WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention activities introduced

  1. Activities: Activities to Introduce Maxima-Minima Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleacher, David

    1991-01-01

    Presented are student activities that involve two standard problems from geometry and calculus--the volume of a box and the bank shot on a pool table. Problem solving is emphasized as a method of inquiry and application with descriptions of the results using graphical, numerical, and physical models. (JJK)

  2. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part I: introducing a complex systems paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    The drinking environment is a complex system consisting of a number of heterogeneous, evolving and interacting components, which exhibit circular causality and emergent properties. These characteristics reduce the efficacy of commonly used research approaches, which typically do not account for the underlying dynamic complexity of alcohol consumption and the interdependent nature of diverse factors influencing misuse over time. We use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as an example for framing our argument for a complex systems paradigm. A complex systems paradigm, grounded in socio-ecological and complex systems theories and computational modeling and simulation, is introduced. Theoretical, conceptual, methodological and analytical underpinnings of this paradigm are described in the context of college drinking prevention research. The proposed complex systems paradigm can transcend limitations of traditional approaches, thereby fostering new directions in alcohol prevention research. By conceptualizing student alcohol misuse as a complex adaptive system, computational modeling and simulation methodologies and analytical techniques can be used. Moreover, use of participatory model-building approaches to generate simulation models can further increase stakeholder buy-in, understanding and policymaking. A complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can provide a holistic understanding of the underlying drinking environment and its long-term trajectory, which can elucidate high-leverage preventive interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Prevention of Falls Network Europe: a thematic network aimed at introducing good practice in effective falls prevention across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, D A; Becker, C; Lamb, S E; Close, J C T; Zijlstra, W; Yardley, L; Todd, C J

    2004-12-01

    The Prevention of Falls Network Europe (ProFaNE) aims to improve quality of life of the ageing population by focussing on a major cause of disability and distress: falls. The thematic network is funded by the European Commission and brings together scientists, clinicians and other health professionals from around Europe to focus on four main themes: taxonomy and coordination of trials, clinical assessment and management of falls, assessment of balance function, and psychological aspects of falling. There are 24 members across Europe as well as network associates who contribute expertise at workshops and meetings. ProFaNE, a 4-year project which started in January 2003, aims to improve and standardise health care processes, introducing and promoting good practice widely across Europe. ProFaNE undertakes workshops that bring together experts and observers around specific topics to exchange knowledge, expertise and resources on interventions that reduce falls. A key document for policy makers around Europe, written by ProFaNE members, was published by the World Health Organisation in March 2004. ProFaNE's website has both public and private areas with resources (web links to falls prevention, useful documents for policy makers, researchers and practitioners) and a discussion board to encourage informal networking between members and the public. The ultimate aim of ProFaNE is to submit a collaborative bid to undertake a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of a multi-factorial fall prevention intervention with peripheral fracture as the primary outcome. The success of the networking and relationship building in the first year and a half of ProFaNE's work makes this an achievable goal.

  4. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  5. Fidget with Widgets: CNC Activity Introduces the Flatbed Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Daniel V.

    2006-01-01

    The computer numerical control (CNC) flatbed router is a powerful tool and a must-have piece of equipment for any technology education program in which students will produce a product--whether it involves Manufacturing, Materials Processing, or any of the vast array of Project Lead the Way courses. This article describes an activity--producing a…

  6. Indigenous HIV Prevention Beliefs and Practices Among Low-Earning Chinese Sex Workers as Context for Introducing Female Condoms and Other Novel Prevention Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Zhang, Qingning; Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Li, Fei

    2017-07-01

    New interventions to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among female sex workers are introduced into the context of women's existing prevention beliefs and practices. These indigenous practices affected implementation of our program to introduce female condoms to women in sex-work establishments in southern China. We used ethnographic field observations and in-depth interviews to document common prevention methods women reported using to protect themselves before and during intervention implementation. Individual, sex-work establishment, and other contextual factors, including sources of information and social and economic pressures to use or reject prevention options, shaped their perceptions and selection of these methods and affected adoption of female condoms as an additional tool. Efforts to improve uptake of effective prevention methods among low-income sex workers require attention to the context and spectrum of women's HIV/STI prevention practices when introducing innovations such as female condoms, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis pills, and others, as they become available.

  7. How Peru introduced a plan for comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ximena; Núnez-Curto, Arón; Villayzán, Jana; Castillo, Regina; Benites, Carlos; Caballero, Patricia; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20%) in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a "Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen." A policy dialogue between key stakeholders - Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies - created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1) the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2) ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3) a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change.

  8. Introducer Curving Technique for the Prevention of Tilting of Transfemoral Gunther Tulip Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Liang; Shen, Jing; Tong, Jia Jie; Huang, De Sheng

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the introducer curving technique is useful in decreasing the degree of tilting of transfemoral Tulip filters. The study sample group consisted of 108 patients with deep vein thrombosis who were enrolled and planned to undergo thrombolysis, and who accepted transfemoral Tulip filter insertion procedure. The patients were randomly divided into Group C and Group T. The introducer curving technique was Adopted in Group T. The post-implantation filter tilting angle (ACF) was measured in an anteroposterior projection. The retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was measured via tangential cavogram during retrieval. The overall average ACF was 5.8 ± 4.14 degrees. In Group C, the average ACF was 7.1 ± 4.52 degrees. In Group T, the average ACF was 4.4 ± 3.20 degrees. The groups displayed a statistically significant difference (t = 3.573, p = 0.001) in ACF. Additionally, the difference of ACF between the left and right approaches turned out to be statistically significant (7.1 ± 4.59 vs. 5.1 ± 3.82, t = 2.301, p = 0.023). The proportion of severe tilt (ACF ≥ 10 degree) in Group T was significantly lower than that in Group C (9.3% vs. 24.1%, X 2 = 4.267, p = 0.039). Between the groups, the difference in the rate of the retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was also statistically significant (2.9% vs. 24.2%, X 2 = 5.030, p = 0.025). The introducer curving technique appears to minimize the incidence and extent of transfemoral Tulip filter tilting.

  9. Introducer Curving Technique for the Prevention of Tilting of Transfemoral Gunther Tulip Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Liang; Shen, Jing; Tong, Jia Jie [The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Huang, De Sheng [College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether the introducer curving technique is useful in decreasing the degree of tilting of transfemoral Tulip filters. The study sample group consisted of 108 patients with deep vein thrombosis who were enrolled and planned to undergo thrombolysis, and who accepted transfemoral Tulip filter insertion procedure. The patients were randomly divided into Group C and Group T. The introducer curving technique was Adopted in Group T. The post-implantation filter tilting angle (ACF) was measured in an anteroposterior projection. The retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was measured via tangential cavogram during retrieval. The overall average ACF was 5.8 {+-} 4.14 degrees. In Group C, the average ACF was 7.1 {+-} 4.52 degrees. In Group T, the average ACF was 4.4 {+-} 3.20 degrees. The groups displayed a statistically significant difference (t = 3.573, p = 0.001) in ACF. Additionally, the difference of ACF between the left and right approaches turned out to be statistically significant (7.1 {+-} 4.59 vs. 5.1 {+-} 3.82, t = 2.301, p = 0.023). The proportion of severe tilt (ACF {>=} 10 degree) in Group T was significantly lower than that in Group C (9.3% vs. 24.1%, X{sup 2} = 4.267, p = 0.039). Between the groups, the difference in the rate of the retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was also statistically significant (2.9% vs. 24.2%, X{sup 2} = 5.030, p = 0.025). The introducer curving technique appears to minimize the incidence and extent of transfemoral Tulip filter tilting.

  10. A framework to prevent and control tobacco among adolescents and children: introducing the IMPACT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Mathur, Manu Raj; Singh, Neha

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive evidence based model aimed at addressing multi-level risk factors influencing tobacco use among children and adolescents with multi-level policy and programmatic approaches in India. Evidences around effectiveness of policy and program interventions from developed and developing countries were reviewed using Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Ovid databases. This evidence was then categorized under three broad approaches: Policy level approaches (increased taxation on tobacco products, smoke-free laws in public places and work places, effective health warnings, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorships, and restricting access to minors); Community level approaches (school health programs, mass media campaigns, community based interventions, promoting tobacco free norms) and Individual level approaches (promoting cessation in various settings). This review of literature around determinants and interventions was organized into developing the IMPACT framework. The paper further presents a comparative analysis of tobacco control interventions in India vis a vis the proposed approaches. Mixed results were found for prevention and control efforts targeting youth. However, this article suggests a number of intervention strategies that have shown to be effective. Implementing these interventions in a coordinated way will provide potential synergies across interventions. Pediatricians have prominent role in advocating and implementing the IMPACT framework in countries aiming to prevent and control tobacco use among adolescents and children.

  11. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated (73.3% and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree (22.1% as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch (13.2% as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides, one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum.

  12. Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

  13. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  14. Reinforcing Sampling Distributions through a Randomization-Based Activity for Introducing ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Doehler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a randomization-based activity to introduce the ANOVA F-test to students. The two main goals of this activity are to successfully teach students to comprehend ANOVA F-tests and to increase student comprehension of sampling distributions. Four sections of students in an advanced introductory statistics course…

  15. Ports and pests: Assessing the threat of aquatic invasive species introduced by maritime shipping activity in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Charleen E; Johnston, Matthew W; Kerstetter, David W

    2017-12-15

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) are biological pollutants that cause detrimental ecological, economic, and human-health effects in their introduced communities. With increasing globalization through maritime trade, ports are vulnerable to AIS exposure via commercial vessels. The Cuban Port of Mariel is poised to become a competitive transshipment hub in the Caribbean and the intent of this study was to evaluate present and potential impacts AIS pose with the likely future increase in shipping activity. We utilized previous assessment frameworks and publicly accessible information to rank AIS by level of threat. Fifteen AIS were identified in Cuba and one, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758), had repeated harmful economic impacts. Five species associated with trade partners of Port Mariel were considered potentially detrimental to Cuba if introduced through shipping routes. The results presented herein identify species of concern and emphasize the importance of prioritizing AIS prevention and management within Cuba. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Activity of oxidizing processes in introduced plants under low hardening temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitseva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of oxidative enzymes’ activity at the dormancy phenological stage under conditions of low positive temperature were studied. Most effective methods (NPK, zircon growth regulator for enhancing the cold tolerance of the Swida, Deutzia, Buddleja and Hibiscus species have been determined. It has been established that activity of catalase and peroxidase depends on the cold adaptation of introduced arbo-real plants of different winter-resistance. The possibility to use the ratio of enzymatic activities Acold./Anorm. as a test-parameter in forecasting the winter-resistance of plants is displayed.

  17. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  18. A Small-Group Activity Introducing the Use and Interpretation of BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Newell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As biological sequence data are generated at an ever increasing rate, the role of bioinformatics in biological research also grows. Students must be trained to complete and interpret bioinformatic searches to enable them to effectively utilize the trove of sequence data available. A key bioinformatic tool for sequence comparison and genome database searching is BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST identifies sequences in a database that are similar to the entered query sequence, and ranks them based on the length and quality of the alignment. Our goal was to introduce sophomore and junior level undergraduate students to the basic functions and uses of BLAST with a small group activity lasting a single class period. The activity provides students an opportunity to perform a BLAST search, interpret the data output, and use the data to make inferences about bacterial cell envelope structure. The activity consists of two parts. Part 1 is a handout to be completed prior to class, complete with video tutorial, that reviews cell envelope structure, introduces key terms, and allows students to familiarize themselves with the mechanics of a BLAST search. Part 2 consists of a hands-on, web-based small group activity to be completed during the class period. Evaluation of the activity through student performance assessments suggests that students who complete the activity can better interpret the BLAST output parameters % query coverage and % max identity. While the topic of the activity is bacterial cell wall structure, it could be adapted to address other biological concepts.

  19. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, the primary prevention of hypertension has become an important global public health initiative. Physical activity is commonly recommended as an important lifestyle modification that may aid in the prevention of hypertension. Recent epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated a consistent, temporal, and dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and the development of hypertension. Experimental evidence from interventional studies have further confirmed a relationship between physical activity and hypertension as the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure reduction have been well characterized in recent years. Despite the available evidence strongly supporting a role for physical activity in the prevention of hypertension, many unanswered questions regarding the protective benefits of physical activity in high-risk individuals, the factors that may moderate the relationship between physical activity and hypertension, and the optimal prescription for hypertension prevention remain. We review the most recent evidence for the role of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension and discuss recent studies that have sought to address these unanswered questions. PMID:24052212

  20. A learning activity to introduce undergraduate students to bioethics in human clinical research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Ignacio; Gomez, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    We developed a pharmacology practicum assignment to introduce students to the research ethics and steps involved in a clinical trial. The assignment included literature review, critical analysis of bioethical situations, writing a study protocol and presenting it before a simulated ethics committee, a practice interview with a faculty member to obtain informed consent, and a student reflective assessment and self-evaluation. Students were assessed at various steps in the practicum; the learning efficiency of the activity was evaluated using an independent survey as well as students' reflective feedback. Most of the domains of Bloom's and Fink's taxonomies of learning were itemized and covered in the practicum. Students highly valued the translatability of theoretical concepts into practice as well as the approach to mimic professional practice. This activity was within a pharmacy program, but may be easily transferable to other medical or health sciences courses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. 17 CFR 1.57 - Operations and activities of introducing brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... introducing brokers. 1.57 Section 1.57 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION... introducing brokers. (a) Each introducing broker must: (1) Open and carry each customer's and option customer..., That an introducing broker which has entered into a guarantee agreement with a futures commission...

  2. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  3. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  4. Crime prevention through sports and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the definition of sport, the author has presented the possibilities its application in the prevention of crime and delinquency. In that context, the author analyzes the rate of juvenile delinquency in specific countries, such as Canada, and underlines the fact that the classical criminal measures do not give adequate results. The author points out that it is, therefore, necessary to apply some other preventive measures, which embody the application of sports and physical activity. The author provides examples of good practice in the states which has achieved the best results in the development of such programs. Finally, in view of the increasing number of reported criminal offences committed by both juveniles and adults, the author highlights the need for developing such programs in the Republic of Serbia.

  5. A systematic approach to injury policy assessment: introducing the assessment of child injury prevention policies (A-CHIPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Meddings, David; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-11-03

    This study presents a systematic approach-assessment of child injury prevention policies (A-CHIPP)-to assess and track policies on effective child injury interventions at the national level. Results from an initial pilot test of the approach in selected countries are presented. A literature review was conducted to identify conceptual models for injury policy assessment, and domains and indicators were proposed for assessing national injury policies for children aged 1-9 years. The indicators focused on current evidence-supported interventions targeting the leading external causes of child injury mortality globally, and were organised into a self-administered A-CHIPP questionnaire comprising 22 questions. The questionnaire was modified based on reviews by experts in child injury prevention. For an initial test of the approach, 13 countries from all six WHO regions were selected to examine the accuracy, usefulness and ease of understanding of the A-CHIPP questionnaire. Data on the A-CHIPP questionnaire were received from nine countries. Drowning and road traffic injuries were reported as the leading causes of child injury deaths in seven of these countries. Most of the countries lacked national policies on interventions that address child injuries; supportive factors such as finance and leadership for injury prevention were also lacking. All countries rated the questionnaire highly on its relevance for assessment of injury prevention policies. The A-CHIPP questionnaire is useful for national assessment of child injury policies, and such an assessment could draw attention of stakeholders to policy gaps and progress in child injury prevention in all countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Rocks: A Concrete Activity That Introduces Normal Distribution, Sampling Error, Central Limit Theorem and True Score Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This report introduces a short, hands-on activity that addresses a key challenge in teaching quantitative methods to students who lack confidence or experience with statistical analysis. Used near the beginning of the course, this activity helps students develop an intuitive insight regarding a number of abstract concepts which are key to…

  7. Introducing B2B Service Level Measures via a Poker-Card Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Miin; Bailey, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate level of product availability, most operations management textbooks introduce and define service level measures in a Business-to-Customer context. In other words, a retailer that wants to measure product availability in their store calculates the fill rate (FR) or cycle service level over an infinite review horizon.…

  8. Introducer curving technique for the prevention of tilting of transfemoral Günther Tulip inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Huang, De-sheng; Shen, Jing; Tong, Jia-jie

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the introducer curving technique is useful in decreasing the degree of tilting of transfemoral Tulip filters. The study sample group consisted of 108 patients with deep vein thrombosis who were enrolled and planned to undergo thrombolysis, and who accepted transfemoral Tulip filter insertion procedure. The patients were randomly divided into Group C and Group T. The introducer curving technique was Adopted in Group T. The post-implantation filter tilting angle (ACF) was measured in an anteroposterior projection. The retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was measured via tangential cavogram during retrieval. The overall average ACF was 5.8 ± 4.14 degrees. In Group C, the average ACF was 7.1 ± 4.52 degrees. In Group T, the average ACF was 4.4 ± 3.20 degrees. The groups displayed a statistically significant difference (t = 3.573, p = 0.001) in ACF. Additionally, the difference of ACF between the left and right approaches turned out to be statistically significant (7.1 ± 4.59 vs. 5.1 ± 3.82, t = 2.301, p = 0.023). The proportion of severe tilt (ACF ≥ 10°) in Group T was significantly lower than that in Group C (9.3% vs. 24.1%, χ(2) = 4.267, p = 0.039). Between the groups, the difference in the rate of the retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was also statistically significant (2.9% vs. 24.2%, χ(2) = 5.030, p = 0.025). The introducer curving technique appears to minimize the incidence and extent of transfemoral Tulip filter tilting.

  9. Introducing the potential of antimicrobial materials for human and robotic spaceflight activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Claudia; Reitz, Guenther; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra; Hans, Michael; Muecklich, Frank

    One major goal of space research is to discover past or present life on foreign planets such as Mars (Horneck et al., 2010). To detect extraterrestrial life on other planets it is important to prevent microbial contamination imported from the Earth, also known as forward contamination. Until now missions to Mars are solely progressed by robots like the Mars Science Laboratory mission with the Curiosity lander. The assembly of spacecraft components is performed in special bioburden controlled clean rooms. Nevertheless, the microbial diversity in these clean rooms is enormous (Vaishampayan et al., 2013). The propagation of microorganisms and in particular the spread of environmental and human-associated species can be facilitated through numerous exposure routes (e.g., air, personal contact, water, excretions, etc.). Besides robotic missions, on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and in (future) space vehicles for long-term journeys to special targets of astrobiological interests in the solar system, astronauts will have the unique opportunity for scientific exploration. The manned exploration of new environments (e.g. asteroids, Mars) require long-term residence in confined stations and habitats (e.g. space stations, spacecraft, vehicles). During these missions, the health of the crew members has to be protected, and the integrity of the materials and facilities should be carefully monitored (van Houdt et al., 2012). A major concern is the microbiological burden in enclosed environments, where human inhabitants are continuously exposed to potential harmful microorganisms over a long-duration, which may affect the health and performance of the human subjects (Horneck et al., 2010) in addition to potential risks by biofilm formation and biocorrosion of materials. In both scenarios, the application of antimicrobial surfaces is an encouraging approach to reduce microorganisms in a straightforward way. Antimicrobial agents and materials are characterized by

  10. Polymer Basics: Classroom Activities Manipulating Paper Clips to Introduce the Structures and Properties of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Yunusa

    2014-01-01

    A simple and effective hands-on classroom activity designed to illustrate basic polymer concepts is presented. In this activity, students build primary structures of homopolymers and different arrangements of monomers in copolymer using paper clips as monomers. The activity supports formation of a basic understanding of polymer structures,…

  11. Novelties introduced by the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence as a phenomenon inherent to man, from the outset, can be manifested in different forms. According to statistics, the number of women who have suffered some form of violence is disturbingly great. Domestic violence and violence against women is a serious problem on which work on an international level has recently began. Some international organizations indirectly dealt with this issue in instruments which refer to the protection of human rights. At the European level, in 2011, the Convention of the Council of Europe (so-called Istanbul Convention, was adopted which was the first legally binding instrument on the European continent, that deals with the prevention of violence against women, protection of them and punishing the perpetrators. The Convention entered into force in 2014, and Serbia is one of the countries that have ratified this Convention. This paper aims to presents novelties that will be brought to the domestic legal system by this convention, with simultaneous analysis of the situation in Montenegro, where in 2010 the Law on Protection against Domestic Violence was enacted.

  12. Introducing vouchers for malaria prevention in Ghana and Tanzania: context and adoption of innovation in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Webster, Jayne; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Mwita, Alex; Bart-Plange, Constance; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Koenker, Hannah; Kramer, Karen; Brown, Nick; Lengeler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    There are striking similarities in health system and other contexts between Tanzania and Ghana that are relevant to the scaling up of continuous delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. However, specific contextual factors of relevance to ITN delivery have led implementation down very different pathways in the two countries. Both countries have made major efforts and investments to address this intervention through integrating consumer discount vouchers into the health system. Discount vouchers require arrangements among the public, private and non-governmental sectors and constitute a complex intervention in both health systems and business systems. In Tanzania, vouchers have moved beyond the planning agenda, had policies and programmes formulated, been sustained in implementation at national scale for many years and have become as of 2012 the main and only publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. In Ghana national-scale implementation of vouchers never progressed beyond consideration on the agenda and piloting towards formulation of policy; and the approach was replaced by mass distribution campaigns with less dependency on or integration with the health system. By 2011, Ghana entered a phase with no publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. To understand the different outcomes, we compared the voucher programme timelines, phases, processes and contexts in both countries in reference to the main health system building blocks (governance, human resources, financing, informatics, technologies and service delivery). Contextual factors which provided an enabling environment for the voucher scheme in Tanzania did not do so in Ghana. The voucher scheme was never seen as an appropriate national strategy, other delivery systems were not complementary and the private sector was under-developed. The extensive time devoted to engagement and consensus building among all stakeholders in Tanzania was an important and

  13. Introducing a checking technician allows pharmacists to spend more time on patient-focused activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Patti; Norris, Pauline; Braund, Rhiannon

    2018-04-01

    Internationally there is an increasing focus on the clinical and cognitive services that pharmacists can provide. Lack of time has been identified as a barrier to pharmacists increasing their clinical activities. Within the pharmacy workplace there are many tasks that can only be performed by a pharmacist. The final accuracy check of a dispensed prescription is currently the sole responsibility of pharmacists in New Zealand. This takes up a significant amount of time during a pharmacist's work day. The introduction of a checking technician role has been suggested to allow pharmacists more time to do more patient focused work. To investigate the amount of time pharmacy staff spend on specific activities and to establish whether the introduction of a checking technician into twelve pilot sites increased the amount of time that the pharmacists could spend on patient focused activities. This study utilised a self-reported work sampling technique in twelve pilot sites, selected from both the hospital and community settings. Work sampling using an electronic device was conducted at two time-points (before the implementation of a Pharmacy Accuracy Checking Technician (PACT) role and when the PACT was in place). Data was collected at 10 min intervals for the period of five days, a working week. Tasks were grouped into patient focused, dispensing and personal activities. The introduction of the PACT into the pilot sites saw a mean increase of 19% in pharmacists' patient focused activities and a mean 20% decrease in dispensing activities. The introduction of a checking technician role into New Zealand pharmacies demonstrated the potential to provide pharmacists with more time to spend on patient focused activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of capacitance performance of activated carbon—Polyaniline composites by introducing methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yujie; Jiang Jianchun; Sun Kang; Dai Tingyang

    2012-01-01

    Activated carbon–methyl orange–polyaniline (AC–MO–PAn) composites have been synthesized for the first time. The structural properties of the composites have been characterized with nitrogen absorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrostatic force between MO molecules and aniline (An) salt is assumed to promote the adsorption of aniline on the surface of AC. On the other hand, the sulfonic groups in MO molecules play a role of dopant and provide active sites for the polymerization of aniline. Although the loading amount and structure of PAn in as-prepared AC–MO–PAn composites and conventional AC–PAn composites are almost the same, the electrochemical measurements indicate that the AC–MO–PAn composites have preferable capacitive performance and are favorable to be used as the electrode materials in supercapacitors.

