of researchers and practitioners since the early 1960s. Traditional models have addressed the need for students to be integrated into the academic and social domains of the college campus. Recently, critical theorists and researchers have been questioning the relevance of the traditional models for…
Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.
A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…
Full Text Available After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furthermore, almost all lone operators do display a degree of commitment to, and identification with, extremist movements – providing leads for preventing new rounds of radicalization within this potential group of sympathizers or followers. With the apparent increase of Islamist lone wolf terrorism and fears for right-wing extremists wanting to follow the example of the Norwegian mass murderer A.B. Breivik, new questions need to be posed, addressing the role of virtual communities with which lone operators identify themselves.
Kost-Smith, Lauren Elizabeth
-affirmation was strongest for females who endorsed the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. The findings of this thesis suggest that there are multiple factors that contribute to the underperformance of females in physics. Establishing this model of gender differences is a first step towards increasing females' participation and performance in physics, and can be used to guide future interventions to address the disparities.
LaTour, M S; Pitts, R E
A multiple-indicator model reveals the impact of AIDS prevention advertising on dimensions of arousal and subsequent cognitive impressions of the advertisement. Exploratory results obtained from a sample of college students indicate that levels of arousal and impressions of the advertisement vary according to emphasis on the deadly consequences of AIDS. These findings have strategic implications for addressing important target groups such as college students.
Ghanem, Omar M; Heitmiller, Richard F
We reviewed the first 100 years of presidential addresses delivered at the fall congress of the American College of Surgeons (ACS). Our hypothesis was that these addresses would be an excellent indicator of the College's position on surgical policy, ethics, methods, and education. All ACS presidential addresses from 1913 to 2013 were identified through the ACS archives website. This included the presenter, title, year, and citation if published in a peer reviewed journal. The text of each address was obtained from the ACS archives, or from the listed citations. Addresses were then classified into 1 of 6 subgroups based on content-surgical credo, medical innovation, medical education, surgical history, business and legal, and personal tribute. The 100-year period was divided into 5 interval each of 20-year and the frequency of each category was graphed over time. There were 111 ACS presidential addresses delivered in the study period. Distribution by category was surgical credo (57%), surgical history (14%), medical innovation (10%), medical education (8%), business and legal (6%), and personal tributes (5%). The frequency of surgical credo has remained stable over time. Business and legal emerged as a new category in 1975. The other topics had low, but stable frequency. ACS presidential addresses do reflect the College's position on surgical policy and practice. The college has remained consistent in serving its members, maintaining, and defining the role of its organization, the qualifications for membership, and the expectations for the professional conduct of its members. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yajnik, Chittaranjan S
The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hightower, Helen C.
This study examined whether the phenomenon of "parental over-involvement" occurred in the Virginia Community College System. Concern has been expressed in the popular and academic literature in recent years over the increased level of parental involvement at four year institutions whose student bodies consist almost exclusively of…
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Warrener, Corinne; Koenick, Ruth Anne
To address the widespread problem of sexual assault, many colleges and universities are providing primary prevention education programs. Although a number of such programs exist and appear in the literature (for review see Vladutiu, Martin, & Macy, 2011), the role of peer education theater offers a unique approach. Peer education has been…
Daniels-Witt, Quri; Thompson, Amy; Glassman, Tavis; Federman, Sara; Bott, Katie
Opiate abuse in the United States is on the rise among the college student population. This public health crisis requires immediate action from professionals and stakeholders who are committed to addressing the needs of prospective, current, and recovering opiate users using comprehensive prevention methods. Such approaches have been used to…
Arria, Amelia M; Jernigan, David H
Excessive drinking among college students is a serious and pervasive public health problem. Although much research attention has focused on developing and evaluating evidence-based practices to address college drinking, adoption has been slow. The Maryland Collaborative to Reduce College Drinking and Related Problems was established in 2012 to bring together a network of institutions of higher education in Maryland to collectively address college drinking by using both individual-level and environmental-level evidence-based approaches. In this article, the authors describe the findings of this multilevel, multicomponent statewide initiative. To date, the Maryland Collaborative has succeeded in providing a forum for colleges to share knowledge and experiences, strengthen existing strategies, and engage in a variety of new activities. Administration of an annual student survey has been useful for guiding interventions as well as evaluating progress toward the Maryland Collaborative's goal to measurably reduce high-risk drinking and its radiating consequences on student health, safety, and academic performance and on the communities surrounding college campuses. The experiences of the Maryland Collaborative exemplify real-world implementation of evidence-based approaches to reduce this serious public health problem.
Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.
Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution.…
Hartley, Michael T.; Mapes, Aimee C.; Taylor, Aryn; Bourgeois, Paul J.
As digital information becomes the preferred mode of communication, media applications have become an emerging context to address attitudes toward disability. This practice brief details digital media as one method to critically frame ableism on college campuses, promoting a more inclusive campus environment. Coordinated by the disability service…
Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah
Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…
Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...
Aldrich, Rosalie S
The objective of this article was to examine college students' intention to intervene with a suicidal individual and examine the Willingness to Intervene against Suicide questionnaire (WIS). College students (n = 1065) completed an online questionnaire about their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding suicide and suicide intervention as well as their intention to intervene with a suicidal individual. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and multiple regression. It was found that the WIS significantly predicted intention to intervene with a suicidal individual. The WIS was internally consistent with adequate goodness-of-fit indices for three of the four sub-scales. The WIS is an effective tool for predicting intention to intervene; however, the subjective norms sub-scale should be revised to improve the model.
Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.
The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…
Eisen, Arri; Kushner, Howard; McLeod, Mark; Queen, Edward; Gordon, Jonathan; Ford, John L
The authors present an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to address the problem of increasing student mental health issues on college campuses. The model uses addiction and depression as lenses into the problem and links residence life and academic and community internship experiences. The project has a positive impact on student attitudes and actions and strengthens and broadens the campus network required to ensure optimal student mental health.
Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia
Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.
Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…
Christensen, M. Candace
This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…
Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.
Multisectoral approaches to early pregnancy prevention in colleges in Togo. The goal of this program is to generate knowledge about the early pregnancy phenomenon through operational research, and to develop multisectoral strategies focusing on teens, in conjunction with stakeholders in the education, health and legal ...
Glassman, Tavis; Paprzycki, Peter; Castor, Thomas; Wotring, Amy; Wagner-Greene, Victoria; Ritzman, Matthew; Diehr, Aaron J; Kruger, Jessica
The many consequences related to alcohol consumption among college students are well documented. Drunkorexia, a relatively new term and area of research, is characterized by skipping meals to reduce caloric intake and/or exercising excessively in attempt to compensate for calories associated with high volume drinking. The objective of this study was to use the Elaboration Likelihood Model to compare the impact of central and peripheral prevention messages on alcohol consumption and drunkorexic behavior. Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design, collecting pre- or post-test data from 172 college students living in residence halls at a large Midwestern university, to assess the impact of the prevention messages. Participants in the treatment groups received the message in person (flyer), through email, and via a text message in weekly increments. Results showed that participants exposed to the peripherally framed message decreased the frequency of their alcohol consumption over a 30-day period (p =.003), the number of drinks they consumed the last time they drank (p =.029), the frequency they had more than five drinks over a 30-day period (p =.019), as well as the maximum number of drinks they had on any occasion in the past 30 days (p =.014). Conclusions/Importance: While more research is needed in this area, the findings from this study indicate that researchers and practitioners should design peripheral (short and succinct), rather than central (complex and detailed), messages to prevent drunkorexia and its associated behaviors.
Abar, Caitlin C.; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Robert; Belden, Calum
The current study examined the nature of parent-teen communication in college to re-evaluate the potential for parent inclusion in college success and risk prevention programs. During September 2006, 290 first-year college students were assessed for the frequency and form (e.g., cell phone, e-mail, text) of communication with their parents. Latent…
Gillum, Tameka L
Research is clear that violence against college women is a problem that warrants alternative prevention approaches to addressing and reducing its prevalence and creating safer campuses for women and men. Banyard's presentation gave us food for thought as we consider what such novel approaches may look like. New and innovative approaches that are multifaceted, comprehensive, and informed by theory are key. The ecological model can inform our understanding of the issue, the risk and protective factors associated, and the design and implementation of prevention efforts. It is critically important to engage college students in these efforts to create interventions that are culturally appropriate for college students. We must also meet students where they are, utilizing social marketing campaigns and capitalizing on social media and the use of communication technologies. Together, such efforts will facilitate our ultimate goal of reducing, if not eliminating, violence against women on college campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.
This article presents the address delivered by the author to Columbia college students elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society on May 18, 2009. In the address, the author talks about the work he had done that might be of interest to these students. He emphasizes two kinds of work that are interlocking, yet distinct: (1) teaching; and (2)…
Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith
College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a
Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia
The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056
Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.
The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N = 170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and calor...
Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah
The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (pSexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Pérez, Zenen Jaimes; Hussey, Hannah
Recently, sexual assault on college campuses has received increased national attention. In its first report, the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault highlighted steps colleges and universities can take to curb the number of sexual assaults on campuses. For the first time, the U.S. Department of Education has released the…
Edwards, Katie M; Littleton, Heather L; Sylaska, Kateryna M; Crossman, Annie L; Craig, Meghan
This paper provides an overview of a conceptual model that integrates theories of social ecology, minority stress, and community readiness to better understand risk for and outcomes of intimate partner violence (IPV) among LGBTQ+ college students. Additionally, online survey data was collected from a sample of 202 LGBTQ+ students enrolled in 119 colleges across the United States to provide preliminary data on some aspects of the proposed model. Results suggested that students generally thought their campuses were low in readiness to address IPV; that is, students felt that their campuses could do more to address IPV and provide IPV services specific to LGBTQ+ college students. Perceptions of greater campus readiness to address IPV among LGBTQ+ college students was significantly and positively related to a more favorable LGBTQ+ campus climate and a greater sense of campus community. Additionally, IPV victims were more likely to perceive higher levels of campus community readiness than non-IPV victims. There was no association between IPV perpetration and perceptions of campus community readiness. Greater sense of community was marginally and inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration. Sense of community and LGBTQ+ campus climate also varied to some extent as a function of region of the country and type of institution. Implications for further development and refinement of the conceptual model, as well as future research applying this model to better understand IPV among sexual minority students are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Several barriers can hinder the diagnosis of ADHD in college students, especially those with unrecognized symptoms, dysfunctional behavior, or psychiatric conditions. One specific barrier includes the misuse of prescription stimulants among college students, perhaps to improve academic performance or to self-treat undiagnosed ADHD symptoms. Because of the dangers, both medical and legal, that nonmedical stimulant use can cause, clinicians must recognize these undiagnosed students and initiate proper treatment. By establishing a therapeutic relationship with students, clinicians can provide education, monitoring, and treatment options that will help minimize misuse of prescriptions while giving students the support they need to successfully complete college. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.
This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for college students; annually approximately 1,100 students in institutions of higher education die by suicide. However, most research related to college student suicide was conducted using the sample of 4-year institutions. Community colleges have seldom been included in the sample of suicide research…
Duplaga, Mariusz; Grysztar, Marcin; Rodzinka, Marcin; Kopec, Agnieszka
The ageing of modern societies remains one of the greatest challenges for health and social systems. To respond to this challenge, we need effective strategies assuring healthy active life for elderly people. Health promotion and related activities are perceived as a key intervention, which can improve wellbeing in later life. The main aim of this study is the identification and classification of such interventions addressed to older adults and elderly. Therefore, the strategy based on the scoping review as a feasible tool for exploring this domain, summarizing research findings and identifying gaps of evidence, was applied. The scoping review relies on the analysis of previous reviews of interventions aimed at older adults (55-64 years old) and elderly persons (65 years and above) assessed for their effectiveness in the framework of a systematic review and/or meta-analysis. The search strategy was based on the identification of interventions reported as health promotion, primary disease prevention, screening or social support. In the analysis, the reviews published from January 2000 to April 2015 were included. The search strategy yielded 334 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses addressed to target groups of interest, 182 of them assessed interventions belonging to health promotion, 219 to primary prevention, 34 to screening and 35 to social support. The studies focused on elderly (65 years and above) made up 40.4 % of all retrieved reviews and those addressing population of 55 years and above accounted for 24.0 %. Interventions focused on health maintenance and improvement in elderly and older adults represent frequently combined health promotion and disease prevention actions. Many interventions of this type are not addressed exclusively to elderly populations and/or older adults but are designed for the general population. The most common types of interventions addressed to elderly and older adults in the area of health promotion include health
Leeman, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Jernigan, Jan; Reed, Jenica Huddleston; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Public health practitioners are distinctly positioned to promote the environmental changes essential to addressing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other entities provide evidence and technical assistance to support this work, yet little is known about how practitioners use evidence and support as they intervene to prevent obesity. The study's purpose was to describe how practitioners and CDC project officers characterized the obesity prevention task, where practitioners accessed support and evidence, and what approaches to support and evidence they found most useful. APPROACH OR DESIGN: Mixed-methods, cross-sectional interviews, and survey. State-level public health obesity prevention programs. Public health practitioners and CDC project officers. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with public health practitioners (n = 7) and project officers (n = 3) followed by an online survey completed by 62 practitioners (50% response rate). We applied content analysis to interview data and descriptive statistics to survey data. Practitioners characterized obesity prevention as uncertain and complex, involving interdependence among actors, multiple levels of activity, an excess of information, and a paucity of evidence. Survey findings provide further detail on the types of evidence and support practitioners used and valued. We recommend approaches to tailoring evidence and support to the needs of practitioners working on obesity prevention and other complex health problems.
Faculty in higher education are experiencing a new generation of college students referred to as Generation X (Gen-Xers) and Millennials. The characteristics and behaviors of Gen-Xers and Millennials have created a more challenging classroom learning environment. Some educators may choose to ignore disruptive behaviors or may simply not know which…
Chambers, Karen L.; Alexander, Susan M.
This study assesses the effectiveness of media literacy in the college classroom by comparing two modalities of learning, watching a video versus reading a text. The research questions guiding this project are: as teachers can we facilitate critical awareness among our students in order to alter the way women appropriate media images to evaluate…
Jouriles, Ernest N; Krauss, Alison; Vu, Nicole L; Banyard, Victoria L; McDonald, Renee
This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the effectiveness of bystander programs that address sexual violence on college campuses. Program effects on student attitudes/beliefs and bystander behavior were examined. Durability of program outcomes and the influence of program-delivery methods (e.g., facilitator-led programs vs. video, online or poster campaign programs) and program-parameters (e.g., program length) were also evaluated. Twenty-four studies met criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, and 207 separate results from these studies were coded. Students who participated in a bystander program, compared to those who had not, had more pro-social attitudes/beliefs about sexual violence and intervening to prevent it, and engaged in more bystander behavior. Program effects diminished over time, but meaningful changes persisted for at least three months following program delivery. Longer programs had greater effects than shorter programs on attitudes/beliefs. Bystander programs can be a valuable addition to colleges' violence prevention efforts.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…
Jewett, Amy; Bell, Teal; Cohen, Nicole J.; Buckley, Kirsten; Leino, E. Victor; Even, Susan; Beavers, Suzanne; Brown, Clive; Marano, Nina
Objective: Colleges are at risk for communicable disease outbreaks because of the high degree of person-to-person interactions and relatively crowded dormitory settings. This report describes the US college student health screening requirements among US resident and international students for tuberculosis (TB) and vaccine-preventable diseases…
The Department of Education has suffered legal defeats in Missouri and Arkansas in its campaign to prevent colleges from publicly releasing names of students arrested by campus security. Controversy involves interpretation of a 1974 privacy-protection law, the Buckley Amendment. College officials are unsure about how to deal with the issue. (MSE)
Wall, Andrew F.; BaileyShea, Chelsea; McIntosh, Scott
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among…
Tyler D. Watson
Full Text Available A recent University of California (UC systemwide survey showed that 42% of UC college students experience food insecurity, consistent with other studies among U.S. college students. As part of UC's efforts to understand and address student food insecurity, we conducted 11 focus group interviews across four student subpopulations at UC Los Angeles (n = 82. We explored student experiences, perceptions and concerns related to both food insecurity and food literacy, which may help protect students against food insecurity. Themes around food insecurity included student awareness about food insecurity, cost of university attendance, food insecurity consequences, and coping strategies. Themes around food literacy included existing knowledge and skills, enjoyment and social cohesion, and learning in the dining halls. Unifying themes included the campus food environment not meeting student needs, a desire for practical financial and food literacy “life skills” training, and skepticism about the university's commitment to adequately address student basic needs. The results of this study broadly suggest there is opportunity for the university to address student food insecurity through providing food literacy training, among other strategies.
Javier, Joyce R.; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Rivera, Kahealani K.; Gonzalez, Sarah E.; Mendoza, Fernando S.; Huffman, Lynne C.
Background Filipino Americans have more adolescent pregnancies than other Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs). Few community–academic collaborations have addressed adolescent pregnancy prevention in this community. Objectives We sought to describe the lessons learned from and impact of a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program for Filipino Americans implemented by a Filipina pediatrics resident. Methods We formed a community–academic partnership between the Filipino Youth Coalition, a community-based organization (CBO) in San Jose, California, and the Stanford School of Medicine’s Pediatric Advocacy Program. We developed a culturally tailored parent–teen conference addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino Americans. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated this intervention by collecting both pre- and post-conference data using a convenience sample design. Lessons Learned Engaging particular aspects of Filipino culture (i.e., religion and intergenerational differences) helped to make this community–academic partnership successful. For physicians-in-training who are conducting community-based participatory research (CBPR), project challenges may include difficulties in building and maintaining academic–community relationships, struggles to promote sustainability, and conflicting goals of “community insiders” and “academic outsiders.” Authors offer insights and implications for residents interested in practicing CBPR. Conclusion CBPR is a key tool for exploring health issues in understudied populations. CBPR experiences can provide meaningful educational opportunities for physicians-in-training and can build sustained capacity in CBOs. They can also help residents to develop analytic skills, directly affect the health of the communities they serve, and, for minority physicians, give back to the communities they call home. PMID:21169708
Daniel, Hilary; Bornstein, Sue S; Kane, Gregory C
Social determinants of health are nonmedical factors that can affect a person's overall health and health outcomes. Where a person is born and the social conditions they are born into can affect their risk factors for premature death and their life expectancy. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians acknowledges the role of social determinants in health, examines the complexities associated with them, and offers recommendations on better integration of social determinants into the health care system while highlighting the need to address systemic issues hindering health equity.
Murray-Johnson, L; Witte, K; Liu, W Y; Hubbell, A P; Sampson, J; Morrison, K
Fear appeals threatening the individual have been shown to be powerful persuasive devices in the cultures where they have been studied. However, most fear appeal research has been conducted with members of individualist cultures. Individualist cultures place self-needs above group concerns, while collectivist cultures place group needs above self-concerns. Little is known about the effectiveness of fear appeals (or other persuasive strategies) in collectivist cultures. Two studies assessed the effectiveness of AIDS-prevention fear appeals threatening the self versus fear appeals threatening the group (i.e., family) on members of individualist and collectivist cultures. The first study focuses on African American and Mexican immigrant junior high school youth. The second study focuses on U.S. and Taiwanese college undergraduates. The results indicated that fear appeals should address cultural orientation (i.e., individualist versus collectivist orientation) to achieve maximum effectiveness. The results also indicate that one cannot assume cultural orientation based on ethnicity.
Faris, Alexander S; Brown, Janice M
Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions by comparing outcomes from a standard group motivational intervention (SGMI; n = 25), an enhanced group motivational intervention (EGMI; n = 27) designed to suppress counterproductive processes, and a no intervention control (n = 23). SGMI and EGMI participants reported disruptive group dynamics as evidenced by low elaboration likelihood, production blocking, and social loafing, though the level of disturbance was significantly lower for EGMI individuals (p = .001). Despite counteracting group dynamics in the EGMI condition, participants in the two interventions were statistically similar in post-intervention problem recognition and future drinking intentions. The results raise concerns over implementing individually-based interventions in group settings without making necessary adjustments.
O'Connor-Merrigan, Mary L.
The continued prevalence of mental health conditions and substance abuse among students enrolled in institutions of higher education is a significant and progressing concern, with marked impact on retention, academic success, graduation rate, and alarming personal consequences. Yet, many institutions struggle with successfully addressing these…
Finch, Caroline F
Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.
Joan Earle Hahn
Full Text Available Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students’ perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3.
Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy
Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708
Clapp, John D; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert B; Lange, James E; Shillington, Audrey; Russell, Cristel
Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is among the most common and serious alcohol-related problems experienced by US college students. Community-based prevention trials using environmental approaches to DUI prevention have been effective in reducing DUI. Such interventions remain untested in college settings. This study is the first to test the efficacy of an environmental prevention campaign to reduce DUI among college students. We used a quasi-experimental non-equivalent comparison group design to test the efficacy of the DUI prevention intervention. Students at the experimental university were exposed to a DUI prevention intervention that included a social marketing campaign, a media advocacy campaign and increased law enforcement (DUI checkpoints and roving DUI patrols). Students from two large public universities located along the US/Mexico border participated in the seven-semester study. In total, 4832 college students took part. Using telephone interviews of randomly selected students, we took pre- and postintervention measures of self-reported DUI. Self-reported DUI (past year) decreased significantly from pre-test to post-test (odds ratio = 0.55) at the intervention school, whereas rates at the comparison campus remained stable. The campus-intervention interaction was statistically significant (P < 0.05), suggesting that the campaign led to the observed change in DUI. Environmental DUI campaigns similar to those validated in community prevention trials can be effective in college settings. Further research, however, is needed to determine the robustness of the changes associated with such campaigns.
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…
Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Darrow, Sherri A.; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Keating, Niki L.
This study assesses short-term and long-term learning outcomes of Question, Persuade, Refer (QPR) suicide prevention training in a college setting. Two hundred seventy-three participants completed pretest, posttest, and follow-up surveys regarding suicide prevention knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Results indicated: (a) increases in suicide…
Ott, Carol H; Haertlein, Carol
We describe a social-norms marketing approach to moderating college student drinking behaviors and correcting student misperceptions about campus drinking. The intervention has the potential to be applied to other health behaviors where misperceptions abound, such as those related to cigarette smoking, eating disorders, sexual health, and sexual assault. Even though nurses are actively working on alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention efforts on college campuses, little data based research have been published. Collaborative efforts between faculty from different disciplines, including nursing and nurse health educators, can be an effective combination for preventing alcohol abuse and for initiating sound research-based campus prevention programs.