  15. Engaging Students in a Bioinformatics Activity to Introduce Gene Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. May

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics spans many fields of biological research and plays a vital role in mining and analyzing data. Therefore, there is an ever-increasing need for students to understand not only what can be learned from this data, but also how to use basic bioinformatics tools.  This activity is designed to provide secondary and undergraduate biology students to a hands-on activity meant to explore and understand gene structure with the use of basic bioinformatic tools.  Students are provided an “unknown” sequence from which they are asked to use a free online gene finder program to identify the gene. Students then predict the putative function of this gene with the use of additional online databases.

  16. Assessment of activity introduced via the drinking water after the Chernobyl reactor incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribbeck, W.

    1987-01-01

    An estimate of the activity input caused by the Tschernobyl-accident due to drinking water in the area of the Zweckverband Wasserversorgung Stadt und Kreis Offenbach (ZWO) was made which leads even with unfavourable assumptions to the result that health risks only through this event and especially via the contamination path of drinking water may be neglected. This result does not necessarily seem to be valid with other possible circumstances of similar accidents or if these are often repeated. (orig.) [de

  17. Introducing active learning pedagogy into a technical and vocational education and training academy in Kurdistan, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Martina; Ladefoged, Svend Erik

    2017-10-01

    This article focuses on a teaching methodology project which investigated issues of teaching quality at a technical and vocational education and training (TVET) academy in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq. The academy was established in 2012 to provide unemployed youth with TVET, particularly workplace-relevant training. A needs analysis showed that the academy's teachers were mainly skilled in technical content areas rather than in pedagogy. Perhaps as a result, predominantly teacher-centred approaches to teaching were observed. However, teaching and learning in TVET, by its very definition, must consider active learning and practical training as core to its vocational purpose. Moreover, technical and pedagogical skills are intrinsically linked, since a teacher cannot effectively pass on technical skills without the necessary pedagogical skills to do so. It is on this premise that the authors of this article based their project, which was designed for the purpose of upgrading the teachers' pedagogical skills to incorporate more active learning strategies and practical work. Comparison of observation logs and feedback sessions at the conclusion of their project provided evidence that whilst some of the teachers' pedagogical skills had shifted towards using more dynamic teaching strategies, interviews strongly indicated that there was also some reluctance to incorporate active learning. In their conclusion, the authors suggest that the insights gained from this project could be further empirically examined in a larger, multi-institutional study.

  18. The effect of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) derivatives introduced into polylactide (PLA) on the activity of bacterial enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Maciej; Richert, Agnieszka; Burkowska-But, Aleksandra

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating bactericidal properties of polylactide (PLA) films containing three different polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) derivatives and effect of the derivatives on extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and intracellular dehydrogenases. All PHMG derivatives had a slightly stronger bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus than on E. coli but only PHMG granular polyethylene wax (at the concentration of at least 0.6 %) has a bactericidal effect. PHMG derivatives introduced into PLA affected the activity of microbial hydrolases to a small extent. This means that the introduction of PHMG derivatives into PLA will not reduce its enzymatic biodegradation significantly. On the other hand, PHMG derivatives introduced into PLA strongly affected dehydrogenases activity in S. aureus than in E. coli.

  19. Active and passive compensation of APPLE II-introduced multipole errors through beam-based measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ching-Shiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.

  20. Learning to Design Together: Introducing Conditional Design as a Method for Co-design Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akoglu, Canan

    2017-01-01

    In today’s world, designing include participation of users and stakeholders at different levels varying from minimum participation to co-creating with these actors. In such a context, it becomes crucial to include related educational modules to be able to prepare design students for their future...... as the empirical study of this paper. The participants of the workshops were students from Communication Design and Industrial Design undergraduate programs with different seniorities in the same faculty. In terms of its content and operative flow, all the workshops were organized in a way that would enable equal...... contribution from each student and an active learning space was provided to the students. Based on the feedbacks, it is possible to foresee that the workshops were positive experiences especially in terms of understanding the importance of collective creativity and beyond the educational purposes...

  1. Differences in aggression, activity and boldness between native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, L.M.; Sih, A.; Bauer, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressiveness, along with foraging voracity and boldness, are key behavioral mechanisms underlying the competitive displacement and invasion success of exotic species. However, do aggressiveness, voracity and boldness of the invader depend on the presence of an ecologically similar native competitor in the invaded community? We conducted four behavioral assays to compare aggression, foraging voracity, threat response and boldness to forage under predation risk of multiple populations of exotic signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus across its native and invaded range with and without a native congener, the Shasta crayfish P. fortis. We predicted that signal crayfish from the invaded range and sympatric with a native congener (IRS) should be more aggressive to outcompete a close competitor than populations from the native range (NR) or invaded range and allopatric to a native congener (IRA). Furthermore, we predicted that IRS populations of signal crayfish should be more voracious, but less bold to forage under predation risk since native predators and prey likely possess appropriate behavioral responses to the invader. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that IRA signal crayfish were more aggressive towards conspecifics and more voracious and active foragers, yet also bolder to forage under predation risk in comparison to NR and IRS populations, which did not differ in behavior. Higher aggression/voracity/ boldness was positively correlated with prey consumption rates, and hence potential impacts on prey. We suggest that the positive correlations between aggression/voracity/boldness are the result of an overall aggression syndrome. Results of stream surveys indicated that IRA streams have significantly lower prey biomass than in IRS streams, which may drive invading signal crayfish to be more aggressive/voracious/bold to acquire resources to establish a population. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Introducing Mudbox

    CERN Document Server

    Kermanikian, Ara

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books on Autodesk's new Mudbox 3D modeling and sculpting tool!. Autodesk's Mudbox was used to create photorealistic creatures for The Dark Knight , The Mist , and others films. Now you can join the crowd interested in learning this exciting new digital modeling and sculpting tool with this complete guide. Get up to speed on all of Mudbox's features and functions, learn how sculpt and paint, and master the art of using effective workflows to make it all go easier.: Introduces Autodesk's Mudbox, an exciting 3D modeling and sculpting tool that enables you to create photorealistic

  3. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by

  4. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-10-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs.

  5. Study on application of safety checklist in preventive maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Chen Song; Liu Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the principles and the characteristics of safety checklist as a risk evaluation method. Examples of application of safety checklists to preventive maintenance activities such as criteria comparison and checkup items in place in nuclear power plants are illustrated in details with issues appeared in the checklist establishment. Checklist has a good application in the RCM analysis or in the actual preventive maintenance program for Chashma Nuclear Power Plant indicated by concrete instances. In the light of safety checklist which is used to sustain preventive maintenance as a simple and applicable risk analysis approach, we can get deep knowledge of risks of nuclear power plant to perfect preventive maintenance activities. (authors)

  6. Introducing cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Fredrik; Sivanesan, Giri

    In January 2012, the World Economic Forum made cyber attacks its fourth top global risk. In the 2013 risk report, cyber attacks were noted to be an even higher risk in absolute terms. The reliance of critical infrastructure on cyber working has never been higher; the frequency, intensity, impact and sophistication of attacks is growing. This trend looks likely to continue. It can be argued that it is no longer a question whether an organisation will be successfully hacked, but how long it will take to detect. In the ever-changing cyber environment, traditional protection techniques and reliance on preventive controls are not enough. A more agile approach is required to give assurance of a sufficiently secure digital society. Are we faced with a paradigm shift or a storm in a digital teacup? This paper offers an introduction to why cyber is important, a wider taxonomy on the topic and some historical context on how the discipline of cyber security has evolved, and an interpretation on what this means in the new normal of today.

  7. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Francisco Caracheo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractForaging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  8. HIV/AIDS Prevention Activities of Faith-Based Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these findings, it was recommended that the faith-based Christian organizations should collaborate with relevant agencies, community based workers and non-formal education providers to improve HIV/AIDS prevention service delivery in the study area. Keywords: Prevention, Activities, HIV/AIDS, Empowerment, ...

  9. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  10. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  11. Mental disorder prevention and physical activity in Iranian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Salehe Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Physical activity significantly prevents mental disorder in older adults. Although it has effects on anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression, the greatest influence is on improving the somatization symptoms.

  12. Prevention Research Matters-Communities Working to Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-15

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.  Created: 2/15/2018 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/15/2018.

  13. Introducing ISENDe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massard, T.

    2013-01-01

    The High Institute for Nuclear Defense Studies (ISENDe) was created in 2010 as part of the French CEA Defense and Security Directorate. The goal of ISENDe is to give to CEA/DAM staff a complete view on nuclear weapons science and deterrence issues. Some courses also can be attended by Nuclear Forces personnel, diplomats, defense personals... ISENDe is also involved in training courses organized by other Defense Organizations. The FSAN Defense Course is a high level management training course for the managers of the French deterrent operational teams. This training course takes place every year. It aims at giving a common vision and understanding on the status of the French deterrent research and development strategy. It creates a strong network among actors of the topic. Each class has around 12 participants. The program alternates plenary lectures, working group sessions, visits, and invited speakers. ISENDe is also the organizer of a Non Proliferation Course which is dedicated to collaborations of French government agencies involved in the proliferation control issues in their professional activities. The course has a two week session with conferences in all the related topics, followed by a series of visit of specific industrial or research sites and international organizations. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  14. Improvement of activity and stability of Chondroitinase ABC I by introducing an aromatic cluster at the surface of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaboddin, Mohammad Esmaeil; Khajeh, Khosro; Maleki, Monireh; Golestani, Abolfazl

    2017-10-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (ChABC I) has been shown to depolymerize a variety of glycosaminoglycan substrates and promote regeneration of damaged spinal cord. However, to date, intrathecal delivery methods have been suboptimal largely due to enzyme instability which necessitates repeated administration to the injured loci. Among the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine has been shown to be more effective in creation of stable clusters and further stabilize of the proteins. Bioinformatics approaches have been used to examine the effect of an extra aromatic cluster at the surface of ChABC I. In this study two amino acids i.e., Asn 806 and Gln 810 were mutated to tyrosine and to alanine as negative control. In this way, four variants i.e., N806Y/Q810Y, N806A/Q810Y, N806Y/Q810A and N806A/Q810A were created. The results showed that N806Y/Q810Y mutation improved both activity and thermal stability of the enzyme while Ala substitution reduced the enzyme activity and destabilized it. Structural analysis of mutants showed an increase in intrinsic fluorescence intensity and secondary structure content of N806Y/Q810Y mutant when compared to the wild type enzyme indicating a more rigid structure of this variant. Moreover, the N806Y/Q810Y enzyme displayed a remarkable resistance against trypsin degradation with a half-life (t 1/2 ) of 45.0min versus 32.5min of wild-type. In conclusion, the data revealed that structural features and activity of ChABC I can be improved by introducing appropriate aromatic clusters at the surface of the enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation of dormant secondary metabolite production by introducing neomycin resistance into the deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-07-29

    A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(D-Pro-D-Phe) (1), cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-L-prolinate (3), cyclo(L-Ile-L-Pro) (4), cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) (5) and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1-6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent fungal

  16. Cancer-preventive activities of tocopherols and tocotrienols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jihyeung; Picinich, Sonia C; Yang, Zhihong; Zhao, Yang; Suh, Nanjoo; Kong, Ah-Ng; Yang, Chung S

    2010-04-01

    The cancer-preventive activity of vitamin E has been studied. Whereas some epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of vitamin E against cancer formation, many large-scale intervention studies with alpha-tocopherol (usually large doses) have not demonstrated a cancer-preventive effect. Studies on alpha-tocopherol in animal models also have not demonstrated robust cancer prevention effects. One possible explanation for the lack of demonstrable cancer-preventive effects is that high doses of alpha-tocopherol decrease the blood and tissue levels of delta-tocopherols. It has been suggested that gamma-tocopherol, due to its strong anti-inflammatory and other activities, may be the more effective form of vitamin E in cancer prevention. Our recent results have demonstrated that a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols inhibits colon, prostate, mammary and lung tumorigenesis in animal models, suggesting that this mixture may have a high potential for applications in the prevention of human cancer. In this review, we discuss biochemical properties of tocopherols, results of possible cancer-preventive effects in humans and animal models and possible mechanisms involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Based on this information, we propose that a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols is a very promising cancer-preventive agent and warrants extensive future research.

  17. [Fundamental role of the workers' representative in preventive safety activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossicini, A; Bindi, L; Casale, M C

    2003-01-01

    With the arrival of Legislative Decree 626/94 which brought into Italian law the EU directives on workers' health and safety at the workplace, our country has also introduced rules that make a break with the past in this area, with the creation of new professional roles. The workers' safety representative takes on a fundamentally important role in the management of prevention, safety and health for workers in their place of employment in accordance with article 19. In fact, before the introduction of this Legislative Decree, the "protection" of workers' health was essentially based on rules and regulations the application of which was left to the exclusive and direct responsibility of the relationship between the employer and doctor, leaving out any participation by the worker. Whereas in the past workers could only be considered the final receivers of instructions about the security measures to apply, with Law 626 the workers themselves became active participants in the assessment of risks at work and consequently in the implementing of all the safety and hygiene measures contributing to the reduction of risk levels. The new regulations now in force assign important tasks to the workers' safety representative; all tasks and responsibilities associated with that role are examined and discussed, especially those relating to rights to information and training, consultation and participation in the process of designing and promoting safety measures. The job of workers' representative today takes on a fundamentally important meaning and role in a self-regulating system of work safety, where he or she has a proper area responsibility, so becoming a reference point for the workers generally.

  18. Active Satellite Sensors for the needs of Cultural Heritage: Introducing SAR applications in Cyprus through ATHENA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhartsiouk, Demetris; Agapiou, Athos; Lynsadrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Brcic, Ramon; Eineder, Michael; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2017-04-01

    Non-invasive landscape investigation for archaeological purposes includes a wide range of survey techniques, most of which include in-situ methods. In the recent years, a major advance in the non-invasive surveying techniques has been the introduction of active remote sensing technologies. One of such technologies is spaceborne radar, known as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). SAR has proven to be a valuable tool in the analysis of potential archaeological marks and in the systematic cultural heritage site monitoring. With the use of SAR, it is possible to monitor slight variations in vegetation and soil often interpreted as archaeological signs, while radar sensors frequently having penetrating capabilities offering an insight into shallow underground remains. Radar remote sensing for immovable cultural heritage and archaeological applications has been recently introduced to Cyprus through the currently ongoing ATHENA project. ATHENA project, under the Horizon 2020 programme, aims at building a bridge between research institutions of the low performing Member States and internationally-leading counterparts at EU level, mainly through training workshops and a series of knowledge transfer activities, frequently taking place on the basis of capacity development. The project is formed as the consortium of the Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory of the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). As part of the project, a number of cultural heritage sites in Cyprus have been studied testing different methodologies involving SAR imagery such as Amplitude Change Detection, Coherence Calculation and fusion techniques. The ATHENA's prospective agenda includes the continuation of the capacity building programme with upcoming training workshops to take place while expanding the knowledge of radar applications on conservation and risk monitoring of cultural heritage sites through

  19. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    On account of the frequency of appearing and character of atherosclerosis cardiac vascular disease, one of the most crucial elements of effective fight against it is preparation of complex preventive programs including as vast number of population as possible. Consequently, Benjamin and Smitch suggested attaching the notion of basic prevention to the standard division into primary and secondary one. The basic prevention, carrying out in the general population, should concern genetic predisposition, psychosocial factors, keeping up proper body weight, healthy eating and physical activity. Especially high hopes are connected with high efficiency, simplicity and low money-consumption of preventive activities associated with physical activity modification, which has a crucial influence on reducing negative impact of atherosclerosis hazard. The results of numerous scientific research, carried out in many countries and on various, large groups, proved undoubtedly that at the healthy adult people of both sex the systematic physical activity of moderate intensification plays an essential part in preventing CVD and decreasing the death risk because of that reason as well. Moreover, systematic physical exercises show many other health-oriented actions, thanks to which they have an influence on decreasing premature and total death rate. The risk of incidence of civilization-related diseases such as diabetes type II, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, tumors (of large intestine, breast, prostatic gland) and depression has decreased significantly. Unequivocally positive influence has been proved at many observations dedicated to health recreational physical activity and physical activity connected with professional work based on aerobe effort. The positive effects have been also observed at children population and senior population which is more and more numerous and the most at risk. The beneficial action of physical activity is connected with direct effect on organism

  20. Forming a Learning Culture to Promote Fracture Prevention Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarson, Helene V.; Strandmark, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore interprofessional experiences of incorporating fracture prevention activities in clinical practice inspired by an empowerment approach. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection consisted primarily of focus groups interviews, systematized and analyzed by the grounded theory method. The study took…

  1. Characterizing preventive activity in Camagüey province

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, María

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the characteristic features of preventive activities within the System of Education at Camaguey province. This information herein gathers results from a research investigation project and might be of interest for teachers, principals and investigators as a professional tool.

  2. Blueberry polyphenols prevent cardiomyocyte death by preventing calpain activation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Xavier Lieben; Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda; Aloud, Basma Milad; Raj, Pema; Yu, Liping; Le, Hoa; Netticadan, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an aqueous wild blueberry extract and five wild blueberry polyphenol fractions on an in vitro model of heart disease. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with extract and fractions, and then exposed to norepinephrine (NE). Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cardiomyocyte contractile function as well as the activities of calpain, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in cardiomyocytes treated with and without NE and blueberry fraction (BF). Four of five blueberry fractions prevented cell death and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by NE. Total phenolic fraction was used for all further analysis. The NE-induced increase in oxidative stress, nuclear condensation, calpain activity and lowering of SOD and CAT activities were prevented upon pretreatment with BF. Reduced contractile function was also significantly improved with BF pretreatment. Blueberry polyphenols prevent NE-induced adult cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. The protective effects of BF may be in part attributed to a reduction in calpain activity and oxidative stress.

  3. Preventive social activities with teenages from incomplete families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Chubuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article foregrounds the importance of social prevention activities with adolescents from single-parent families, which aim at overcoming external social pressures and psychological discomfort as well as creating a system of mutual support and self-help for adolescents. The aim of this article is to highlight the forms and methods of work that constitute the set of traditional methods of professional influence on adolescents from single-parent families and their parents. The author proposes a work process cycle of social prevention activities (which defines the selection of apparatus, content, forms and methods of work to  186 carry out in a logical sequence of certain stages that are characteristic of work with any singleparent family. First (pre-preparatory stage consisted of a primary formulation of goal guidelines for social preventive specialists with the aim of determination of the search criterion for the conditions and social environment of single-parent families, acquaintance with the problems of the family and the adolescent. Second (organization and information stage consisted of gathering of information, its organization and analysis. In the third (determination and diagnosis stage, the methods of detailed investigation of both adolescent and family members’ problems were chosen. In the fourth (procedure and analytics stage, the methods of detailed research of single-family problems, determined by the programme, were implemented. In the fifth (correction and results stage stipulated for the socio-educational (correctional work (if necessary with members of single-parent families to create new or to restore damaged positive relationships of the adolescent with their family and enhance social responsibility of all family members for the future of the adolescent, etc. In the sixth (control and prevention stage social workers make monitor visits to the single-parent families during a certain period. Key words: stage, incomplete

  4. Preventing dewetting during rapid-thermal annealing of FePt films with enhanced L1{sub 0} ordering by introducing Ag cap-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, S.N., E-mail: pmami.hsiao@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wu, S.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Liu, S.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Tsai, J.L., E-mail: tsaijl@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.Y. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    High-order FePt continuous films with a strong (001) texture were fabricated on a glass substrate by introducing Ag layers and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The dewetting of the (001)-textured FePt was suppressed during RTA with high heating rates (>80 K/s). The Ag cap layers not only increased the in-plane tensile stress, but also improved the (001) anisotropy and L1{sub 0} ordering of the FePt layers. All continuous Ag/FePt bilayer films possessed strong perpendicular anisotropies and high-ordered states irrespective of the Ag layer thickness. - Highlights: • Dewetting of (001) FePt fims were suppressed by introducing Ag cap layers. • Ag layers enhanced in-plane tensile stress, (001) texture and L1{sub 0} ordering. • Irrespective of Ag thickness, the Ag/FePt films exhibited strong (001) texture.

  5. Preventing dewetting during rapid-thermal annealing of FePt films with enhanced L10 ordering by introducing Ag cap-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, S.N.; Wu, S.C.; Liu, S.H.; Tsai, J.L.; Chen, S.K.; Chang, Y.C.; Lee, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    High-order FePt continuous films with a strong (001) texture were fabricated on a glass substrate by introducing Ag layers and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The dewetting of the (001)-textured FePt was suppressed during RTA with high heating rates (>80 K/s). The Ag cap layers not only increased the in-plane tensile stress, but also improved the (001) anisotropy and L1 0 ordering of the FePt layers. All continuous Ag/FePt bilayer films possessed strong perpendicular anisotropies and high-ordered states irrespective of the Ag layer thickness. - Highlights: • Dewetting of (001) FePt fims were suppressed by introducing Ag cap layers. • Ag layers enhanced in-plane tensile stress, (001) texture and L1 0 ordering. • Irrespective of Ag thickness, the Ag/FePt films exhibited strong (001) texture

  6. Establishment of a taxonomic and molecular reference collection to support the identification of species regulated by the Western Australian Prevention List for Introduced Marine Pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Joana P.; Fotedar, Seema; Muenoz, Julieta

    2017-01-01

    in IMP recognition in Australia. The reference collection is also useful in supporting the development of a variety of DNA-based detection strategies such as real-time PCR and metabarcoding of complex environmental samples (e.g. biofouling communities). The Prevention List is under regular review...... available to the biosecurity management community worldwide...