Wood, Mark D; Dejong, William; Fairlie, Anne M; Lawson, Doreen; Lavigne, Andrea M; Cohen, Fran
This article presents an evaluation of Common Ground, a media campaign-supported prevention program featuring increased enforcement, decreased alcohol access, and other environmental management initiatives targeting college student drinking. Phase 1 of the media campaign addressed student resistance to environmentally focused prevention by reporting majority student support for alcohol policy and enforcement initiatives. Phase 2 informed students about state laws, university policies, and environmental initiatives. We conducted student telephone surveys, with samples stratified by gender and year in school, for 4 consecutive years at the intervention campus and 3 years at a comparison campus. We did a series of one-way between-subjects analyses of variance and analyses of covariance, followed by tests of linear trend and planned comparisons. Targeted outcomes included perceptions of enforcement and alcohol availability, alcohol use, and alcohol-impaired driving. We examined archived police reports for student incidents, primarily those resulting from loud parties. There were increases at the intervention campus in students' awareness of formal alcohol-control efforts and perceptions of the alcohol environment, likelihood of apprehension for underage drinking, consequences for alcohol-impaired driving, and responsible alcohol service practices. There were decreases in the perceived likelihood of other students' negative behavior at off-campus parties. Police-reported incidents decreased over time; however, perceived consequences for off-campus parties decreased. No changes were observed for difficulty finding an off-campus party, self-reported alcohol use, or alcohol-impaired driving. The intervention successfully altered perceptions of alcohol enforcement, alcohol access, and the local alcohol environment. This study provides important preliminary information to researchers and practitioners engaged in collaborative prevention efforts in campus communities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism
Galarneau, Joy; O'Neill, Shannon
This article presents bystander intervention education as a best-practice approach to sexual violence prevention in college settings. It draws out a connection between mission-specific resources that can be used to advance the prevention agenda, while examining how bystander intervention education can deepen community engagement in collegiate…
Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael
Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.
Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee
Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region.
Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiwen
The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…
Banyard, Victoria L; Rizzo, Andrew J; Bencosme, Yamilex; Cares, Alison C; Moynihan, Mary M
The prevalence of sexual violence crimes on U.S. college campuses is prompting institutions of higher education to increasingly invest in centers to support survivors and programs to prevent the violence before it happens. Understanding bystanders to sexual violence and what may motivate them to step in and help is a promising prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to understand how potential active bystanders' (first-year college students) perceptions of community (including a sense of one's influence in the community and positive peer norms for helping) and individual beliefs about self (including sense of responsibility and self-efficacy) affect their self-reports of performing bystander behavior to address sexual violence risks. Participants were 948 students at two different universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, mostly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. Regression and path analysis quantitative results suggest that individual-level characteristics may mediate some of the impact that community-level norms and perceptions have on bystander outcomes, explaining some of the mixed findings in previous research. Prevention strategies should work to change community norms and perceptions of mattering and perceptions of community influence in addition to the more traditional focus on individual-level violence specific attitudes.
Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup
Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women.
Fischer-Nielsen, Sara; Møller, Sabrah
The thesis scrutinizes how gender relations and women’s and men’s control of sexual health are influenced by the intervention of male circumcision for HIV prevention in South Africa. The analytical framework combines the theory of therapeutic citizenship, post-development theory and gender theory. We argue that the individual man’s choice to circumcise is being challenged by international HIV prevention methods emphasizing men’s responsibility in HIV prevention. In South Africa, current chang...
Hobson, Charles J.; Guziewicz, Jennifer
Reports on a survey concerning thirteen recommended sexual harassment preventive/protective practices at U.S. colleges and universities. A majority of responding institutions had formal sexual harassment policies, offered counseling to student victims, and investigated all complaints. Relatively fewer schools provided student access to faculty…
Levin, Michael E.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Seeley, John R.; Hayes, Steven C.
Objective: This study examined the feasibility of a prototype Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) program for preventing mental health problems among college students. Participants: Undergraduate first-year students ("N" = 76) participated between May and November 2011. Methods: Participants were randomized to ACT or a…
Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian
Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian
Background Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25–55 years. Methods Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Results Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). Discussion This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. PMID:29549106
Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard
Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…
Deck, Dennis D.
To directly address the state of Washington's concerns regarding student alcohol and other drug use, in 1989 the state Legislature passed the Omnibus Alcohol and Controlled Substances Act (ESSHB 1793). One part of this act called for the creation of a school-based alcohol and other dug abuse prevention and early intervention program. The Office of…
Mayher, Michael E.
Lakeland Community College is recognized for its energy conservation leadership in Ohio and nationally. The college's program will detail the practical, incremental approach taken in Lakeland's "Energy Journey." Setting the standard statewide, that journey recently resulted in a sustainable, guaranteed reduction of energy use by 40%.
Richter-Sundberg, Linda; Kardakis, Therese; Weinehall, Lars; Garvare, Rickard; Nyström, Monica E
Many of the world's life threatening diseases (e.g. cancer, heart disease, stroke) could be prevented by eliminating life-style habits such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and excessive alcohol use. Incorporating evidence-based research on methods to change unhealthy lifestyle habits in clinical practice would be equally valuable. However gaps between guideline development and implementation are well documented, with implications for health care quality, safety and effectiveness. The development phase of guidelines has been shown to be important both for the quality in guideline content and for the success of implementation. There are, however, indications that guidelines related to general disease prevention methods encounter specific barriers compared to guidelines that are diagnosis-specific. In 2011 the Swedish National board for Health and Welfare launched guidelines with a preventive scope. The aim of this study was to investigate how implementation challenges were addressed during the development process of these disease preventive guidelines. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the guideline development management group. Archival data detailing the guideline development process were also collected and used in the analysis. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis as the analytical framework. The study identified several strategies and approaches that were used to address implementation challenges during guideline development. Four themes emerged from the analysis: broad agreements and consensus about scope and purpose; a formalized and structured development procedure; systematic and active involvement of stakeholders; and openness and transparency in the specific guideline development procedure. Additional factors concerning the scope of prevention and the work environment of guideline developers were perceived to influence the possibilities to address implementation issues. This case study
Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.
Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.
The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy
Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel
The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself. We also emphasize the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Programs for community mass prevention and intervention for preschoolers should be developed and evaluated and interventions should be adapted for individual and group delivery. Moreover, the increase in the number of children refugees requires cultural adaptations of assessment measures and interventions.
Yin, Junmei; Kong, Alice P S; Chan, Juliana C N
According to a 2010 national survey, 11 % of adults in China have diabetes, affecting 109.6 million individuals. The high prevalence of diabetes has been attributed to the aging of the population, the rapid adoption of energy-dense foods, and a reduction in physical activity. Collectively, these secular changes have created an obesogenic environment that can unmask diabetes in subjects with a genetic predisposition. The growing prevalence of maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, childhood obesity, and early-onset disease can lead to premature morbidity and mortality. Rising to meet these public health challenges, researchers in China have conducted randomized studies to demonstrate the benefits of lifestyle modification in preventing diabetes (the Da Qing Study), as well as that of team-based integrated care, using multiple strategies including peer support and information technology, in order to reduce hospitalizations, cardiovascular-renal complications, and premature deaths. With growing evidence supporting the benefits of these diabetes prevention and management programs, the next challenge is to use policies and systems to scale up the implementation of these programs through raising awareness, building capacity, and providing resources to reduce the human and socioeconomic burden of diabetes.
Kis, Adam Daniel
Contrary to expectation when compared with other migrant mining zones of sub-Saharan Africa, the nation of Guinea has a comparatively low and stable HIV rate. In addition, the regions with the largest gold, diamond, and bauxite mining operations report the lowest HIV rates within the country. This research set out to explain practices and beliefs within gold mining communities near Siguiri, Guinea--the highest-producing gold mining zone in the country--that may contribute to this phenomenon, particularly as they relate to the Abstinence, Be faithful, use a Condom approach to AIDS prevention. Structured interviews on a randomly selected sample of 460 adults and regular visitation to 16 pharmacies and health clinics within the mining zone yielded data showing that abstinence and condom use are minimally practiced for AIDS prevention. Instead, faithfulness to partners was overwhelmingly reported as the method of choice for AIDS avoidance. In addition, this research explored ways in which local conceptions of fidelity differed from those generally understood in other contexts, including engagement in short-term marriages at the gold mining sites.
Lin, Pei-Jung; Yang, Zhou; Fillit, Howard M; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J
Certain chronic conditions appear to be modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. To understand the potential health and economic impacts of addressing those risk factors, we used data on a Medicare cohort to simulate four scenarios: a 10 percent reduction in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respectively, and a 10 percent reduction in body mass index among beneficiaries who were overweight or obese. Our simulation demonstrated that reducing the prevalence of these conditions may yield "unintended benefits" by lowering the risk, delaying the onset, reducing the duration, and lowering the costs of dementia. More research is needed to clarify the exact relationship between various other chronic diseases and dementia. However, our findings highlight potential health gains and savings opportunities stemming from the better management of other conditions associated with dementia.
Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A.; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A.
Purpose: This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Methods: Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community…
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M
Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chapman, Kathryn; Havill, Michelle; Watson, Wendy L; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret
Australian and most international Dietary Guidelines recommend people consume more fruits and vegetables (F&V) to maintain a healthy weight and reduce chronic disease risk. Previous Australian and international surveys have shown sub-optimal consumption of F&V. This study aimed to assess adults' F&V consumption, knowledge of recommended servings, readiness to change, barriers/enabling factors, so that this knowledge might be used for campaigns that support improved consumption. An online survey of a representative sample of adults living in New South Wales, Australia (n = 2474) measuring self-reported F&V consumption; attitudes towards F&V consumption; stage of change for increasing F&V; barriers to consumption; and knowledge of cancer-health benefits. F&V consumption was below recommendations, with vegetable consumption notably low. Only 10% of participants ate at least five servings of vegetables/day (median intake was two daily servings), and 57% consumed two servings fruit/day. There was poor recognition that intake of vegetables was inadequate and this was a barrier to improving vegetable consumption; with preferences for other foods, habit and cost also important barriers. Key barriers to increasing fruit intake were habit, preferences for other foods, perishability, and cost. For vegetable consumption, 49% of participants were in the pre-contemplation stage of change, whereas for fruits 56% were in the action/maintenance stage. Sixty-four percent of respondents believed that eating F&V would protect against cancer, with 56% reporting they thought not eating enough F&V would cause cancer. Understanding what motivates and prevents people from consuming F&V is important for developing effective health promotion programs. Similar to previous surveys, there has been little shift in F&V consumption. Social marketing campaigns have been shown to improve health-related behaviours, and this study may assist in identifying audience segmentation for better targeted
Dhrubajyoti J Debnath
Full Text Available Context: An estimated 430,000 children were newly infected with HIV in 2008, over 90% of them through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Without intervention, the risk of MTCT ranges from 20% to 45% as per the World Health Organization (WHO. Aim: To find the uptake of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT services during pregnancy. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ethical approval and informed consent was taken. Uptake of PPTCT services by the mother was obtained in 222 pregnancies. This was compared with the HIV status of children born to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages. Results: In 25.7% pregnancies, the mothers were tested for HIV. One child was born was to a mother who had tested HIV negative in pregnancy. In 50% of the mother-child pairs, both mother and child received PPTCT. Where both the mother and child received PPTCT, only 13.3% children born were HIV positive as against 40% children who were HIV positive where neither mother nor the child had received PPTCT. Conclusion: Uptake of PPTCT services was low. In countries like India where the chances of parent to child transmission of HIV are likely to be more than in developed countries due to breastfeeding practices, the uptake of PPTCT services should be maximized to decrease the burden of pediatric HIV because even a single pediatric HIV infection counts. All the pregnant women need to be voluntarily tested twice for HIV in pregnancy, in which the second test for HIV may be in late pregnancy.
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.
Henry, Laurie A.; Stahl, Norman A.
This commentary explores pedagogical, societal, and political aspects of the college/career readiness reform movement as it impacts students in secondary classrooms. The authors begin with a snapshot of the students often left in the shadows of educational reform efforts, leaving them academically underprepared and destined for college…
Brown, Johanna Michele
Career decision making difficulty, as it relates to undecided college students and career indecision, has been a concern for counselors and academic advisors for decades (Gordon, 2006; Mau, 2004). Individuals struggling with career indecision often seek assistance via career counseling, self-help tools, and/or computer-assisted career guidance…
Tate, Kevin A.; Williams, Cyrus, III; Harden, Dia
First-generation college students face a variety of academic and personal challenges, including survivor guilt (Piorkowski, 1983). Survivor guilt for these students involves negative emotions related to leaving family and friends "behind" in difficult contexts and lived experiences. This article provides (a) an overview of first-generation college…
David R. Black
Full Text Available This study aimed to provide physiologic health risk parameters by gender and age among college students enrolled in a U.S. Midwestern University to promote chronic disease prevention and ameliorate health. A total of 2615 college students between 18 and 25 years old were recruited annually using a series of cross-sectional designs during the spring semester over an 8-year period. Physiologic parameters measured included body mass index (BMI, percentage body fat (%BF, blood serum cholesterol (BSC, and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure. These measures were compared to data from NHANES to identify differences in physiologic parameters among 18–25 year olds in the general versus college-enrolled population. A quantitative instrument assessed health behaviors related to physical activity, diet, and licit drug use. Results suggest that average physiologic parameters from 18 to 25 year olds enrolled in college were significantly different from parameters of 18–25 year olds in the general population. Generally, men reported higher percentiles for BMI, SBP, and DBP than women, but lower %BF and BSC percentiles than women at each age. SBP and DBP significantly increased with age and alcohol use. Students in the lowest (5th and highest percentiles (95th and 75th, for most age groups, demonstrated DBP, BMI, and %BF levels potentially problematic for health and future development of chronic disease based on percentiles generated for their peer group. Newly identified physiologic parameters may be useful to practitioners serving college students 18–25 years old from similar institutions in determining whether behavior change or treatment interventions are appropriate.
Forchuk, C; MacClure, S K; Van Beers, M; Smith, C; Csiernik, R; Hoch, J; Jensen, E
Shelter data in a recent study revealed discharges from psychiatric facilities to shelters or the street occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. This problem must be addressed to reduce the disastrous effects of such discharge, including re-hospitalization and prolonged homelessness. An intervention was developed and tested to prevent homelessness associated with discharge directly to no fixed address. A total of 14 participants at-risk of being discharged without housing were enrolled, with half randomized into the intervention group. The intervention group was provided with immediate assistance in accessing housing and assistance in paying their first and last month's rent. The control group received usual care. Data was collected from participants prior to discharge, at 31 and 6-months post-discharge. All the individuals in the intervention group maintained housing after 3 and 6 months. All but one individual in the control group remained homeless after 3 and 6 months. The exception joined the sex trade to avoid homelessness. The results of this pilot were so dramatic that randomizing to the control group was discontinued. Discussions are underway to routinely implement the intervention. Systemic improvements can prevent homelessness for individuals being discharged from psychiatric wards.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…
American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
This book contains volume 1 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Your Responsibility for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Guide to Chemical Hazards"; (3) "Recommended Laboratory Techniques"; and (4) "Safety Equipment and Emergency…
Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody
Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…
Olson, Anna D; Gooding, Lori F; Shikoh, Fara; Graf, Julie
College musicians exhibit greater declines in hearing than the general population and are at particular risk because they rehearse and perform daily in loud environments. Also, they engage in use of personal listening devices which increases the amount of "exposure" time. Despite increased risk, many do not use hearing protection devices (HPD). The purpose of this study was to (1) to identify the present level of education about hearing health, (2) identify the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using HPD, and (3) evaluate results among different musical instrument groups. A mixed-methods group design was used including both quantitative and qualitative instruments. SPSS was used to generate descriptive statistics, and non-parametric statistical analysis was performed on quantitative data. NVivo software was used to evaluate qualitative responses. Of the 90 college instrumental music students who participated, 12% reported a history of hearing loss, and over one-third reported tinnitus. Seventy-seven percent of participants had never received any training about hearing health and only a small percentage of students used HPD. The most cited reason for lack of protection use was its negative impact on sound quality. However, group differences were noted between brass, woodwind, and percussion musicians in terms of HPD uptake. Improving the type of information disseminated to college musicians may reduce the risk of ear-related deficits. Noise dosage information, HPD information, and prevention education grounded in theories like the Health Belief Model may increase awareness and promote greater use of HPDs in this population.
Arigo, Danielle; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric
Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is critical for maintaining a healthy weight, although little is known about psychological barriers to maintaining MVPA in at-risk groups. Identifying characteristics associated with poor MVPA maintenance in obesity prevention programs could improve participant outcomes. Toward this end, we examined predictors of MVPA in an obesity prevention trial for college students at risk for weight gain (n = 333; 72% female, mean BMI = 23.4 kg/m 2 ). Participants engaged in 1 of 3 weight control interventions and in 4 assessments over 12-month follow-up (ie, measured height/weight, self-reports of psychosocial characteristics, 4 days of accelerometer wear). Multilevel modeling analyses showed that across conditions, participants decreased total MVPA minutes per week over 12 months (B = -5.48, P students who show elevated impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance may improve both MVPA and weight control outcomes for these individuals.
Alegría-Flores, Kei; Raker, Kelli; Pleasants, Robert K; Weaver, Mark A; Weinberger, Morris
Sexual assault, stalking, dating violence, and intimate partner violence, herein collectively termed interpersonal violence (IV), are public health problems affecting 20% to 25% of female college students. Currently, One Act is one of the few IV prevention training programs at universities that teach students bystander skills to intervene in low- and high-risk IV situations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate One Act's effects on date rape attitudes and behaviors, and bystanders' confidence, willingness to help, and behavior, and 2) to compare the effects on bystander skills between One Act and Helping Advocates for Violence Ending Now (HAVEN), an IV response training program with similar participants. Data were collected over 2 years, before and after One Act and HAVEN trainings. We measured outcomes with four scales: College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors, Bystander Confidence, Willingness to Help, and Bystander Behavior. The analysis compared within- and between-group mean differences in scale scores pre- and post-trainings using linear mixed models. One Act showed improvements for date rape attitudes and behaviors (p trainings' effects on bystander willingness to help and behavior had similar patterns but were not statistically significant. We found a larger positive impact on bystander confidence among students who participated in the bystander prevention training compared with the response training. Further research is needed to improve the measures for bystander behavior and measure the bystander trainings' larger impact on the community. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was assessed the effect of educational program for preventing of ecstasy abuse among college students in Hamadan based on Theory of Reason Action (TRA. Method: A quasi-experimental study carried out in college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. Data-gathering tools consisted of a two-part questionnaire: Knowledge of ecstasy abuse consequences and one scale for measuring TRA variables. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at before and two months after intervention. Results: The results showed that among constructs of the theory of reason action, subjective norms were better predictor of ecstasy abuse. There were significant differences between the scores of reason action constructs namely: attitude against drug abuse, subjective norms and intention of ecstasy abuse with consideration of group (witness and experimental. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on Theory of Reasoned Action is effective in improving of attitude, subjective norm and behavioral intention of students. Therefore it is highly recommended that TRA education can be use for preventing of drug abuse education programs.
Schmidt, Hans C.
This study of media literacy education at all levels of the educational system considered faculty perceptions of student media literacy competencies, the extent to which media literacy is addressed in class, and the extent to which faculty members consider media literacy education to be important. Data suggest that despite the research and policy…
Baillot, Helen; Murray, Nina; Connelly, Elaine; Howard, Natasha
Public and policy attention to female genital mutilation (FGM) in diaspora communities has increased in Europe, but research remains limited and misinformation abounds. As a first step to addressing these issues, this study explored FGM prevention and response interventions in Europe, using a scoping literature review and key informant interviews. A scoping study design was selected, using Arksey and O'Malley's six-stage scoping framework to review identified sources. Key informant interviews were used to inform and add depth to literature findings. Findings were summarised thematically, guided by the Scottish Government's '4Ps' framework for tackling violence against women (i.e. participation, prevention, protection, providing services). Seventy literature sources, of 1095 screened, plus 16 individual and 3 group interview sources were included. Several countries have developed promising interventions supporting FGM resistance and recovery. However, gaps remain including community participation, professional knowledge and linkages, and evaluation of approaches. This scoping review is an initial attempt to describe available primary evidence on European initiatives responding to FGM. Further research is required to determine whether interventions are effective, while policy and practice development must be shaped and driven by the experiences, needs, and views of affected communities.
Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R
Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Blunt-Vinti, Heather D; Thompson, Erika L; Griner, Stacey B
Previous research shows that sexual minority women have higher rates of unintended pregnancy than heterosexual women, but has not considered the wide range of contraceptive method effectiveness when exploring this disparity. We examine contraceptive use effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information among college women across sexual orientation identity as a risk factor for unintended pregnancy. Using the National College Health Assessment Fall-2015 dataset, restricted to women who reported engaging in vaginal sex and not wanting to be pregnant (N = 6,486), logistic regression models estimated the odds of contraceptive method effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information by sexual orientation. Most women (57%) reported using a moderately effective contraceptive method (e.g., pill, patch, ring, shot) at last vaginal sex. Compared with heterosexual women, bisexual (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.62), lesbian (aOR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.06), pansexual/queer (aOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-.56) and other (aOR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81) women were significantly less likely to have used a moderately effective method compared with no method. Only 9% of the sample used a highly effective method; asexual (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92) and lesbian (aOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03-0.20) women were significantly less likely than heterosexual women to have used these methods. Pansexual/queer and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to desire pregnancy prevention information. Several groups of sexual minority women were less likely than heterosexual women to use highly or moderately effective contraceptive methods, putting them at increased risk for unintended pregnancy, but desired pregnancy prevention information. These findings bring attention to the importance of patient-centered sexual and reproductive care to reduce unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published
Jewett, A.; Bell, T; Cohen, NJ.; Buckley, K.; Leino, V.; Even, S.; Beavers, S.; Brown, C.; Marano, N.
Objective Colleges are at risk for communicable disease outbreaks because of the high degree of person-to-person interactions and relatively crowded dormitory settings. This report describes the U.S. college student health screening requirements among U.S. resident and international students for tuberculosis (TB) and vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) as it relates to the American College Health Association (ACHA) Guidelines. Methods/Participants In April 2012, U.S. college health administrators (N=2858) were sent online surveys to assess their respective school’s TB screening and immunization requirements. Results Surveys were completed by 308 (11%) schools. Most schools were aware of the ACHA immunization (78%) and TB screening (76%) guidelines. Schools reported having policies related to immunization screening (80.4%), immunization compliance (93%), TB screening (55%), and TB compliance (87%). Conclusion Most colleges were following ACHA guidelines. However, there are opportunities for improvement to fully utilize the recommendations and prevent outbreaks of communicable diseases among students in colleges. PMID:26730492
Ranebennur, Virupax; Gaikwad, Sanjeevsingh; Ramesh, Sowmya; Bhende, Amrita
Background It is important for targeted interventions to consider vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) such as poverty, work-related mobility, and literacy, for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. This paper describes and examines the association of the Aastha HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention project in Mumbai and Thane, India, on the relationship between vulnerability and behavioral outcomes. Materials and methods Data were drawn from the Behavioural Tracking Survey, a cross-sectional behavioral study conducted in 2010 with 2,431 FSWs recruited in Mumbai and Thane. The key independent measures used were program exposure and “vulnerability index”, a composite index of literacy, factors of dependence (alternative livelihood options, current debt, and children), and aspects of sex work (mobility and duration in sex work). Dependent measures included service uptake, self-confidence, self-identity, and individual agency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the study objectives. Results Of the analytical sample of 2,431 FSWs, 1,295 (53.3%) were categorized as highly vulnerable. Highly vulnerable FSWs who were associated with the Aastha program for more than a year were more likely to have accessed crisis-response services in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.6; P<0.001), to have visited a clinic to get a checkup for STI symptoms (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.8; P<0.015), not to be ashamed to disclose identity as an FSW to health workers (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.5; P<0.008), and to be confident in supporting a fellow FSW in crisis (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8, P<0.033) compared to those less vulnerable with similar exposure to the Aastha program. Conclusion It is critical for HIV/STI interventions to consider vulnerabilities of FSWs at project inception and address them with focused strategies, including a segmented service-delivery model and community
Courtney D. Perry
Full Text Available Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354 in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185 received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169 received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48. Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.
This randomized experiment evaluates the attitudes and behavioral intentions of 458 undergraduate college students about intervening with the intent of preventing an illegal retail purchase of tobacco products by a minor after exposure to a factorial combination of three pieces of information. MANOVA results show that none of the treatment…
House, Lisa A.; Lynch, Joseph F.; Bane, Mary
For college students, suicide is the second leading cause of death. In this study, we evaluated a gatekeeper training suicide prevention program that emphasizes emotional connectivity with students in crisis and incorporates the collaborative efforts between Housing/Residential Programs and the Counseling Center. Participants consisted of graduate…
Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.
The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…
LaChausse, Robert G.
Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group.…
Jacobs, Michelle; Alonso, Alina M; Sherin, Kevin M; Koh, Yumi; Dhamija, Asha; Lowe, Andrea L
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure poses serious health risks for all nonsmokers, especially children and pregnant women. SHS is estimated to contribute to heart attacks in nonsmokers and nearly 53,800 deaths in the U.S. annually. A literature review of English-language articles was performed using PubMed, organizational websites, and pertinent review articles. Over the past 25 years, smokefree policies have protected nearly half the U.S. population from the adverse health effects of SHS. Smokefree policies have been shown to improve health outcomes with no consequences to local businesses. As of April 2013, a total of 24 states and 561 municipalities and territories, including the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, have established laws that require nonhospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars to be 100% smokefree. Four other states-Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, and Nevada-have smokefree laws that cover restaurants but provide an exemption for stand-alone bars. At least 14 states have no smokefree laws. This paper describes the benefits of policies that reduce SHS and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) recommends expanded clean indoor air policies for workplaces, stand-alone bars, restaurants, and multi-use family housing such as apartment buildings. ACPM recommends clean air policies for all university campuses, secondary school campuses, primary schools, child care centers, and city landmarks to further shift social norms and protect the health of children, adolescents, and adults. ACPM recommends closing existing gaps in clean indoor air policies. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Intan Noor Khalifah; Argyo Demartoto; Harsono Salimo
Background: Street children are at high risk of sexual violence. Necessary measures should be undertaken to address deleterious biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence. This study aimed to analyze the preventive behaviors to address biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence among street children in Yogyakarta using Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory.Subjects and Method: This study was qualitative descriptive with phenomenology approach. The key informants for this study included Hea...
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…
Green, Emalee T; Venta, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools retrospectively, as reported by incoming college freshmen, exploring whether characteristics of the school influenced implementation. The sample, 169 first-year students from a public university, participated in an online survey inquiring about exposure to programs and high school characteristics. Results demonstrated few students exposed to any eating disorder programming (29.0%), with no students reporting exposure to prevention programming. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the implementation based on school characteristics, suggesting that this is a universal issue across high schools.
Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Foo, Schubert; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton
Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management. To conduct a needs assessment of PHIs in Colombo with respect to their dengue-related tasks and develop a new mobile-based system to address these needs while strengthening existing systems. One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 PHIs to a) gain a nuanced, in-depth understanding of the current state of surveillance practices, b) understand the logistical, technological and social challenges they confront, and c) identify opportunities for mobile-based interventions. Quantitative analysis included simple descriptive statistics while qualitative analysis comprised textual analysis of 209 pages of transcripts (or nearly 600 minutes of conversations) using grounded theory approaches. Current paper-based data collection practices for dengue surveillance involved a circuitous, time consuming process that could take between 7-10 days to officially report and record a single case. PHIs confronted challenges in terms of unreliable, standalone GIS devices, delays in registering mosquito breeding sites and lack of engagement from communities while delivering dengue education. These findings, in concert with a high motivation to use mobile-based systems, informed the development of Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based system that integrates three components - digitized surveillance, dynamic disease
Johnson, Colleen A.
Despite debate over whether or not college student suicide rates are greater or less than similar age groups not enrolled in higher education, the rates of college students experiencing suicide ideation, attempting suicide, and successfully committing suicide are indeed rising. A steady increase in these rates over the last 15 years is evidence…
Swanbrow Becker, Martin A.; Nemeth Roberts, Stacey F.; Ritts, Sam M.; Branagan, William Tyler; Warner, Alia R.; Clark, Sheri L.
This study examines the experiences of transgender college students in coping with stress in comparison to their cisgender peers. Undergraduate and graduate students from 73 colleges, totaling 26,292 participants, of which 47 identified as transgender completed an online survey. Transgender students reported greater exposure to trauma and higher…
Werch, Chudley E.; And Others
Examined stages of drug use acquisition among college students (n=669) and relationship between stage status and motivation to avoid drugs and frequency of drug use. College students differed with regard to their stage of habit acquisition across five drugs. Findings suggest that acquisition stage heuristic holds promise in increasing…
There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...
West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M
Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in
Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Young, Tiffany L.; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural…
Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice
This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…
Jellinger, Paul S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Rosenblit, Paul D; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; Guerin, Chris K; Bell, David S H; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Wyne, Kathleen; Smith, Donald; Brinton, Eliot A; Fazio, Sergio; Davidson, Michael
The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols. The Executive Summary of this document contains 87 recommendations of which 45 are Grade A (51.7%), 18 are Grade B (20.7%), 15 are Grade C (17.2%), and 9 (10.3%) are Grade D. These detailed, evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision-making that addresses multiple aspects of real-world medical care. The evidence base presented in the subsequent Appendix provides relevant supporting information for Executive Summary Recommendations. This update contains 695 citations of which 203 (29.2 %) are EL 1 (strong), 137 (19.7%) are EL 2 (intermediate), 119 (17.1%) are EL 3 (weak), and 236 (34.0%) are EL 4 (no clinical evidence). This CPG is a practical tool that endocrinologists, other health care professionals, health-related organizations, and regulatory bodies can use to reduce the risks and consequences of dyslipidemia. It provides guidance on screening, risk assessment, and treatment recommendations for a range of individuals with various lipid disorders. The recommendations emphasize the importance of treating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in some individuals to lower goals than previously endorsed and support the measurement of coronary artery calcium scores and inflammatory markers to help stratify risk. Special consideration is given to individuals with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, women, and youth with dyslipidemia. Both clinical and cost-effectiveness data are provided to support treatment decisions. 4S
The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.
McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann
This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.
Borsky, Amanda E.
The objective of this dissertation was to evaluate a bystander behavior program at the Jefferson College of Health Sciences (JCHS) in Roanoke, Virginia. Specifically, this dissertation examined the: (1) preliminary measurement properties of a newly developed bystander behavior intention scale; (2) impact of the bystander intervention at JCHS; and…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…
Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A
This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community colleges were recruited. Participants randomized into the intervention (n=224) enrolled in a course that taught strategies to help maintain or achieve a healthy weight. Participants were instructed in SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-based) and behavioral goal-setting practices. Throughout the course, participants set goals related to improving their sleep, stress-management, exercise, and nutrition." Intervention participants set four hundred eighteen goals. Each goal was carefully evaluated. The efforts to teach behavioral goal-setting strategies were largely successful; however efforts to convey the intricacies of SMART goal-setting were not as successful. Implications for effective teaching of skills in setting SMART behavioral goals were realized in this study. The insights gained from the goal-setting activities of this study could be used to guide educators who utilize goals to achieve health behavior change. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that very clear and directed instruction be provided in addition to multiple opportunities for goal-setting practice. Implications for future interventions involving education about goal-setting activities are discussed.
Custer, Bradley D.
In 1989, Congress passed the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act Amendments to address illegal alcohol and drug abuse on college campuses. To receive federal funding, each college must comply by implementing an alcohol and drug prevention program, but the federal government and some colleges have paid little attention to this policy. Recently,…
The Community College as Change Agent: How Community Colleges Address Health Issues in Counties Served by the Healthy Places North Carolina Initiative. A Report to the Kate B. Reynolds Charitable Trust
MDC, Inc., 2015
Community colleges serve a unique purpose in American higher education. For many students, these institutions present the best opportunity for the postsecondary credential needed to pursue a living-wage job with career potential. For others, a community college represents the gateway to a four-year institution or beyond, and potential career paths…
Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study
Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.
Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188
Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H
There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.
Kawahito, Junko; Hori, Masashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa
The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N=40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to...
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources.
Antonishak, Jill; Connolly, Chelsey
The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy published free online lessons that help students take action to prevent unplanned pregnancy and complete their education. From the fall of 2012 to the spring of 2014, approximately 2,800 students took the online lessons and participated in pre- and post-lesson evaluation surveys at four…
Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M
High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Physical activity prescription: a critical opportunity to address a modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of chronic disease: a position statement by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine.
Thornton, Jane S; Frémont, Pierre; Khan, Karim; Poirier, Paul; Fowles, Jonathon; Wells, Greg D; Frankovich, Renata J
Non-communicable disease is a leading threat to global health. Physical inactivity is a large contributor to this problem; in fact, the WHO ranks it as the fourth leading risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Canada, at least 4 of 5 adults do not meet the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines of 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week. Physicians play an important role in the dissemination of physical activity (PA) recommendations to a broad segment of the population, as over 80% of Canadians visit their doctors every year and prefer to get health information directly from them. Unfortunately, most physicians do not regularly assess or prescribe PA as part of routine care, and even when discussed, few provide specific recommendations. PA prescription has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for all ages in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of chronic disease. Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) physicians are particularly well suited for this role and should collaborate with their primary care colleagues for optimal patient care. The purpose of this Canadian Academy and Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement is to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to better equip SEM and primary care physicians to prescribe PA and exercise, specifically for the prevention and management of non-communicable disease. This will be achieved by addressing common questions and perceived barriers in the field.Author note This position statement has been endorsed by the following nine sport medicine societies: Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), British Association of Sports and Exercise Medicine (BASEM), European College of Sport & Exercise Physicians (ECOSEP), Norsk forening for idrettsmedisin og fysisk aktivite (NIMF), South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin
Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…
Himelein, Melissa; Passman, Liz; Phillips, Jessica M.
Background: Service learning can enrich students' knowledge, skills and commitment to occupational goals while positively affecting communities. Undergraduate students in a course on obesity engaged in service learning by assisting with a family-based obesity prevention program, Getting Into Fitness Together (GIFT). Purpose: The impact of GIFT on…
Johnson, K; LaTour, M S
This study was designed to examine the effects of fear appeals in AIDS prevention messages and to determine whether or not males and females differ in their response to these appeals. MANOVA results from a sample of 179 junior and senior business students at a mid-Atlantic urban university indicate that significant differences in message effects were associated with type of appeal, gender of the respondent, and the interaction between appeal and gender.
Kawahito, Junko; Hori, Masashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa
The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N = 40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire three times (pre, post, and follow-up). The questionnaire was comprised of items evaluating depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), SC, positive self-complexity (P-SC), and negative self-complexity (N-SC). The results indicated that P-SC at the post-test was significantly increased and P-SC at the follow-up test was marginally increased in the intervention group, compared with the control group. Furthermore, structured equation modeling revealed that in the intervention group, high P-SC was related to low level of depressed mood after the program.
Paige, Samantha R.; Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, Don J.; Alber, Julia M.; Chappell, Chelsea; Barry, Adam E.
Background: College students actively seek online health information and use Instagram, an image- and video-based social networking website, to build social networks grounded in trust and behavioral norms (social capital), which have the potential to prevent chronic disease. Purpose: This study aimed to (1) examine how intensity of Instagram use…
Pasco, Susan; Wallack, Cory; Sartin, Robert M.; Dayton, Rebecca
Objective: In an effort to identify students at risk for suicide, many colleges are implementing suicide prevention training for campus gatekeepers. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 3-hour, experiential-based gatekeeper training that included an emphasis on enhancing communication skills and relational connection in addition to the didactic…
Dunlap, Shannon L.; Taboada, Arianna; Merino, Yesenia; Heitfeld, Suzanne; Gordon, Robert J.; Gere, David; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.
We examined the sexual health change process experienced by 26 college student sexual health educators from three geographic regions of the United States who participated in a multisite arts-based sexual health prevention program. We conducted eight focus groups and used a phenomenological approach to analyze data. We drew from social cognitive…
Ross, Lesley A.; Attaway, Tracey L.; Staik, Irene M.; Harwell, Brad D.; Burling, John W.; Gilbert, D. Kristen.
Many Web sites and professional journal articles address professional burnout in helping professions. Professional organizations in social work, psychology, and medicine have identified stressors and developed effective coping strategies, allowing helping professionals to alleviate stress and burnout via a reactive approach. This pilot study…
Zhang, Shaoru; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tianhua; Wang, Xiangni; Liu, Weiping; Ma, Xuexue; Li, Yuelu; Fan, Yahui
College student community is the one with high risk of tuberculosis (TB). A systemic and standardized administration model for prevention and control of TB is significance in controlling TB spread in universities. Currently, the universities in China have not established the comprehensive and standardized administration system for TB prevention and control in college student community. Firstly, the literature research and brainstorming method (n=13) were used to construct the clause and sub-clause pool for the administration of TB prevention and control within college student community in 2014. Secondly, a total of twenty experts in the field of TB prevention and control who are representatives of the east, west, south and north parts of China were selected and invited to participate the Delphi letter-inquiry. After two rounds of letter-inquiry, the opinions of the experts reached a consensus and the framework for the administration system was constructed. A framework for the administration system was constructed, which included 8 first class indexes, 26 second class indexes and 104 third class indexes. The results are highly scientific and reliable, which can be helpful for improving the systemic and standardized levels for the administration of TB prevention and control in universities in China and perhaps in other developing counties with high TB burden as well.
Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G
One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a major public health problem in the United States, and because of the similarities in the age group of college and military populations, the problems regarding sexual violence in both constituencies have been well-documented. In the current pilot study we seek to add to both current knowledge about and promising practices of translating prevention strategies from one target audience to another. We describe how we translated, administered, and evaluated a bystander intervention social marketing campaign focused on sexual assault prevention that had been found to significantly affect attitude change on a college campus for a U.S. Army installation in Europe. In addition to demonstrating the process of translating prevention strategies across target audiences, findings from this pilot study contribute to the evaluation data on the effectiveness of sexual violence prevention strategies implemented with members of the U.S. Military. From our analysis, we see that research participants indicate that the degree to which the images resonate with them and the familiarity of the context (i.e., social self-identification) significantly effect the participants' personal responsibility for reducing sexual assault, confidence in acting as a bystander, and reported engagement as a bystander.
Swaminathan, M S
This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117
While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.
This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components
By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.
Schuster, Roseanne C; de Sousa, Octávio; Rivera, Jacqueline; Olson, Rebecca; Pinault, Delphine; Young, Sera L
Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT. We conducted 24 semi-structured interviews with nurses, volunteers, community health workers, and traditional birth attendants about the barriers and promoters they experienced delivering PVT services. We then explored emergent themes in subsequent focus group discussions (n = 7, total participants N = 92) and elicited participant perspectives on PBIs. The ecological motivation-opportunity-ability framework guided our iterative data collection and thematic analysis processes. The interviews revealed that while all health worker cadres were motivated intrinsically and by social recognition, they were dissatisfied with low and late remuneration. Facility-based staff were challenged by factors across the rest of the ecological levels, primarily in the opportunity domain, including the following: poor referral and record systems (work mandate), high workload, stock-outs, poor infrastructure (facility environment), and delays in obtaining patient results and donor payment discrepancies (administrative). Community-based cadres' opportunity challenges included lack of supplies, distance (work environment), lack of incorporation into the health system (administration), and ability challenges of incorrect knowledge (health worker). PBIs based on social recognition and that enable action on intrinsic motivation through training, supervision, and collaboration were thought to have the most potential for targeting improvements
This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr
Hust, Stacey J T; Adams, Paula M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Ren, Chunbo; Lei, Ming; Ran, Weina; Marett, Emily Garrigues
Among the existing sexual assault prevention efforts on college campuses, few use mass communication strategies designed to simultaneously entertain and educate. Although many entertainment-education efforts are guided by social cognitive theory, other theories may be useful in entertainment-education design. Previous research has found that social cognitive theory and social norms theory can successfully influence participants' perceived norms and efficacy related to sexual assault reduction; however, whether such results can be replicated in a naturalistic setting and the extent to which the guiding theoretical foundation may influence outcomes remain unknown. We used a pre- and posttest field experiment with college students in residence halls to assess how different theoretical foundations may influence effects. Over the course of a semester, the participants viewed eight mini-magazines developed using (1) social cognitive theory, (2) social norms theory, (3) a combination of both theoretical frameworks, or (4) a control condition with no sexual assault prevention messaging. Participants in the combined content condition had greater levels of self-efficacy related to sexual assault prevention and more accurate norm perceptions. There were also effects for the mini-magazines developed with only one theoretical framework. Overall, we found that multiple theories can effectively guide entertainment-education message development.
In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market
The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years
Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the
DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology
Ntseane, Peggy Gabo
This article presents the results of a study that was conducted as an effort to identify the needs of sex workers as potential beneficiaries of future HIV prevention and empowerment activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the situation and needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from one of the small…
Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur
This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sexual violence is a common human rights violation among campus students. Students within the university, faculty committees, and members of staff are not only involved in sexual violence, but also in addressing its causes. This thesis describes sexual violence victimization and perpetration awareness, its relationship with human right and punitive measures accorded to it in a sample of 150-university students. A cross sectional survey design was used to contact students through voluntary gat...
Rein, Benjamin A; McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Allison R; Hawkins, T Anne; Ng, H Mei; Yura, Catherine A
Training programs exist that prepare college students, faculty, and staff to identify and support students potentially at risk for suicide. Kognito is an online program that trains users through simulated interactions with virtual humans. This study evaluated Kognito's effectiveness in preparing users to intervene with at-risk students. Training was completed by 2,727 university students, faculty, and staff from April, 2014 through September, 2015. Voluntary and mandatory participants at a land-grant university completed Kognito modules designed for higher education, along with pre- and post-assessments. All modules produced significant gains in reported Preparedness, Likelihood, and Self-Efficacy in intervening with troubled students. Despite initial disparities in reported abilities, after training participants reported being similarly capable of assisting at-risk students, including LGBTQ and veteran students. Kognito training appears to be effective, on a large scale, in educating users to act in a facilitative role for at-risk college students.
In the context of both International law and the application of Islamic Sharia Law, how effective have Kuwait and the Kuwaiti legal system been in addressing, preventing and combating human trafficking?
MEZHI MEJBEL MEZHI BATHAL ALRASHEDI, ALI
This thesis answers the question of how effective Kuwait and the Kuwaiti legal system have been in addressing, preventing, and combating human trafficking in the context of both international law and the application of Islamic Sharia Law (ISL). The thesis is concerned with trafficking in persons with a particular focus on trafficking to exploit labour in Kuwait as compared to the five other Arab countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The GCC countries are parties to the main interna...
Pediatricians can be a door opener to early prevention for families at risk. The German well-child program is well-established, but there is a gap between the structural possibilities and the observed placements. The aim of this review is to show how pediatricians and parents talk about psychosocial risks under the very structured conditions of well-child visits. The challenges and traps of the framed interactions will be described and options for early prevention will be shown. The review is primarily based on the work of conversational and ethnomethodological studies reconstructing the pediatrician's discussion with parents about psychosocial issues in the family. Well-child visits are a highly routinized practice. Talking about family issues for both partners is a difficult task. Discussions about psychosocial issues are seldom and vague . Predominantly, they work cooperatively on reciprocal normalization of the child's development. Based on this shared orientation, pediatricians make an early, mostly general, prescription of parental tasks, supporting the child in the next developmental step. This kind of routine anticipatory counselling puts some pressure on the parents. Parents under unknown stress could be overburdened with this advice. In the script of well-child visits, there are no slots that indicate to pediatricians and parents when, which, how and for what purpose psychosocial issues can be discussed and negotiated. For implementing such slots in well-child visits, three steps are necessary: a structured and regular assessment of psychosocial issues, a trained pediatrician in motivational interviewing and a social worker guiding the family in the network of early prevention.