  7. INTroducing A Care bundle To prevent pressure injury (INTACT) in at-risk patients: A protocol for a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboyer, Wendy; Bucknall, Tracey; Webster, Joan; McInnes, Elizabeth; Banks, Merrilyn; Wallis, Marianne; Gillespie, Brigid M; Whitty, Jennifer A; Thalib, Lukman; Roberts, Shelley; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-11-01

    Pressure injuries are a significant clinical and economic issue, affecting both patients and the health care system. Many pressure injuries in hospitals are facility acquired, and are largely preventable. Despite growing evidence and directives for pressure injury prevention, implementation of preventative strategies is suboptimal, and pressure injuries remain a serious problem in hospitals. This study will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-centred pressure injury prevention care bundle on the development of hospital acquired pressure injury in at-risk patients. This is a multi-site, parallel group cluster randomised trial. The hospital is the unit of randomisation. Adult medical and surgical patients admitted to the study wards of eight hospitals who are (a) deemed to be at risk of pressure injury (i.e. have reduced mobility), (b) expected to stay in hospital for ≥48h, (c) admitted to hospital in the past 36h; and (d) able to provide informed consent will be eligible to participate. Consenting patients will receive either the pressure injury prevention care bundle or standard care. The care bundle contains three main messages: (1) keep moving; (2) look after your skin; and (3) eat a healthy diet. Nurses will receive education about the intervention. Patients will exit the study upon development of a pressure injury, hospital discharge or 28 days, whichever comes first; transfer to another hospital or transfer to critical care and mechanically ventilated. The primary outcome is incidence of hospital acquired pressure injury. Secondary outcomes are pressure injury stage, patient participation in care and health care costs. A health economic sub-study and a process evaluation will be undertaken alongside the trial. Data will be analysed at the cluster (hospital) and patient level. Estimates of hospital acquired pressure injury incidence in each group, group differences and 95% confidence interval and p values will be reported. To our

  8. STANDPOINT OF THE TOP MANAGEMENT ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF INTRODUCED QUALITY SYSTEM AND CONTINUATION AF ACTIVITIES OF ITS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahudin Jasarevic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are number of obstacles on a challenging road to the effectiveness and business and organizational excellence. One of the most difficult ones is human (not understanding of the constant flux of change. Such is the case when it comes to development of quality management system. Will the quality be either a problem or resource of some organization depends above all on the basic standpoint towards quality that exists in the organization. Many authors underline that implementation of quality management system and obtaining ISO 9000 certificate is not an easy task, but also emphasize that its maintenance and improvement is much more difficult task. The greatest number of problems that occur during the realization of project of quality management system as well as its improvement are the result of misunderstanding of the essence of standard, that is its principles. On of these principles is Leadership too, that is the role of Top Management. Managers at the highest levels are certainly the most responsible for establishing the vision and guiding organization in all business aspects, including Quality Management and Quality Management System. This work presents results of research conducted on the top management in 204 organizations with introduced quality system. Results show views of top management about the effects of introduced quality system as well as about future steps in terms of improving the same.

  9. RATING CHANGES INTRODUCED IN SOME CHARACTERISTIC MORPHOLOGICAL AND BASIC-SPECIFIC MOTOR SKILLS TO YOUNG ACTIVE AND INACTIVE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Qazim Elshani; Hazir Salihu

    2016-01-01

    The experiment deals with young people aged 13-14 years, male. Basketball team active and inactive, active group in addition to regular classes; they also practice basketball in clubs within the city. The experiment contains a total of eight morphological variables; five variables are the basic motor tests, while three tests of motor skills, situational. In this research, it applied test method T-group basketball between active and inactive, and morphological variables of specific movement sk...

  10. Oxysterol Restraint of Cholesterol Synthesis Prevents AIM2 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Eric V; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Russell, David W; Cyster, Jason G

    2017-11-16

    Type I interferon restrains interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-driven inflammation in macrophages by upregulating cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) and repressing SREBP transcription factors. However, the molecular links between lipid metabolism and IL-1β production remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) by macrophages is required to prevent inflammasome activation by the DNA sensor protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). We find that in response to bacterial infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages upregulate Ch25h to maintain repression of SREBP2 activation and cholesterol synthesis. Increasing macrophage cholesterol content is sufficient to trigger IL-1β release in a crystal-independent but AIM2-dependent manner. Ch25h deficiency results in cholesterol-dependent reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and release of mitochondrial DNA into the cytosol. AIM2 deficiency rescues the increased inflammasome activity observed in Ch25h -/- . Therefore, activated macrophages utilize 25-HC in an anti-inflammatory circuit that maintains mitochondrial integrity and prevents spurious AIM2 inflammasome activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Web-Based Interactive Video Vignettes Create a Personalized Active Learning Classroom for Introducing Big Ideas in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L. Kate; Newman, Dina L.; Cardinale, Jean A.; Teese, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The typical "flipped classroom" delivers lecture material in video format to students outside of class in order to make space for active learning in class. But why give students passive material at all? We are developing a set of high-quality online educational materials that promote active, hands-on science learning to aid in teaching…

  12. Physical activity in the prevention and rehabilitation of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Veselin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are more widespread today, whereby they take dimensions of global epidemic. They are the leading cause of diseases in the world, of inability to work, of absenteeism and premature mortality up to 65 years of age. Modern lifestyle in which there is not enough physical activity is recognized as one of the major risk factors for health and emergence of CVD. Physical inactivity is responsible for poor health quality, unnecessary illnesses and premature death. The aim of this work is to point out the basic risk factors and importance and the role of physical exercise in the prevention and rehabilitation of CVD. In the analysis of the data, the methods of speculation and introspection are used. Numerous studies have shown that properly practiced physical activity is a powerful and beneficial effect in the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of cardiovascular diseases (Scrutino et al. 2005; Secco et al. 2000; Jovović, 2008; Šuščević et al. 2011. Physical activity belongs to the concept of numerous factors, which along with the reduction of risk factors, lifestyle changes and medical therapy leads to the reduction of risk for cardiovascular diseases. To achieve the desired effect, a combination of aerobic, interval and isotonic muscle activity of moderate intensity at least four times a week for 45 minutes is recommended. During the secondary prevention and rehabilitation, physical activity adapts to health status, level of individual risk and the estimated functional abilities of patients. Transformational processes can only be achieved through regular exercise. The risk of emergence of complications during physical exercise is negligible, especially if the walking is practiced as a form of physical exercise.

  13. The Logic of Introducing Innovation Activities into the Regional Labor Market in the Context of its Cyclical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnatenko Irina A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at implementing an implication of the theory of wave-like (cyclical evolutionary development of the economic system with regard to the regional labor market and determining the time for the most effective introduction of innovation influence according to development cycle of the labor markets in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The article schematically depicts the dissipative system of the cyclical evolutionary development of the regional labor market. The status of the regional labor market in each of the phases of the development cycle has been characterized. An evaluation of the efficiency of introducing innovations in the regional labor market, depending on the development cycle of this market, has been provided. The phase of the development cycle in which the labor markets of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions are effective has been defined, and the causal relationships that show these markets being in the «crisis» phase, have been described. It has been concluded that it would be useful to modify the existing policy of innovation impact on the regional labor markets of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in line with the development phase of the markets indicated.

  14. Improvement of carrier transport and luminous efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by introducing a co-deposited active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Naoki; Murata, Masaya; Kashiwabara, Keiichiro; Kurata, Kazunori, E-mail: ohtani@mail.doshisha.ac.j [Department of Electronics, Doshisha University, 3-1 Tatara-Miyakodani, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    We evaluated carrier transport and luminous efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) whose active regions consist of a single co-deposited layer. One organic material is a hole transport material N,N'-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), while the other is an electron transport/emissive material Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3). It was found that the luminous efficiency strongly depends on the thickness and the ratio of the TPD:Alq3 co-deposited layer. This indicates that the carrier balance in the active region can be improved by changing the co-deposited layers. In addition, we performed the dye-doping method to clarify the recombination region. As a result, we found that the radiative recombination is caused in the whole TPD:Alq3 co-deposited layer.

  15. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  16. [Adapted physical activity in the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, Ksenija; Gava, Branka Protić; Grajić, Mirko; Madić, Dejan; Obradović, Borislav; Todorović, Snezana Tomasević

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world's population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF BONE TISSUE: Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in reducing sclerostin, which is known to inhibit bone

  17. Preventing postpartum haemorrhage: active management of the third stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Parreira, Maria V B; Gomes, Nádia C Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    To review scientific publications on health to identify the main practices used for the active management of the third stage of vaginal labour and to assess their effectiveness in preventing postpartum haemorrhage. According to the World Health Organization (WHO Recommendations for the Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage, 2007. WHO Document Production Services, Geneva), postpartum haemorrhage is considered to be the cause of a quarter of maternal morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. In an attempt to reduce the risk of haemorrhage, a group of interventions have been introduced into clinical practice that constitute active management conduct during the third stage of labour and are recommended by the international organisations. An integrative literature review of studies on the subject in question, indexed in databases of health between the years 2006-2012, was conducted. The analysis included 13 articles, six of which were original articles and seven of which were literature reviews. Based on our data analysis, we found that most studies supported the effectiveness of active management in reducing the risk of haemorrhage, in the immediate postpartum period. Despite the fact that active management practices for the third stage of labour differ in their specific elements, in the majority of the selected studies, the interventions followed those recommended by the international organisations. The results of this review of management practices supported active management of the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum haemorrhage, with five main forms of intervention: administration of oxytocin, delayed clamping of umbilical cord, draining of placental blood, controlled cord traction and uterine massage. There is a need to determine gaps in the clinical practices of midwives in regard to the active management of third stage of labour, to update knowledge and practices with the latest scientific evidence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  19. Virulent poxviruses inhibit DNA sensing by preventing STING activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgana, Iliana; Sumner, Rebecca P; Towers, Greg J; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos

    2018-02-28

    efficient oncolytics in virotherapy. The successful therapeutic use of VACV depends on a detailed understanding of its ability to modulate host innate immune responses. DNA sensing is a critical cellular mechanism for pathogen detection and activation of innate immunity that is centrally coordinated by the ER-resident protein STING. Here STING is shown to mediate immune activation in response to MVA, but not to virulent VACV strains or other virulent poxviruses, which prevent STING activation and DNA sensing during infection and after DNA transfection. These results provide new insights into poxvirus immune evasion and have implications in the rational design of VACV-based therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Georgana et al.

  20. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  1. Synthesis of novel vitamin K derivatives with alkylated phenyl groups introduced at the ω-terminal side chain and evaluation of their neural differentiation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Rie; Kimura, Kimito; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Ishizawa, Michiyasu; Takagi, Yuta; Wada, Akimori; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Makishima, Makoto; Suhara, Yoshitomo

    2017-11-01

    Vitamin K is an essential cofactor of γ-glutamylcarboxylase as related to blood coagulation and bone formation. Menaquinone-4, one of the vitamin K homologues, is biosynthesized in the body and has various biological activities such as being a ligand for steroid and xenobiotic receptors, protection of neuronal cells from oxidative stress, and so on. From this background, we focused on the role of menaquinone in the differentiation activity of progenitor cells into neuronal cells and we synthesized novel vitamin K derivatives with modification of the ω-terminal side chain. We report here new vitamin K analogues, which introduced an alkylated phenyl group at the ω-terminal side chain. These compounds exhibited potent differentiation activity as compared to control. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies

  3. Ghrelin treatment prevents development of activity based anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Breton, Jonathan; Azhar, Saïda; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin׳s orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1nM) together or not with total IgG (1nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments... of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the... information, please contact Janet Chiancone, (202) 353-9258, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  5. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H 2 DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  6. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  7. Punica granatum (Pomegranate activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  8. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers. PMID:29441150

  9. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2018-01-30

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  10. Antioxidant activity and haemolysis prevention efficiency of polyaniline nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Somik; Kumar, A [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Saikia, Jyoti P; Konwar, B K, E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-01-29

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to {pi}-{pi}{sup *} and {pi}-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.

  11. Community-based osteoporosis prevention: Physical activity in relation to bone density, fall prevention, and the effect of training programmes : The Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is based on studies of the ten-year community-based intervention programme entitled, the Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project (VOPP). The specific aims of the research were to describe the effects of physical activity and training programmes on bone mass and balance performance in adults, to determine whether a fall risk prevention programme could motivate personal actions among the elderly, to ascertain whether the intervention programme could reduce the incidence of forearm ...

  12. Assessment of the rhizosphere competency and pentachlorophenol-metabolizing activity of a pesticide-degrading strain of Trichoderma harzianum introduced into the root zone of corn seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigot, Jerĵme; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-05-01

    To develop a dependable approach to introduce laboratory selected, pesticide-degrading microorganisms into soil environments for the purpose of in situ bioremediation, we tested the possibility of utilizing plant rhizospheres as the vehicle. We first established the rhizosphere competency of a strain of the soil fungus Trichoderma harzianum, a biocontrol species well studied by plant pathologists to colonize plant rhizosphere in many parts of the world. The strain we chose, T.h.2023 is resistant to many fungicides, and it has been shown to metabolize several pesticides. Second, we found that it readily metabolized pentachlorophenol (PCP), which is quickly and stochiometrically converted to pentachloroanisole (PCA) in liquid culture. Taking advantage of this specific feature, we have developed a sensitive metabolic marker approach that allowed us to monitor for the continuous presence and activity of this fungal strain in the corn rhizosphere soil in situ over time.

  13. PWSCC Preventive Maintenance Activities for Alloy 600 in Japanese PWR Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Onishi, K.; Okimura, K.

    2012-01-01

    Because many nuclear plants have been in operation for ages, the importance of preventive maintenance technologies is getting higher. One conspicuous problem found in pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants is the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) observed in Alloy 600 (a kind of high nickel based alloy) parts. Alloy 600 was used for butt welds between low alloy steel and stainless steel of nozzles of Reactor Vessel (RV), Steam Generator (SG), and Pressurizer (Pz). As PWSCC occurred at these parts may cause Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), preventive maintenance is necessary. PWSCC is considered to be caused by a mixture of three elements: high residual tensile stress on surface, material (Alloy 600) and environment. PWSCC can be prevented by improving one of the elements. MHI has been developing stress improvement methods, for example, Water Jet Peening (WJP), Shot Peening by Ultrasonic vibration (USP), and Laser Stress Improvement Process (L-SIP). According to the situation, appropriate method is applied for each part. WJP has been applied for RV nozzles of a lot of plants in Japan. However PWSCC was observed in RV nozzles during the inspection before WJP in recent years, MHI developed the Advanced INLAY system to improve the material from Alloy 600 to Alloy 690. Alloy 600 on the inner surface of the nozzles is removed and welding with Alloy 690 is performed. In addition, heat treatments for the nozzles are difficult for its structural situation, so ambient temperature temper bead welding technique for RV nozzles was developed to make the heat treatments unnecessary. This paper describes countermeasures against PWSCC and introduces the maintenance activities performed in Japan. (author)

  14. 76 FR 9637 - Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk...

  15. 76 FR 27384 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Under OMB Review AGENCY.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk... families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental health support services. In addition, the surveys...

  16. 77 FR 52341 - Information Collection Activity: Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control; Submitted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-0001; OMB Number 1014-NEW] Information Collection Activity: Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control... the regulations under Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control. This notice also provides the... information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control. OMB...

  17. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  18. Activation of the Silent Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin-Resistance in a Marine-Derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jing Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of neomycin-resistance into a marine-derived, wild-type Penicillium purpurogenum G59 resulted in activation of silent biosynthetic pathways for the secondary metabolite production. Upon treatment of G59 spores with neomycin and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, a total of 56 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of mutants to neomycin was testified by the resistance test. In contrast to the G59 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 28 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that the 28 mutants have acquired the capability to produce bioactive metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI-MS analyses further indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the bioactive mutant extracts. Followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that five bioactive secondary metabolites, curvularin (1, citrinin (2, penicitrinone A (3, erythro-23-O-methylneocyclocitrinol (4 and 22E-7α-methoxy-5α, 6α-epoxyergosta-8(14,22-dien-3β-ol (5, were newly produced by a mutant, 4-30, compared to the G59 strain. All 1–5 were also not yet found in the secondary metabolites of other wild type P. purpurogenum strains. Compounds 1–5 inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60, HeLa and BGC-823 cells to varying extents. Both present bioassays and chemical investigations demonstrated that the introduction of neomycin-resistance into the marine-derived fungal G59 strain could activate silent secondary metabolite production. The present work not only extended the previous DMSO-mediated method for introducing drug-resistance in fungi both in DMSO concentrations and antibiotics, but also additionally exemplified effectiveness of this method for activating silent fungal secondary metabolites. This method could be applied to other fungal isolates to elicit their metabolic potentials to investigate secondary metabolites from silent biosynthetic pathways.

  19. Activating College Men to Prevent Sexual Violence: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. Candace

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…

  20. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data...

  2. Workplace suicide prevention: a systematic review of published and unpublished activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Kathryn; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Lamotagne, Anthony D

    2015-03-01

    There are a number of published studies on workplace suicide prevention activities, and an even larger number of activities that are not reported on in academic literature. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic assessment of workplace suicide prevention activities, including short-term training activities, as well as suicide prevention strategies designed for occupational groups at risk of suicide. The search was based on Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Guidelines. The databases used for the searches were the Cochrane Trials Library and PubMed. A range of suicide prevention websites were also searched to ascertain the information on unpublished workplace suicide prevention activities. Key characteristics of retrieved studies were extracted and explained, including whether activities were short-term training programmes or developed specifically for occupations at risk of suicide. There were 13 interventions relevant for the review after exclusions. There were a few examples of prevention activities developed for at-risk occupations (e.g. police, army, air force and the construction industry) as well as a number of general awareness programmes that could be applied across different settings. Very few workplace suicide prevention initiatives had been evaluated. Results from those that had been evaluated suggest that prevention initiatives had beneficial effects. Suicide prevention has the potential to be integrated into existing workplace mental health activities. There is a need for further studies to develop, implement and evaluate workplace suicide prevention programmes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Introducing ZBrush 4

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Introducing ZBrush 4 launches readers head-on into fulfilling their artistic potential for sculpting realistic creature, cartoon, and hard surface models in ZBrush. ZBrush's innovative technology and interface can be intimidating to both digital-art beginners as well as veterans who are used to a more conventional modeling environment. This book dispels myths about the difficulty of ZBrush with a thorough tour and exploration of the program's interface. Engaging projects also allow the reader to become comfortable with digital sculpting in with a relaxed and fun book atmosphere. Introducing ZB

  4. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  5. Introducing Business English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate

  6. Discursive constructions of falls prevention : Discourses of active aging versus old age as disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Ulrich, Anita; Tanggaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    information and investment in falls prevention programs, many still drop out or decline to participate in such programs. The study explores how discourses cross swords in the domain of falls prevention. We identify two main discourses in the field: Discourses of active aging opposed to discourses of old age...... as disease. In discourses of active aging falls are constructed as preventable and not necessarily related to old age; in discourses of old age as disease falls are constructed as a disease of old age. Specific agent positions are created within discourses. Discourses of active aging construct self......-responsible citizens who are physically active and motivated to participate in falls prevention programmes; discourses of old age as disease on the other hand construct “fall patients” who accept being passive in the health care system. Older citizens who are not in need of treatment or less physically active...

  7. Physical Activity Prevents Progression for Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. METHODS: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates....... Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia...... (vascular dementia, 54; Alzheimer disease with vascular component, 34; frontotemporal dementia, 2), and 147 had cognitive impairment not dementia. Using Cox regression analysis, physical activity reduced the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia: β=-0.45, P=0.002; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95...

  8. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol rich fractions derived from the pomegranate fruit have been studied for their potential chemopreventive and/or cancer therapeutic effects in several animal models. Although data from in vitro and in vivo studies look convincing, well designed clinical trials in humans are needed to ascertain whether pomegranate can become part of our armamentarium against cancer. This review summarizes the available literature on the effects of pomegranate against various cancers. PMID:23094914

  9. Prevalence and correlates of participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activity by older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merom, D.; Pye, V.; Macniven, R.; van der Ploeg, H.; Milat, A.; Sherrington, C.; Lord, S.; Bauman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine older people's participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activities. Methods: Participants comprised 5,681 randomly selected older people (≥ 65. years) who took part in the 2009 New South Wales (Australia) Fall Prevention telephone survey (61% response-rate). The

  10. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...

  11. Introducing English grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Borjars, Kersti

    2013-01-01

    Answering key questions such as 'Why study grammar?' and 'What is standard English?', Introducing English Grammar guides readers through the practical analysis of the syntax of English sentences. With all special terms carefully explained as they are introduced, the book is written for readers with no previous experience of grammatical analysis. It is ideal for all those beginning their study of linguistics, English language or speech pathology, as well as students with primarily literary interests who need to cover the basics of linguistic analysis. The approach taken is in line with current research in grammar, a particular advantage for students who may go on to study syntax in more depth. All the examples and exercises use real language taken from newspaper articles, non-standard dialects and include excerpts from studies of patients with language difficulties. Students are encouraged to think about the terminology as a tool kit for studying language and to test what can and cannot be described using thes...

  12. PREVENTION OF BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING AND COMPLICATIONS AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1991-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit for open heart surgery initiates a whole body inflammatory reaction (WBIR) resulting in impaired hemostasis and organ dysfunction. Impaired hemostasis appeared to be related to the activation of the contact system (factor XII), which can be inhibited by

  13. Prevention of childhood obesity through motivation to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Aguilera, Sonia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the current worrying situation in terms of physical activity in our country and the problem that leads us to be below the European average, with the attendant problems of obesity, particularly among children, which follow from this. We analyzed the intervention programs that are being used as PIOBIN plan (The Andalusian Plan for Childhood Obesity, effective from 2007-12, based on a national strategy called Naos Strategy and how different studies support that some intrinsic motivation toward physical activity helps to create lasting habits to the practice. We also carry out an analysis of the different Motivation theories and we base our study on the Self-determination Theory of Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000

  14. Religious Activities and Suicide Prevention: A Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Stack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis contributes to the existing literature on religion and suicide in three interrelated ways: (1 providing an analysis of suicide completions whereas most research is based on non-lethal levels of suicidality; (2 assessing the relationship with concrete individual level data on completed suicides instead of aggregated data marked by the ecological fallacy issue; and (3 providing gender specific analyses to determine if the relationship is gendered. METHODS. Data come from the U.S. Public Health Service, National Mortality Followback Survey. They refer to 16,795 deaths including 1385 suicides. Significant others of the deceased were interviewed to measure all variables. The dependent variable is a binary variable where 1 = death by suicide and 0 = all other causes. The central independent variable is an index of religious activities. Controls are included for five categories of confounders (1 psychiatric morbidity; (2 help-seeking behavior; (3 Opportunity factors such as firearms; (4 social integration; and (5 demographics. RESULTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that controlling for 16 predictors of suicide, a one unit increase in religious activities reduced the odds of a suicide death by 17% for males and by 15% for females. The difference in coefficients is not significant (Z = 0.51. Other significant predictors of suicide deaths included suicide ideation (OR = 8.87, males, OR = 11.48, females and firearm availability (OR = 4.21, males, OR = 2.83, females. DISCUSSION. Religious activities were found to lower suicide risk equally for both men and women. Further work is needed to assess pathways, including suicide ideation, between religious activities and lowered suicide risk. This is the first U.S. based study to test for a gendered association between religion and suicide at the individual level of analysis.

  15. Optimal Activation of Isopsoralen To Prevent Amplicon Carryover

    OpenAIRE

    Fahle, Gary A.; Gill, Vee J.; Fischer, Steven H.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the efficiencies of activation of the photochemical isopsoralen compound 10 and its resulting amplicon neutralizations under conditions with a UV transilluminator box at room temperature (RT) and a HRI-300 UV photothermal reaction chamber at RT and at 5°C. Our data suggest that use of the HRI-300 reaction chamber at 5°C results in a statistically significantly higher degree of amplicon neutralization.

  16. Thyroid screening in pregnancy - a compulsory preventive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrinic Olesea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obiectives: To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in a group of pregnant women, originating from Dobrogea region of southeastern Romania, considered to be an area without iodine deficiency, including the Black Sea area. Materials and methods: We enrolled 324 pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy. Each case was reviewed by a detailed madical history, clinical examination and by serum dosage of thyroid hormones: TSH, FT4, and the antithyroidperoxidase. They were evaluated by comparison with trimester -specific reference range for TSH recommended by American Thyroid Association, then the results were compared with those obtained using the manufacturers reference range. Abortion rate was also analysed. Results: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was different in all the 3 trimesters: subclinical hypothyroidism being the most frequently approx. 24% of all cases; 7% of pregnant women had overt hypothyroidism. Incidence of thyrotoxicosis in entire study cases was approx. 5.5%. The most frecvent thyroid autoimune disorders were Hashimoto thyroiditis: 42 % - I trimester, 26,6% in II trimester and about 12,5 % in III-trimester; Graves disease have an incidence of only 0,9 % (n=3.The difference between reference methods eluded a lower number of cases using manufactures reference range for TSH (P< 0,001, but higher for recommended trimester - specific TSH value, confirming the undervalueted hypothesis. The risk of misclassifying the hypothyroidism is between 3 %-8 %. Conclusion: Necessity for thyroid hormone dosage periodic/trimesterly/ in pregnancy is a preventive measure. The reference values for hormonal dosage requires trimester-specific assessment. The possibility of hormonal disorders during pregnancy is common. The need for specific therapy at diagnosis depends on the nature of hormonal disorder. Further precautions are needed in pregnant women with known autoimmune thyroid disorder or newly diagnosed

  17. Introducing Program Evaluation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GÂRBOAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs and project evaluation models can be extremely useful in project planning and management. The aim is to set the right questions as soon as possible in order to see in time and deal with the unwanted program effects, as well as to encourage the positive elements of the project impact. In short, different evaluation models are used in order to minimize losses and maximize the benefits of the interventions upon small or large social groups. This article introduces some of the most recently used evaluation models.

  18. Preventing anaemia in pregnancy - need for intensive IEC Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bhardwaj

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A Study to know the compliance rale of IFA tablets in respect of collection and consumption was carried out in three districts of Himachal Pradesh covering 90 clusters. Out of total women interviewed with childless than one year, only 94.8% had collected IFA tablets. 41.9% and 10% women had consumed these tablets for 60 and 100 days respectively. Majority of women did not consume these tablets with the reason that medicine is taken on ly during illness and as such they don't require these tablets. Intrusive Information, Education and Communication activities are stressed in the paper.

  19. Gene-environment interactions in considering physical activity for the prevention of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn Alissa Bates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, ranks as one of the most feared diseases in the world. Similarly, recent studies suggest that AD may be the third leading cause of death in the United States, behind heart disease and cancer. In the absence of a cure or effective treatment, strategies to prevent or delay the onset and progression of the disease are desperately needed. Decades of research have identified key risk and protective factors including genetic polymorphism in the APOE gene, age and lifestyle factors. Physical activity (PA is emerging as an attractive primary prevention strategy. This review will summarise the latest findings supporting the role of physical activity in the prevention of AD, including possible mechanisms and the influence of genetics on disease prevention. Given that AD and other dementias are recognised as a world health priority, public health strategies are needed to incorporate promoting the health benefits of physical activity across the lifespan.

  20. Prevention of corruption as administrative activity of authorities and the object of prosecutor’s observance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur L. Kozlov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study corruption prevention as administrative activity of state and municipal authorities. Methods dialectical systematic formallegal analysis synthesis statistical and specific sociological methods. Results basing on the study of countercorruption legislation its implementation and acts of prosecutorial response the definition of the concept quotcorruption preventionquot was formulated which refers to administrative activities of state and municipal bodies and their officials aimed at the implementation of legislation on combating corruption. The feature of the preventive component of countercorruption legislation is that it brings together the complex of binding prohibitive and restrictive rules established for the prevention of corruption. Corruption prevention is implemented through a specific type of managerial administrative activity. The legality of this activity is provided by means of prosecutorial supervision over implementation of laws on corruption prevention. Scientific novelty for the first time in the article corruption prevention is viewed not as a criminological category but as an institution of administrative law characterized by the essential features of the state municipal control. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and lawenforcement activities in addressing issues related to combating corruption.

  1. Telmisartan prevents weight gain and obesity through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta-dependent pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    Telmisartan shows antihypertensive and several pleiotropic effects that interact with metabolic pathways. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that telmisartan prevents adipogenesis in vitro and weight gain in vivo through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-d...

  2. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  3. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  4. Introducing citizen inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Herodotou, Christothea; Sharples, Mike; Scanlon, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘citizen inquiry’ was coined to describe ways that members of the public can learn by initiating or joining shared inquiry-led scientific investigations (Sharples et al., 2013). It merges learning through scientific investigation with mass collaborative participation exemplified in citizen science activities, altering the relationship most people have with research from being passive recipients to becoming actively engaged, and the relationship between scholarship and public understa...

  5. Preventive Activities of Preliminary Investigation Bodies in Respect of Crime Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Timko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the prevention of victimization by the investigation and inquiry divisions of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. It defines the main forms and methods of working with the victim during the investigation of a crime aimed at reducing the possibility of again becoming a victim of criminal assault. The organizational and legal directions of victimological prevention are analyzed, the necessity of developing effective mechanisms for assessing the activities of the units of internal affairs agencies in crime prevention is justified.

  6. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  7. Introducing the new EDMS

    CERN Multimedia

    The EDMS Team

    2014-01-01

    We are very pleased to announce the arrival of a brand new EDMS: EDMS 6. The CERN Engineering and Equipment Data Management Service just got better than ever! EDMS is the de facto interface for all engineering related data and more. Currently there are more than 1.2 million documents and nearly 2 million files stored in EDMS.   What’s new? The first thing you will notice is the look and feel of EDMS 6; the new design not only makes it more modern but also more intuitive, so that the system is easier to use, regardless of your experience with EDMS. Whilst we have kept the key concepts, we have introduced more functionality and improved navigation within the interface, allowing for better performance to help you in your daily work. We have also added a personal slant to EDMS 6 so that you can now customise your list of favourite objects. Modifying data in EDMS is much simpler, allowing you to view all object data in a single window.  More functionality will be added in the ...

  8. Introducing online teaching in Humanities: A case study about the acceptance of online activities by the academic staff of classical languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Vlachopoulos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available L'objectiu d'aquest article és mostrar les percepcions del professorat de llengües clàssiques (grec antic i llatí amb relació a les activitats en línia fetes durant els cursos. L'estudi es va fer a tres països: Grècia (a tres universitats importants, Espanya (a la Universitat de Barcelona i els Estats Units (a la Universitat de Califòrnia a Berkeley amb la participació de trenta-tres professors. Segons el nivell d'ús i d'acceptació de les TIC i a partir de la classificació de G. Moore, vam separar els docents participants en tres grups: els conservadors, el corrent principal i els adoptadors primerencs. El fet que el grup més petit sigui el tercer mostra clarament que hi ha una necessitat de preparació i formació dels professors abans d'introduir projectes innovadors a l'aula. Com que el punt d'inici de l'aplicació d'innovació a l'aula és el professorat, els responsables dels projectes d'innovació s'haurien de centrar a ajudar-los a conscienciar-se dels canvis en els mètodes d'ensenyament i a incloure la seva opinió durant el disseny dels esmentats projectes. The purpose of this paper is to show the perceptions of the academic staff of classical languages (ancient Greek and Latin concerning use of online activities during their courses. The study was carried out in three countries: Greece (three major Universities, Spain (University of Barcelona and the United States (University of California, Berkeley with the participation of thirty-three academic instructors. Depending on the level of use and acceptance of the ICT and following G. Moore's classification, we separated the participating academics in three groups: the conservatives, the mainstream and the early adopters. The fact that the smallest group is the third clearly shows the necessity for teachers' preparation and training before introducing innovative projects in the classroom. Since the starting point for the application of innovation in the classroom is the

  9. Introducing Zenith project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupejova, E.

    2008-01-01

    Zenith ia a international program of continuous improvement, aimed at reaching high work performance in all ENEL activities and in all countries where ENEL is present Zenith covers various projects aimed at cost reduction, processes simplification and performance improvement that have been already initiated in the past (DTC, TTC, QUASAR...) The program includes 5 pillars to reach perfection: - reaching for operational proficiency by underlining the leading role of ENEL and continuous searching possibilities how to improve processes and activities; - to learn methods of continuous the others; - to learn and apply the methods of improvement; - continuously apply the methods of improvement; - continuously monitor and publish the results and implementation of ZENITH standard. (author)

  10. The role of physical / sports activitys as an burnout prevention for special and rehabilitation educators

    OpenAIRE

    Heric, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Diploma thesis contains an overview of literature concerning the topic of how the sport/physical activity effects the phenomenon of professional burnout with special educatiors. I would like to explore the causes for and the signs of professional burnout, does sport/physical activity have a pozitive influence on an individual and if it is possible to prevent professional burnout with the help of sport/physical activity. I have found out that numerous stress factors at work, wich every ed...

  11. Introducing Students to Ethnobotany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Barry S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Ethnobotany is the scientific investigation of plant use by indigenous cultures for food, medicine, pesticides, and other purposes. Discusses the significance of ethnobotany and provides resources and laboratory activities suitable for use in biology and botany courses at the high school and college levels. (MDH)

  12. Incorporating AIDS prevention activities into a family planning organization in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, R; Ojeda, G; Murad, R

    1990-01-01

    Three AIDS prevention activities were incorporated into the services offered by PROFAMILIA in two operations research projects. The activities included: (1) informative talks given both to the general public and to members of target groups by PROFAMILIA's community marketing (CM) program field workers (or instructors); (2) the establishment of condom distribution posts in meeting places of target groups; and (3) mass-media information campaigns on AIDS prevention. Community-based distributors were able to successfully provide information on AIDS to their regular audiences as well as to deliver information and condoms to special target groups without negatively affecting family planning information/education/communication activities and contraceptive sales. A radio campaign that promoted condom use for AIDS prevention did not affect public perceptions about the condom and did not jeopardize PROFAMILIA's image.

  13. Estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness during longwall mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Wojtecki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground longwall mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently being carried out under increasingly difficult geological and mining conditions. Mining depth, dislocations and mining remnants are the main factors responsible for the most significant rockburst hazard, which can be minimized via the use of active and passive rockburst prevention. Active rockburst prevention in longwalls is usually based on blasting, in order to either destress local stress concentrations in the rock mass or to fracture the thick layers of strong roof rocks to prevent or minimize the impact of high energy tremors on excavations. The accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is particularly important when mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which are associated with high levels of this hazard. The efficiency of blasting applied for this purpose is typically evaluated from the seismic effect, which is calculated based on seismic monitoring data and the weight of the charged explosive. This method, as used previously in the Czech Republic, was adopted in the present study to analyze conditions occurring in a Polish hard coal mine in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Parameters of long hole destress blastings in roof rocks (torpedo blastings from the face of the assigned longwall in coal seam no. 507 were correct a success according to the seismic effect method and corresponded to observations made in situ. The analytical method presented enables the rapid estimation of destress blasting effectiveness and could also be useful when determining appropriate active rockburst prevention.

  14. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide prevents fat gain following the cessation of voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Sevage, Joseph A; Childs, Thomas E; Grigsby, Kolter B; Booth, Frank W

    2017-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) could prevent acute increases in body fat and changes in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue following the sudden transition from physical activity to physical inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? AICAR prevented fat gains following the transition from physical activity to inactivity to levels comparable to rats that remained physically active. AICAR and continuous physical activity produced depot-specific changes in cyclin A1 mRNA and protein that were associated with the prevention of fat gain. These findings suggest that targeting AMP-activated protein kinase signalling could oppose rapid adipose mass growth. The transition from physical activity to inactivity is associated with drastic increases in 'catch-up' fat that in turn foster the development of many obesity-associated maladies. We tested whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment would prevent gains in body fat following the sudden transition from a physically active state to an inactive state by locking a voluntary running wheel. Male Wistar rats were either sedentary (SED) or given wheel access for 4 weeks, at which time rats with wheels continued running (RUN), had their wheel locked (WL) or had WL with daily AICAR injection (WL + AICAR) for 1 week. RUN and WL + AICAR prevented gains in body fat compared with SED and WL (P RUN and WL + AICAR compared with SED and WL groups (P run, and that together, continuous physical activity and AICAR could, at least initially in these conditions, exert similar inhibitory effects on adipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  15. Opportunities and supporting activities to promote preventive maintenance of NPPs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, A.; Shinkawa, T.; Sakurada, M.

    1998-01-01

    With increase of the number of NPPs and operation history, enhancement of the safety regulation is becoming important for such long-operated NPPs. Centering on the comprehensive preventive maintenance, periodic safety reviews by utilities and its review and evaluation by MITI are in progress. The first reviews have not revealed essential and critical indications to be newly implemented. This means that the most of activities to secure reliability and safety have been done steadily. The present paper addresses the mechanism of on-going preventive maintenance and its essential elements: opportunities to identify issues and problems, and supporting activities to promote decision-makings on feedback, upgrading and modernization of NPPs. (author)

  16. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  17. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, K; Waters, E; Green, J; Salmon, L; Williams, J

    2005-03-01

    Preventative health strategies incorporating the views of target participants have improved the likelihood of success. This qualitative study aimed to elicit child and parent views regarding social and environmental barriers to healthy eating, physical activity and child obesity prevention programmes, acceptable foci, and appropriate modes of delivery. To obtain views across a range of social circumstances three demographically diverse primary schools in Victoria, Australia were selected. Children in Grades 2 (aged 7-8 years) and 5 (aged 10-11 years) participated in focus groups of three to six children. Groups were semi-structured using photo-based activities to initiate discussion. Focus groups with established parent groups were also conducted. Comments were recorded, collated, and themes extracted using grounded theory. 119 children and 17 parents participated. Nine themes emerged: information and awareness, contradiction between knowledge and behaviour, lifestyle balance, local environment, barriers to a healthy lifestyle, contradictory messages, myths, roles of the school and family, and timing and content of prevention strategies for childhood obesity. In conclusion, awareness of food 'healthiness' was high however perceptions of the 'healthiness' of some sedentary activities that are otherwise of benefit (e.g. reading) were uncertain. The contradictions in messages children receive were reported to be a barrier to a healthy lifestyle. Parent recommendations regarding the timing and content of childhood obesity prevention strategies were consistent with quantitative research. Contradictions in the explicit and implicit messages children receive around diet and physical activity need to be prevented. Consistent promotion of healthy food and activity choices across settings is core to population prevention programmes for childhood obesity.

  18. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  19. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  20. Introducing the yellow laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-02-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye protection for the young and inexperienced. It is important to note that 589 nm is the same wavelength as the Sodium-D line (doublet). This allows for the laser to serve as a replacement for sodium lamps, and, considering its rather high price, this added value should be balanced against its cost. What follows is a list of activities that showcase the yellow laser's unique promise as an engaging piece of technology that can be used in the teaching of physics.

  1. Creating the computer player: an engaging and collaborative approach to introduce computational thinking by combining ‘unplugged’ activities with visual programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gardeli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing research is being conducted on appropriate course design, practices and teacher interventions for improving the efficiency of computer science and programming courses in K-12 education. The trend is towards a more constructivist problem-based learning approach. Computational thinking, which refers to formulating and solving problems in a form that can be efficiently processed by a computer, raises an important educational challenge. Our research aims to explore possible ways of enriching computer science teaching with a focus on development of computational thinking. We have prepared and evaluated a learning intervention for introducing computer programming to children between 10 and 14 years old; this involves students working in groups to program the behavior of the computer player of a well-known game. The programming process is split into two parts. First, students design a high-level version of their algorithm during an ‘unplugged’ pen & paper phase, and then they encode their solution as an executable program in a visual programming environment. Encouraging evaluation results have been achieved regarding the educational and motivational value of the proposed approach.

  2. Enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes in water-ethanol mixtures: negatively charged groups artificially introduced into alpha-chymotrypsin provide additional activation and stabilization effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, E V; Gladilin, A K; Vakurov, A V; Heitz, F; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1997-07-20

    Formation of noncovalent complexes between alpha-chymotrypsin (CT) and a polyelectrolyte, polybrene (PB), has been shown to produce two major effects on enzymatic reactions in binary mixtures of polar organic cosolvents with water. (i) At moderate concentrations of organic cosolvents (10% to 30% v/v), enzymatic activity of CT is higher than in aqueous solutions, and this activation effect is more significant for CT in complex with PB (5- to 7-fold) than for free enzyme (1.5- to 2.5-fold). (ii) The range of cosolvent concentrations that the enzyme tolerates without complete loss of catalytic activity is much broader. For enhancement of enzyme stability in the complex with the polycation, the number of negatively charged groups in the protein has been artificially increased by using chemical modification with pyromellitic and succinic anhydrides. Additional activation effect at moderate concentrations of ethanol and enhanced resistance of the enzyme toward inactivation at high concentrations of the organic solvent have been observed for the modified preparations of CT in the complex with PB as compared with an analogous complex of the native enzyme. Structural changes behind alterations in enzyme activity in water-ethanol mixtures have been studied by the method of circular dichroism (CD). Protein conformation of all CT preparations has not changed significantly up to 30% v/v of ethanol where activation effects in enzymatic catalysis were most pronounced. At higher concentrations of ethanol, structural changes in the protein have been observed for different forms of CT that were well correlated with a decrease in enzymatic activity. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 267-277, 1997.

  3. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity injury prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210

  4. Leisure activities in the home for the elderly to prevent immobilization syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    MARKVARTOVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis with the topic: "Leisure time activities in the Home for seniors as prevention of the immobilization syndrome" is divided into two sections - theoretical and practical. In the theoretical section the terms relating to old age and types of leisure time activities offered by the Home for seniors are described. In the thesis conclusion I describe the immobilization syndrome also occurring in the elderly. Recently, there has been a large increase in senior population, and man...

  5. Introduced earthworm species exhibited unique patterns of seasonal activity and vertical distribution, and Lumbricus terrestris burrows remained usable for at least 7 years in hardwood and pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette R. Potvin; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2017-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain non-destructive information on the seasonal dynamics of earthworms in northern forest soils. To overcome this, we used a Rhizotron facility to compile 7 years of data on the activity of anecic (Lumbricus terrestris) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa complex) earthworms in two contrasting soil/plant...

  6. Bridging the gap between what is praised and what is practiced: Supporting the work of change as anatomy and physiology instructors introduce active learning into their undergraduate classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Patti Marie

    When college Anatomy & Physiology instructors begin using active learning in their classrooms, what do they experience? How do their beliefs about teaching and learning change? What obstacles do they encounter and how do they respond? How do their responses influence future decisions regarding the use of active learning? This study documented the experiences of seven instructors from diverse types of institutions as they began using active learning in their classrooms. Conceptual change and social cognitive motivation theory provided guidance for the 15-month project. A classroom-situated professional development framework that included goal setting, planning and doing active learning and formative assessment, and reflecting on experiences was used. Multiple data sources (verbatim transcripts from emergent and semi-structured interviews, observation notes, surveys, written correspondence, instructional materials, and student surveys) and research methods allowed rigorous exploration of the research questions. A number of important findings emerged from the study. Data indicated that instructors struggled with a lack of instructional, pedagogical and clinical content knowledge, student resistance, personal and professional risk-taking issues, and widely shifting attitudes toward active learning. Data also suggested a developmental progression in beliefs about teaching and learning as instructors implemented active learning, and the progression shared similarities with reports of preservice teacher development documented in the learning-to-teach literature. Initially, instructors' beliefs shifted from knowledge transmission and intuitive theories to constructivist theories; however there was marked variation in the intelligibility, status, and endurance of the new beliefs. Data also allowed identification of two distinct conceptual change experiences. Analysis of instructor beliefs within and between the change groups strongly suggested that causal attribution

  7. Measuring trauma center injury prevention activity: an assessment and reporting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Michael J; Sise, Carol Beth

    2006-02-01

    To develop an assessment and reporting tool for a trauma center's community partnership strategy to deliver injury prevention programs in a large metropolitan area. The tool was designed to track prevention activity and serve as a reporting format for the parent health system, county designating agency, and the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center Verification Process. The tool collected data including trauma center paid and volunteer personnel time, equipment, resource, and financial costs, community group and public agency contributions, number of community members receiving prevention material or presentations, impact on public policy, and print and broadcast media coverage. These measurements were incorporated in a reporting grid format. Six youth injury prevention programs were evaluated over a recent 2-year interval to demonstrate the tool's usefulness. Of six programs, three focused on motor vehicle injuries, one on teen suicide, one on firearm injuries, and one on drug and alcohol abuse. Trauma Center personnel asset allocation included 3% full-time equivalent by the Trauma Medical Director, 30% by the Injury Prevention and Community Outreach Coordinator, and 473 person hours (both work and volunteer) by physicians, nurses, and other personnel. Trauma Center equipment and fixed asset expenses totaled $3,950 and monetary contribution totaled $4,430. Community groups and public agencies contributed 20,400 person hours with estimated in-kind costs exceeding $750,000. Five of the six programs continued during the 2-year period. A gun-lock giveaway program was suspended because of a product recall. A total of over 29,000 youth received prevention material and presentations. Four public policy initiatives and 18 Trauma Center media stories with over 50 mentions and 37 new community partnerships resulted. The reports generated were easily incorporated in the trauma center's reports to local and national organizations and agencies. This assessment tool

  8. Role of Religion in Preventing Youth Sexual Activity in Malaysia: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani

    2017-12-01

    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.

  9. No consensus on restrictions on physical activity to prevent incisional hernias after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H-C; Burcharth, J; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard

    2014-01-01

    of restrictions on physical activity recommended for patients operated for colorectal cancer and to evaluate the agreement among surgical specialists. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 60 general surgeons (specialists) in Denmark and Sweden working in academic departments of surgery with a high volume......PURPOSE: In the postoperative phase after colorectal surgery, restrictions on physical activity are often recommended for patients to prevent incisional hernias. However, evidence does not support that restrictions may prevent such hernias. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent...... of colorectal cancer resections. The questionnaire was case based and contained questions regarding possible restrictions on physical activity recommended for patients 0-2, 2-6 and >6 weeks after resection for colorectal cancer. Agreement among the surgeon on whether restrictions should be recommended...