Isora Ramos Valle
Full Text Available The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has received material and financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Program evaluation is carried out by an independent team at ENSAP (National School of Public Health. This paper reports on results of one part of that evaluation: an assessment of the agencies and sectors who made up the organized social and national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The evaluation primarily used qualitative analyses of the activities and tasks proposed by sectors in their 2006-2008 work plans. Visits were made to the provinces of Ciudad de la Habana, Matanzas, and Holguín. Qualitative techniques included in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, observation, and review of documentary evidence of all kinds (videos, reports, minutes, protocols, results of social research, and radio broadcast messages and varied depending on the particular features of each sector. We noted improvements in multi-sector participation in the prevention and response to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Conscious of their role, sectors generally carried out their programmed activities and had improved their organization, planning, and systematization; integration among the sectors was also better. These local initiatives provided evidence of a multi-sector response characterized by autonomy, emotional involvement, and an identification with the goals of the project; this went beyond simply meeting targets. Cross-sector work showed a marked increase and a
Kalsoom, U.; Sultana, A.; Bairam, S.
To assess prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in medical students and to determine their knowledge regarding its prevention. Study Design: A cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad,from Jun to Aug 2017. Material and Methods: A purposive sample of 359 female medical students was taken after applying selection criteria. After ethical approval and consent of respondents, data was collected through self-administered structured questionnaire on demographic variables, prevalence of PMS, physical, psychological and behavioral changes, knowledge regarding its prevention etc. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Frequencies were computed and descriptive statistics applied. Cross tabulation between knowledge regarding prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and prevention of premenstrual syndrome was done. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to see the association between these two variables. Cochran test of conditional independence was applied to see conditional association between these variables at p-value <0.05. Result: PMS was found in 280 (80%) students. Out of them, 266 (95%) experienced physical changes and breast tenderness was the most common 159 (60%). While 210 (75%) had psychological changes and depression was found in 76 (36%). Behavioral changes were present in 120 (43%) and most prevalent was effect on academic performance which was 88 (76%). About 250 (71.5%) were ignorant about its prevention while only 100 (28.5%) knew about its prevention. Statistically significant association was found between knowledge regarding prevention of premenstrual syndrome and presence of premenstrual syndrome, as p-value 0.00 of Pearson Chi- Square 35 at df1 was less than 0.05. On application of Cochran test of conditional independence, significant conditional association was found between these variables as p-value of 0.00 was <0.05. Conclusion: Premenstrual Syndrome was found in
The effectiveness of inking needle core prostate biopsies for preventing patient specimen identification errors: a technique to address Joint Commission patient safety goals in specialty laboratories.
Raff, Lester J; Engel, George; Beck, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Andrea S; Bauer, Meagan E
The elimination or reduction of medical errors has been a main focus of health care enterprises in the United States since the year 2000. Elimination of errors in patient and specimen identification is a key component of this focus and is the number one goal in the Joint Commission's 2008 National Patient Safety Goals Laboratory Services Program. To evaluate the effectiveness of using permanent inks to maintain specimen identity in sequentially submitted prostate needle biopsies. For a 12-month period, a grossing technician stained each prostate core with permanent ink developed for inking of pathology specimens. A different color was used for each patient, with all the prostate cores from all vials for a particular patient inked with the same color. Five colors were used sequentially: green, blue, yellow, orange, and black. The ink was diluted with distilled water to a consistency that allowed application of a thin, uniform coating of ink along the edges of the prostate core. The time required to ink patient specimens comprising different numbers of vials and prostate biopsies was timed. The number and type of inked specimen discrepancies were evaluated. The identified discrepancy rate for prostate biopsy patients was 0.13%. The discrepancy rate in terms of total number of prostate blocks was 0.014%. Diluted inks adhered to biopsy contours throughout tissue processing. The tissue showed no untoward reactions to the inks. Inking did not affect staining (histochemical or immunohistochemical) or pathologic evaluation. On average, inking prostate needle biopsies increases grossing time by 20%. Inking of all prostate core biopsies with colored inks, in sequential order, is an aid in maintaining specimen identity. It is a simple and effective method of addressing Joint Commission patient safety goals by maintaining specimen identity during processing of similar types of gross specimens. This technique may be applicable in other specialty laboratories and high
Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E
The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students ( n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles.
Scribner, Richard A; Theall, Katherine P; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William
Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N= 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets.
Preventing the first cesarean delivery: summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop.
Spong, Catherine Y; Berghella, Vincenzo; Wenstrom, Katharine D; Mercer, Brian M; Saade, George R
With more than one third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a workshop to address the concept of preventing the first cesarean delivery. The available information on maternal and fetal factors, labor management and induction, and nonmedical factors leading to the first cesarean delivery was reviewed as well as the implications of the first cesarean delivery on future reproductive health. Key points were identified to assist with reduction in cesarean delivery rates including that labor induction should be performed primarily for medical indication; if done for nonmedical indications, the gestational age should be at least 39 weeks or more and the cervix should be favorable, especially in the nulliparous patient. Review of the current literature demonstrates the importance of adhering to appropriate definitions for failed induction and arrest of labor progress. The diagnosis of "failed induction" should only be made after an adequate attempt. Adequate time for normal latent and active phases of the first stage, and for the second stage, should be allowed as long as the maternal and fetal conditions permit. The adequate time for each of these stages appears to be longer than traditionally estimated. Operative vaginal delivery is an acceptable birth method when indicated and can safely prevent cesarean delivery. Given the progressively declining use, it is critical that training and experience in operative vaginal delivery are facilitated and encouraged. When discussing the first cesarean delivery with a patient, counseling should include its effect on future reproductive health.
Preventing the First Cesarean Delivery: Summary of a Joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop
Spong, Catherine Y.; Berghella, Vincenzo; Wenstrom, Katharine D.; Mercer, Brian M.; Saade, George R.
With over one-third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a workshop to address the concept of preventing the first cesarean. The available information on maternal and fetal factors, labor management and induction, and non-medical factors leading to the first cesarean were reviewed as well as the implications of the first cesarean on future reproductive health. Key points were identified to assist with reduction in cesarean rates including that labor induction should be performed primarily for medical indication; if done for non-medical indications, the gestational age should be at least 39 weeks or more and the cervix should be favorable, especially in the nulliparous patient. Review of the current literature demonstrates the importance of adhering to appropriate definitions for failed induction and arrest of labor progress. The diagnosis of “failed induction” should only be made after an adequate attempt. Adequate time for normal latent and active phases of the first stage, and for the second stage, should be allowed, as long as the maternal and fetal conditions permit. The adequate time for each of these stages appears to be longer than traditionally estimated. Operative vaginal delivery is an acceptable birth method when indicated, and can safely prevent cesarean delivery. Given the progressively declining use, it is critical that training and experience in operative vaginal delivery is facilitated and encouraged. When discussing the first cesarean with a patient, counseling should include its effect on future reproductive health. PMID:23090537
Dour, Colleen A; Horacek, Tanya M; Schembre, Susan M; Lohse, Barbara; Hoerr, Sharon; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne A; Shoff, Suzanne; Phillips, Beatrice; Greene, Geoffrey
To evaluate the motivational effect of the Project WebHealth study procedures and intervention components on weight-related health behavior changes in male and female college students. Process evaluation. Eight universities in the United States. Project WebHealth participants (n = 653; 29% men). Participants rated motivational effects of study procedures and intervention components. Participants were grouped into outcome-based health behavior categories based on achievement of desired targets for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and/or body weight. Differences in motivation from each procedure and component were analyzed by gender- and outcome-based health behavior category. Women were generally more motivated than men. Compared to those who did not meet any target health behaviors, men with improved health outcomes (68%) were significantly more motivated by the skills to fuel the body lesson, goal setting, and research snippets. Their female counterparts (63%) were significantly more motivated by the lessons on body size and eating enjoyment, and by the suggested weekly activities. Specific study procedures and components of Project WebHealth motivated study participants to improve their weight-related health behaviors, and they differed by gender. Findings support the need for gender-tailored interventions in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carey, Robert M; Whelton, Paul K
In November 2017, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) released a clinical practice guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (BP) in adults. This article summarizes the major recommendations. In 2014, the ACC and the AHA appointed a multidisciplinary committee to update previous reports of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The committee reviewed literature and commissioned systematic reviews and meta-analyses on out-of-office BP monitoring, the optimal target for BP lowering, the comparative benefits and harms of different classes of antihypertensive agents, and the comparative benefits and harms of initiating therapy with a single antihypertensive agent or a combination of 2 agents. This article summarizes key recommendations in the following areas: BP classification, BP measurement, screening for secondary hypertension, nonpharmacologic therapy, BP thresholds and cardiac risk estimation to guide drug treatment, treatment goals (general and for patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and advanced age), choice of initial drug therapy, resistant hypertension, and strategies to improve hypertension control.
Kroshus, Emily; Paskus, Tom; Bell, Lydia
The objective of the present study was to assess whether there is a positive association between expectations about off-field conduct set by the team coach and the likelihood that college football players intend to engage as prosocial bystanders in the prevention of what they consider to be inappropriate sexual behavior. In a sample of U.S. collegiate football players (N = 3,281), a path analysis model tested the association between coach expectations, perceived likelihood of discipline for off-field transgressions, and likelihood of intending to intervene to prevent inappropriate sexual behavior. Mediation of these relationships by the athlete's sense of exploitative entitlement and their attitudes about intervening were also assessed. Findings supported the hypothesized relationships, with expectations and discipline associated with bystander intentions both directly and indirectly through the mediating pathways of entitlement and attitudes about intervening. These findings provide evidence about the important role that sports team coaches can play in encouraging bystander intervention by clarifying expectations and consequences for conduct off the field of play. Athletic departments can provide a framework within which coaches are informed about the importance of setting and enforcing standards for off-field behavior, and are appropriately incentivized to do so. © The Author(s) 2015.
Marraccini, Marisa E.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Rossi, Joseph S.
Objective This study developed and examined the psychometric properties of a newly formed measure designed to assess professor/instructor bullying, as well as teacher bullying occurring prior to college. Additionally, prevalence of instructor bullying and characteristics related to victims of instructor bullying were examined. Participants Participants were 337 college students recruited in 2012 from a northeastern university. Methods An online questionnaire was administered to college students. A split-half, cross-validation approach was employed for measurement development. Results The measure demonstrated strong criterion validity and internal consistency. Approximately half of students reported witnessing professor/instructor bullying and 18% reported being bullied by a professor/instructor. Report of teacher bullying occurring prior to college was related to professor/instructor bullying in college, and sex was a moderating variable. Conclusion College students perceive instructor bullying as occurring but may not know how to properly address it. Prevention efforts should be made by university administrators, faculty and staff. PMID:26151235
Marraccini, Marisa E; Weyandt, Lisa L; Rossi, Joseph S
This study developed and examined the psychometric properties of a newly formed measure designed to assess professor/instructor bullying, as well as teacher bullying occurring prior to college. Additionally, prevalence of instructor bullying and characteristics related to victims of instructor bullying were examined. Participants were 337 college students recruited in 2012 from a northeastern university. An online questionnaire was administered to college students. A split-half, cross-validation approach was employed for measurement development. The measure demonstrated strong criterion validity and internal consistency. Approximately half of students reported witnessing professor/instructor bullying and 18% reported being bullied by a professor/instructor. Report of teacher bullying occurring prior to college was related to professor/instructor bullying in college, and sex was a moderating variable. College students perceive instructor bullying as occurring but may not know how to properly address it. Prevention efforts should be made by university administrators, faculty, and staff.
Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983
Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…
Elizabeth A. Dennis
Full Text Available The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT, while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR. Methods. Freshmen (n=45 aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P=0.01. Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR and 98% (SCT; SCTSR students (>50% remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.
Mason, Michael J; Zaharakis, Nikola; Benotsch, Eric G
The relationship between social network risk (alcohol-using close friends), perceived peer closeness, substance use, and psychiatric symptoms was examined to identify risk and protective features of college students' social context. Six hundred and seventy undergraduate students enrolled in a large southeastern university. An online survey was administered to consenting students. Students with risky networks were at a 10-fold increase of hazardous drinking, 6-fold increase for weekly marijuana use, and 3-fold increase for weekly tobacco use. College students' who feel very close to their peers were protected against psychiatric symptoms yet were at increased risk for marijuana use. Perceived closeness of peers was highly protective against psychiatric symptoms, adding a natural preventive effect for a population at great risk for mental illness. RESULTS support targeting college students through network-oriented preventive interventions to address substance use as well as mental health.
... Suicide Populations Racial/Ethnic Groups Older Adults Adolescents LGBT Military/Veterans Men Effective Prevention Comprehensive Approach Identify ... Based Prevention Settings American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Schools Colleges and Universities Primary Care Emergency Departments Behavioral ...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...
Shankar, Abhishek; Roy, Shubham; Malik, Abhidha; Rath, G K; Julka, P K; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Barnwal, Keshav; Upadhyaya, Sneha; Singh, Rajan; Srivastava, Vivek
Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality among men in India and incidence is increasing, but actually, they are largely preventable diseases. In India, advanced stage at the time of presentation is responsible for high mortality and morbidity and early detection is the only way to reduce it. The purpose of this study is to know the level of awareness of various aspects of lung cancer among college teachers and impact of awareness programmes in its prevention and early detection. This assessment was part of Pink Chain Campaign-a campaign on cancer awareness. During the cancer awareness events in 2011-2013 at various women colleges in different parts in India, pre-test related to lung cancer was followed by awareness programme. Post-test using the same questionnaire was conducted at the end of interactive session, at 6 months and 1 year. A total of 872 out of 985 teachers participated in the study (overall response rate was 88.5 %). Mean age of the study population was 41.6 years (range 26-59 years). There was a significant increase in the level of knowledge regarding lung cancer at 6 months, and this was sustained at 1 year. Among teachers who were just asked yes or no question, 117 teachers (13.4 %) were smokers and 241 teachers (27.6 %) were alcoholics. Magazines and newspapers were sources for knowledge in 50-60 % of teachers, whereas approximately 30 % of teachers were educated by TV and Internet regarding various aspects of lung cancer. Post awareness at 6 months and 1 year, Pink Chain Campaign was the major source of knowledge related to lung cancer in more than 90 % of teachers by continuous and timely update on subject. Post awareness at 6 months and 1 year, there was a significant change in alcohol and smoking habits. Major reasons for not going for check-up were ignorance (83.1 %), fear (30.1 %) and lethargic attitude (29.3 %) initially, but over time, lack of time, lethargic attitude and hesitation became
Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...
Suggests a series of steps that individuals in the foreign language profession can take to effectively address the issue of demographic changes in the U.S. college student populations and keeping foreign language learning a feasible discipline in the future. (26 references) (GLR)
Safety Act for the 21st Century provides unique opportunities for preventing ... Toxics. ** A student at Florida A&M College of Law, Juris Doctor candidate, class of 2017. ... evaluates pre-manufacturing notifications (PMNs) for new chemical substances ..... 65 World Health Organization,GLP Guideline Handbook(World Health.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...
Implications of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Cholesterol Guidelines on Statin Underutilization for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus Among Several US Networks of Community Health Centers.
Akhabue, Ehimare; Rittner, Sarah S; Carroll, Joseph E; Crawford, Phillip M; Dant, Lydia; Laws, Reesa; Leo, Michael C; Puro, Jon; Persell, Stephen D
Little is known about statin underutilization among diabetes mellitus patients cared for in community health centers, which tend to serve socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Implications of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on preexisting gaps in statin treatment in this population are unclear. We included 32 440 adults (45% male, 63% nonwhite, 29% uninsured/Medicaid) aged 40 to 75 years with diabetes mellitus who received care within 16 community health center groups in 11 states in the Community Health Applied Research Network during 2013. Statin prescribing was analyzed as a function of concordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel 2001 and ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines. More patients' treatments were concordant with the ACC/AHA (52.8%) versus the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (36.2%) guideline. Female sex was associated with lower concordance for both (odds ratio [OR] 0.90, CI 0.85-0.94; and OR 0.84, CI 0.80-0.88, respectively). Being insured, an Asian/Pacific Islander, or primarily Spanish speaking were associated with greater concordance for both guidelines: 35.5% (11 526/32 440) were concordant with neither guideline, the majority (79.7%) having no statin prescribed; 28.2% (9168/32 440) were concordant with ACC/AHA but not the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. 8.7% of these patients had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >160 mg/dL despite having a moderate- or high-intensity statin prescribed. And 11.6% (3772/32 440) were concordant with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel but not with ACC/AHA. Most of these patients had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between 70 and 99 mg/dL with no or a low-intensity statin prescribed. Opportunities exist to improve cholesterol management in diabetes mellitus patients in community health centers. Addressing care gaps could improve
Simmons, Charles E. P.
The role of a women's college is addressed in terms of institutional environment, student motivation, career aspiration, noncurricular activities, counseling and other student services, and breaking sex stereotyping of men as well as women. (LBH)
Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…
Egan, Kathleen L; Suerken, Cynthia K; Reboussin, Beth A; Spangler, John; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Sutfin, Erin L; Debinski, Beata; Wolfson, Mark
K2 and Spice consist of an herbal blend of plant matter and chemical synthetic cannabinoids. These substances emerged in the early 2000s as a popular alternative to marijuana among youth and young adults. This study sought to identify rates and correlates of K2 and Spice at college entry and first use during college. In Fall 2010, 3146 students at 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia were recruited to participate in a longitudinal cohort survey. The cohort was invited to participate in a total of six surveys over their college career. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with lifetime K2 and Spice use at college entry and first use during college, adjusting for clustering within schools and sample weights. Weighted lifetime prevalence of K2 and Spice use at college entry was 7.6%. An additional 6.6% of students reported first use during college. By the cohort's fourth year, 17.0% reported lifetime K2 and Spice use. While lifetime prevalence increased, past 6-month prevalence decreased substantially over time. K2 and Spice use at college entry was associated with sensation seeking; hookah, marijuana, and illicit drug use; and low religiosity. First use during college was associated with having a father with less than a four-year degree; alcohol and hookah use. Universities should ensure that prevention efforts address current substance use, including K2/Spice, and that treatment options are available for first year students who use substances.
Balabkins, Xenia P.
Over the past few years, New Jersey's Middlesex County College (MCC) has placed an inordinate amount of attention and effort on the issue of student transfer to four-year institutions. Although attention to traditional academic goals is important, MCC's stated mission also addresses other important segments of the college's market. The college has…
Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.
This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…
Coleman, Sandra Lee; Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Weller, Carol Thornton
College success courses (CSCs), or orientation courses, are offered by community colleges and universities to facilitate the success of first-time-in-college students. Primarily, these courses are designed to address students' nonacademic deficiencies, such as weak study habits and poor organizational skills, and to familiarize students with…
Walsh-Buhi, Eric R.; Helmy, Hannah; Harsch, Kristin; Rella, Natalie; Godcharles, Cheryl; Ogunrunde, Adejoke; Lopez Castillo, Humberto
Objective: This paper reports on a pilot study evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of a text- and mobile video-based intervention to educate women and men attending college about non-daily contraception, with a particular focus on long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). A secondary objective is to describe the process of intervention…
Stamper, Georgia Ann; Smith, Bradley H.; Gant, Rick; Bogle, Kristin E.
College students were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard alcohol programming (SAP) or (b) SAP plus an intervention designed to change perceptions of alcohol norms (PAN). Effects of the intervention delivered during one class period (i.e., 55 minutes) were assessed using pre- and post-intervention surveys about personal alcohol use…
Potter, Sharyn J.; Stapleton, Jane G.
One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a…
Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.
Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris
Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative
Ahl, David H.
The "College Explorer" is a software package (for the 64K Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 model III and 4 microcomputers) which aids in choosing a college. The major features of this package (manufactured by The College Board) are described and evaluated. Sample input/output is included. (JN)
Estimating Longitudinal Risks and Benefits From Cardiovascular Preventive Therapies Among Medicare Patients: The Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool: A Special Report From the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology.
Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Huffman, Mark D; Karmali, Kunal N; Sanghavi, Darshak M; Wright, Janet S; Pelser, Colleen; Gulati, Martha; Masoudi, Frederick A; Goff, David C
The Million Hearts Initiative has a goal of preventing 1 million heart attacks and strokes-the leading causes of mortality-through several public health and healthcare strategies by 2017. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology support the program. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model was developed by Million Hearts and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services as a strategy to assess a value-based payment approach toward reduction in 10-year predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) by implementing cardiovascular preventive strategies to manage the "ABCS" (aspirin therapy in appropriate patients, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). The purpose of this special report is to describe the development and intended use of the Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool. The Million Hearts Tool reinforces and builds on the "2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk" by allowing clinicians to estimate baseline and updated 10-year ASCVD risk estimates for primary prevention patients adhering to the appropriate ABCS over time, alone or in combination. The tool provides updated risk estimates based on evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the ABCS therapies. This novel approach to personalized estimation of benefits from risk-reducing therapies in primary prevention may help target therapies to those in whom they will provide the greatest benefit, and serves as the basis for a Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services program designed to evaluate the Million Hearts Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model. Copyright © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc., and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S
Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…
Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.
Zoe E. Neale
Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use on college campuses is prevalent and contributes to problems that affect the health, emotional wellbeing, and academic success of college students. Risk factors, such as family history of alcohol problems, predict future alcohol problems, but less is known about their potential impact on intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention implemented in a non-randomized sample of drinking and non-drinking college freshmen.Methods: Freshmen college students recruited for the intervention study (n = 153 completed a web-adaptation of the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS at the start of spring semester. We compared their 30-days post-intervention alcohol initiation, number of drinking days (DAYS, drinks per occasion (DRINKS, maximum drinks in 24 h (MAX24 and alcohol use disorder symptoms (AUDsx to 151 comparison participants retrospectively matched on demographics and baseline alcohol use behaviors. We also tested baseline DRINKS, DAYS, AUDsx, MAX24, and parental family history (PFH of alcohol problems as moderators of the effect of the intervention.Results: At follow-up, intervention participants had lower rates of AUDsx than comparison participants, especially among baseline drinkers. Among participants drinking 3+ days/month at baseline, intervention participants showed fewer DAYS at follow-up than the comparison group participants. BASICS was also associated with a decreased likelihood of initiation among baseline non-drinkers. PFH significantly interacted with treatment group, with positive PFH intervention participants reporting significantly fewer AUDsx at follow-up compared to positive PFH comparison participants. We found no evidence for an effect of the intervention on DRINKS or MAX24 in our analyses.Conclusions: Results suggest some indication that novel groups, such as non-drinkers, regular drinkers, and PFH positive students may
Quick, James C.
Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)
YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Community College of Philadelphia Community College of Philadelphia 1700 Spring Garden Street Philadelphia, PA 19130...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Molecular Analysis Research at Community College of Philadelphia The views, opinions...Molecular Analysis Research at Community College of Philadelphia Report Title AXIMA Assurance mass spectrometer, Leica DMI-8 fluorescent microscope
Anokye, Akua Duku
This article presents a written version of the address Akua Duku Anokye, chairwoman of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC), gave at the CCCC meeting in New York on March 24, 2007. In her address, Anokye talked about the importance of how an entity or an individual is known by the company they keep. To learn with whom has…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…
There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)
Swanson, Wendi Mortimer
Approximately 70% of United States [or U.S.] adults are either overweight or obese. Obesity increases the risk of chronic disease and strains healthcare access, quality, and cost. Weight gain occurs in college students threatening optimal weight maintenance. Physical activity is fundamental to preventing disease. College students incur multiple challenges in weight management. The purpose of the article is to describe the opportunity for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) to intentionally become wellness promoters. The literature was reviewed and interventions developed. Guided by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, focus was concentrated on environmental influences through a proposed Staying Active Campaign (SAC). College students are a vulnerable population at risk for unhealthful practices. Young adulthood is a critical period of weight gain that carries risk for later adulthood. College students desire and require assistance for successful weight management. Interventions can be directed by APRNs to achieve healthful weight management and create a campus-wide culture that reinforces healthful practices. Obesity in the college population is a twofold circumstance. Action by APRNs is needed to address obesity and advocate for the prevention of future obesity. The SAC decreases the confounding college environment and supports the students' ability to be physically active while establishing personal lifelong behaviors to emulate and share with others. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Pre-college education efforts are many and varied, involving the teachers, students, parents, museums, and youth groups. However, it is necessary to reach out to school administration at all levels if teachers are to be innovative in their approaches. This introductory meeting clearly indicated that more interaction between the participants would be profitable. It is clear that the science pipeline leading from kindergarten to college entry needs to be filled with students. What is not clear is how we can do it. The plethora of projects being pursued by the NASA Space Grant College Fellowship (NSGC) programs to accomplish that goal are heartening and exciting. However, this large gamut of programs may also indicate how new we are in this game and how little anyone knows about creating a pre-college interest in science and engineering. In a way, it resembles the situation of the common cold--there is no known cure yet, so there are many so-called remedies. Unfortunately, the time we had together was entirely too short to address the evaluation situation, so that we can in the future zero in on the most effective approaches. This report is a summary of the many ways the different NSGC' s are approaching pre-college education and a list of suggestions.
Garcia, Jonathan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Cabello, Robinson; Clark, Jesse L
HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to affect men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru at disproportionately high rates. The ineffectiveness of traditional prevention strategies may be due to the disconnect between health promotion messages and community-level understandings of sexual cultures. We conducted 15 workshops with MSM and TW to develop a community-based sexual health intervention. Intervention development consisted of focus groups and scenic improvisation to identify sexual scripts for an HIV prevention telenovela, or Spanish soap opera. Workshops were stratified by self-reported socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and gender identity: (1) low-income MSM (n = 9); (2) middle/high-income MSM (n = 6); and (3) TW (n = 8). Employing a conceptual model based on sexual scripts and critical consciousness theories, this paper reports on three themes identified during the telenovela-development process as participants sought to "rescript" social and sexual stereotypes associated with HIV-related vulnerability: (1) management of MSM and TW social identities at the intersection of socioeconomic status, sexuality, and gender performance; (2) social constructions of gender and/or sexual role and perceived and actual HIV/STI risk(s) within sexual partnership interactions; and (3) idealized and actual sexual scripts in the negotiation of safer sex practices between MSM/TW and their partners. These findings are key to reframing existing prevention strategies that fail to effectively engage poorly defined "high-risk populations." Leveraging community-based expertise, the results provide an alternative to the static transfer of information through expert-patient interactions in didactic sessions commonly used in HIV prevention interventions among MSM and TW.
Healthy lifestyle interventions to combat noncommunicable disease-a novel nonhierarchical connectivity model for key stakeholders: a policy statement from the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.
Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Cherie Franklin, Nina; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter; Arena, Ross; Berra, Kathy; Dengel, Donald; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Hivert, Marie-France; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Myers, Jonathan; Whitsel, Laurie; Williams, Mark; Corra, Ugo; Cosentino, Francesco; Dendale, Paul; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Gielen, Stephan; Guazzi, Marco; Halle, Martin; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Piepoli, Massimo F; Pinto, Fausto J; Guthrie, George; Lianov, Liana; Shurney, Dexter
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, and the European Society of Cardiology. This article is being published concurrently in Mayo Clinic Proceedings . The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal's style. Either citation can be used when
Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide: learning and behavioural outcomes of a training-of-trainers model to facilitate grassroots community health education to address Indigenous youth suicide prevention.
Wexler, Lisa; Trout, Lucas; Rataj, Suzanne; Kirk, Tanya; Moto, Roberta; McEachern, Diane
Alaska Native (AN) youth suicide remains a substantial and recalcitrant health disparity, especially in rural/remote communities. Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide (PC CARES) is a community health intervention that responds to the need for culturally responsive and evidence-supported prevention practice, using a grassroots approach to spark multilevel and community-based efforts for suicide prevention. This paper describes theoretical and practical considerations of the approach, and assesses the feasibility and preliminary learning and behavioural outcomes of the training-of-trainers model. It details the training of a first cohort of intervention facilitators in Northwest Alaska (NWA). Thirty-two people from 11 NWA village communities completed the PC CARES facilitator training, preparing them to implement the intervention in their home communities. Facilitator pre-post surveys focused on readiness to facilitate, a group quiz assessed participants' understanding of relevant research evidence, and practice facilitation exercises demonstrated competency. Curriculum fidelity and accuracy scores were calculated using audio recordings from learning circles conducted by facilitators in their home communities. Facilitator reflections describe the successes of the model and identify several areas for improvement. As of March 2017, 20 of the 32 trained facilitators in 10 of the 11 participating villages have hosted 54 LCs, with a total of 309 unique community members. Coding of these LCs by 2 independent raters indicate acceptable levels of fidelity and accurate dissemination of research evidence by facilitators. Facilitator reflections were positive overall, suggesting PC CARES is feasible, acceptable and potentially impactful as a way to translate research to practice in under-resourced, rural AN communities. PC CARES represents a practical community education and mobilisation approach to Indigenous youth suicide prevention that displays
Chang, Leng Chee; Sang-Ngern, Mayuramas; Pezzuto, John M; Ma, Carolyn
The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, during a historic event in Spring 2016, graduated the first two students in the Pacific region to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo. The college offers PhD programs in these five disciplines: Cancer Biology, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. One of the Pharmacognosy dissertations focused on plant-derived natural products with potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive activities. Physalis peruviana (Pp) L. originated in tropical South America. It has become naturalized and is found readily on the Island of Hawai'i. The edible fruits are commonly known as cape gooseberry or poha in Hawai'i. In part of our study, three new withanolides, physaperuvin G ( 1 ), physaperuvins I-J ( 2 - 3 ), along with four known withanolides, namely, 4β-hydroxywithanolide E ( 4 ), withaperuvin C ( 5 ), and physalactone ( 6 ), coagulin ( 7 ) were isolated from the aerial parts of P. peruviana . In addition, two known compounds, phyperunolide F ( 8 ), and withanolide S ( 9 ), were isolated and identified from the poha berry fruits. The structures and absolute stereochemistry of new compounds from poha were elucidated by several spectroscopy methods: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry analyses. All isolated poha compounds (aerial parts and fruits) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) with transfected human embryonic kidney cells 293. Most of the isolated natural compounds showed activity with these assays. Additional studies were performed with models of colon cancer. Specifically, 4β-hydroxywithanolide E (4HWE) inhibited the growth of colon cancer monolayer and spheroid cultures. The compound induced cell cycle arrest at low
Pilot Project to Integrate Community and Clinical Level Systems to Address Health Disparities in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity among Ethnic Minority Inner-City Middle School Students: Lessons Learned
Full Text Available Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions are lacking in the United States, especially for impoverished minority youths at risk for health disparities, and especially in accessible community-based settings. We describe the launch and pilot implementation evaluation of the first year of the B’N Fit POWER initiative as a middle school-based comprehensive wellness program that integrates weight management programming into existing onsite preventive and clinical services. Consistent with the existing implementation science literature, we focused on both the organizational structures that facilitate communication and the development of trust among stakeholders, students, and families and the development of realistic and timely goals to implement and integrate all aspects of the program. New implementation and programming strategies were developed and tested to increase the proportion of students screened, support the linkage of students to care, and streamline the integration of program clinical and afterschool components into routine services already offered at the school. We report on our initial implementation activities using the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI framework using hybrid outcomes combining the Reach element from the RE-AIM framework with a newly conceptualized Wellness Cascade.
In this podcast, CDCâs Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health. Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 6/9/2014.
Landreman, Lisa M.; Williamsen, Kaaren M.
In this chapter, we outline the challenges campuses face in addressing sexual violence and Title IX compliance. We argue that there are critical roles for student affairs professionals in Title IX work in developing effective campus sexual violence prevention and response strategies.
Pischke Claudia R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorrect perceptions of high rates of peer alcohol and tobacco use are predictive of increased personal use in student populations. Correcting misperceptions by providing feedback has been shown to be an effective intervention for reducing licit drug use. It is currently unknown if social norms interventions are effective in preventing and reducing illicit drug use in European students. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-site cluster controlled trial of a web-based social norms intervention aimed at reducing licit and preventing illicit drug use in European university students. Methods/Design An online questionnaire to assess rates of drug use will be developed and translated based on existing social norms surveys. Students from sixteen universities in seven participating European countries will be invited to complete the questionnaire. Both intervention and control sites will be chosen by convenience. In each country, the intervention site will be the university that the local principal investigator is affiliated with. We aim to recruit 1000 students per site (baseline assessment. All participants will complete the online questionnaire at baseline. Baseline data will be used to develop social norms messages that will be included in a web-based intervention. The intervention group will receive individualized social norms feedback. The website will remain online during the following 5 months. After five months, a second survey will be conducted and effects of the intervention on social norms and drug use will be measured in comparison to the control site. Discussion This project is the first cross-national European collaboration to investigate the feasibility of a social norms intervention to reduce licit and prevent illicit drug use among European university students. Final trial registration number DRKS00004375 on the ‘German Clinical Trials Register’.
Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.
Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria; Song, Anna
Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed. PMID:23832755
Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria M; Song, Anna V
Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed.
To analyze the consequences of genital herpes infections in pregnant women. The PubMed database and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. The symptomatology of herpes genital rash is often atypical (NP2) and not different during pregnancy (Professional consensus). It is most often due to HSV2 (NP2). Seventy percent of pregnant patients have a history of infection with Herpes simplex virus, without reference to genital or labial localization, and this is in most cases type 1 (NP2). The prevalence of clinical herpes lesions at birth in the event of recurrence is about 16% compared with 36% in the case of initial infection (NP4). In HSV+ patients, asymptomatic herpetic excretion is 4 to 10%. The rate of excretion increases in HIV+ patients (20 to 30%) (NP2). The risk of HSV seroconversion during pregnancy is 1 to 5% (NP2), but can reach 20% in case of sero-discordant couple (NP2). Questioning is not always sufficient to determine the history of herpes infection of a patient and her partner (NP2) and the clinical examination is not always reliable (NP2). Herpetic hepatitis and encephalitis are rare and potentially severe (NP4). These diagnoses should be discussed during pregnancy and antiviral therapy should be started as soon as possible (Professional consensus). There is no established link between herpes infection and miscarriages (NP3). There appears to be an association between untreated herpes infection and premature delivery (NP3) but not in the case of treated infections (NP4). Herpetic fetopathies are exceptional (NP4). There is no argument for recommending specific prenatal diagnosis for herpes infection during pregnancy (Professional consensus). Condom use reduces the risk of initial infection in women who are not pregnant (NP3). There is no evidence to justify routine screening during pregnancy (Professional consensus). There is a strong discrepancy between the prevalence of herpetic excretion
Brantz, Malcolm; Sadowski, Edward B.
As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math…
Grasmick, Lauren; Davies, Timothy Gray; Harbour, Clifford P.
This grounded theory study addressed the issue of how community college presidents foster active, broad-based participation in campus decision-making processes. This study was based on in-depth interviews with nationally recognized community college presidents selected on the basis of their work in implementing participative governance within…
Healthy Lifestyle Interventions to Combat Noncommunicable Disease—A Novel Nonhierarchical Connectivity Model for Key Stakeholders: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.
Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research and the European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grekin, Emily R
Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Ristić Jovan D.
Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .
Addressing a Critical Gap in U.S. National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Father-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Interventions for Latino Adolescent Males.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bowman, Alex S; Santa Maria, Diane; Kabemba, Francesca; Geronimo, Yoyce
The purpose of the research was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a father-based sexual and reproductive health intervention designed to reduce sexual and reproductive (SRH) disparities and increase correct and consistent condom use among Latino adolescent males. The current study conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latino father-son dyads (N=30) designed to elicit perspectives on communication regarding sex and condom use. In addition, the interview protocol included father-son preferences regarding paternal involvement in condom instruction and perceived obstacles and advantages of father direct involvement in education efforts designed to increase correct and consistent condom use among their adolescent sons. Three independent coders conducted both vertical and horizontal analyses of the data to identify emergent themes and reach theoretical saturation. The main findings from this study suggest that Latino fathers can be impactful in shaping Latino adolescent male sexual decision-making and correct and consistent condom use. However, our data highlight that while both feasible and acceptable, Latino fathers identify needing additional support in how best to communicate and seek opportunities to master their own knowledge and skills regarding condom use and effective communication with their adolescent sons about sex. Latino father-based interventions represent an acceptable and feasible option for building upon the recent success of U.S. national efforts to reduce teen pregnancy rates and STI disparities among Latino youth. However, there exists a need for father-based programs that will support Latino fathers in best educating their sons about condom use and better addressing their SRH. Ongoing national efforts to reduce Latino teen SRH disparities warrant the consideration of father-son interventions for Latino adolescent males in the United States. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Criswell, David R.
Space Grant Colleges and Universities must build the space curriculum of the future on the firm basis of deep knowledge of an involvement with the present operating programs of the nation and an on-going and extensive program of leading edge research in the aerospace sciences and engineering, management, law, finance, and the other arts that are integral to our planetary society. The Space Grant College and Fellowship Program must create new academic fields of enquiry, which is a long and difficult process that will require deeper and broader interaction between NASA and academia than has previously existed.
College Algebra, Second Edition is a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental concepts and techniques of algebra. The book incorporates some improvements from the previous edition to provide a better learning experience. It provides sufficient materials for use in the study of college algebra. It contains chapters that are devoted to various mathematical concepts, such as the real number system, the theory of polynomial equations, exponential and logarithmic functions, and the geometric definition of each conic section. Progress checks, warnings, and features are inserted. Every chapter c
Meyers, Steven A.
I explain how professors can establish working alliances with students to cultivate a climate conducive to learning. This process involves (a) attending to the emotional bonds that exist in the college classroom, (b) developing shared educational goals and tasks to promote a common sense of purpose, and (c) addressing classroom conflict to repair…
Gitterman, Daniel P.; Moulton, Jeremy G.; Bono-Lunn, Dillan; Chrisco, Laura
This article addresses the policy debate over "college for all" versus "college for some" in the United States and analyzes the relationship between "some college" (as a formal education attainment category) and earnings. Our evidence confirms--using data from the American Community Survey (ACS), the Panel Study on…
Calhoun, Charles C.
This book examines the history of Bowdoin College, chartered in 1794 by the General Court of Massachusetts and endowed by James Bowdoin, the school's namesake. Nine chapters address: (1) the movement to establish the college in the district of Maine in the late 18th century; (2) the opening of the college in 1802 and its early development; (3) the…
Phillips, Larry; And Others
Investigates 31 colleges and 1 state system of 21 colleges that addressed privatizing counseling services. A small number of colleges were found to have adopted different models of outsourcing, and some had considered outsourcing but not pursued it. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, factors affecting decision making, and levels of success. (JPS)
Vienne, Kristy; Slate, John R.
With the increasing cost of a college education on the rise, college administrators need to address the long term financial, psychological, and academic risks associated with the increased responsibility of personal debt. In this qualitative study, college students' perspectives regarding the need for a personal financial management center at a…
Eddy, Pamela L.
Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…
College athletics fans would be hard pressed to find a year like 2014 in college-sports history. In this year alone, the US judicial and arbitration systems have had to address four major legal actions coming from current and former student athletes. All speak to a core issue: that colleges have not done enough to protect or provide for their…
Massa, Robert J.; Parker, Annette S.
This chapter describes how Dickinson College, guided by a strategic plan, addressed its net tuition revenue problem through effective decision support, marketing and branding approaches, and pricing and financial aid strategies. The college's strategic plan guides allocation of resources toward fulfilling the college's purpose of providing an…
Johnson, R. Bradley; Oxendine, Symphony; Taub, Deborah J.; Robertson, Jason
Extensive media coverage of the suicide deaths of several gay and lesbian youth has highlighted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth as a population at-risk for suicide. In addition, it has caused colleges and universities to address mental health and suicide behavior among this very diverse college population. One issue that…
Whitner, Phillip A.; Shetterly, Arminta
The eating disorder known as bulimia is a relatively new and baffling phenomenon. This paper raises questions that college and university counseling center professionals need to address regarding this phenomenon. The first section focuses on defining the term "bulimia" and its evolution. The second section identifies numerous symptoms that need to…
... Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Defense Systems Management College National Defense University Armed... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addressing FOIA Requests B Appendix B to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED...
Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Reboussin, David M; Allen, Norrina B; Griswold, Michael E; Guallar, Eliseo; Hong, Yuling; Lackland, Daniel T; Miller, Edgar Pete R; Polonsky, Tamar; Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Vupputuri, Suma
To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses. Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. 2) systolic BP lowering to a target of <130 mm Hg may reduce the risk of several important outcomes including risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and major cardiovascular events. No class of medications (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, or beta blockers) was significantly better than thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics as a first-line therapy for any outcome. © 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc.
Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Reboussin, David M; Allen, Norrina B; Griswold, Michael E; Guallar, Eliseo; Hong, Yuling; Lackland, Daniel T; Miller, Edgar Pete R; Polonsky, Tamar; Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Vupputuri, Suma
To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses. Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. 2) systolic BP lowering to a target of <130 mm Hg may reduce the risk of several important outcomes including risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and major cardiovascular events. No class of medications (i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, or beta blockers) was significantly better than thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics as a first-line therapy for any outcome. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Anselem, Olivia; Picone, Olivier; Renesme, Laurent; Sananès, Nicolas; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Sellier, Yann; Laplace, Jean-Pierre; Sentilhes, Loïc
Identify measures to diagnose, prevent, and treat genital herpes infection during pregnancy and childbirth as well as neonatal herpes infection. Bibliographic search from the Medline and Cochrane Library databases and review of international clinical practice guidelines. Genital herpes lesions are most often due to HSV-2 (LE2). The risk of HSV seroconversion during pregnancy is 1-5% (LE2). Genital herpes lesions during pregnancy in a woman with a history of genital herpes is a recurrence. In this situation, there is no need for virologic confirmation (Grade B). In pregnant women with genital lesions who report they have not previously had genital herpes, virological confirmation by PCR and identifying the specific IgG type is necessary (professional consensus). A first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy should be treated with aciclovir (200 mg 5 times daily) or valaciclovir (1000 mg twice daily) for 5-10 days (Grade C), and recurrent herpes during pregnancy with aciclovir (200 mg 5 times daily) or valaciclovir (500 mg twice daily) (Grade C). The risk of neonatal herpes is estimated at between 25% and 44% if a non primary and primary first genital herpes episode is ongoing at delivery (LE2) and 1% for a recurrence (LE3). Antiviral prophylaxis should be offered to women with either a first or recurrent episode of genital herpes during pregnancy from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery (Grade B). Routine prophylaxis is not recommended for women with a history of genital herpes but no recurrence during pregnancy (professional consensus). A cesarean delivery is recommended if a first episode of genital herpes is suspected (or confirmed) at the onset of labor (Grade B) or if it occured less than 6 weeks before delivery (professional consensus) or in the event of premature rupture of the membranes at term. When a recurrence of genital herpes is underway at the onset of labor, cesarean delivery is most likely to be considered when the membranes are
M.A. (African Studies) The study deals with forms of address in isiZulu. Therefore, the various aspects of speech that play roles when addressing a person, the factors affecting forms of address in isiZulu and the effect of languages such as English, Afrikaans and other African languages on the forms of address in isiZulu are of interest. Research was conducted on forms of address in isiZulu in parts of Soweto and it was discovered that form of address are determined by different factors i...
Media consumption can influence viewer perceptions and attitudes. Recent research on media's effect on college students has failed to address gender differences. Using Mere Repeated Exposure Theory (traditionally used in marketing research), this study aims to answer three research questions regarding college media consumption and college…
This document addresses a study that aimed to better understand the historical development of British Columbia community college, university college, and institute system with special attention given to recent changes in inter-institutional collaboration in relation to provincial coordination. The study also addresses centralization and…
Edwin Bakker; Beatrice de Graaf
After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furtherm...
Looks at college marketing and promotion from the media's point of view, and addresses the challenges media personnel face in retrieving timely information from colleges and in establishing working relationships with marketing and public relations practitioners in community colleges. Describes what journalists expect from community colleges and…
King, Laura A. H.
College student environmental activism is one way students civically engage in addressing social issues. This study explores the environmental activism of twelve college students and how their experiences outside of college and in college influenced their activism. In addition, how students' identities influenced their approach to activism was…
Ivory, Brian T.
Due to the invisible nature of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) undergraduate population, it is difficult for student affairs professionals at community colleges to identify and address the needs of sexual minority students on campus. Given the lack of literature regarding LGBTQ students at community colleges, student…
Rosenbaum, James E.; Ahearn, Caitlin; Rosenbaum, Janet
Efforts to promote college for all for all has opened college doors to a broad range of students. But college--and career success after college--doesn't have to mean a bachelor's degree. Community college credentials, such as associate's degrees and one-year certificates, can lead to further degrees or jobs that offer more benefits than students…
As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information). Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...
Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.
Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE - EXECUTIVE SUMMARYComplete Appendix to Guidelines available at http://journals.aace.com.
Jellinger, Paul S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Rosenblit, Paul D; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; Guerin, Chris K; Bell, David S H; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Wyne, Kathleen; Smith, Donald; Brinton, Eliot A; Fazio, Sergio; Davidson, Michael; Zangeneh, Farhad; Bush, Michael A
The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Each Recommendation is based on a diligent review of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. The Executive Summary of this document contains 87 Recommendations of which 45 are Grade A (51.7%), 18 are Grade B (20.7%), 15 are Grade C (17.2%), and 9 (10.3%) are Grade D. These detailed, evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision making that addresses multiple aspects of real-world medical care. The evidence base presented in the subsequent Appendix provides relevant supporting information for Executive Summary Recommendations. This update contains 695 citations of which 202 (29.1 %) are evidence level (EL) 1 (strong), 137 (19.7%) are EL 2 (intermediate), 119 (17.1%) are EL 3 (weak), and 237 (34.1%) are EL 4 (no clinical evidence). This CPG is a practical tool that endocrinologists, other healthcare professionals, regulatory bodies and health-related organizations can use to reduce the risks and consequences of dyslipidemia. It provides guidance on screening, risk assessment, and treatment recommendations for a range of patients with various lipid disorders. These recommendations emphasize the importance of treating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in some individuals to lower goals than previously recommended and support the measurement of coronary artery calcium scores and inflammatory markers to help stratify risk. Special consideration is given to patients with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, women, and pediatric patients with dyslipidemia. Both clinical and cost-effectiveness data are provided to support treatment decisions. A1C = hemoglobin A1C ACE = American College of
College Mechanics QueBank has been designed to be different, enthusiastic, interesting and helpful to you. Therefore, it is not just a test bank about mechanics but also it is like a compass in order to find your way in mechanics Each chapter in this book is put in an order to follow a hierarchy of the mechanics topics; from vectors to simple harmonic motion. Throughout the book there are many multiple choice and long answer questions for you to solve. They have been created for YGS, LYS, SAT, IB or other standardized exams in the world because mechanics has no boundaries and so Physics has no country. Learn the main principle of each chapter and explore the daily life applications. Then you can start to solve the questions by planning a problem solving method carefully. Finally, enjoy solving the questions and discover the meachanics of the universe once more.
Choi, Won S; Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M; Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky
American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and
Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.
Moving a business college to commit to a total quality service approach is much more difficult than the literature suggests. The commitment to customer satisfaction is the essential focus of total quality service. It is unlikely to occur in business colleges. While small incremental change is readily possible, the values and culture of the faculty and administration prevent the requisite acceptance by the faculty of students as their customers, and acceptance of the faculty as customers of th...
... Express Safety Concerns As Kids Go Back To School Think With Your Head and Protect Your Brain Think With Your Head and Protect Your ... Care For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...
Fenske, Robert H.; And Others
This study examines the background characteristics of two large national samples of first-time enrolled freshmen who (a) attended college within their state of residence but away from their home community, (b) migrated to a college in an adjacent state, (c) migrated to a college in a distant state, and (d) attended college in their home community.…
Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda
Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…
According to a 2000 community college study by Miami Dade College (FL) President Emeritus Robert McCabe, 41 percent of students entering community colleges are underprepared in at least one basic skill area. A three-year study of community college students, published in 2009 by the National Center for Education Statistics, reported that 41 percent…
McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is one of the fastest growing forms of illicit drug use, with research indicating that college students represent a particularly high risk population. The current study examined demographic characteristics, health/mental health, substance misuse, and rape experiences as potential risk correlates of NMUPD among a national sample of college women (N=2000). Interviews were conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, participants had used a prescription drug non-medically in the past year. NMUPD was endorsed by 7.8% of the sample (n=155). Although incapacitated and drug-alcohol facilitated rape were associated with NMUPD in the initial model, the final multivariable model showed that only lifetime major depression and other forms of substance use/abuse were significantly uniquely associated with an increased likelihood of NMUPD. Implications for primary and secondary prevention and subsequent research are addressed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
McConnell, Charles R
Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.
Address Points, Points of Interest: AIRPORT_PRIVATE, AIRPORT_PUBLIC, ARMORY, ASSISTED LIVING, CAMPGROUND, CHILD CARE CENTERS, CHURCH, COLLEGE, COMMUNITY ENTRANCE, COMMUNITY REC CENTER, COURT, FARMERS MARKET, FIRE DEPT, GOVERNMENT BUILDING, HEALTH CENTER, HOSPITAL, etc, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Anne Arundal County Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2011. Points of Interest: AIRPORT_PRIVATE, AIRPORT_PUBLIC, ARMORY, ASSISTED LIVING, CAMPGROUND, CHILD CARE CENTERS, CHURCH,...
Clayton, Ashley Brooke
To address the importance of college access and the gaps in scholarship concerning college advising, this study is comprised of three essays, each focused on college advising professionals in public high schools. Though the majority of research in this area has focused on traditional school counselors, these studies examined the role and…
Willingham, Warren W.; Breland, Hunter M.
The extent to which personal and academic factors are important in college admission decisions was studied in 1978, based on data on 25,000 applicants to 9 colleges (Colgate University, Williams College, Ohio Wesleyan University, Kenyon College, Kalamazoo College, Occidental College, Hartwick College, University of Richmond, and Bucknell…
Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.
A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation
"The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--
Wilson, Roger; Sharda, Vandhana
Since the 1970s, The New England College of Optometry (NECO) has been a leader in community-based educational programming. This was accomplished through the development of affiliation agreements with health care facilities that care for the underserved, notably community health centers (CHCs). The college's clinical system, the New England Eye Institute (NEEI), develops CHC programs, manages professional services agreements, initiates teaching affiliation agreements, and leads staff recruitment and retention efforts. CHC collaborations, which effectively address disparities in access to health care and visual health status, represent a significant component of the college's primary care clinical training venues. Since their inception in 1972, these CHC academic-community partnerships have provided more than 650,000 eye examinations to the underserved and have trained more than 3,200 graduates in community-based eye care, interdisciplinary care management environment, clinical prevention strategies, and population health. This report describes NECO's longstanding success with CHCs, explains the scope of practice at CHCs, explains how students are involved in the CHCs' eye care services, and discusses the various management and business arrangements. The benefits and challenges of CHC affiliations with optometry schools and colleges are also discussed.
Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J
Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S; Fitzpatrick, Ben G; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Thibodeaux, Jeremy J; Rommel, Robert; Simonsen, Neal
The misuse and abuse of alcohol among college students remain persistent problems. Using a systems approach to understand the dynamics of student drinking behavior and thus forecasting the impact of campus policy to address the problem represents a novel approach. Toward this end, the successful development of a predictive mathematical model of college drinking would represent a significant advance for prevention efforts. A deterministic, compartmental model of college drinking was developed, incorporating three processes: (1) individual factors, (2) social interactions, and (3) social norms. The model quantifies these processes in terms of the movement of students between drinking compartments characterized by five styles of college drinking: abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers, problem drinkers, and heavy episodic drinkers. Predictions from the model were first compared with actual campus-level data and then used to predict the effects of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking. First, the model provides a reasonable fit of actual drinking styles of students attending Social Norms Marketing Research Project campuses varying by "wetness" and by drinking styles of matriculating students. Second, the model predicts that a combination of simulated interventions targeting heavy episodic drinkers at a moderately "dry" campus would extinguish heavy episodic drinkers, replacing them with light and moderate drinkers. Instituting the same combination of simulated interventions at a moderately "wet" campus would result in only a moderate reduction in heavy episodic drinkers (i.e., 50% to 35%). A simple, five-state compartmental model adequately predicted the actual drinking patterns of students from a variety of campuses surveyed in the Social Norms Marketing Research Project study. The model predicted the impact on drinking patterns of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking on various types of campuses.
Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Thibodeaux, Jeremy J.; Rommel, Robert; Simonsen, Neal
Objective: The misuse and abuse of alcohol among college students remain persistent problems. Using a systems approach to understand the dynamics of student drinking behavior and thus forecasting the impact of campus policy to address the problem represents a novel approach. Toward this end, the successful development of a predictive mathematical model of college drinking would represent a significant advance for prevention efforts. Method: A deterministic, compartmental model of college drinking was developed, incorporating three processes: (1) individual factors, (2) social interactions, and (3) social norms. The model quantifies these processes in terms of the movement of students between drinking compartments characterized by five styles of college drinking: abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers, problem drinkers, and heavy episodic drinkers. Predictions from the model were first compared with actual campus-level data and then used to predict the effects of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking. Results: First, the model provides a reasonable fit of actual drinking styles of students attending Social Norms Marketing Research Project campuses varying by “wetness” and by drinking styles of matriculating students. Second, the model predicts that a combination of simulated interventions targeting heavy episodic drinkers at a moderately “dry” campus would extinguish heavy episodic drinkers, replacing them with light and moderate drinkers. Instituting the same combination of simulated interventions at a moderately “wet” campus would result in only a moderate reduction in heavy episodic drinkers (i.e., 50% to 35%). Conclusions: A simple, five-state compartmental model adequately predicted the actual drinking patterns of students from a variety of campuses surveyed in the Social Norms Marketing Research Project study. The model predicted the impact on drinking patterns of several simulated interventions to address heavy
Full Text Available In general, U.S. college students have low perceived susceptibility of acquiring HIV infection while 15–25 percent of youth have had negative perceptions towards HIV positive individuals. Factors associated with HIV stigma among college students were examined in a convenience sample of 200 students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized to summarize the data. Only four percent of participants responded correctly to HIV transmission knowledge items. HIV transmission knowledge scores were significantly higher for participants who were single with partner and those who resided outside university residential dorms (p < 0.05. There was a significant negative correlation between composite HIV knowledge scores and stigma scores r = −0.18 (p < 0.05. After adjusting for confounders, a marginal significant negative linear relationship emerged (β = −0.09, p = 0.06 between HIV knowledge and stigma. HIV prevention education among college students needs to be addressed with nuance to minimize HIV knowledge gaps, stigma and student risk perception that impacts HIV prevention and stigma against those living with HIV.
Oswalt, Sara B; Wyatt, Tammy J
Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based on sexual orientation with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in higher risk sexual behavior than people with opposite sex partners. However, few of these studies were large, national sample studies that also include those identifying as unsure. To address that gap, this study examined the relationship of sexual orientation and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2009 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment was used to examine sexual health related responses from heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students (N = 25,553). Responses related to sexual behavior, safer sex behaviors, prevention and screening behaviors, and diagnosis of sexual health related conditions were examined. The findings indicated that sexual orientation was significantly associated with engaging in sexual behavior in the last 30 days. Sexual orientation was also significantly associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months, with unsure men having significantly more partners than gay, bisexual and heterosexual men and heterosexual men having significantly less partners than gay, bisexual and unsure men. Bisexual women had significantly more partners than females reporting other sexual orientations. Results examining the associations between sexual orientation and safer sex, prevention behaviors, and screening behaviors were mixed. Implications for practice, including specific programmatic ideas, were discussed.
Tippett, Deborah T.; Roubanis, Jody L.
In this article, the authors discuss how educators from Meredith College help college students gain a global awareness and take steps to be responsible global citizens. This is done by requiring all students to take a course that enables them to address a problem that has both global and local significance while using multiple disciplines and…
Kirkland, Travis P.
The rate of turnover among community college chief executive officers (CEO's) is high, but the effects of administrator succession on organizational effectiveness has received little scholarly attention. To address this, a theory of community college CEO succession was derived from an analysis of case study data gathered at four locally governed…
His name is Brett Schmidt, and he is a college student with Autism. His greatest challenge of having autism is communication. When he first applied to Briarcliffe College, he was given an e-mail address to the Campus Portal. He had to train himself to look at the portal frequently for communication and information. On the start of the semester, he…
This article addresses the questions of what the current state of environmental education (EE) is in China's College English context and how it can be improved. It does this by examining the perceptions of the College English teachers concerning the practice of linking language and environment learning. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 45…
Earn College Credit with REA's Test Prep for CLEP* College Mathematics Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.CLEP* is the most popular credit-by-examination program in the country, accepted by more than 2,900 colleges and universities. For over 15 years, REA has helped students pass the CLEP* exam and earn college credit while reducing their tuition costs. Our test prep for CLEP* College Mathematics and the free online tools that come with it, allow you to create a personalized CLEP* study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your lea
Income growth and stagnation is discussed, several trends in income inequality among American families are examined, and the notion of a vanishing middle class that may be losing the college cost race is addressed. (MSE)
Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…
Crosta, Peter M.
For colleges to develop effective dropout prevention strategies, it is necessary to have a clear picture of who these early dropouts are. This report identifies distinguishing characteristics of this group by analyzing six years of transcript data on 14,429 first-time college students who in 2005 and 2006 enrolled at one of five community colleges…
Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Schlegel, Erin F.; Smith, Phillip N.; Jacobs, Matthew P.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Paukert, Ambert L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Joiner, Thomas E.
Identifying elevated suicide ideation in college students is a critical step in preventing suicide attempts and deaths by suicide on college campuses. Although suicide ideation may be most prominent in students with severe depression, this should not suggest that only students with severe depression experience significant risk factors for suicide.…
Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah
As the college population in the United States rapidly diversifies, leaders of successful campus suicide prevention programs are recognizing the importance of targeting specific groups of students. Recent estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics indicated that in 2008 more than one-third (36.7 percent) of college students…
... a robust series of courses leading to a brand new certification – the College Health and Wellness Professional ( ... future college health and wellness professionals, and strengthen awareness of the profession and association. Each month we' ...
... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...
Cibik, Margaret A.
A survey of a sampling of college-bound high school seniors in Arizona was undertaken to determine students' information needs for college choice. Items, including institutional, student, and program characteristics, are ranked in order of perceived importance. (MSE)
... Health - Learn the facts about HPV, HIV, and birth control. College Women's Social Media Toolkit - Share health tips with your campus community. College Women's Campaign - Find out how your school can join. Sign up for email alerts. Order ...
Keating, Joseph P.
In preparation for the 1987 demise of the current community college funding mechanism in California, this discussion paper reviews the current fiscal situation in the state and considers the needs that should be addressed in the finance mechanism that would become effective in July 1987. Background information is presented on the history of the…
Maier, Mark; Chi, W. Edward
The principal investigator of a National Science Foundation project, "Economics at Community Colleges," surveyed community college economics faculty and organized workshops, webinars, and regional meetings to address community college faculty isolation from new ideas in economics and economics instruction. Survey results, combined with…
Ravalin, Tamara; Tevis, Tenisha
Recent media attention concerning the escalation of crime on college campuses has created a sense of urgency to address how crime will impact the largest community college system in the United States, California Community Colleges. Crime can deter academic success and social engagement. This study utilizes social disorganization theory to examine…
Applied Research (AR) in Canadian community colleges is driven by a mandate, via the collective voice of Colleges and Institutes Canada--a national voluntary membership association of publicly supported colleges and related institutions--to address issues of interest to industry, government, and/or community. AR is supported through significant…
Yasar, Pinar; Cronin, Kathleen A.
This study addressed the autism awareness of College of Education students in two universities in Turkey. The main purpose of this research study was to conduct a needs assessment to learn more about Turkey's College of Education students' knowledge and awareness of autism. The Autism Awareness of College of Education Students in Turkey…
Ongoing professional development for college teachers has been much emphasized. However, previous research on learning environments has seldom addressed college students' perceptions of teachers' PCK. This study aimed to evaluate college students' perceptions of a physics teacher's PCK development using a newly developed instrument and workshop…
Discusses the view of education in Russia and college students' attitudes about their futures. Addresses how well prepared high school graduates are to enroll in a higher education institution, the social composition of college students, and the practice of bribes in relation to assessing student preparedness for college. Explores nonstate…
Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman
A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.
Tremblay, Christopher W.
College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…
One Feather, Gerald
With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.
This booklet contains answers to questions that students may ask about financial aid for college. The booklet describes the usual costs of college, and suggests ways students can pay for a college education. The types of financial aid available are described, and the application process is outlined. The booklet offers tips for comparing different…
For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…
"Planning for College Success" (PCS) is a curriculum model designed by Sharon Downs, M.S., for a course intended to assist deaf and hard of hearing students during their initial introduction to college life. This program allows students to work one-on-one with a counselor to plan for their college success. The program includes short-term goals and…
Carlos P. Zalaquett; SeriaShia J. Chatters
Cyberbullying is commonly presented as affecting K-12 populations. Current research suggests cyberbullying continues in college. A diverse sample of 613 university students was surveyed to study their cyberbullying experiences in high school and college. Nineteen percent of the sample reported being a victim of cyberbullying in college and 35% of this subsample reported being cyberbullied in high school. Additional fin...
This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs. Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/22/2010.
This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs. Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/22/2010.
Pressman, Barry D
Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.
Lagoe Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased interest in health care cost containment is focusing attention on reduction of hospital readmissions. Major payors have already developed financial penalties for providers that generate excess readmissions. This subject has benefitted from the development of resources such as the Potentially Preventable Readmissions software. This process has encouraged hospitals to renew efforts to improve these outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe quantitative tools such as definitions, risk estimation, and tracking of patients for reducing hospital readmissions. Findings This study employed the Potentially Preventable Readmissions software to develop quantitative tools for addressing hospital readmissions. These tools included two definitions of readmissions that support identification and management of patients. They also included analytical approaches for estimation of the risk of readmission for individual patients by age, discharge status of the initial admission, and severity of illness. They also included patient specific spreadsheets for tracking of target populations and for evaluation of the impact of interventions. Conclusions The study demonstrated that quantitative tools including the development of definitions of readmissions, estimation of the risk of readmission, and patient specific spreadsheets could contribute to the improvement of patient outcomes in hospitals.
Russell, Thomas R; Jones, R Scott
Since 1913 the American College of Surgeons has addressed patient safety as a top priority, so they are pleased to contribute this article offering the College's perspective on this critical subject. More specifically, this piece reviews the College's perennial efforts to ensure surgeons and hospitals access to scientifically verifiable standards, availability of effective quality improvement tools, and a better understanding of errors in care. Additionally, they examine the cultural changes required within surgery and provide an overview of the College's recent initiatives in research, accreditation, and education.
Balle, Søren Hattesen
According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious relations......According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious...... to a number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...
In this podcast, CDCâs Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health. Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 6/9/2014.
Rushing, Janice Hocker
Views Reagan's "Star Wars" address as part of the culturally evolving myth of the New Frontier. Discusses how the speech creates the illusion of both preserving and transcending science by (1) subordinating technical reasoning to prevent nuclear holocaust and (2) using technoscience to rescript history and remove temporal and spacial…
Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.
Tomlinson, Jon C.; Winston, Bruce E.
This study builds on earlier work by DellaVecchio and Winston (2004) and McPherson (2008). They addressed the seven motivational gifts Paul wrote about in Romans 12:3-8 as a means for addressing job satisfaction and person-job fit among college professors. Using a snowball sampling method, 89 college professors completed the online survey…
Foote, Laura S.
What happens when students go to college? An important outcome of college attendance is student cognitive development. Part of that developmental process is learning how to address contrasting values, beliefs, knowledge structures, and worldviews critically. This study addressed the relationship between cognitive and Christian-faith development in…
Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.
Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…
This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases
The author describes the interplay of physical research and the practice of radiation protection. There are both analogies in and differences between the problems of health protection from radiation and chemical pollutants. In formulating research objectives for synfuel technologies, it is important to take what lessons there are to be learned from the radiation experience. The regulation of the exposure of persons to radiation probably rests on a firmer scientific basis than does the regulation of exposure to many toxic chemicals. Some things in radiation protection - in both applied work and in research - should help to guide in approaching chemicals. The second section of this paper gives a brief description of the practice of radiation protection. The next section mentions some fundamental deficiencies that exist in radiation protection. Some physical research avenues illustrate how such deficiencies are being addressed as part of an integrated radiation research program. In the fourth section the author focuses on chemical pollutants, drawing some lessons from the radiation experience
Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I
The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.
The United States believes it is critically important for Member States to support the Secretariat's efforts to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system. We should continue to work with the Agency to provide resources, technology, expertise, and training to strengthen the Secretariat's capabilities to implement safeguards agreements effectively and efficiently. The Secretariat went to extraordinary lengths over the last year to explain how safeguards implementation has evolved, particularly at the level of the state as a whole. The United States, like other member states, found the Secretariat's thorough technical briefings and the Director General's Supplementary Document to be extremely valuable. Now, after discussion of the issue at the September meetings of the Board of Governors and the General Conference, it really is time to let the Secretariat get on with its work. Our task now, especially for the assembled experts here at this Symposium, is to identify options for helping the IAEA as appropriate to find the best possible technologies, procedures, and practices for safeguards implementation. And like all of you, we look forward to further updates from the Secretariat on future lessons learned in implementing strengthened safeguards. I urge you to work together at this Symposium to make real progress on promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy, strengthening safeguards, and preventing proliferation
Lott, Joe L., II.; Hernandez, Jose; King, Joe P.; Brown, Tiffany; Fajardo, Ismael
Using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03) of College Graduates, we use structural equation modeling to model the relationships between college major, values held in college, collegiate community service participation, and the post-college political participation of college graduates by public versus private…
Cheney, Marshall K; Gowin, Mary; Clawson, Ashley H
Objective The Ecological Model was used to examine the social and environmental influences of the college environment on e-cigarette use (vaping) among college students. Undergraduate college student e-cigarette users (vapers) across three large college campuses in the southwest US from Jan 2015- Aug 2016. Thirty-three interviews were conducted. Transcribed interviews were coded then analyzed for themes. College student vapers report multiple levels of influence on their vaping beyond personal beliefs and peer influences, including parents, explicit campus and community messaging, community member requests, and respect for others. College student vapers also describe constant associations with smokers in allowable public places to vape. Parents, community members, campus policy, and the physical environment all influence where and when college students vape. Health communication messages to prevent college student vaping should incorporate alternative messages that are important to college students, such as respect for others and social image.
Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni
Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlos P. Zalaquett
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is commonly presented as affecting K-12 populations. Current research suggests cyberbullying continues in college. A diverse sample of 613 university students was surveyed to study their cyberbullying experiences in high school and college. Nineteen percent of the sample reported being a victim of cyberbullying in college and 35% of this subsample reported being cyberbullied in high school. Additional findings and practical implications are presented.
The 2004 State of the Union address included an announcement that $250 million was being allocated to community colleges for workforce development programs. This indication of support was good news in light of the recent trends for level funding or cutting back on educational programs, and demonstrates the perceived benefits of workforce…
Sulkowski, Michael L.; Joyce, Diana J.
Many college students display academic and social-emotional needs that are not being addressed by extant university supports. School psychologists who work in postsecondary settings and have expertise in providing psychoeducational services may be uniquely positioned to help many of these students. However, few school psychologists currently work…
This directory presents the results of a national survey of Canadian colleges and universities concerning faculty's use of computer-assisted French language instruction. The listings, arranged alphabetically by province or territory, and within these by institution, contain the responding faculty member's name, address, e-mail address, fax and…
Journal of American College Health, 2011
Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…
Sakti Arief Daulay, Raja; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Paryasto, Marisa W.
The implementation research and analyze address blockchain on this bitcoin will have the results that refers to making address bitcoin a safe and boost security of address the bitcoin. The working mechanism of blockchain in making address bitcoin which is already in the blockchain system.
Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University, 2014
The College Readiness Indicator Systems (CRIS) initiative was developed in response to a troubling pattern: More students than ever are enrolling in college after high school, but many of them are not college ready, as evidenced by persistently low rates of college completion. The sense of urgency to close the gap between college eligibility and…
Bennett, William J.
The extent to which U.S. colleges and universities contribute to the fulfillment of students' lives is discussed by Secretary of Education William Bennett in an address to Harvard University. Secretary Bennett's observations are based on his experiences as a law student, freshman proctor, and tutor at Harvard University, as well as his subsequent…
This paper addresses how to teach tolerance of homosexual persons in a manner that is not threatening to those with religious scruples about homosexuals. It contains an example of a presentation for college students that is designed to teach them to respect their peers and future coworkers regardless of their sexual orientation. The presentation…
According to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) regulations, the criteria used to select patients into registration studies should be addressed in a product's label. The FDA's labelling guidelines, which specifically indicate that the routine exclusion of patients of a certain level of severity should be noted in the label, has been uniformly ignored. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Goodman, Kathleen M.; Mueller, John A.
In this chapter, the authors introduce the topic of atheist students to the field of student affairs. The authors provide definitions of relevant terms related to the perspectives and principles of atheists. Then, they briefly address the demographics of atheism and focus on atheist student experiences on college campuses. The authors conclude…
... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...
Wise, Phyllis M.; Martin, Carolyn A.; Kinbrough, Walter M.; Hitt, John C.; Urgo, Joseph R.; Lief, Charles G.; Drake, Michael V.; Hellyer, Brenda; Pepicello, William
Lately there has been a great deal of discussion about the importance of measuring a college's "return on investment." Is the point of a college education quantifiable results or personal and intellectual growth? In pursuit of answers, "The Chronicle" asked a selection of higher-education leaders. Phyllis M. Wise, Chancellor of…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…
Regis Coll., Weston, MA.
Regis College policies and procedures are described in this 1976 faculty handbook. Chapter 1 covers college organization and governance, including roles of academic officers and committees. Specific faculty data are presented in Chapter 2, such as definition of academic ranks and titles, recruitment and appointment, promotion, tenure, review,…
Herriott, Scott R.; Dunbar, Steven R.
The common understanding within the mathematics community is that the role of the college algebra course is to prepare students for calculus. Though exceptions are emerging, the curriculum of most college algebra courses and the content of most textbooks on the market both reflect that assumption. This article calls that assumption into question…
Crawford, Corinne; Jervis, Angela
Dr. Jill Biden, Vice President Joe Biden's wife, has been teaching in community colleges for the past 18 years. Dr. Biden believes that community colleges are "…uniquely American institutions where anyone who walks through the door is one step closer to realizing the American dream." This is an inspiring sentiment. However, of all the…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…
Romero, Amanda R.
The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…
The popularity of college ranking surveys published by "U.S. News and World Report" and other magazines is indisputable, but the methodologies used to measure the quality of higher education institutions have come under fire by scholars and college officials. Criticisms have focused on methodological flaws, such as failure to consider…
Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah
Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447
Bourbeau, Jean; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ouellette, Daniel R.; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Curren, Kristen; Balter, Meyer S.; Bhutani, Mohit; Camp, Pat G.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Dechman, Gail; Dransfield, Mark T.; Fiel, Stanley B.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Ireland, Belinda K.; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Mularski, Richard A.; Ornelas, Joseph; Stickland, Michael K.
BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States as well as throughout the rest of the world. An exacerbation of COPD (periodic escalations of symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and sputum production) is a major contributor to worsening lung function, impairment in quality of life, need for urgent care or hospitalization, and cost of care in COPD. Research conducted over the past decade has contributed much to our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. Additionally, an evolving literature has accumulated about the prevention of acute exacerbations. METHODS: In recognition of the importance of preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD, the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) joint evidence-based guideline (AECOPD Guideline) was developed to provide a practical, clinically useful document to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the prevention of acute exacerbations according to major categories of prevention therapies. Three key clinical questions developed using the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) format addressed the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: nonpharmacologic therapies, inhaled therapies, and oral therapies. We used recognized document evaluation tools to assess and choose the most appropriate studies and to extract meaningful data and grade the level of evidence to support the recommendations in each PICO question in a balanced and unbiased fashion. RESULTS: The AECOPD Guideline is unique not only for its topic, the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD, but also for the first-in-kind partnership between two of the largest thoracic societies in North America. The CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee in partnership with the CTS COPD Clinical Assembly launched this project with the objective that a systematic review and critical evaluation of the published literature by clinical experts and researchers in
This study investigated the lived experiences of first-generation college students and the perceived influence of taking high school Advanced Placement (AP) courses on their college education. The following research questions were addressed: (a) what motivated students to consider going to college, (b) what was their experience in taking AP…
The 2017 Academic College of Emergency Experts and Academy of Family Physicians of India position statement on preventing violence against health-care workers and vandalization of health-care facilities in India.
Chauhan, Vivek; Galwankar, Sagar; Kumar, Raman; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Aggarwal, Praveen; Agrawal, Naman; Krishnan, S Vimal; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kalra, O P; Soans, Santosh T; Aggarwal, Vandana; Kubendra, Mohan; Bijayraj, R; Datta, Sumana; Srivastava, R P
There have been multiple incidents where doctors have been assaulted by patient relatives and hospital facilities have been vandalized. This has led to mass agitations by Physicians across India. Violence and vandalism against health-care workers (HCWs) is one of the biggest public health and patient care challenge in India. The sheer intensity of emotional hijack and the stress levels in both practicing HCWs and patient relative's needs immediate and detail attention. The suffering of HCWs who are hurt, the damage to hospital facilities and the reactionary agitation which affects patients who need care are all together doing everything to damage the delivery of health care and relationship between a doctor and a patient. This is detrimental to India where illnesses and Injuries continue to be the biggest challenge to its growth curve. The expert group set by The Academic College of Emergency Experts and The Academy of Family Physicians of India makes an effort to study this Public Health and Patient Care Challenge and provide recommendations to solve it.
Cardiovascular Effects of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarettes: Clinical Perspectives From the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Section Leadership Council and Early Career Councils of the American College of Cardiology.
Morris, Pamela B; Ference, Brian A; Jahangir, Eiman; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Ryan, John J; Bahrami, Hossein; El-Chami, Mikhael F; Bhakta, Shyam; Winchester, David E; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Sanchez Shields, Monica; Deedwania, Prakash; Mehta, Laxmi S; Phan, Binh An P; Benowitz, Neal L
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as a result of inhaled tobacco products continues to be a global healthcare crisis, particularly in low- and middle-income nations lacking the infrastructure to develop and implement effective public health policies limiting tobacco use. Following initiation of public awareness campaigns 50 years ago in the United States, considerable success has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. However, there has been a slowing of cessation rates in the United States during recent years, possibly caused by high residual addiction or fatigue from cessation messaging. Furthermore, tobacco products have continued to evolve faster than the scientific understanding of their biological effects. This review considers selected updates on the genetics and epigenetics of smoking behavior and associated cardiovascular risk, mechanisms of atherogenesis and thrombosis, clinical effects of smoking and benefits of cessation, and potential impact of electronic cigarettes on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather
During 2012, the USDHHS?s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center esta...
Tripathi, Mahesh Narain; Kumari, Sony; Ganpat, Tikhe Sham
College students are vulnerable to a critical period in developmental maturation, facing rigorous academic work, and learning how to function independently. Physical activities such as running and bicycling have been shown to improve mood and relieve stress. However, college students often have low levels of physical activity. Yoga is an ancient physical and mental activity that affects mood and stress. However, studies examining the psychophysiological effects of yoga are rare in peer-reviewed journals. The aim of this study is to establish preliminary evidence for the psychophysiological effects of yoga on stress in young-adult college students. The present study suggests that yoga has positive effects on a psychophysiological level that leads to decreased levels of stress in college student. Further research is needed to examine the extent to which different types of yogic practices address the needs of different college subpopulations (e.g., overweight, sedentary, and smokers).
Mahesh Narain Tripathi
Full Text Available College students are vulnerable to a critical period in developmental maturation, facing rigorous academic work, and learning how to function independently. Physical activities such as running and bicycling have been shown to improve mood and relieve stress. However, college students often have low levels of physical activity. Yoga is an ancient physical and mental activity that affects mood and stress. However, studies examining the psychophysiological effects of yoga are rare in peer-reviewed journals. The aim of this study is to establish preliminary evidence for the psychophysiological effects of yoga on stress in young-adult college students. The present study suggests that yoga has positive effects on a psychophysiological level that leads to decreased levels of stress in college student. Further research is needed to examine the extent to which different types of yogic practices address the needs of different college subpopulations (e.g., overweight, sedentary, and smokers.
CORRELACIONES ENTRE LA SELECCIÓN PRONOMINAL, EL ORIGEN URBANO/RURAL Y LA EDAD: EL CASO DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS DE MEDELLÍN (COLOMBIA CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE PRONOMINAL ADDRESS FORMS, ORIGIN (URBAN/RURAL AND AGE: THE CASE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS IN MEDELLIN (COLOMBIA
Ji son Jang
; 3 Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (Kruskal & Wallis, 1952; and 4 Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Statistics show that : 1 students from rural areas with parents of the same origin tend to use more usted than tú/ vos in most interpersonal relationships, and more vos than tú almost exclusively when they are addressing their boy/girlfriend; 2 the average age for the selection of usted is higher than for the selection of tú/vos in most cases, and just in certain cases the average age is higher using tú than the average age using vos.
Giambattista, Alan; Richardson, Robert C
College Physics, Third Edition is the best solution for today's college physics market. With a unique, new, approach to physics that builds a conceptual framework as motivation for the physical principles, consistent problem solving coverage strategies, stunning art, extensive end-of-chapter material, and superior media support, Giambattista, Richardson, and Richardson delivers a product that addresses today's market needs with the best tools available.
Patel, Kiran C R; Spilsbury, Peter; Shukla, Rashmi
The drive to address social determinants of health is gaining momentum. Appreciating that health outcomes are only partly affected by healthcare, clinicians and clinical communities can play a significant role in this crusade by action at local, regional, national and global levels. A concerted and systematic focus on integrating and industrialising upstream interventions at every healthcare encounter is essential to prevent future illness, thus enabling a paradigm shift in the healthcare service from being one of illness management to health preservation. The evidence base demonstrates the cost efficacy of upstream interventions. The challenge is how this evidence is utilised to implement these interventions in everyday healthcare. Today, with a global economic crisis and challenged public sector funding, the need to address prevention has never been more pressing. Clinical engagement at all levels, from the front line to the boardroom is vital. Clinicians must address access, communication, strategy and commissioning to fulfil a professional responsibility to become and remain the corporate memory of a health service focused on preventing illness while simultaneously delivering cost-effective healthcare.
Lúcia Emilia Figueiredo de Sousa Rebello
Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar 22 narrativas de homens jovens universitários, focalizando os sentidos atribuídos à sexualidade e prevenção da AIDS. As narrativas, coletadas em 2009, são parte do acervo da pesquisa Sexualidade Masculina e Cuidados de Saúde realizada (RJ. O marco teórico privilegia os conceitos de masculinidade hegemônica e roteiro sexual. O desenho metodológico é de estudo de narrativas. Partiu-se do pressuposto de que, para além da escolaridade, marcas identitárias masculinas hegemônicas influenciam os sentidos atribuídos e a adesão à prevenção da AIDS. Destaca-se a necessidade de revisão das ações em saúde sexual masculina levando-se em conta aspectos culturais associados à construção da identidade dos sujeitos e espaços de informação e atendimento que favoreçam atitude de prevenção.The objective of this paper is to analyze 22 narratives of collegian young men, focusing on the meaning attributed to sexuality and AIDS prevention. The narratives, registered in 2009, are part of the research Masculine Sexuality and Health Care's collection, whicha was made in Rio de Janeiro.. The theoretical framework adopted is the concept of hegemonic masculinity and sexual script. The methodological design is the study of narratives. The starting point was the assumption that, beyond schooling, hegemonic masculinity marks influence the meanings attributed and the adherence to AIDS' prevention. The need of revising male sexual health care actions is highlighted, in order to include cultural aspects associated to the construction of subjects identity, as well as the need of health care and information services which favor a preventive attitude.
... FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND General § 135.9 Fund address. The address to which correspondence relating to the Coast Guard's administration of the Fund... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fund address. 135.9 Section 135.9...
... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...
Murray, Christine E.; Kardatzke, Kerrie N.
The authors present a review of literature examining dating violence among college students. They describe 6 key issues related to dating violence among college students that affect college counselors' work. These key issues relate to the incidence and prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence in college students' dating…
The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
Violence is a serious problem on college campuses. The literature on primary prevention of violence does not call for the adoption of specific programs or policies but rather suggests a paradigm shift in the way practitioners approach violence. Primary prevention means asking the question, "Why is violence happening in the first place?" in order…
Ramanaprasad, Vemulapati; Shin, Yong-Chul; Srihari, Sargur N.
The hand-printed address recognition system described in this paper is a part of the Name and Address Block Reader (NABR) system developed by the Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR). NABR is currently being used by the IRS to read address blocks (hand-print as well as machine-print) on fifteen different tax forms. Although machine- print address reading was relatively straightforward, hand-print address recognition has posed some special challenges due to demands on processing speed (with an expected throughput of 8450 forms/hour) and recognition accuracy. We discuss various subsystems involved in hand- printed address recognition, including word segmentation, word recognition, digit segmentation, and digit recognition. We also describe control strategies used to make effective use of these subsystems to maximize recognition accuracy. We present system performance on 931 address blocks in recognizing various fields, such as city, state, ZIP Code, street number and name, and personal names.
McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.
The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…
Watson, Joshua C.
Over 72,000 student-athletes compete annually in athletic programs at the community college level. However, research addressing the effect of athletic participation on the psychological well-being of the community college student-athlete is sparse. This study represents an attempt to address this gap by examining the relationship among perceived…
Rendon, Laura I., Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Person, Dawn, Ed.
"Transforming the First Year of College for Students of Color" addresses some of the unique challenges and transition issues for African-American, Latino/a, Asian-Pacific American, American Indian/Alaska Native, and multiracial college students. Chapters address specific strategies for working with these student populations to ensure their success…
... chocolate cake. Many college campuses have lots of fast-food restaurants within easy reach of dorms or classes. ... re stressed, means you are overriding your body's natural signals. This tends to lead to more chaotic ...
... journal published to provide an opportunity to share interesting case reports. Edited by GI fellows, it is ... AmCollegeGastro Events November 9 Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases – AIBD 2017 November 9 - 11, 2017 Walt Disney ...
... in college? What Does My Body Need? The importance of exercise is nothing new. Thomas Jefferson once ... commitment to regular activity. According to the 2008 Physical activity guidelines, kids and teens should do 60 minutes ...
de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget
of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific interventions...... "best possible" treatment, can provide evidence about what works, to what extent, at what cost, and under which circumstances. Programs should address the most important causes in given contexts, be feasible to implement at scale, and assess implementation, coverage, and outcomes....
Toukoushian, Robert K.
Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Contraceptive Use among Secondary School Students in. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, P.O. BOX 65013,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... pharmacies and drug stores as their main source of contraceptives. These findings.
Woods, Lynn L.
Although colleges have been offering degrees in hospitality management, tourism, and recreation for more than 40 years, many misconceptions persist about these programs and the careers available to their graduates. This article explores some of the opportunities available to students with degrees in these majors and looks at how one school…
Brown, Jayna Nicole
Although traditional college students are more prepared for college-level math based on college admissions tests, little data have been collected on nontraditional adult learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between math placement tests and community college students' success in math courses and persistence to degree or certificate completion. Guided by Tinto's theory of departure and student retention, the research questions addressed relationships and predictability of math Computer-adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System (COMPASS) test scores and students' performance in math courses, persistence in college, and degree completion. After conducting correlation and regression analyses, no significant relationships were identified between COMPASS Math test scores and students' performance (n = 234) in math courses, persistence in college, or degree completion. However, independent t test and chi-squared analyses of the achievements of college students who tested into Basic Math (n = 138) vs. Introduction to Algebra (n = 96) yielded statistically significant differences in persistence (p = .039), degree completion (p college students' math competencies and degree achievement.
Rhodes, Frank H. T.
Discusses sexual harassment on college campuses. Focuses on harassing behavior that stems from power relationships and harassing behavior among peers. Describes how Cornell University is addressing these problems. (ABL)
Buettner, Cynthia K; Andrews, David W; Glassman, Michael
Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. The Pragmatics Project involved 89 undergraduate students on a large Midwestern university campus in the design and implementation of projects focused on reducing harm associated with high-risk drinking and off-campus parties. The engagement model used an innovative course piloted in the Human Development and Family Science department. The course successfully involved both students and the community in addressing local alcohol issues. The course design described would fit well into a Master of Public Health, Community Psychology, Health Psychology, or interdisciplinary curricula as well as the service learning model, and it is applicable in addressing other health risk behaviors.
Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko
The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.
This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a
Ylioja, Thomas; Cochran, Gerald; Woodford, Michael R; Renn, Kristen A
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) microaggressions refer to often-unintentional insults, assaults, and invalidations that denigrate sexual minorities. While experiencing hostile discrimination and violence has previously been associated with elevated rates of smoking cigarettes for LGBQ college students, the relationship between LGBQ microaggressions and smoking is unknown. Data from a national anonymous online survey of sexual and gender minority college students were used to examine the relationship between past month cigarette smoking and interpersonal LGBQ microaggressions. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relationship between smoking and frequent (chronic) experiences of microaggressions, using a hierarchical procedure to control for demographics, predictors of smoking, and academic factors. Past year frequent LGBQ microaggression was reported by 48% of respondents and was more common among students who smoked in past 30 days. Experiencing past year physical violence was reported by 15% and did not differ by smoking status. Past year frequent experience of microaggressions was associated with increased odds of 1.72 (95% CI 1.03-2.87) for past 30-day smoking after adjusting for age, gender, race, socioeconomic indicators, alcohol misuse, physical violence, as well as academic stress and engagement. The results indicate that frequently experiencing LGBQ microaggressions is a risk factor for LGBQ college students smoking cigarettes. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require additional research, as does identifying positive coping strategies and institutional strategies to address LGBQ microaggressions on campuses. Tobacco control efforts should consider the impact of microaggression on the social environment for the prevention and treatment of tobacco use among LGBQ individuals. Microaggressions related to sexual minority identity include subtle forms of discrimination experienced during daily interactions that can create
pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming
=64) of the two dental colleges in Jammu city using pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire obtained information regarding their demographic and professional attributes, preventive knowledge regarding dental caries, periodontal disease, ...
Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G
Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.
School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…
Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...
Smith, Misty Glasgow
Research indicated that former foster youth encounter unique challenges in pursuit of degree completion in higher education. Degree completion has the potential to promote self-sufficiency skills for former foster youth, decrease dependency on social services, and increase the likelihood of successful transition into adulthood roles. By aiding…
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work-life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work-life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering. © 2015 A. Tan-Wilson and N. Stamp. et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
The increasing diversity evident across all facets of American society is creating opportunities as well as challenges for instructional leaders across the nation's postsecondary institutions. Racial and ethnic diversity and the attendant challenges and benefits of multiculturalism in society are more awareness in higher education. This study…
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work–life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work–life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work–life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering. PMID:26163564
Detecting and preventing the occurrence of errors in the practices of laboratory medicine and anatomic pathology: 15 years' experience with the College of American Pathologists' Q-PROBES and Q-TRACKS programs.