  10. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Rachel K; Scarneo, Samantha E; Adams, William M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Belval, Luke N; Stamm, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts. The current evidence indicates that most deaths can be avoided when proper strategies are in place to prevent occurrence or provide optimal care.

  11. Physical activity in children: prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine; Simmons, David

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that increased physical activity is beneficial for blood glucose homeostasis and the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This chapter takes a life course approach with an emphasis on the intrauterine and childhood stages of life. Firstly, growth and development at critical periods with a focus on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue; then, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered in relation to physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The importance of the development of fundamental movement skills in early childhood for both physical fitness and also growth and development is emphasised. Physical activity guidelines in westernised countries are examined for commonalities. Finally, the effective translation of the evidence base for the benefits of physical activity into randomised controlled trials and then into real-world public health services that are sustainable is addressed with a case study from New Zealand of Project Energize--a through-school physical activity and nutrition intervention. Physical activity, alongside a 'healthy diet' is arguably the best preventive measure and treatment for both obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is an essential and normal activity of daily life, and all aspects of the life course and the environment should support physical activity.

  12. Physical activity and cancer prevention: awareness and meeting the recommendations among adult Saudis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al-Hammam, Abudllah Mohammed; AlMulhim, Nasser Abdullah; Al-Hayan, Mohammed Ibrahim; Al-Mulhim, Mona Mohammed; Al-Mosabeh, Modhahir Jawad; Al-Subaie, Mohammed Ali; Al-Hmmad, Qassem Ahmed; Al-Omran, Ahmed Adi

    2014-01-01

    There is a scarcity of information about the proportion of the adult Saudi population that meet the recommended guidelines of physical activity (PA) to reduce cancer risk. Moreover, their awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention is unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating the proportion of adult Saudis meeting the PA guidelines, specifically those recommended by American Cancer Society (ACS) for cancer prevention, and to assess the public awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention. Using a multistage sampling method, 2,127 adult Saudis of both genders were recruited from 6 urban and 4 rural primary health care centers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information about their sociodemographic characteristics, searching activity about PA and cancer, and the time spent in leisure time PA (moderate and vigorous)/week using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire with show cards. Finally, items about the role of PA in cancer risk reduction were inquired. Of the included participants, 11.6% met the recommendations for cancer prevention (≥ 45 minutes of moderate-vigorous PA activity/≥ 5 days/week or 225 minutes/week). Multivariate regression showed that being male (AOR=1.49, CI=1.09-2.06), cancer prevention. Only 11.4% of the sample indicated correctly the frequency and duration of PA required for an average adult to be physically active and while >70% of them indicated the role of PA in prevention of hypertension, coronary heart disease and lowering elevated blood cholesterol, only 18.6% and 21.7% correctly mentioned the role of PA in reducing colon and breast cancer risk, respectively. Poor knowledge was found among those with less than college education and aged ≥ 50 years. The level of knowledge was significantly positively correlated with total leisure time PA of the participants. A minority of adult Saudis in Al Hassa was aware about the role of PA in cancer prevention and

  13. Activities of tabanids (Diptera, Tabanidae attacking domestic duck-Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduced in a forest area in the Central Amazon, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. M. Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented here are the feeding habits, attack behavior, daily and annual activity of adult of Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedeman, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 and Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787, while biting a domestic duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. The last two species were recorded for the first time attacking birds. This study comprehended monthly observations of two consecutive days from April/97 to March/98 between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. at the Army Instructional Base ((BI-2/CIGS near Manaus. Annual occurrence of P. cinereus was from July to September, with a daily occurrence between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. and highest activity at 12:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. C. laetus ocurred from June to October; with a daily occurrence between 8:00 a.m. and 3 p.m. and highest activity at 11:00 and 12:00 a.m. Occurrence of P. cajennensis with one specimen only, was in July between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m.Atividades de tabanídeos (Diptera, Tabanidae atacando pato doméstico Cairina moschata Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduzido em área de floresta na Amazônia Central, Manaus, Brasil. São apresentados o hábito alimentar, comportamento de ataque, atividade diária e anual de adultos de Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 e Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787 atacando pato doméstico - Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. As últimas duas últimas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez atacando aves. O estudo compreendeu observações mensais durante dois dias consecutivos de Abril/97 a Março/98, entre 5:30 e 18:30 h, na base de instrução 2 do Centro de Instrução de Guerra na Selva (BI-2/CIGS, Manaus. A ocorrência anual de P. cinereus, foi de julho a setembro, com atividade diária entre 9:00 e 17:00 horas, com maior abundância entre 12:00 e 14:00 horas. C. laetus, ocorreu de junho a outubro, com atividade diária entre 8:00 e 15:00 horas, e maior abundância entre 11:00 e 12

  14. INTRODUCING TRANSLATION-BASED ACTIVITIES IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: A STEP TOWARDS THE IMPROVEMENT OF LEARNERS’ ACCURATE USE OF WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS IN WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Delor Mbeudeu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL in the world in general and in Cameroon in particular has witnessed, over the last three decades, heated debates on which methodologies to adopt in the classroom and which learning strategies to apply for effective teaching and learning so that learners do not only acquire a linguistic competence but also communicative and sociolinguistic competences. This study aims at bringing to the limelight the so-criticised Grammar Translation Method in teaching/learning EFL in Cameroon. More specifically, this work investigates the perception of Anglophone and Francophone teachers of EFL on how the introduction of translation-based activities could be a step towards achieving accuracy in learners’ written productions. For data collection, a sample of certified secondary and high school EFL teachers were interviewed on the introduction of translation-based activities in their classroom practices. These teachers are unanimous that translation strategies must be adopted in the classroom for many reasons. This could foster students’ accuracy in writing; thus helping the achievement of another skill in learners namely, translation. But they all agree that the use of translation should be highly monitored by the classroom teacher; it should be mostly used at beginners’ level and gradually discarded as the learners progress to the end of the secondary school. From this, it is high time specialists in language planning and teaching policies rethought how the teaching of English should be done in Cameroon and this will go a long way to improve on educational success and effective official bilingualism.

  15. Targeting Aberrant p70S6K Activation for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yao, Jun; Wang, Jinyang; Zhang, Qingling; Brady, Samuel W; Arun, Banu; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Yu, Dihua

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer remains a major challenge in the cancer prevention field, although antiestrogen and aromatase inhibitors have shown adequate efficacy in preventing estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) breast cancer. Lack of commonly expressed, druggable targets is a major obstacle for meeting this challenge. Previously, we detected the activation of Akt signaling pathway in atypical hyperplasic early-stage lesions of patients. In the current study, we found that Akt and the downstream 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway was highly activated in ER - premalignant breast lesions and ER - breast cancer. In addition, p70S6K activation induced transformation of ER - human mammary epithelial cells (hMEC). Therefore, we explored the potential of targeting Akt/p70S6K in the p70S6K activated, ER - hMEC models and mouse mammary tumor models for the prevention of ER - breast cancer. We found that a clinically applicable Akt/p70S6K dual inhibitor, LY2780301, drastically decreased proliferation of hMECs with ErbB2-induced p70S6K activation via Cyclin B1 inhibition and cell-cycle blockade at G 0 -G 1 phase, while it did not significantly reverse the abnormal acinar morphology of these hMECs. In addition, a brief treatment of LY2780301 in MMTV- neu mice that developed atypical hyperplasia (ADH) and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) lesions with activated p70S6K was sufficient to suppress S6 phosphorylation and decrease cell proliferation in hyperplasic MECs. In summary, targeting the aberrant Akt/p70S6K activation in ER - hMEC models in vitro and in the MMTV- neu transgenic mouse model in vivo effectively inhibited Akt/S6K signaling and reduced proliferation of hMECs in vitro and ADH/MIN lesions in vivo , indicating its potential in prevention of p70S6K activated ER - breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 10(11); 641-50. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Hatha Yoga as a Form of Physical Activity in the Context of Lifestyle Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabara Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is interrelated with health, physical fitness, and quality of life. The role physical activity plays in the context of lifestyle disease prevention is indisputable. Physical exercises of yoga (hatha yoga are a type of recreational physical activity classified as a form of body and mind fitness. Hatha yoga training consists of slow or fast and smooth entering into, holding, and exiting yoga postures called “asanas”. Besides asanas, a yoga class may also include breathing exercises (pranayama and relaxation exercises. The aim of this paper is to analyse the benefits of regular hatha yoga training in the light of scientific studies in regard to primary and secondary prevention of lifestyle diseases (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory system diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and diseases of the musculoskeletal system in particular. The results of the analysis revealed that regular hatha yoga training including pranayama (breathing exercises produced a reduction in blood pressure and heart rate, improved respiratory functions, decreased blood glucose levels and body mass, as well as improving functional fitness and self-perceived quality of life. Therefore, hatha yoga as a form of physical activity can be a useful intervention for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory system diseases, metabolic diseases, and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, including back pain.

  17. How active resisters and organizational constipators affect health care-acquired infection prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Sanjay; Kowalski, Christine P; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Forman, Jane; Damschroder, Laura; Krein, Sarah L

    2009-05-01

    As of October 2008, hospitals in the United States no longer receive Medicare reimbursement for certain types of health care-associated infection (HAI), thereby heightening the need for effective prevention efforts. The mere existence of evidence-based practices, however, does not always result in the use of such practices because of the complexities inherent in translating evidence into practice. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the barriers to implementing evidence-based practices to prevent HAI, with a specific focus on the role played by hospital personnel. In-depth phone and in-person interviews were conducted between October 2006 and September 2007 with 86 participants (31 physicians) including chief executive officers, chiefs of staff, hospital epidemiologists, infection control professionals, intensive care unit directors, nurse managers, and frontline physicians and nurses, in 14 hospitals. Active resistance to evidence-based practice change was pervasive. Successful efforts to overcome active resisters included benchmarking infection rates, identifying effective champions, and participating in collaborative efforts. Organizational constipators-mid- to high-level executives who act as insidious barriers to change-also increased the difficulty in implementing change. Recognizing the presence of constipators is often the first step in addressing the problem but can be followed with including the organizational constipator early in group discussions to improve communication and obtain buy-in, working around the individual, and terminating the constipator's employment. Two types of personnel-active resistors and organizational constipators-impeded HAI prevention activities, and several approaches were used to overcome those barriers. Hospital administrators and patient safety leaders can use the findings to more successfully structure activities that prevent HAI in their hospitals.

  18. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-06-05

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  19. Moderate daily exercise activates metabolic flexibility to prevent prenatally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer L; Huber, Korinna; Thompson, Nichola M; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of major worldwide concern. It is now recognized that there are a number of metabolically distinct pathways of obesity development. The present paper investigates the effect of moderate daily exercise on the underlying mechanisms of one such pathway to obesity, through interrogation of metabolic flexibility. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished throughout pregnancy, generating control or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring, respectively. At 250 d of age, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans and plasma analyses showed that moderate daily exercise, in the form of a measured amount of wheel running (56 m/d), prevented the development of obesity consistently observed in nonexercised IUGR offspring. Increased plasma C-peptide and hepatic atypical protein kinase Czeta levels explained increased glucose uptake and increased hepatic glycogen storage in IUGR offspring. Importantly, whereas circulating levels of retinol binding protein 4 were elevated in obese, nonexercised IUGR offspring, indicative of glucose sparing without exercise, retinol binding protein 4 levels were normalized in the exercised IUGR group. These data suggest that IUGR offspring have increased flexibility of energy storage and use and that moderate daily exercise prevents obesity development through activation of distinct pathways of energy use. Thus, despite a predisposition to develop obesity under sedentary conditions, obesity development was prevented in IUGR offspring when exercise was available. These results emphasize the importance of tailored lifestyle changes that activate distinct pathways of metabolic flexibility for obesity prevention.

  20. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan

    2013-05-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan; Lin, Chichuan; George, Roger R.; Melo, Fernando A.; Biggs, Eleanor R.; Ahmed, Zamal; Drake, Melanie N.; Arur, Swathi; Arold, Stefan T.; Ladbury, John E S D

    2013-01-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prescribing Physical Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan B. McMillan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is an age-related disease, characterised by low bone mineral density (BMD and compromised bone geometry and microarchitecture, leading to reduced bone strength. Physical activity (PA has potential as a therapy for osteoporosis, yet different modalities of PA have varying influences on bone health. This review explores current evidence for the benefits of PA, and targeted exercise regimes for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in older adults. In particular, the outcomes of interventions involving resistance training, low- and high-impact weight bearing activities, and whole-body vibration therapy are discussed. Finally, we present recommendations for future research that may maximise the potential of exercise in primary and secondary prevention of osteoporosis in the ageing population.

  3. Promoting physical activity among youth through community-based prevention marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-05-01

    Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.

  4. Physical Leisure Activities and their Role in Preventing Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Cindy; Konno, Rie

    Identifying protective factors or effective prevention strategies for dementia would result in considerable benefits by prolonging quality of life and reducing social burden. Current data suggests that participation in physical leisure activities may lower the risk of dementia by improving cognitive reserves. The objective of this review was to determine the best available evidence in relation to physical leisure activities in preventing dementia among older adults. Types of studies Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and other experimental designs were considered for inclusion into the review. In the absence of clinical trials, other study designs such as cohort, case controlled and cross-sectional were considered. Only articles published in the English language were included with no publication date restriction.Types of participants Participants of interest were adults aged 60 and older with or without a clinical diagnosis of dementia, living in the community or residential care setting.Types of intervention This review considered studies that evaluated the effectiveness of any physical leisure activity in the prevention of dementia. Physical activities included gardening, playing sports, exercises, sightseeing and any other activities that required active movement of the body.Types of outcome measures The review considered studies that indicated the presence or absence of dementia as determined by cognitive function tests, mental examination scores, DSM classification (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), and other valid dementia diagnostic tools. A search for published and unpublished literature in the English language was conducted using all major electronic databases. There was no publication date restriction. A three-step search strategy was developed using MeSH terminology and keywords to ensure that all material relevant to the review was captured. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed by two reviewers, who

  5. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities under NAHASDA? 1000.40 Section 1000.40 Housing... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...

  6. Respiratory Tract Infections and the Role of Biologically Active Polysaccharides in Their Management and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesenak, Milos; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Banovcin, Peter

    2017-07-20

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e.g., primary immunodeficiency syndromes, cystic fibrosis, and ciliary dyskinesia) and at supporting maturity of the mucosal immune system. However, RRTIs can also be observed in adults (e.g., during exhausting and stressful periods, chronic inflammatory diseases, secondary immunodeficiencies, or in elite athletes) and require greater attention. Biologically active polysaccharides (e.g., β-glucans) are one of the most studied natural immunomodulators with a pluripotent mode of action and biological activity. According to many studies, they possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious activities and therefore could be suggested as an effective part of treating and preventing RTIs. Based on published studies, the application of β-glucans was proven as a possible therapeutic and preventive approach in managing and preventing recurrent respiratory tract infections in children (especially β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus ), adults (mostly the studies with yeast-derived β-glucans), and in elite athletes (studies with β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus or yeast).

  7. Managing preventive occupational health and safety activities in Danish enterprises during a period of financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.; Bach, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    The onset of the financial crisis in 2008 has put pressure on enterprises that in turn have downsized and reorganized. Research has shown that economic recession has an effect on psychological and behavioral health that is attributed to working environment problems. The objective of this study is...... focus on the management of preventive workplace health and safety activities in enterprises during a period of economic recession....... is to unravel whether the onset of a general economic recession has had an impact on companies’ and public institutions’ preventive occupational health and safety activities. Hypotheses of the role of pro-cyclical and countercyclical effects are presented. This study is based on a survey of enterprise...... preventive occupational health safety activities. The baseline for the survey was established, in 2006 before the onset of the recession, with a follow up in 2011. Findings are discussed that support both the pro-cyclical and the countercyclical hypotheses. It is concluded that there is a need for a special...

  8. LCA of waste prevention activities: a case study for drinking water in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2012-10-15

    The strategic relevance of waste prevention has considerably increased worldwide during recent years, such that the current European legislation requires the preparation of national waste prevention programmes in which reduction objectives and measures are identified. In such a context, it is possible to recognise how, in order to correctly evaluate the environmental consequences of a prevention activity, a life cycle perspective should be employed. This allows us to go beyond the simple reduction of the generated waste which, alone, does not automatically imply achieving better overall environmental performance, especially when this reduction is not pursued through the simple reduction of consumption. In this study, the energetic and environmental performance of two waste prevention activities considered particularly meaningful for the Italian context were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The two activities were the utilisation of public network water (two scenarios) and of refillable bottled water (two scenarios) for drinking purposes, instead of one-way bottled water (three scenarios). The energy demand and specific potential impacts of the four waste prevention scenarios and of the three baseline scenarios were compared with the aim of evaluating whether, and under what conditions, the analysed prevention activities are actually associated with overall energetic and environmental benefits. In typical conditions, the use of public network water directly from the tap results in the best scenario, while if water is withdrawn from public fountains, its further transportation by private car can involve significant impacts. The use of refillable PET bottled water seems the preferable scenario for packaged water consumption, if refillable bottles are transported to local distributors along the same (or a lower) distance as one-way bottles to retailers. The use of refillable glass bottled water is preferable to one-way bottled water only if a

  9. Initial insight into why physical activity may help prevent adolescent smoking uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Sass, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Whereas research supports the importance of regular physical activity to decrease the likelihood of smoking uptake, the mechanisms accounting for this relationship are poorly understood. We sought to determine whether the enjoyment or reward derived from physical activity is one mechanism underlying the relationship between smoking and physical activity. The sample was composed of 1374 adolescents participating in a prospective longitudinal survey study of health behaviors. Variables were measured via self-report every six months for eight waves of data spanning four years. An associative processes latent growth curve model revealed a significant and negative indirect effect of baseline physical activity on baseline smoking through baseline physical activity reward (b(indirect)=-.18, z=-3.11, p=.002; 95% CI=-.29, -.07). Similarly, there was a significant and negative indirect effect of physical activity trend on smoking trend through physical activity reward trend (b(indirect)=-.16, z=-2.09, p=.04; 95% CI=-.30, -.01). The effect of physical activity on smoking at baseline and across time was completely mediated by physical activity reward. There was less support for the idea that smoking progression was associated with reduced physical activity reward and subsequent declines in physical activity. This study provides the first evidence implicating physical activity reward as one mechanism by which physical activity reduces the likelihood of adolescent smoking uptake. Smoking prevention interventions that promote physical activity and target physical activity enjoyment may have an important impact on adolescent smoking initiation and progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohde Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1 the fall risk assessment tool, 2 an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3 specific environmental safety interventions, 4 staff education, and 5 multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331 in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325 in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p = 0.039. In the first 6 months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368, increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828. The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

  11. Achievement of public health recommendations for physical activity and prevention of gains in adiposity in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is considered a cornerstone in weight control and public health guidelines recommend regular participation to prevent gains in adiposity. It may therefore come as a surprise that the cumulative evidence from observational studies to support this is not strong. A weakness...... of many published observational studies on this topic has been a reliance on a single baseline assessment of PA. Using only the baseline information on PA in a prospective study cause misclassification because of participants often change activity level during follow-up. In turn this causes regression...

  12. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrouf Amina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  13. Cognitive leisure activities and their role in preventing dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Cindy; Munn, Zachary

    2010-03-01

    Dementia inflicts a tremendous burden on the healthcare system. Identifying protective factors or effective prevention strategies may lead to considerable benefits. One possible strategy mentioned in the literature relates to participation in cognitive leisure activities. To determine the effectiveness of cognitive leisure activities in preventing Alzheimer's and other dementias among older adults. Types of participants. Adults aged at least 60 years of age with or without a clinical diagnosis of dementia that resided in the community or care setting. Types of interventions. Cognitive leisure activities, defined as activities that required a mental response from the individual taking part in the activity (e.g. reading). Types of outcomes. The presence or absence of dementia was the outcome of interest. Types of studies. Any randomised controlled trials, other experimental studies, as well as cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were considered for inclusion. Search strategy. A search for published and unpublished studies in the English language was undertaken with no publication date restriction. Each study was appraised independently by two reviewers using the standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Information was extracted from studies meeting quality criteria using the standard Joanna Briggs Institute tools. Because of the heterogeneity of populations and interventions, meta-analyses were not possible and results are presented in narrative form. There were no randomised controlled trials located that met inclusion criteria. Thirteen observational studies were included in the review; the majority were cohort design. Because of the heterogeneity of interventions, the study design, the way in which they were grouped and the different stages of life they were measured at, statistical pooling was not appropriate. Studies were grouped by stage of adult life participation when interventions were undertaken, that is, early adulthood, middle adulthood

  14. Promoting a Shared Representation of Workers' Activities to Improve Integrated Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Roquelaure

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective and sustainable prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs remains a challenge for preventers and policy makers. Coordination of stakeholders involved in the prevention of WR-MSDs is a key factor that requires greater reflection on common knowledge and shared representation of workers' activities among stakeholders. Information on workers' strategies and operational leeway should be the core of common representations, because it places workers at the center of the “work situation system” considered by the intervention models. Participatory ergonomics permitting debates among stakeholders about workers' activity and strategies to cope with the work constraints in practice could help them to share representations of the “work situation system” and cooperate. Sharing representation therefore represents a useful tool for prevention, and preventers should provide sufficient space and time for dialogue and discussion of workers' activities among stakeholders during the conception, implementation, and management of integrated prevention programs.

  15. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  16. Peer outreach work as economic activity: implications for HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie George

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.

  17. Enhancing the role of private practitioners in tuberculosis prevention and care activities in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanu Anand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available India accounts for the highest number of incident tuberculosis (TB cases globally. Hence, to impact the TB incidence world over, there is an urgent need to address and accelerate TB control activities in the country. Nearly, half of the TB patients first seek TB care in private sector. However, the participation of private practitioners (PPs has been patchy in TB prevention and care and distrust exists between public and private sector. PPs usually have varied diagnostic and treatment practices that are inadequate and amplify the risk of drug resistance. Hence, their regulation and involvement as key stakeholders are important in TB prevention and care in India if we are to achieve TB control at global level. However, there remain certain barriers and gaps, which are preventing their upscaling. The current paper aims to discuss the status of private sector involvement in TB prevention and care in India. The paper also discusses the strategies and initiatives taken by the government in this regard as evidence shows that the involvement of private sector in co-opting directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS helps to enhance case finding and treatment outcomes; it improves the accessibility of quality TB care with greater geographic coverage. Besides public-private mix, DOTS has been found more cost-effective and reduces financial burden of patients. The paper also offers to present some more solutions both at policy and program level for upscaling the engagement of PPs in the national TB control program.

  18. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; shabrmi, Fahad M Al; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment based on synthetic drugs is expensive and also causes genetic and metabolic alterations. However, safe and sound mode of treatment is needed to control the diseases development and progression. In this regards, medicinal plant and its constituents play an important role in diseases management via modulation of biological activities. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, has shown therapeutic role in the health management since ancient time and considered as potential chemopreventive agent. Numerous studies based on clinical trials and animal model has shown that ginger and its constituents shows significant role in the prevention of diseases via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. In this review, we focused on the therapeutics effects of ginger and its constituents in the diseases management, and its impact on genetic and metabolic activities. PMID:25057339

  19. Rail-suicide prevention: Systematic literature review of evidence-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Emma; Kolves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-09-01

    Rail-related suicide is a relatively rare but extremely lethal method of suicide that can have far-reaching consequences. The aim of the systematic literature review was to analyze the existing literature on the effectiveness of rail-suicide prevention activities. Databases used were Scopus, Medline, and ProQuest. The search terms used were "suicid*," "prevent*," "rail*," or "train." English-language studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1 January 1990 and 30 April 2015 that presented an overview of rail-related suicide prevention activities and included an analysis of effectiveness were used. We retrieved 1,229 results in the original search with nine papers presenting empirical evidence. Three studies in the review analyzed the effectiveness of platform screen doors and another three analyzed the installation of blue lights, two papers analyzed the effectiveness of suicide pits, and one included the influence of media reporting guidelines. Platform screen doors, suicide pits, blue lights, and improved media guidelines all have the potential to reduce rail-related suicide events and deaths. The review was restricted to English-language peer-reviewed papers published within the chosen time period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Anthocyanin prevents CD40-activated proinflammatory signaling in endothelial cells by regulating cholesterol distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Min; Ling, Wenhua; Zhu, Huilian; Wang, Qing; Ma, Jing; Hou, Mengjun; Tang, Zhihong; Li, Lan; Ye, Qinyuan

    2007-03-01

    Intracellular tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) translocation to lipid rafts is a key element in CD40-induced signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of anthocyanin on CD40-mediated proinflammatory events in human endothelial cells and the underlying possible molecular mechanism. Treatment of endothelial cells with anthocyanin prevented from CD40-induced proinflammatory status, measured by production of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 through inhibiting CD40-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. TRAF-2 played pivotal role in CD40-NF-kappaB pathway as TRAF-2 small interference RNA (siRNA) diminished CD40-induced NF-kappaB activation and inflammation. TRAF-2 overexpression increased CD40-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, TRAF-2 almost totally recruited to lipid rafts after stimulation by CD40 ligand and depletion of cholesterol diminished CD40-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Exposure to anthocyanin not only interrupted TRAF-2 recruitment to lipid rafts but also decreased cholesterol content in Triton X-100 insoluble lipid rafts. However, anthocyanin did not influence the interaction between CD40 ligand and CD40 receptor. Our findings suggest that anthocyanin protects from CD40-induced proinflammatory signaling by preventing TRAF-2 translocation to lipid rafts through regulation of cholesterol distribution, which thereby may represent a mechanism that would explain the anti-inflammatory response of anthocyanin.

  1. Psychosocial Predictors of Physical Activity Change Among College Students in an Obesity Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is critical for maintaining a healthy weight, although little is known about psychological barriers to maintaining MVPA in at-risk groups. Identifying characteristics associated with poor MVPA maintenance in obesity prevention programs could improve participant outcomes. Toward this end, we examined predictors of MVPA in an obesity prevention trial for college students at risk for weight gain (n = 333; 72% female, mean BMI = 23.4 kg/m 2 ). Participants engaged in 1 of 3 weight control interventions and in 4 assessments over 12-month follow-up (ie, measured height/weight, self-reports of psychosocial characteristics, 4 days of accelerometer wear). Multilevel modeling analyses showed that across conditions, participants decreased total MVPA minutes per week over 12 months (B = -5.48, P students who show elevated impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance may improve both MVPA and weight control outcomes for these individuals.

  2. Alberta's Tomorrow Project: adherence to cancer prevention recommendations pertaining to diet, physical activity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Heather K; Xu, Jian-Yi; Vaseghi, Sanaz; Lo Siou, Geraldine; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Robson, Paula J

    2017-05-01

    To explore cross-sectional adherence to cancer prevention recommendations by adults enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Questionnaire data were used to construct a composite cancer prevention adherence score for each participant, based on selected personal recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Data were self-reported on health and lifestyle, past-year physical activity and past-year FFQ. The scores accounted for physical activity, dietary supplement use, body size, and intakes of alcohol, fruit, vegetables and red meat. Tobacco exposure was also included. Scores ranged from 0 (least adherent) to 7 (most adherent). Alberta's Tomorrow Project; a research platform based on a prospective cohort. Adult men and women (n 24 988) aged 35-69 years recruited by random digit dialling and enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project between 2001 and 2009. Of the cohort, 14 % achieved adherence scores ≥5 and 60 % had scores ≤3. Overall adherence scores were higher in women (mean (sd): 3·4 (1·1)) than in men (3·0 (1·2)). The extent of overall adherence was also associated with level of education, employment status, annual household income, personal history of chronic disease, family history of chronic disease and age. Reported adherence to selected personal recommendations for cancer prevention was low in this cohort of adults. In the short to medium term, these results suggest that more work is required to identify behaviours to target with cancer prevention strategies at a population level. Future work will explore the associations between adherence scores and cancer risk in this cohort.

  3. A new structural class of proteasome inhibitors that prevent NF-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, R T; Kerwar, S S; Meyer, S M; Nelson, M G; Schow, S R; Shiffman, D; Wick, M M; Joly, A

    1998-05-01

    The multicatalytic proteinase or proteasome is a highly conserved cellular structure that is responsible for the ATP-dependent proteolysis of many proteins involved in important regulatory cellular processes. We have identified a novel class of inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity of the 20S proteasome that exhibit IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 microgram/mL (0.1 to 1 microM). In cell proliferation assays, these compounds inhibit growth with an IC50 ranging from 5 to 10 micrograms/mL (10-20 microM). A representative member of this class of inhibitors was tested in other biological assays. CVT-634 (5-methoxy-1-indanone-3-acetyl-leu-D-leu-1-indanylamide) prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and phorbol ester-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) in vitro by preventing signal-induced degradation of I kappa B-alpha. In these studies, the I kappa B-alpha that accumulated was hyperphosphorylated, indicating that CVT-634 did not inhibit I kappa B-alpha kinase, the enzyme responsible for signal-induced phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha. In vivo studies indicated that CVT-634 prevented LPS-induced TNF synthesis in a murine macrophage cell line. In addition, in mice pretreated with CVT-634 at 25 and 50 mg/kg and subsequently treated with LPS, serum TNF levels were significantly lower (225 +/- 59 and 83 +/- 41 pg/mL, respectively) than in those mice that were treated only with LPS (865 +/- 282 pg/mL). These studies suggest that specific inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome is sufficient to prevent signal-induced NF-kappa B activation and that the proteasome is a novel target for the identification of agents that may be useful in the treatment of diseases whose etiology is dependent upon the activation of NF-kappa B.

  4. Calcium channel blocker prevents stress-induced activation of renin and aldosterone in conscious pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceremuzynski, L.K.; Klos, J.; Barcikowski, B.; Herbaczynska-Cedro, K.

    1991-01-01

    A considerable amount of data suggest the involvement of calcium-mediated processes in the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) cascade. To investigate the effect of calcium-channel inhibition on the RAA system, the authors studied 21 conscious pigs. Blood renin and aldosterone levels increased by subjecting animals to 24 hours of immobilization stress. Renin and aldosterone levels were repeatedly measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples taken periodically over 24 hours from a chronically implanted arterial cannula. Pretreatment of the animals (N = 11) with nisoldipine, 2 x 20 mg p.o. daily for 2 days before and on the day of immobilization, transiently attenuated the stress-induced increase of plasma renin activity and completely prevented the rise of aldosterone, as compared to nontreated controls (N = 10). The finding that nisoldipine suppresses RAA activation induced by a nonpharmacologic stimulus in the conscious intact animal may have clinical implications

  5. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although angiotensin II (Ang II was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2, the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2.

  6. ACTIVITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION AIMED AT PREVENTING WORK ACCIDENTS WITH NEEDLESTICK MATERIALS: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health services are composed of complex work environments. For this reason, they present several risks to the health of workers and also of people being treated at these places. Among these risks, one that is peculiar to health services is the risk of occupational accidents with biological material involving sharps. Objective: This study aimed to describe a health education activity conducted in a Health Center of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: This is an experience report that discusses the final paper of the discipline “Administration Applied to Nursing and Internship”, offered by the Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia. A lecture was prepared, aimed at health workers and support staff, on general aspects of occupational accidents involving sharps, as well as preventive aspects. Results: In each clinical room of the Health Center were fixed two posters: the first discussing the proper disposal of sharps and the second, in turn, was a message of reflection. 31 professionals attended the lecture as listeners. Conclusion: We understand the validity of the lecture delivered, based on scientific studies that highlight the need and shortage of health education activities that address the prevention of occupational accidents involving sharps among Health Professionals. Additionally, it is important mentioning that such activity demand was estimated by the workers of the Health Center in study.

  7. Nutrition and physical activity for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Ingvar; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with adverse outcomes such as physical disability, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of sarcopenia. Potentially modifiable factors include nutrition and physical activity. Protein metabolism is central to the nutritional issues, along with other potentially modifying nutritional factors as energy balance and vitamin D status. An increasing but still incomplete knowledge base has generated recent recommendations on an increased protein intake in the elderly. Several factors beyond the total amount of protein consumed emerge as potentially important in this context. A recent summit examined three hypotheses: (1) A meal threshold; habitually consuming 25-30 g protein at breakfast, lunch and dinner provides sufficient protein to effectively stimulate muscle protein anabolism; (2) Protein quality; including high-quality protein at each meal improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis; and (3) performing physical activity in close temporal proximity to a high-quality protein meal enhances muscle anabolism. Optimising the potential for muscle protein anabolism by consuming an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal, in combination with physical activity, appears as a promising strategy to prevent or delay the onset of sarcopenia. However, results of interventions are inconsistent, and well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before guidelines can be developed for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

  8. A reading of the crisis of prevention activities: current paradoxes and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia Vilela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The activity of occupational health and safety professionals is in a paradoxical situation considering, among other aspects, the productivity context, which gives low priority to safety and health, the limitation imposed by the hegemonic conceptual references in the field, the limitation of these professionals’ power to act and the highly conflicting and complex character of the occupational world. Objective: In essay form, the article, in dialog with the literature of the field, proposes to reflect on the impasses and challenges of the prevention field. Method: The reflections are based on the experience of the authors both in the practical area as also in research, teaching and extension activities in the field of health surveillance and workers’ safety. Results: Even though this field of activity has been recognized as a specialized and legal area for more than 40 years in the country, the magnitude of the data concerning occupational and industrial accidents reveals the limitations and difficulties that these professionals face, and justifies the importance of the analysis of current practices in order to understand the contradictions that lie at the root of the difficulties to achieve prevention. Conclusion: Citizens could pressure corporations to improve their safety practices and concepts. State can also be pressured to create new safety policies.

  9. Introducing Science to undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Avila Jr

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of scientific method provides stimulus and development of critical thinking and logical analysis of information besides the training of continuous formulation of hypothesis to be applied in formal scientific issues as well as in everyday facts. The scientific education, useful for all people, is indispensable for the experimental science students. Aiming at the possibility to offer a systematic learning of the scientific principles, we developed a undergraduate course designed to approximate the students to the procedures of scientific production and publication. The course was developed in a 40 hours, containing two modules: I. Introducing Scientific Articles (papers and II. Writing Research Project. The first module deals with: (1 the difference between scientific knowledge and common sense; (2 scientific methodology; (3 scientific publishing categories; (4 logical principles; (5 deduction and induction approach and (6 paper analysis. The second module includes (1 selection of problem to be solved by experimental procedures; (2 bibliography revision; (3 support agencies; (4 project writing and presentation and (5 critical analysis of experimental results. The course used a Collaborative Learning strategy with each topic being developed through activities performed by the students. Qualitative and quantitative (through Likert questionnaires evaluation were carried out in each step of the course, the results showing great appreciation by the students. This is also the opinion of the staff responsible for the planning and development of the course, which is now in its second and improved version.

  10. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced fish in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP...

  11. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat, and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of "becoming obese" based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother's education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Among males, 74.7% had a "normal" body fat pattern, 14.6% had a "becoming obese" pattern, and 10.7% had a "consistently obese" pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 min MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI = 1.16, 6.58). An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Educational understanding of pollution prevention in decontamination and decommissioning/environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsch, M.D.; Lewis, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    Demolishing outdated structures from the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington, generates large quantities of waste which can be minimized. The Hanford cleanup is one of the world's largest and most complex environmental restoration efforts. Approximately 280 square miles of ground water and soil are contaminated; there are more than 80 surplus facilities, including nine shut-down nuclear reactors in various stages of decay; and there are 177 underground waste storage tanks containing highly radioactive waste. In all, 1,500 cleanup sites have been identified and the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is currently responsible for surveillance and maintenance of 170 structures. A two hour orientation training in pollution prevention was developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide all Decontamination and Decommissioning/Environmental Restoration (D ampersand D/ER) personnel with the knowledge to apply waste minimization principles during their cleanup activities. The ERC Team Pollution Prevention Workshop serves to communicate pollution prevention philosophies and influences the way D ampersand D/ER projects are conducted at the Hanford Site

  13. Impact of walkability with regard to physical activity in the prevention of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Walkability, a component of urban design intended to facilitate pedestrian traffic, depends on parameters associated with the connectivity of routes, population density and availability of destinations in the neighbourhood. The aim is to achieve levels of physical activity related to the prevention of risk factors associated with diseases, such as diabetes and the improvement of glycaemia control. It is important to consider that the effects of walkability depend on its relation with other variables present in the neighbourhood, e.g., environmental and socioeconomic factors. Considering this, improving walkability levels could be an effective strategy to reduce disease, the prevalence of diabetes in particular, in the population and thus reduce public spending. To investigate these relationships, PUBMED and ScienceDirect databases were searched using the following key words: Diabetes, Walkability and Physical activity.

  14. ShadowNet: An Active Defense Infrastructure for Insider Cyber Attack Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The ShadowNet infrastructure for insider cyber attack prevention is comprised of a tiered server system that is able to dynamically redirect dangerous/suspicious network traffic away from production servers that provide web, ftp, database and other vital services to cloned virtual machines in a quarantined environment. This is done transparently from the point of view of both the attacker and normal users. Existing connections, such as SSH sessions, are not interrupted. Any malicious activity performed by the attacker on a quarantined server is not reflected on the production server. The attacker is provided services from the quarantined server, which creates the impression that the attacks performed are successful. The activities of the attacker on the quarantined system are able to be recorded much like a honeypot system for forensic analysis.

  15. Impact of walkability with regard to physical activity in the prevention of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Carlos; Sepúlveda, César; Ormazábal, Yony; Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2017-11-03

    Walkability, a component of urban design intended to facilitate pedestrian traffic, depends on parameters associated with the connectivity of routes, population density and availability of destinations in the neighbourhood. The aim is to achieve levels of physical activity related to the prevention of risk factors associated with diseases, such as diabetes and the improvement of glycaemia control. It is important to consider that the effects of walkability depend on its relation with other variables present in the neighbourhood, e.g., environmental and socioeconomic factors. Considering this, improving walkability levels could be an effective strategy to reduce disease, the prevalence of diabetes in particular, in the population and thus reduce public spending. To investigate these relationships, PUBMED and ScienceDirect databases were searched using the following key words: Diabetes, Walkability and Physical activity.

  16. Physical Activity and Nutrition in Primary and Tertiary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Michael H

    2016-06-01

    Lifestyle factors play a pivotal role in the primary and tertiary prevention of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this review article is to summarize data concerning the effect of the lifestyle factors physical activity (PA) and nutrition in primary and, more importantly, tertiary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Focusing on the influence of lifestyle factors on prognosis und quality of life (QOL), a comprehensive literature search of clinical studies published mainly in the years 2000 until 2015 was performed and the current knowledge based on these clinical studies reviewed. Besides avoiding risk factors (such as smoking and overindulgence in alcohol), healthy weight, regular and moderate PA as well as a diet which contains fruit, vegetables, poultry, and fish (so-called 'Mediterranean' diet) may reduce the risk of the disease significantly. Patients already diagnosed with CRC can also actively improve the prognosis of CRC and QOL by changing their lifestyle. Patients commencing moderate exercise and modifying their eating habits in terms of a 'Mediterranean' diet can reduce cancer-specific and overall mortality by up to 40% and significantly increase their quality of life already during chemotherapy. Therefore, moderate physical exercise, calorie restriction, and a Mediterranean dietary pattern for patients with CRC should be recommended by physicians treating these patients. In fact, the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR/WCRF) systematic literature review from 2007 shows that the lifestyle changes recommended after diagnosis are the same for primary prevention of this disease. Lifestyle changes such as moderate PA and a Mediterranean diet significantly improve the QOL as well as the prognosis of patients suffering from colorectal disease. However, the effect of lifestyle changes is mostly based on observational studies, while only few studies are prospective and none are randomized. Therefore, these observational

  17. Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity Prevents Increases in Myocardial Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David B.; Levick, Scott P; Brower, Gregory L.; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim TNF-α is known to cause adverse myocardial remodeling. While we have previously shown a role for cardiac mast cells in mediating myocardial TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activation of TNF-α may also be contributory. We sought to determine the relative roles of MMPs and cardiac mast cells in the activation of TNF-α in the hearts of rats subjected to chronic volume overload. Methods Interventions with the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, GM6001, or the mast cell stabilizer, nedocromil, were performed in the rat aortocaval fistula (ACF) model of volume overload. Results Myocardial TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the ACF. This increase was prevented by MMP inhibition with GM6001 (p ≤ 0.001 vs. ACF). Conversely, myocardial TNF-α levels were increased in the ACF + nedocromil treated fistula groups (p ≤ 0.001 vs. sham). The degradation of interstitial collagen volume fraction seen in the untreated ACF group was prevented in both the GM6001 and nedocromil treated hearts. Significant increases in LV myocardial ET-1 levels also occurred in the ACF group at 3 days post-fistula. Whereas administration of GM6001 significantly attenuated this increase, mast cell stabilization with nedocromil markedly exacerbated the increase, producing ET-1 levels 6.5 fold and 2 fold greater than that in the sham-operated control and ACF group, respectively. Conclusion The efficacy of the MMP inhibitor, GM6001, to prevent increased levels of myocardial TNF-α is indicative of MMP-mediated cleavage of latent extracellular membrane bound TNF-α protein as the primary source of bioactive TNF-α in the myocardium of the volume-overload heart. PMID:20403361

  18. Active transportation to support diabetes prevention: Expanding school health promotion programming in an Indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macridis, Soultana; Garcia Bengoechea, Enrique; McComber, Alex M; Jacobs, Judi; Macaulay, Ann C

    2016-06-01

    School-based physical activity (PA) interventions, including school active transportation (AT), provide opportunities to increase daily PA levels, improves fitness, and reduces risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Based on a community-identified need, the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project, within an Indigenous community, undertook school travel planning to contribute to PA programming for two elementary schools. Using community-based participatory research, the Active & Safe Routes to School's School Travel Planning (STP) process was undertaken in two schools with an STP-Committee comprised of community stakeholders and researchers. STP activities were adapted for local context including: school profile form, family survey, in-class travel survey, pedestrian-traffic observations, walkability checklist, and student mapping. STP data were jointly collected, analyzed and interpreted by researchers and community. Traffic-pedestrian observations, walkability and parent surveys identified key pedestrian-traffic locations, helped develop safe/direct routes, and traffic calming strategies. In-class travel and mapping surveys identified a need and student desire to increase school AT. The STP-Committee translated findings into STP-action plans for two schools, which were implemented in 2014-2015 school year. Combining CBPR with STP merges community and researcher expertise. This project offered evidence-informed practice for active living promotions. Experience and findings could benefit Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus, Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ming Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.. Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 formation, hydroxyl radical (OH● formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Telmisartan prevented cognitive decline partly due to PPAR-γ activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Masaki; Li Jianmei; Tsukuda, Kana; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Sakata, Akiko; Fujita, Teppei; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-01-01

    Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function evaluated by shuttle avoidance test. Pretreatment with a non-hypotensive dose of telmisartan significantly inhibited such cognitive decline. Interestingly, co-treatment with GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist, partially inhibited this improvement of cognitive decline. Another ARB, losartan, which has less PPAR-γ agonistic effect, also inhibited Aβ-injection-induced cognitive decline; however the effect was smaller than that of telmisartan and was not affected by GW9662. Immunohistochemical staining for Aβ showed the reduced Aβ deposition in telmisartan-treated mice. However, this reduction was not observed in mice co-administered GW9662. These findings suggest that ARB has a preventive effect on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease, and telmisartan, with PPAR-γ activation, could exert a stronger effect

  1. Pharmacodynamic Activity of Dapivirine and Maraviroc Single Entity and Combination Topical Gels for HIV-1 Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Yandura, Sarah; Wang, Lin; Moncla, Bernard; Teeple, Elizabeth A; Devlin, Brid; Nuttall, Jeremy; Brown, Elizabeth R; Rohan, Lisa C

    2015-11-01

    Dapivirine (DPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist, were formulated into aqueous gels designed to prevent mucosal HIV transmission. 0.05% DPV, 0.1% MVC, 0.05% DPV/0.1% MVC and placebo gels were evaluated for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and in vitro release. In vitro assays and mucosal tissues were used to evaluate anti-HIV activity. Viability (Lactobacilli only) and epithelial integrity in cell lines and mucosal tissues defined safety. The gels were acidic and viscous. DPV gel had an osmolality of 893 mOsm/kg while the other gels had an osmolality of <100 mOsm/kg. MVC release was similar from the single and combination gels (~5 μg/cm(2)/min(1/2)), while DPV release was 10-fold less from the single as compared to the combination gel (0.4331 μg/cm(2)/min(1/2)). Titrations of the gels showed 10-fold more drug was needed to protect ectocervical than colonic tissue. The combination gel showed ~10- and 100-fold improved activity as compared to DPV and MVC gel, respectively. All gels were safe. The DPV/MVC gel showed a benefit blocking HIV infection of mucosal tissue compared to the single entity gels. Combination products with drugs affecting unique steps in the viral replication cycle would be advantageous for HIV prevention.