Novis, David A
This review extracts those studies from the CAP Q-PROBES and Q-TRACKS programs that have benchmarked and monitored the occurrence of errors in the practices of laboratory medicine and anatomic pathology. The outcomes of these studies represent in aggregate the analysis of millions of data points collected in thousands of hospitals throughout the United States. Also presented in this review are hospital and laboratory practices associated with improved performance (ie, fewer errors). Only those associations that were shown to be statistically significant are presented. They represent only a small fraction of the practices examined in these studies. The reader is encouraged to peruse the Q-PROBES studies cited in the reference list to learn about the wide range of practices investigated. The institution of some of these practices for which the associated error reductions were not statistically significant might nonetheless improve performance in some environments. There is no way of knowing whether some better-performing institutions compensated for not employing presumably beneficial practices by applying other practices about which the studies' authors neglected to inquire. Nor is there any way of knowing whether institutions in which performance was poor employed presumably beneficial practices, but possessed operational flaws about which the studies' authors neglected to inquire. Certainly, hospitals operating in the bottom 10% of benchmarked performances would do well to investigate the possibility that some of these practices might reduce the incidence of errors in their institutions. From the results of these studies, there emerge two complementary strategies that appear to be associated with reduction of errors. Obviously, the first strategy involves doing what is necessary to prevent the occurrence of errors in the first place. Several tactics may accomplish this goal. Healthcare workers responsible for specific tasks must be properly educated and motivated
Murr, Andrew H; Miller, Carol; Papadakis, Maxine
Medical students face pressures ranging from the need to create a social network to learning vast amounts of scientific material. Students often feel isolated in this system and lack mentorship. In order to counteract feelings of bureaucratic anonymity and isolation, the University of California San Francisco has created an advisory college to foster the professional and personal growth and well being of students. UCSF has developed a formal structure to advise medical students. A selection committee, chaired by the associate dean of student affairs, appointed five faculty mentors to head advisory colleges. These five colleges serve as the advising and well-being infrastructure for the students. Mentors were chosen from a balanced range of clinical disciplines, both primary and specialty. The disciplines are obstetrics-gynecology, otolaryngology/head and neck surgery, medicine, pediatrics, and psychiatry. The mentors have demonstrated excellence in advising and counseling of students. Mentors meet individually at the beginning of the academic year with incoming first-year and second-year students. They then have bimonthly meetings with eight to ten students within each college throughout the academic year. Curricula for these group sessions include well-being discussions and coping techniques, sessions on the hidden and informal curriculum of professionalism, and discussions on career choices and strategies. For third-year students, advisory college meetings are scheduled during intersessions, which are weeklong courses that occur between the eight-week clerkship blocks. Mentors are available throughout the year to meet with students on an as-needed basis, and advisory colleges may hold group social activities. The dean's office supports each mentor with 20% salary and provides administrative support for the group college activities. Historically, UCSF students feel they receive an excellent education and appropriate job opportunities, but they do not feel they
Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia
Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current policy lead college attendance to have adverse consequences for some families headed by unmarried parents. Although rates of college attendance have increased substantially among unmarried parents, their college completion rates are low. One explanation is inadequate academic preparation. Another is financial constraints, which can force unmarried students to interrupt their studies or increase their work hours, both of which compromise the quality of their educational experiences and the outcomes for their children. The authors point out that although many public programs offer support to unmarried parents attending college, the support is neither well coordinated nor easily accessed. Over the past three decades, loans have increasingly replaced grants as the most common form of federal and state financial aid. Confusion about what is available leads many low-income students to the two most "straightforward" sources of income--loans and work, both of which involve significant costs and can operate at cross-purposes with public forms of support. Too much work can lead to reductions in public benefits, and earnings do not always replace the lost income. A growing body of experimental evidence shows that providing social, financial, and academic supports to vulnerable community college students can improve achievement and attainment. Contextualized learning programs, for example, have enabled participants not only to move on from basic skills to credit-bearing coursework, but also to complete credits, earn certificates, and make gains on basic skills tests. Another successful initiative provided low-performing students with
Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.
Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.
Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim
The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PBGC address. 4245.7 Section 4245.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION, TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE OF INSOLVENCY § 4245.7 PBGC address. See...
A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…
Rulison, Kelly L; Wahesh, Edward; Wyrick, David L; DeJong, William
This study tested whether perceived parental approval of high-risk drinking is directly linked to alcohol-related outcomes or whether the link between perceived parental approval and these outcomes is mediated by perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. In fall 2009, 1,797 incoming first-year college students (49.7% female) from 142 U.S. colleges and universities completed a web-based survey before participating in an online substance use prevention program. The analytic sample included only 18- to 20-year-old freshmen students who had consumed alcohol in the past year. Students answered questions about perceived parental approval and perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. They also answered questions about their alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking, risky drinking behaviors), use of self-protective strategies (to prevent drinking and driving and to moderate alcohol use), and negative alcohol-related consequences (health, academic and work, social consequences, and drinking and driving). Mediation analyses controlling for the clustering of students within schools indicated that perceived parental approval was directly associated with more easily observable outcomes (e.g., academic- and work-related consequences, drinking and driving). Perceived friends' approval significantly mediated the link between perceived parental approval and outcomes that are less easily observed (e.g., alcohol use, health consequences). During the transition to college, parents may influence students' behaviors both directly (through communication) as well as indirectly (by shaping their values and whom students select as friends). Alcohol use prevention programs for students about to start college should address both parental and friend influences on alcohol use.
New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.
This audit report of the State University of New York (SUNY) College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville addresses the question of whether the college management has established an effective system of internal control over its revenue, equipment, and student work-study payroll. The audit makes a number of observations and conclusions.…
ACT, Inc., 2013
The importance of community colleges has never been as recognized by the country's state and national elected officials as it is today. Community colleges are viewed as an essential, if not the most essential, resource in addressing the economic and workforce development needs of many regions and communities across the country. This paper examines…
Kamarulzaman, Wirawani; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari
The purpose of this study is to address the gaps in the literature and compare the job satisfaction between school leavers and college graduates. Specifically, the proposed study sought to expand the existing, yet limited research exploring job satisfaction between school-leavers and college graduates. In this study, the comparison includes these…
Sevier, Robert A.
This book offers a step-by-step approach to marketing for educational institutions, especially colleges and universities. The book is organized into three broad sections. Section 1 makes the case for marketing in six chapters which address: (1) challenges which are or will affect colleges and universities; (2) the role of institutional mission,…
This publication is the first of a series focusing on promising new ideas and innovative practices developed through the Adult College Completion Network. The brief addresses five topics of importance to those working to improve adult college completion: (1) Data availability particular to the returning adult population; (2) Partnerships between…
Sadler, Philip; Sonnert, Gerhard
This study addresses a longstanding question among high school mathematics teachers and college mathematics professors: Which is the best preparation for college calculus-- (a) a high level of mastery of mathematics considered preparatory for calculus (algebra, geometry, precalculus) or (b) taking calculus itself in high school? We used a data set…
Sciple, Judith A.
Community colleges are an integral part of the American higher education system, providing open access to postsecondary education to all who have the ability to benefit. These institutions, however, often suffer from negative perceptions regarding their effectiveness and quality of instruction. Community colleges can address these perceptions by…
Palmer, James C.; Ludwig, Meredith J.
In a study of the ways colleges and universities regard prior learning of military service members who apply for admission to undergraduate degree programs, 66 colleges evaluated prototype transcripts and assessed problems in awarding degree credit. A number of problems are seen as needing to be addressed by both schools and the military.…
White, Helene Raskin, Ed.; Rabiner, David L., Ed.
Substance use among college students can result in serious academic and safety problems and have long-term negative repercussions. This state-of-the-art volume draws on the latest research on students' alcohol and drug use to provide useful suggestions for how to address this critical issue on college campuses. Leading researchers from multiple…
Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…
Deegan, William L.; Tillery, Dale
The "fifth generation" of community colleges must assess and resolve fundamental questions of quality and productivity. A research agenda is outlined that addresses mission, delivery systems, student needs, and attendance patterns. (LB)
City Coll. of San Francisco, CA. Office of Institutional Research, Planning and Grants.
This document describes the findings of a 1997 sexual harassment student opinion survey conducted at City College of San Francisco. Survey questions were jointly developed by the Sexual Harassment Prevention Sub-Committee of the Diversity Advisory Committee and the Office of Research and Planning, approved by the College Advisory Council, and…
Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth
Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…
Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken
With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…
Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Thompson, Sharon
Background: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death and conveys risk for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Overweight and obesity are common among college students, with surveys showing 35 per cent of college students to be overweight. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity are the major causes. Objective: To examine…
... privileged kids at low risk for mental health problems," she says. "That is one reason why NIMH has been funding research on preventing suicide, depression, and other disorders among college students." Dr. Pearson also chairs the NIMH Suicide Research ...
The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date. Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office
Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the
Rosenfeld, Stuart A.
A community economic development organization in rural Ireland partnered with a technical college to build a college to teach furniture design and manufacturing, with an emphasis on entrepreneurship and new production technologies. The college has been successful in attracting good students and helping them find employment. A research and…
Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik
This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...
In this talk I will outline the nature of unconscious bias, as it operates to exclude or marginalize some participants in the scientific community. I will show how bias results from non-conscious expectations about certain groups of people, including scientists and astronomers. I will outline scientific research in psychology, sociology and economics that has identified the impact these expectations have on interpersonal judgments that are at the heart of assessment of individuals' qualifications. This research helps us understand not only how bias operates within a single instance of evaluation, but how evaluation bias can accumulate over a career if not checked, creating an appearance of confirmation of biased expectations. Some research has focused on how best to interrupt and mitigate unconscious bias, and many institutions--including the University of Michigan--have identified strategic interventions at key points of institutional decision-making (particularly hiring, annual review, and promotion) that can make a difference. The NSF ADVANCE Institutional Transformation program encouraged institutions to draw on the social science literature to create experimental approaches to addressing unconscious bias. I will outline four approaches to intervention that have arisen through the ADVANCE program: (1) systematic education that increases awareness among decisionmakers of how evaluation bias operates; (2) development of practices that mitigate the operation of bias even when it is out of conscious awareness; (3) creation of institutional policies that routinize and sanction these practices; and (4) holding leaders accountable for these implementation of these new practices and policies. Although I will focus on ways to address unconscious bias within scientific institutions (colleges and universities, laboratories and research centers, etc.), I will close by considering how scientific organizations can address unconscious bias and contribute to creating an
In this chapter, the author explores a variety of aspects of continuing professional education for teachers and university and college faculty members. She discusses the kinds of knowledge that are addressed and the role of online learning in continuing professional education.
Schaefer, Mary Beth; Rivera, Lourdes M.
The development and implementation of a comprehensive and systemic career development program, The Career Institute, provided the mechanism through which one school community addressed students' career development and college readiness needs while also attending to their academic and personal-social development. The Career Institute consisted of a…
Bailey, Jean M.
This article focuses on work and life balance from a community college occupational dean perspective. It addresses definitions and concepts of work life and the nature of the role of occupational dean. The themes from this study include the use of time both at work and away from work, work/life crossover, perception of work/life, and work/life…
Levy, Benjamin; Swanson, Janine E.
College counseling professionals address a wide range of complex student mental health concerns. Among these, accurately identifying client presentations of dissociative identity disorder (DID) can be especially challenging because students with DID sometimes present as if they are experiencing another problem, such as a mood, anxiety, or…
Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi
Differentiated assessment (DA) seeks to address the individual differences between students and provides them with the appropriate assessment strategy. This paper looks into the possibility of implementing differentiated assessment in a public college in Oman. Additionally, it attempts to explore teachers' views about the possibility of…
Sponsler, Brian A.; Pingel, Sarah; Anderson, Lexi
Given the importance of community and technical colleges to state education attainment and workforce development goals, policy addressing the two-year sector is of critical importance to state policymakers. Analysis of legislative issue trends suggests transfer and articulation, performance-based funding, and financial aid programs are substantial…
Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie
All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…
Deegan, William L., Ed.; Gollattscheck, James F., Ed.
This collection of articles addresses major questions of community college governance and highlights some of the changes that have taken place in governance over the past decade. The issue contains: (1) "State Power in a New Era: Threats to Local Authority," by Dale Tillery and James L. Wattenbarger; (2) "Power on the Periphery: Faculty and…
Stumpf, Arthur D.; Holt, Lynn; Crittenden, Laura; Davis, James E.
This article calls attention to the need for community college leaders to develop a deeper understanding of ethics in preparation for addressing ethical issues that arise in the administration of their institutions. It discusses briefly the nature of ethics and the ethical theories of some modern and postmodern authors. The article is concerned…
Mohammad Taib Osman
The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...
Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... the population studied, 42% were eligible for statin therapy according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk assessment and cholesterol treatment guidelines approach, versus 56% with the trial-based approach and 21% with the hybrid approach. Among these statin......-eligible subjects, the ASCVD event rate per 1,000 person-years was 9.8, 6.8, and 11.2, respectively. The ACC/AHA-recommended absolute risk score was well calibrated around the 7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk treatment threshold and discriminated better than the trial-based or hybrid approaches. Compared with the ACC...
Full Text Available Puccini Street, Constantia Park 546 Puccini Street, Glenstantia, 0181 A recent study in Denmark analysed the qualitative and quantitative impact of address ambiguities. The qualitative analysis confirmed that the ambiguities affect people every day... description consists of a land parcel number together with a registered name and registration division, and is recorded at a Surveyor-General’s office. An address complements a land parcel description with information such as the street name and the street...
Yuxin Chen; Ganesh Iyer
The increasing availability of customer information is giving many firms the ability to reach and customize price and other marketing efforts to the tastes of the individual consumer. This ability is labeled as consumer addressability. Consumer addressability through sophisticated databases is particularly important for direct-marketing firms, catalog retailers such as L.L Bean and Land's End, credit card-issuing banks, and firms in the long-distance telephone market. We examine the strategic...
Natalia A. Kolesnikova
This paper examines the role of community colleges in the U.S. higher education system and their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, it discusses the population of community college students and economic returns to community college education for various demographic groups. It offers new evidence on the returns to an associate's degree. Furthermore, the paper uses data from the National Survey of College Graduates to compare educational objectives, progress, and labor market outcomes ...
Massengale, Kelley E. C.; Ma, Alice; Rulison, Kelly L.; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Wyrick, David L.
Objective To describe first-year college student-athletes’ friendship contexts and test whether their perceptions of alcohol use and approval by different types of friends are associated with their own alcohol use. Participants First-year student-athletes (N=2,622) from 47 colleges and universities participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports during February–March 2013. Methods Student-athletes completed online surveys during the baseline assessment of an alcohol and other drug prevention program evaluation. Analyses tested whether perceptions of friends’ alcohol use (descriptive norms) and perceptions of friends’ approval of alcohol use (injunctive norms) predicted their alcohol use. Results Both use and approval perceptions by upperclassmen, same-team, and most influential friends significantly predicted alcohol use. By contrast, only perceived use by first-year, non-team, and less influential friends significantly predicted alcohol use. Conclusions Athletics departments’ alcohol policies and prevention programming for first-year student-athletes should address the potential influence of different types of friends on alcohol use. PMID:27610821
Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...
... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...
... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...
... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...
Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...
Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...
As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...
Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...
Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...
Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012
Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.
This guide advises students about college costs and how to pay them. The booklet explains financial aid and how it can help a student reach his or her educational goals. Merit-based and need-based aid programs are described, and the family's expected financial contribution is explained. The process of obtaining and completing the Free Application…
Benjamin, Carl; And Others
Presented are student performance objectives, a student progress chart, and assignment sheets with objective and diagnostic measures for the stated performance objectives in College Algebra I. Topics covered include: sets; vocabulary; linear equations; inequalities; real numbers; operations; factoring; fractions; formulas; ratio, proportion, and…
Oda, Stephanie; Sanislo, Glenn
With the cost of college said to be escalating at double the rate of inflation, parents and students have voiced frustration, some think unreasonably, about textbook prices. In 2007, higher-education publishers continued to grapple with price resistance to textbooks and competition from the used-book market. This article reports that…
Glenn, Neal D.
After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…
Educational Record, 1996
In interview, president of the American Council on Education, Robert H. Atwell, offers his perspectives on the current state of the college presidency; its pressures, rewards, and frustrations; and what he'd like to see administrators do differently. Qualities of an effective president include high energy, tolerance for ambiguity, good listening…
Rossmeier, Joseph G.
Research shows that neither centralization nor decentralization of decision-making authority in multiunit community colleges is a primary determinant of organizational effectiveness; rather it is the degree of participation in decision-making by staff members at all hierarchical levels. (BB)
Westman, Craig; Bouman, Penny
This book was written both to examine and reveal the Gamer generation as a popular culture trend that has been two plus decades in the making and shaping. And, it is a generation that is now entering college--Gen G. This book explores how the Gamer generation is less a subset of the Millennial generation, but rather a unique generation unto…
This American College of Physicians position paper, initiated and written by its Health and Public Policy Committee and approved by the Board of Regents on 16 February 2016, reports policy recommendations from the American College of Physicians to address the escalating costs of prescription drugs in the United States. Prescription drugs play an important part in treating and preventing disease. However, the United States often pays more for some prescription drugs than other developed countries, and the high price and increasing costs associated with prescription medication is a major concern for patients, physicians, and payers. Pharmaceutical companies have considerable flexibility in how they price drugs, and the costs that payers and patients see are dependent on how payers are able to negotiate discounts or rebates. Beyond setting list prices are issues of regulatory approval, patents and intellectual property, assessment of value and cost-effectiveness, and health plan drug benefits. These issues are linked, and comprehensive efforts will be needed to affect how drugs are priced in the United States.
Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV. Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 2/1/2012.
Full Text Available Benedict Kiely (1919-2007 has an annual weekend devoted to his memory as one ofIreland’s leading writers in the modern period. The sixth such event was held in the newly-built Strule Arts Centre in Omagh in September 2007. Kiely lived most of his life in Dublin, pursuing a career as a journalist and a writer, but his roots were in County Tyrone. Educated by the Christian Brothers in Omagh, he embarked on a Jesuit novitiate in the Irish Midlands but this was cut short by a spinal injury, which meant a year of confinement on the broad of his back. Subsequently, he went on to read English and History at University College Dublin. His journalistic career took him first to the Irish Independent and then to the Irish Press, where he was literary editor. In the 1960s he took up visiting professorships at several North American colleges in Oregon and Tennessee. On his return he became well-known on Irish radio for talks and discussion programmes, and he was a regular contributor to Sunday Miscellany. A sharp observer of the Northern scene, he was particularly disturbed by the upsurge in violence in the recent Troubles, airing his grievances in imaginative works such as Proxopera (1977 andNothing Happens in Carmincross (1985. He died in Dublin on 9 February 2007 after a short illness, and after Requiem mass in Donnybrook he was laid to rest in the Dublin Road Cemetery in Omagh. The following is the text of the opening address I was invited to give at the sixth annual weekend. I spoke about Kiely’s sense of connection running through his writings.
In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…
Bloom, Lynn Z.; White, Edward M.; Enoch, Jessica; Hawk, Byron
This symposium explores the role(s) College English has (or has not) had in the scholarly work of four scholars. Lynn Bloom explores the many ways College English influenced her work and the work of others throughout their scholarly lives. Edward M. White examines four articles he has published in College English and draws connections between…
Thornton, L. Jay; Johnson, Sharon
This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of employee wellness programs in public community colleges accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). A random sample of 250 public community colleges accredited by SACS was mailed a 46-item employee-wellness program survey. The survey solicited program information…
Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.
Technology's march into the college classroom continues. Generations of college and university faculty have both embraced and resisted instructional technologies such as the book, the mimeograph, the overhead projector, and hand-held calculators. Now college and university faculty are greeting the 21st century's signature…
Argues that open enrollment policies have debased the community college and led to an abandonment of merit, standards, and competency. Suggests their new mission be to serve only those adults who qualify and can benefit from college-level work, abandoning those vocational, remedial, and recreational responsibilities which community colleges have…
America's colleges and universities have been moving slowly but steadily away from tenure over the past decade. The American Federation of Teachers reports that community colleges have seen a 22% increase in the number of instructional staff between 1997 and 2007. During that time, the percentage of community college faculty that were full-time…
Cooper, Antony K
Full Text Available ; visiting friends; and providing a reference context for presenting other information. The benefits of an international address standards include: enabling address interoperability across boundaries; reducing service delivery costs; enabling development...
Abshire, Demetrius Alexander
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…
Cress, Eileen McKenna
Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…
Otis, Carol L.; Goldingay, Roger
A handbook of health issues for college students is presented. Prevention is the keynote, stressing the importance of staying healthy and recovering quickly. Information is organized in a question-and-answer format. The 12 chapters are as follows: nutrition: food as fuel (e.g. acne and diet and daily caloric requirements); exercise: fine-tuning…
The purpose of this investigation was understand the correlationship between the energy expenditure of living activity and body structure or physical fitness in the students of a women's junior college. The resulut were as follows; It was shown that the physical activites in the daily life was necessary for prevention of obesity in the students.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…
studies were performed in Germany and in the United Kingdom. The studies, which had a significant effect on overweight were 'Dance for Health', 'Planet Health', 'San Jose Study', 'Kiel Obesity Prevention Study', 'Healthy Schools' programme, 'El Paso Catch', and 'Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project...
Trostel, Philip A.
This study quantifies one part of the return to U.S. public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates pay much more taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also much less for college graduates than for those without a college education.…
Writing E-mail is the most popular Internet activity. Meanwhile, many people have more than one E-mail address. The question how people manage their E-mail addresses, more specifically, whether they use them deliberately for different purposes, is the central question of this paper. E-mail addresses
Hendricks, Lutz; Leukhina, Oksana
This paper is motivated by the fact that nearly half of U.S. college students drop out without earning a bachelorâ€™s degree. Its objective is to quantify how much uncertainty college entrants face about their graduation outcomes. To do so, we develop a quantitative model of college choice. The innovation is to model in detail how students progress towards a college degree. The model is calibrated using transcript and financial data. We find that more than half of college entrants can predict...
Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.
Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy
The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…
Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario
There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261
Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.
Full Text Available The address form as linguistic variable has more realisation possibilities than any other, because semantic variation is involved and it reflects all the different interpersonal relations in the societal structure. Factors such as religious status, sex, kinship and age differences play a key role in the choice of the address form. It is hypothesised that the way in which address forms vary in a speech community is a linguistic reflection of the social norms determining the hierarchical structure of the community. Die aanspreekvorm as linguistiese veranderlike het meer verwesenlikingsmoontlikhede as enige ander vorm, want semantiese verskeidenheid is betrokke en dit reflekteer die verskillende interpersoonlike verhoudings in die gemeenskapstruktuur. Faktore soos religieuse status, geslag, verwantskap en ouderdomsverskille speel 'n sleutelrol in die aanspreekvorm. Daar word gehipotetiseer dat die wyse waarop aanspreekvorms in 'n spraakgemeenskap wissel, 'n linguistiese refleksie is van die sosiale norme wat die hierargiese struktuur van die gemeenskap bepaal.
Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.
Fuentes Hector; Tsihrintzis Vassilios
Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation
Lotto, I. de; Golinelli, S.
The content-addressable-memory feature of a new system designed in these laboratories for non-destructive testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessels based on acoustic emission analysis is presented. The content addressable memory is divided into two parts: the first selects the most frequent events among incoming ones (FES: Frequent Event Selection memory), the second stores the frequent events singled out (FEM: Frequent Event Memory). The statistical behaviour of FES is analyzed, and experimental results are compared with theoretical ones; the model presented proved to be a useful tool in dimensioning the instrument store capacity. (Auth.)