  2. Introducing guidelines into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, F G; Roberts, C J

    1984-04-01

    The impetus for guidelines of practice has been accelerated by a worldwide trend towards insurance based systems of health care. In the past it has been the tradition for the clinician to order all the diagnostic procedures that conceivably might help to clarify what is wrong with a patient, or what course of treatment should be followed. This traditional view ignores the stubborn economic reality that resources are finite and that it is no longer possible to be both endlessly generous and continually fair. Making judgements about the need for, and value of, services now forms an important part of coping with this problem. Clinical practice has to strive to be as safe as possible and to produce a given benefit at a socially acceptable cost. Guidelines are recommendations, preferably developed by clinicians themselves, which describe how and when individual clinical activities should be offered in order to achieve these objectives. Utilisation review of current practice is a valuable source of information for the development of guidelines. In the United Kingdom the Royal College of Radiologists attempted to do this in connection with the use of pre-operative chest X-rays. In 1979 they published the findings of a multicentre review of 10,619 consecutive cases of elective non-cardiopulmonary surgery undertaken in 8 centres throughout the United Kingdom. Substantial variations were found in national practice. Use of pre-operative chest X-rays varied from 11.5% of patients in one centre to 54.2% of patients in another centre. The study also found that the chest X-ray report did not seem to have much influence on the decision to operate nor on the decision to use inhalation anaesthesia. The College study failed to find "any evidence at all for the effectiveness of pre-operative chest X-ray when used routinely" and it was estimated that even if the procedure was 10% effective the costs of avoiding one death would be approximately 1 million pounds. These findings provided

  3. Activation of the GABAB receptor prevents nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eLobina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that activation of the GABAB receptor, either by means of orthosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs, inhibited different nicotine-related behaviors, including intravenous self-administration and conditioned place preference, in rodents. The present study investigated whether the anti-nicotine effects of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and GABAB PAMs, CGP7930 and GS39783, extend to nicotine stimulant effects. To this end, CD1 mice were initially treated with baclofen (0, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., CGP7930 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., or GS39783 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., then treated with nicotine (0 and 0.05 mg/kg, s.c., and finally exposed to an automated apparatus for recording of locomotor activity. Pretreatment with doses of baclofen, CGP7930, or GS39783 that did not alter locomotor activity when given with nicotine vehicle fully prevented hyperlocomotion induced by 0.05 mg/kg nicotine. These data extend to nicotine stimulant effects the capacity of baclofen and GABAB PAMs to block the reinforcing, motivational, and rewarding properties of nicotine. These data strengthen the hypothesis that activation of the GABAB receptor may represent a potentially useful, anti-smoking therapeutic strategy.

  4. Passive versus active follow-up to investigate the efficacy of primary prevention programs

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    Högel, Josef

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Before general application of a primary prevention program its efficacy has to be demonstrated. For this purpose a randomized controlled trial with active or passive follow-up may be conducted. In the last 5 years, the ratio of controlled trials with passive versus those with active follow-up was 1:13. However, under certain circumstances a passive follow-up may be more appropriate and useful to overcome the drawbacks of an active follow-up, as e.g. high costs and many drop-outs. In a randomized controlled trial, a passive follow-up is based on the reporting of cases by physicians or hospitals instead of actively following up all study participants individually. The statistical evaluation can be carried out using a one-sample chi2-test. Advantages and limitations are discussed. A passive follow-up may be advantageous in situations with low incidence, large number of participants, complete ascertainment of conditions with obligatory notification or effective disease registries and should be preferred in such a context.

  5. Relapse Prevention in Major Depressive Disorder: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus an Active Control Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618

  6. A systematic review of financial and economic assessments of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) prevention and mitigation activities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Trauffler, Martine; Dzieciol, Monika; Hutter, Sabine E; Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Winter, Petra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-02-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities. Due to the wide range of possible prevention and/or mitigation activities, these activities were grouped into five categories: i) control and/or eradication programs, ii) monitoring or surveillance, iii) prevention, iv) vaccination and v) individual culling, control and testing strategies. Additionally, the studies were analyzed according to economically-related variables such as efficiency, costs or benefits of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the applied financial and/or economic and statistical methods, the payers of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the assessed production systems, and the countries for which such evaluations are available. Financial and/or economic assessments performed in Europe were dominated by those from the United Kingdom, which assessed mostly vaccination strategies, and Norway which primarily carried out assessments in the area of control and eradication programs; whereas among non-European countries the United States carried out the majority of financial and/or economic assessments in the area of individual culling, control and testing. More than half of all studies provided an efficiency calculation of prevention and/or mitigation activities and demonstrated whether the inherent costs of implemented activities were or were not justified. The dairy sector was three times more likely to

  7. Where Is Obesity Prevention on the Map? Distribution and Predictors of Local Health Department Prevention Activities in Relation to County-Level Obesity Prevalence in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Marx, Christine; Yan, Yan; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context The system of local health departments (LHD) in the US has potential to advance a locally-oriented public health response in obesity control and reduce geographic disparities. However, the extent to which obesity prevention programs correspond to local obesity levels is unknown. Objective This study examines the extent to which LHDs across the US have responded to local levels of obesity by examining the association between jurisdiction level obesity prevalence and the existence of obesity prevention programs. Design Data on LHD organizational characteristics from the Profile Study of Local Health Departments and county-level estimates of obesity from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed (n=2,300). Since local public health systems are nested within state infrastructure, multilevel models were used to examine the relationship between county-level obesity prevalence and LHD obesity prevention programming and to assess the impact of state-level clustering. Setting 2,300 local health department jurisdictions defined with respect to county boundaries Participants Practitioners in local health departments who responded to the 2005 Profile Study of Local Health Departments. Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of having obesity prevention activities and association with area-level obesity prevalence Results The existence of obesity prevention activities was not associated with prevalence of obesity in the jurisdiction. A substantial portion of the variance in LHD activities was explained by state-level clustering. Conclusions This paper identified a gap in the local public health response to the obesity epidemic and underscores the importance of multilevel modeling in examining predictors of LHD performance. PMID:22836530

  8. The importance of physical activity in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood: a review and an opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, K S

    2001-05-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing and there are a number of theoretical reasons as to why intervention may be more effective in childhood. There are certain risk times for the development of obesity in childhood, which provide a basis for targeted intervention. In addition, tracking data supports the persistence of obesity, at least in later childhood, as well as cardiovascular risk factors. Physical activity is the discretionary component of energy expenditure and there is evidence that falling levels of physical activity are contributing to the obesity epidemic. Physical activity in children is related to developmental stage, is reduced with increasing age and is influenced by parental physical activity. While there is debate about the immediate health benefits of physical activity to children, there are data to support that lower physical activity levels and sedentary behaviours are associated with a higher prevalence of obesity in children. Physical activity is an accepted strategy in the treatment of established obesity (tertiary prevention). The role of physical activity in the prevention of obesity (primary and secondary prevention) is less clear. However a number of recent school-based interventions directed at either increasing physical activity and/or decreasing sedentary behaviours, have shown encouraging results. On balance, increasing physical activity in children is an attractive and non-restrictive approach to obesity prevention. To adopt this approach requires the support and involvement of many community sectors other than health.

  9. Game Design to Introduce Pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Febriyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of animals from an early age can make children to love animals, especially pets. Children are the easiest group to receive stimulation, such as for example the stimulation of introducing children to the pet. Various media are used by parents to introduce pet. For examplle, by the media of books, multimedia, etc. One of the interesting media to introduce pet is with game. Of these problems then need to know how to make concept and design game to introduced pets for children age 3-6 years. In this paper, author formulate how to make pet game design include game genre, user interface design, image model selection, game characters, and game engine. The expected design of this game can be formulation of learning through proper game as a learning tool children. Game design derived from this writing by using model 2-dimensional images are funny and interesting coloring. And combines several game genres into one, or use the mini games that children do not get bored quickly. Design of GUI (Graphical User Interface is made as simple as possible so that children easily understand in playing this game, but also must use an interesting image

  10. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  11. An Exercise to Introduce Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seier, Edith; Liu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    In introductory statistics courses, the concept of power is usually presented in the context of testing hypotheses about the population mean. We instead propose an exercise that uses a binomial probability table to introduce the idea of power in the context of testing a population proportion. (Contains 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  12. Introducing Group Theory through Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    The central ideas of postcalculus mathematics courses offered in college are difficult to introduce in middle and secondary schools, especially through the engineering and sciences examples traditionally used in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry textbooks. However, certain concepts in music theory can be used to expose students to interesting…

  13. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  14. Five Perspectives for Introducing Hemingway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillinghast, B. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that the works of Ernest Hemingway can introduce young readers to (1) an intense expression of the joy of life, (2) heroic models, (3) original use of language, (4) a sharp sense of time and place, and (5) literature that can be understood at many levels. (MM)

  15. The Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Prevents Asbestos-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Murine Macrophages

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    Ralph A. Pietrofesa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interaction of asbestos with macrophages drives two key processes that are linked to malignancy: (1 the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS/reactive nitrogen species (RNS and (2 the activation of an inflammation cascade that drives acute and chronic inflammation, with the NLRP3 inflammasome playing a key role. Synthetic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, LGM2605, is a nontoxic lignan with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and was evaluated for protection from asbestos in murine peritoneal macrophages (MF. Methods. MFs were exposed to crocidolite asbestos ± LGM2605 given 4 hours prior to exposure and evaluated at various times for NLRP3 expression, secretion of inflammasome-activated cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, and HMGB1, NF-κB activation, and levels of total nitrates/nitrites. Results. Asbestos induces a significant (p<0.0001 increase in the NLRP3 subunit, release of proinflammatory cytokines, NLRP3-activated cytokines, NF-κB, and levels of nitrates/nitrites. LGM2605 significantly reduced NLRP3 ranging from 40 to 81%, IL-1β by 89–96%, and TNFα by 67–78%, as well as activated NF-κB by 48-49% while decreasing levels of nitrates/nitrites by 85–93%. Conclusions. LGM2605 reduced asbestos-induced NLRP3 expression, proinflammatory cytokine release, NF-κB activation, and nitrosative stress in MFs supporting its possible use in preventing the asbestos-induced inflammatory cascade leading to malignancy.

  16. Smooth Sliding Mode Control for Vehicle Rollover Prevention Using Active Antiroll Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanfeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rollover accidents induced by severe maneuvers are very dangerous and mostly happen to vehicles with elevated center of gravity, such as heavy-duty trucks and pickup trucks. Unfortunately, it is hard for drivers of those vehicles to predict and prevent the trend of the maneuver-induced (untripped rollover ahead of time. In this study, a lateral load transfer ratio which reflects the load distribution of left and right tires is used to indicate the rollover criticality. An antiroll controller is designed with smooth sliding mode control technique for vehicles, in which an active antiroll suspension is installed. A simplified second order roll dynamic model with additive sector bounded uncertainties is used for control design, followed by robust stability analysis. Combined with the vehicle dynamics simulation package TruckSim, MATLAB/Simulink is used for simulating experiment. The results show that the applied controller can improve the roll stability under some typical steering maneuvers, such as Fishhook and J-turn. This direct antiroll control method could be more effective for untripped rollover prevention when driver deceleration or steering is too late. It could also be extended to handle tripped rollovers.

  17. Is calcitonin an active hormone in the onset and prevention of hypocalcemia in dairy cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E M; Bach, A; Devant, M; Aris, A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential importance of calcitonin (CALC) in the onset of subclinical hypocalcemia (experiment 1) and in the physiological mechanisms underlying the prevention of bovine hypocalcemia under metabolic acidosis (experiments 2 and 3). In experiment 1, 15 Holstein cows naturally incurring subclinical hypocalcemia during the first 5d postpartum were classified as low subclinical hypocalcemia (LSH) when blood Ca concentrations were between 7.5 and 8.5mg/dL, or as high subclinical hypocalcemia (HSH) when blood Ca concentrations were between 6.0 and 7.6 mg/dL. Blood samples were taken daily from d -5 to 5 relative to parturition to determine concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), CALC, and 1,25(OH)2D3. In experiment 2, 24 Holstein bulls (497 ± 69 kg of body weight and 342 ± 10.5d of age) were assigned to 2 treatments (metabolic acidosis or control). Metabolic acidosis was induced by an oral administration of ammonium chloride (2.5 mEq/d) during 10 d, and animals were slaughtered thereafter. Blood samples were collected before slaughter to determine CALC, PTH, 1,25(OH)2D3, and samples of urine, kidney, parathyroid, and thyroid glands were obtained immediately after slaughter to determine expression of several genes in these tissues. Last, in experiment 3, we tested the activity of CALC under metabolic acidosis in vitro using breast cancer cell (T47D) cultures. Although PTH tended to be greater in HSH than in LSH, the levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 were lower in HSH cows (experiment 1). Blood CALC concentration was not affected by the severity of subclinical hypocalcemia, but it was influenced by days from calving (experiment 1). The expression of PTH receptor (PTHR) in the kidney was increased under metabolic acidosis (experiment 2). Furthermore, the activity of CALC was impaired under acidic blood pH (experiment 3). In conclusion, the CALC rise in HSH cows after calving impaired the recovery of blood Ca concentrations because the

  18. [The social hygienic model of organization of preventive activities concerning rural population of the Omskaia oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berehnoii, V G

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out concerning environmental factors and social hygienic portrait of rural residents. The analysis determined environmental, social and behavioral risk factors of health. The pathologies of risk for rural residents were substantiated. In conditions of degradation of accessibility of medical care to inhabitants residing outside of district centers specified by decreasing of capacity of hospital medical care and decreasing of accessibility of out-patient services, the visiting trips of physicians ’ teams and activities concerning development of hygienic literacy were organized in 2012-2014. This approach permitted ameliorating health indices and organization of medical care for the given category of citizen, including positive results in decreasing of mortality, timely diagnostic of diseases, reduction of number of emergency operations in central district hospitals and attenuation of intensity of impact of regulative risk factors. All this determined in the upshot social and economic effectiveness of advanced model of prevention of health disorders of rural residents.

  19. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. Methods/Design This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use. This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Discussion Infancy is likely to

  20. Obesity prevention for children with physical disabilities: a scoping review of physical activity and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Keith, Rebekah; Swift, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities are at higher risk of obesity, engage in less physical activity and report poorer quality dietary habits than their non-disabled peers. This study reviewed current evidence on interventions designed to facilitate weight management and/or weight-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity and/or healthy eating habits) in children with physical disabilities. A scoping review was performed using established methodology. Data from studies meeting specific inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed using summary statistics, and common characteristics thematically identified. Thirty-four articles were included in the synthesis. No long-term obesity prevention interventions were identified. The majority of research focused upon children with cerebral palsy, and had case study, quasi- or non-experimental designs. All interventions reporting positive outcomes (n = 18) addressed physical activity, with common themes including using motivational strategies for the child and child self-direction. Incremental increases in workload and engaging in strength training for longer than 15 minutes were also effective. Interventions targeting body weight/composition did not report success in the long term. A robust evidence base is lacking for long-lasting obesity interventions for children with physical disabilities. Current research provides some insights into the specific components that should be considered when planning such interventions in the future.

  1. cGMP-Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Prevents Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death Activation in Porcine Retinal Explants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Olivares-González

    Full Text Available Retinal hypoxia and oxidative stress are involved in several retinal degenerations including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, central retinal artery occlusion, or retinopathy of prematurity. The second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP has been reported to be protective for neuronal cells under several pathological conditions including ischemia/hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the accumulation of cGMP through the pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE with Zaprinast prevented retinal degeneration induced by mild hypoxia in cultures of porcine retina. Exposure to mild hypoxia (5% O2 for 24h reduced cGMP content and induced retinal degeneration by caspase dependent and independent (PARP activation mechanisms. Hypoxia also produced a redox imbalance reducing antioxidant response (superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and increasing superoxide free radical release. Zaprinast reduced mild hypoxia-induced cell death through inhibition of caspase-3 or PARP activation depending on the cell layer. PDE inhibition also ameliorated the effects of mild hypoxia on antioxidant response and the release of superoxide radical in the photoreceptor layer. The use of a PKG inhibitor, KT5823, suggested that cGMP-PKG pathway is involved in cell survival and antioxidant response. The inhibition of PDE, therefore, could be useful for reducing retinal degeneration under hypoxic/ischemic conditions.

  2. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: IS IT POSSIBLE TO PREVENT AND REDUCE DEVIANCES WITH SPORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Al. Dimitrova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses physical activity and sport as a good way to overcome deviant behavior in children. A number of characteristics of sporting activity are identified, which define it as useful not only for the physical but also for the psychological, emotional and overall development of the personality. Organized extracurricular sports activities are mentioned as a good means of organizing the leisure time of the students. Of course, sport is not a universal remedy for the problems of society and the deviant behavior of children. But it is one of the working options for prevention and overcoming deviant behavior, especially if it is a result mainly of the child's personal characteristics such as aggression, temperamental behavior or adrenal dependence. Affiliation to the team gives the child certainty that they area member of a community where they give and receive permanent support. The pursuit of personal achievement reflects the development of the child and directs his or her energy in a positive direction. Achieved success boosts self-confidence and self-esteem that are so necessary to young people especially in teen years. Driving into discipline in sport will lead to compliance with social norms and public laws.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO3 prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, Cordt; Gutbrod, Kai; Wechsler, Peter; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H 2 MoO 4 ), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO 3 particles or sol–gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: ► The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO 3 are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. ► The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. ► Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  4. Garlic activates SIRT-3 to prevent cardiac oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Md Razia; Bagul, Pankaj K; Katare, Parameshwar B; Anwar Mohammed, Soheb; Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac complications are major contributor in the mortality of diabetic people. Mitochondrial dysfunctioning is a crucial contributor for the cardiac complications in diabetes, and SIRT-3 remains the major mitochondrial deacetylase. We hypothesized whether garlic has any role on SIRT-3 to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic heart. Rats with developed hyperglycemia after STZ injection were divided into two groups; diabetic (Dia) and diabetic+garlic (Dia+Garl). Garlic was administered at a dose of 250mg/kg/day, orally for four weeks. An additional group was maintained to evaluate the effect of raw garlic administration on control rat heart. We have observed altered functioning of cardiac mitochondrial enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, and increased levels of cardiac ROS with decreased activity of catalase and SOD in diabetic rats. Cardiac mRNA expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, and CO1 was also altered in diabetes. In addition, reduced levels of electron transport chain complexes that observed in Dia group were normalized with garlic administration. This indicates the presence of increased oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunctioning in diabetic heart. We have observed reduced activity of SIRT3 and increased acetylation of MnSOD. Silencing SIRT-3 in cells also revealed the same. However, administration of garlic improved the SIRT-3 and MnSOD activity, by deacetylating MnSOD. Increased SOD activity was correlated with reduced levels of ROS in garlic-administered rat hearts. Collectively, our results provide an insight into garlic's protection to T1DM heart through activation of SIRT3-MnSOD pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel

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    Qiushi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are complex and heterogeneous compounds implicated in diabetes. Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC at the distal nephron plays an important role in diabetic hypertension. Here, we report that H2S antagonizes AGEs-induced ENaC activation in A6 cells. ENaC open probability (PO in A6 cells was significantly increased by exogenous AGEs and that this AGEs-induced ENaC activity was abolished by NaHS (a donor of H2S and TEMPOL. Incubating A6 cells with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT mimicked the effects of AGEs on ENaC activity, but did not induce any additive effect. We found that the expression levels of catalase were significantly reduced by AGEs and both AGEs and 3-AT facilitated ROS uptake in A6 cells, which were significantly inhibited by NaHS. The specific PTEN and PI3K inhibitors, BPV(pic  and LY294002, influence ENaC activity in AGEs-pretreated A6 cells. Moreover, after removal of AGEs from AGEs-pretreated A6 cells for 72 hours, ENaC PO remained at a high level, suggesting that an AGEs-related “metabolic memory” may be involved in sodium homeostasis. Our data, for the first time, show that H2S prevents AGEs-induced ENaC activation by targeting the ROS/PI3K/PTEN pathway.

  6. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Physical activity and metabolic disease among people with affective disorders: Prevention, management and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-12-15

    One in ten and one in three of people with affective disorders experience diabetes and metabolic syndrome respectively. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) are key risk factors that can ameliorate the risk of metabolic disease among this population. However, PA is often seen as luxury and/or a secondary component within the management of people with affective disorders. The current article provides a non-systematic best-evidence synthesis of the available literature, detailing a number of suggestions for the implementation of PA into clinical practice. Whilst the evidence is unequivocal for the efficacy of PA to prevent and manage metabolic disease in the general population, it is in its infancy in this patient group. Nonetheless, action must be taken now to ensure that PA and reducing SB are given a priority to prevent and manage metabolic diseases and improve wider health outcomes. PA should be treated as a vital sign and all people with affective disorders asked about their activity levels and if appropriate advised to increase this. There is a need for investment in qualified exercise specialists in clinical practice such as physiotherapists to undertake and oversee PA in practice. Behavioural strategies such as the self-determined theory should be employed to encourage adherence. Funding is required to develop the evidence base and elucidate the optimal intervention characteristics. PA interventions should form an integral part of the multidisciplinary management of people with affective disorders and our article outlines the evidence and strategies to implement this in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Sophie Kang

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK. When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury.

  9. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  10. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1121-0218] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention... Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be... Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810 Seventh...

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkova, Zuzana; Layne, Joseph; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A 4 /J 4 -neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), which concurrently abrogated A 4 /J 4 -NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A 4 /J 4 NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A 4 /J 4 -NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

  12. Novel phosphate-activated macrophages prevent ectopic calcification by increasing extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Hamczyk, Magda R.; Andrés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Phosphorus is an essential nutrient involved in many pathobiological processes. Less than 1% of phosphorus is found in extracellular fluids as inorganic phosphate ion (Pi) in solution. High serum Pi level promotes ectopic calcification in many tissues, including blood vessels. Here, we studied the effect of elevated Pi concentration on macrophage polarization and calcification. Macrophages, present in virtually all tissues, play key roles in health and disease and display remarkable plasticity, being able to change their physiology in response to environmental cues. Methods and results High-throughput transcriptomic analysis and functional studies demonstrated that Pi induces unpolarized macrophages to adopt a phenotype closely resembling that of alternatively-activated M2 macrophages, as revealed by arginine hydrolysis and energetic and antioxidant profiles. Pi-induced macrophages showed an anti-calcifying action mediated by increased availability of extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate. Conclusion We conclude that the ability of Pi-activated macrophages to prevent calcium-phosphate deposition is a compensatory mechanism protecting tissues from hyperphosphatemia-induced pathologic calcification. PMID:28362852

  13. Syringic Acid Extracted from Herba dendrobii Prevents Diabetic Cataract Pathogenesis by Inhibiting Aldose Reductase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Effects of Syringic acid (SA extracted from dendrobii on diabetic cataract (DC pathogenesis were explored. Methods. Both in vitro and in vivo DC lens models were established using D-gal, and proliferation of HLEC exposed to SA was determined by MMT assay. After 60-day treatment with SA, rat lens transparency was observed by anatomical microscopy using a slit lamp. SA protein targets were extracted and isolated using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF. AR gene expression was investigated using qRT-PCR. Interaction sites and binding characteristics were determined by molecule-docking techniques and dynamic models. Results. Targeting AR, SA provided protection from D-gal-induced damage by consistently maintaining lens transparency and delaying lens turbidity development. Inhibition of AR gene expression by SA was confirmed by qRT-PCR. IC50 of SA for inhibition of AR activity was 213.17 μg/mL. AR-SA binding sites were Trp111, His110, Tyr48, Trp20, Trp79, Leu300, and Phe122. The main binding modes involved hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The stoichiometric ratio of non-covalent bonding between SA and AR was 1.0 to 13.3. Conclusion. SA acts to prevent DC in rat lenses by inhibiting AR activity and gene expression, which has potential to be developed into a novel drug for therapeutic management of DC.

  14. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C. However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates. Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants

  15. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2012-11-14

    All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs)-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C). However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta) at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones) are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence) suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates). Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants, induced

  16. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    factors such as IGF-I increase cox-2 expression by several complementary mechanisms; hence, decreased cox-2 activity may play a role in the remarkably low mortality from "Western" cancers enjoyed by Third World cultures in which systemic growth factor activity was minimized by quasi-vegan diets complemented by leanness and excellent muscle insulin sensitivity. Practical strategies for achieving a modest degree of calorie restriction may also have potential for down-regulating cox-2 expression while decreasing cancer risk. Soy isoflavones, linked to reduced cancer risk in Asian epidemiology, may suppress cox-2 induction by activating ERbeta. In aggregate, these considerations suggest that a comprehensive lifestyle strategy targeting cox-2 expression and bioactivity may have tremendous potential for cancer prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disposal of household pharmaceuticals in insular communities: social attitude, behaviour evaluation and prevention activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Dimitriou, Maria; Voukkali, Irene

    2017-06-25

    The increase in medicine and drug consumption have resulted in identifying these emerging pollutants in all aquatic compartments, ranging from surface water and groundwater resources to the marine environment. Pharmaceuticals are an indispensable part of life today. A large number of pharmaceuticals are used in a daily basis in the treatment, prevention, cure or diagnosis of diseases or to otherwise enhance people's physical or mental well-being. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the attitude of citizens in Cyprus regarding the disposal of pharmaceuticals as well as to identify the main reasons why pharmaceutical wastes are produced. The result indicted that in Cyprus, there is lack of data regarding the amount of pharmaceutical wastes that are discarded into household waste and sinks. The survey audit showed that 86.6% of men's and 83.3% of women's used pharmacy with or without doctor's recipe. Social behaviour is considered to be the most significant reason that pharmaceutical are produced. The results indicated that, citizens mainly keep unused medicines and drugs at home in case they are needed again as well as patients use to cut-off or to reduce their treatment in case that on the first 3-6 days they feel better. The survey indicated that the main disposal method of unused or expired medicines and drugs is in household waste followed from the sink and the toilet. Furthermore, the main disposal solution of unused or expired medicines and drugs remain the household bin as well as the sewage system (sink or toilet), while a percentage more than 55% of the participants indicated that they will follow a specific waste management program if existing in place. Moreover, in order to reduce the production of pharmaceutical wastes, specific prevention activities must be considered.

  18. Introducing ZBrush 3rd Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Learn ZBrush inside and out with this updated new edition Get totally comfortable sculpting in a digital environment with the latest edition of this bestselling beginner's guide to ZBrush. Fully updated for the newest version of the software, ZBrush 4R3, this book dispels any fears you might have about the difficulty of using ZBrush and soon has you creating realistic, cartoon, and organic models with flair. Learn all the essentials, as you complete fun tutorials on painting, meshes, organic scripting, hard surface sculpting, lighting, rendering, and more. Introduces you to ZBrush, the sculpt

  19. Introducing time a graphic guide

    CERN Document Server

    Callender, Craig

    2010-01-01

    What is time? The 5th-century philosopher St Augustine famously said that he knew what time was, so long as no one asked him. Is time a fourth dimension similar to space or does it flow in some sense? And if it flows, does it make sense to say how fast? Does the future exist? Is time travel possible? Why does time seem to pass in only one direction?These questions and others are among the deepest and most subtle that one can ask, but "Introducing Time" presents them - many for the first time - in an easily accessible, lucid and engaging manner, wittily illustrated by Ralph Edney.

  20. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  1. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  2. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  3. Development of a metabolically active, non-replicating sporozoite vaccine to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Billingsley, Peter F; James, Eric; Richman, Adam; Loyevsky, Mark; Li, Tao; Chakravarty, Sumana; Gunasekera, Anusha; Chattopadhyay, Rana; Li, Minglin; Stafford, Richard; Ahumada, Adriana; Epstein, Judith E; Sedegah, Martha; Reyes, Sharina; Richie, Thomas L; Lyke, Kirsten E; Edelman, Robert; Laurens, Matthew B; Plowe, Christopher V; Sim, B Kim Lee

    2010-01-01

    Immunization of volunteers by the bite of mosquitoes carrying radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites protects greater than 90% of such volunteers against malaria, if adequate numbers of immunizing biting sessions and sporozoite-infected mosquitoes are used. Nonetheless, until recently it was considered impossible to develop, license and commercialize a live, whole parasite P. falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) vaccine. In 2003 Sanaria scientists reappraised the potential impact of a metabolically active, non-replicating PfSPZ vaccine, and outlined the challenges to producing such a vaccine. Six years later, significant progress has been made in overcoming these challenges. This progress has enabled the manufacture and release of multiple clinical lots of a 1(st) generation metabolically active, non-replicating PfSPZ vaccine, the Sanaria PfSPZ Vaccine, submission of a successful Investigational New Drug application to the US Food and Drug Administration, and initiation of safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy studies in volunteers in MD, US. Efforts are now focused on how best to achieve submission of a successful Biologics License Application and introduce the vaccine to the primary target population of African children in the shortest possible period of time. This will require implementation of a systematic, efficient clinical development plan. Short term challenges include optimizing the (1) efficiency and scale up of the manufacturing process and quality control assays, (2) dosage regimen and method of administration, (3) potency of the vaccine, and (4) logistics of delivering the vaccine to those who need it most, and finalizing the methods for vaccine stabilization and attenuation. A medium term goal is to design and build a facility for manufacturing highly potent and stable vaccine for pivotal Phase 3 studies and commercial launch.

  4. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  5. Mixed tocopherols prevent mammary tumorigenesis by inhibiting estrogen action and activating PPAR-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jin; Ju, Jihyeung; Paul, Shiby; So, Jae-Young; DeCastro, Andrew; Smolarek, Amanda; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S.; Newmark, Harold L.; Suh, Nanjoo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants present in vegetable oils. Although the antioxidant and anticancer activities of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) have been studied for decades, recent intervention studies with α-tocopherol have been negative for protection from cancer in humans. The tocopherols consist of 4 isoforms, α, β, γ, and δ variants, and recent attention is being made to other isoforms. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a tocopherol mixture rich in γ- and δ-tocopherols against mammary tumorigenesis. Experimental Design Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU), and then fed diets containing 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols rich in γ- and δ-tocopherols for 9 weeks. Tumor burden and multiplicity were determined, and the levels of markers of inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in the serum and in mammary tumors. The regulation of nuclear receptor signaling by tocopherols was studied in mammary tumors and in breast cancer cells. Results Dietary administration of 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols suppressed mammary tumor growth by 38%, 50%, or 80%, respectively. Tumor multiplicity was also significantly reduced in all three mixed tocopherol groups. Mixed tocopherols increased the expression of p21, p27, caspase-3 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and inhibited AKT and estrogen signaling in mammary tumors. Our mechanistic study found that γ- and δ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, activated PPAR-γ and antagonized estrogen action in breast cancer. Conclusion The results suggest that γ- and δ-tocopherols may be effective agents for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:19509159

  6. MDM2 controls NRF2 antioxidant activity in prevention of diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiying; Tian, Dan; Jia, Ye; Huang, Wenlin; Jiang, Mengnan; Wang, Junnan; Sun, Weixia; Wu, Hao

    2018-04-26

    Oxidative stress and P53 contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a master regulator of cellular antioxidant defense system, is negatively regulated by P53 and prevents DKD. Recent findings revealed an important role of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) in protection against DKD. However, the mechanism remained unclear. We hypothesized that MDM2 enhances NRF2 antioxidant signaling in DKD given that MDM2 is a key negative regulator of P53. The MDM2 inhibitor nutlin3a elevated renal P53, inhibited NRF2 signaling and induced oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis, DKD-like renal pathology and albuminuria in the wild-type (WT) non-diabetic mice. These effects exhibited more prominently in nutlin3a-treated WT diabetic mice. Interestingly, nutlin3a failed to induce greater renal injuries in the Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice under both the diabetic and non-diabetic conditions, indicating that NRF2 predominantly mediates MDM2's action. On the contrary, P53 inhibition by pifithrin-α activated renal NRF2 signaling and the expression of Mdm2, and attenuated DKD in the WT diabetic mice, but not in the Nrf2 KO diabetic mice. In high glucose-treated mouse mesangial cells, P53 gene silencing completely abolished nutlin3a's inhibitory effect on NRF2 signaling. The present study demonstrates for the first time that MDM2 controls renal NRF2 antioxidant activity in DKD via inhibition of P53, providing MDM2 activation and P53 inhibition as novel strategies in the management of DKD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah A.; Sandesara, Pooja B.; Senf, Sarah M.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Cachexia is characterized by inexorable muscle wasting that significantly affects patient prognosis and increases mortality. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of this muscle wasting is of significant importance. Recent work showed that components of the forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway are increased in skeletal muscle during cachexia. In the current study, we tested the physiological significance of FoxO activation in the progression of muscle atrophy associated with cachexia. FoxO-DNA binding dependent transcription was blocked in the muscles of mice through injection of a dominant negative (DN) FoxO expression plasmid prior to inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma cells or the induction of sepsis. Expression of DN FoxO inhibited the increased mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF1, cathepsin L, and/or Bnip3 and inhibited muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis. Interestingly, during control conditions, expression of DN FoxO decreased myostatin expression, increased MyoD expression and satellite cell proliferation, and induced fiber hypertrophy, which required de novo protein synthesis. Collectively, these data show that FoxO-DNA binding-dependent transcription is necessary for normal muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis, and further suggest that basal levels of FoxO play an important role during normal conditions to depress satellite cell activation and limit muscle growth.—Reed, S. A., Sandesara, P. B., Senf, S. F., Judge, A. R. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy. PMID:22102632

  8. Most Children With Epilepsy Experience Postictal Phenomena, Often Preventing a Return to Normal Activities of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sarah J; D'Alfonso, Sabrina; McDonald, Roman J; Thornton, Nancy; Forkert, Nils D; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    After a seizure, individuals with epilepsy have reported diverse symptoms in the postictal period, especially motor and cognitive dysfunction. However, these phenomena have not been well characterized in children, and their impact on patient well-being is not understood. We hypothesized that in a subset of epilepsy patients, postictal symptoms would affect their ability to return to normal childhood activities. To test our hypothesis, a survey-based approach was used to characterize the type, frequency, and duration, as well as the impact of these symptoms on the ability of these children to return to their normal activities. In this prospective study, data were analyzed from 208 patients seen in the pediatric neurology outpatient clinic at the Alberta Children's Hospital. We found that 86% (179 out of 208) of respondents reported postictal symptoms, with the most common symptom category being fatigue, sleepiness, and/or tiredness (90%; 161 of 179). The greatest impact resulted from weakness or being unable to move normally, which prevented 78% of those affected (71 of 91) from returning to normal activities after a seizure. Children who had focal seizures were more likely to experience postictal fatigue, sleepiness, or tiredness (P = 0.01; Bonferroni corrected), but no other postictal symptoms were significantly associated with a specific seizure type or epilepsy syndrome. The results of this study further our understanding of the frequency, type, and duration of symptoms experienced in the postictal period and how these symptoms impact children with epilepsy. It is clear that postictal phenomena often occur after epileptic seizures and have a significant impact on the lives of children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurselis, S.; Stadalnikas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The paper gives a general overview of the progress which has been made in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania. It describes the measures which were taken to strengthen nuclear material accounting and control and physical protection. The current status of the national legislation and the functions of institutions involved in control of nuclear material and combating of illicit trafficking are discussed. Lithuania, similar to many countries, did not avoid a new type of a crime - smuggling of nuclear materials - which was observed in the 1990's. The most serious case in Lithuania happened in 1993 when fresh fuel assembly was stolen from Ignalina NPP. This assembly contains approximately 124 kg of UO 2 (enrichment 2%). 100 kg of the pellets from this assembly was found later in several pieces at different places. This case served as a strong stimulus to strengthen prevention measures of Illicit trafficking. The legal basis was created and governmental institutions were obliged with special duties related with nuclear material. The laws and regulations set the order for the shipment and handling of nuclear material. The penalties for violation of these laws and regulations specified in Penal Code and Administrative Code were made stricter. The State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) is a very important element in prevention of the illicit trafficking. The Regulations of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material at Nuclear Facilities and LOFs was issued by the State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) on 10 December 1997 following the provisions of the Law on Nuclear Energy. Lithuania extended its international obligations by ratifying the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (entered into force on 5 July 2000). The fully computerized nuclear material accountancy system was created at Ignalina NPP. The system gives the possibility to find the

  10. Effects of Before-School Physical Activity on Obesity Prevention and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooten, Rachel C; Perkins, Meghan E; Gerber, Monica W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Build Our Kids Success-a 12-week, 1-hour before-school physical activity program-on BMI and social-emotional wellness among kindergarten to eighth grade students was examined. This was a nonrandomized trial. Participants were from 24 schools in Massachusetts; there were 707 children from kindergarten to eighth grade. Children registered for Build Our Kids Success in 2015-2016 participated in a 2 days/week or 3 days/week program. Nonparticipating children served as controls. At baseline and 12 weeks, study staff measured children's heights/weights; children aged ≥8 years completed surveys. Main outcomes were 12-week change in BMI z-score, odds of a lower BMI category at follow-up, and child report of social-emotional wellness. Analyses were completed in March-June 2017. Follow-up BMI was obtained from 67% of children and self-reported surveys from 72% of age-eligible children. Children in the 3 days/week group had improvements in BMI z-score (-0.22, 95% CI= -0.31, -0.14) and this mean change was significantly different than the comparison group (-0.17 difference, 95% CI= -0.27, -0.07). Children in the 3 days/week group also had higher odds of being in a lower BMI category at follow-up (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.12, 1.62); significantly different than the comparison group (p<0.01). Children in the 2 days/week program had no significant changes in BMI outcomes. Children in the 3 days/week group demonstrated improvement in their student engagement scores (0.79 units, p=0.05) and had nonsignificant improvements in reported peer relationships, affect, and life satisfaction versus comparison. The 2 days/week group had significant improvements in positive affect and vitality/energy versus comparison. A 3 days/week before-school physical activity program resulted in improved BMI and prevented increases in child obesity. Both Build Our Kids Success groups had improved social-emotional wellness versus controls. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT

  11. Mouthguards in sport activities : history, physical properties and injury prevention effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Marshall, Stephen W; Lee, Robyn B; Darakjy, Salima S; Jones, Sarah B; Mitchener, Timothy A; delaCruz, Georgia G; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-01-01

    Three systematic reviews were conducted on: (i) the history of mouthguard use in sports; (ii) mouthguard material and construction; and (iii) the effectiveness of mouthguards in preventing orofacial injuries and concussions. Retrieval databases and bibliographies were explored to find studies using specific key words for each topic. The first recorded use of mouthguards was by boxers, and in the 1920s professional boxing became the first sport to require mouthguards. Advocacy by the American Dental Association led to the mandating of mouthguards for US high school football in the 1962 season. Currently, the US National Collegiate Athletic Association requires mouthguards for four sports (ice hockey, lacrosse, field hockey and football). However, the American Dental Association recommends the use of mouthguards in 29 sports/exercise activities. Mouthguard properties measured in various studies included shock-absorbing capability, hardness, stiffness (indicative of protective capability), tensile strength, tear strength (indicative of durability) and water absorption. Materials used for mouthguards included: (i) polyvinylacetate-polyethylene or ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer; (ii) polyvinylchloride; (iii) latex rubber; (iv) acrylic resin; and (v) polyurethane. Latex rubber was a popular material used in early mouthguards but it has lower shock absorbency, lower hardness and less tear and tensile strength than EVA or polyurethane. Among the more modern materials, none seems to stand out as superior to another since the characteristics of all the modern materials can be manipulated to provide a range of favourable characteristics. Impact studies have shown that compared with no mouthguard, mouthguards composed of many types of materials reduce the number of fractured teeth and head acceleration. In mouthguard design, consideration must be given to the nature of the collision (hard or soft objects) and characteristics of the mouth (e.g. brittle incisors, more

  12. Targeting activator protein 1 signaling pathway by bioactive natural agents: Possible therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Devesh; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sureda, Antoni; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Atanasov, Atanas G; Vacca, Rosa Anna; Sethi, Gautam; Bishayee, Anupam

    2018-02-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a key transcription factor in the control of several cellular processes responsible for cell survival proliferation and differentiation. Dysfunctional AP-1 expression and activity are involved in several severe diseases, especially inflammatory disorders and cancer. Therefore, targeting AP-1 has recently emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. This review summarizes our current understanding of AP-1 biology and function as well as explores and discusses several natural bioactive compounds modulating AP-1-associated signaling pathways for cancer prevention and intervention. Current limitations, challenges, and future directions of research are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Randomised controlled trial of a secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients ('ProActive Heart': study protocol. Secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C Barr

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a significant cause of health and economic burden. Secondary prevention programs play a pivotal role in the treatment and management of those affected by CHD although participation rates are poor due to patient, provider, health system and societal-level barriers. As such, there is a need to develop innovative secondary prevention programs to address the treatment gap. Telephone-delivered care is convenient, flexible and has been shown to improve behavioural and clinical outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a six-month telephone-delivered secondary prevention program for MI patients (ProActive Heart. Methods 550 adult MI patients have been recruited over a 14 month period (December 2007 to January 2009 through two Brisbane metropolitan hospitals, and randomised to an intervention or control group (n = 225 per group. The intervention commences within two weeks of hospital discharge delivered by study-trained health professionals ('health coaches' during up to 10 × 30 minute scripted telephone health coaching sessions. Participants also receive a ProActive Heart handbook and an educational resource to use during the health coaching sessions. The intervention focuses on appropriate modification of CHD risk factors, compliance with pharmacological management, and management of psychosocial issues. Data collection occurs at baseline or prior to commencement of the intervention (Time 1, six months follow-up or the completion of the intervention (Time 2, and at 12 months follow-up for longer term outcomes (Time 3. Primary outcome measures include quality of life (Short Form-36 and physical activity (Active Australia Survey. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the

  14. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  15. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  16. Prevention of DNA damage and anticarcinogenic activity of Activia® in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeiras, S M A; Ogo, F M; Genez, L A L; Carreira, C M; Oliveira, E J T; Pessatto, L R; Neves, S C; Pesarini, J R; Schweich, L C; Silva, R A; Cantero, W B; Antoniolli-Silva, A C M B; Oliveira, R J

    2017-03-22

    Colorectal cancer is a global public health issue. Studies have pointed to the protective effect of probiotics on colorectal carcinogenesis. Activia ® is a lacto probiotic product that is widely consumed all over the world and its beneficial properties are related, mainly, to the lineage of traditional yoghurt bacteria combined with a specific bacillus, DanRegularis, which gives the product a proven capacity to intestinal regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic proprieties of the Activia product, in response to damage caused by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in Swiss mice. Activia does not have shown antigenotoxic activity. However, the percent of DNA damage reduction, evaluated by the antimutagenicity assay, ranged from 69.23 to 96.15% indicating effective chemopreventive action. Activia reduced up to 79.82% the induction of aberrant crypt foci by DMH. Facing the results, it is inferred that Activia facilitates the weight loss, prevents DNA damage and pre-cancerous lesions in the intestinal mucosa.

  17. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  18. Synaptophysin 1 Clears Synaptobrevin 2 from the Presynaptic Active Zone to Prevent Short-Term Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajit Rajappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Release site clearance is an important process during synaptic vesicle (SV recycling. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. Here we identify self-assembly of exocytosed Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2 and Synaptophysin 1 (Syp1 by homo- and hetero-oligomerization into clusters as key mechanisms mediating release site clearance for preventing cis-SNARE complex formation at the active zone (AZ. In hippocampal neurons from Syp1 knockout mice, neurons expressing a monomeric Syb2 mutant, or after acute block of the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF, responsible for cis-SNARE complex disassembly, we found strong frequency-dependent short-term depression (STD, whereas retrieval of Syb2 by compensatory endocytosis was only affected weakly. Defects in Syb2 endocytosis were stimulus- and frequency-dependent, indicating that Syp1 is not essential for Syb2 retrieval, but for its efficient clearance upstream of endocytosis. Our findings identify an SV protein as a release site clearance factor.

  19. Integral approaches to wastewater treatment plant upgrading for odor prevention: Activated Sludge and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R; Lebrero, R; Muñoz, R

    2015-11-01

    Traditional physical/chemical end-of-the-pipe technologies for odor abatement are relatively expensive and present high environmental impacts. On the other hand, biotechnologies have recently emerged as cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives but are still limited by their investment costs and land requirements. A more desirable approach to odor control is the prevention of odorant formation before being released to the atmosphere, but limited information is available beyond good design and operational practices of the wastewater treatment process. The present paper reviews two widely applicable and economic alternatives for odor control, Activated Sludge Recycling (ASR) and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling (OAR), by discussing their fundamentals, key operating parameters and experience from the available pilot and field studies. Both technologies present high application potential using readily available plant by-products with a minimum plant upgrading, and low investment and operating costs, contributing to the sustainability and economic efficiency of odor control at wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Activity and Gastrointestinal Cancers: Primary and Tertiary Preventive Effects and Possible Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Steindorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cancers account for 37% of all cancer deaths worldwide, underlining the need to further investigate modifiable factors for gastrointestinal cancer risk and prognosis. This review summarizes the corresponding evidence for physical activity (PA, including, briefly, possible biological mechanisms. Despite high public health relevance, there is still a scarcity of studies, especially for tertiary prevention. Besides the convincing evidence of beneficial effects of PA on colon cancer risk, clear risk reduction for gastroesophageal cancer was identified, as well as weak indications for pancreatic cancer. Inverse associations were observed for liver cancer, yet based on few studies. Only for rectal cancer, PA appeared to be not associated with cancer risk. With regard to cancer-specific mortality of the general population, published data were rare but indicated suggestive evidence of protective effects for colon and liver cancer, and to a lesser extent for rectal and gastroesophageal cancer. Studies in cancer patients on cancer-specific and total mortality were published for colorectal cancer only, providing good evidence of inverse associations with post-diagnosis PA. Overall, evidence of associations of PA with gastrointestinal cancer risk and progression is promising but still limited. However, the already available knowledge further underlines the importance of PA to combat cancer.

  1. Service-learning in Higher Education Relevant to the Promotion of Physical Activity, Healthful Eating, and Prevention of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  2. Physical activity in the prevention of the most frequent chronic diseases: an analysis of the recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity is widely recognized as a means for the primary prevention of chronic diseases as well as in patients' treatment and rehabilitation. Moreover, activity has beneficial effects on an individual's health and well-being. Despite the benefits of regular physical activity, the percentage of physically inactive adults in the world is high. Environmental and policy approaches aimed to increase physical activity require continual stress of the epidemiological evidence from studies investigating disease mechanisms as well as controlled clinical trials. To update the evidence that physical activity/exercise is important for reducing the chronic diseases (cardiovascular and heart, diabetes, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, and fall-related injuries, depression and emotional stress) and for mechanisms that may operate in the relation between physical activity and a disease risk. Research studies published from 2004 through to March 2007 were identified through a review of the literature available on the NLM PubMed, Medline, Current Contents, and Elsevier-Science Direct databases. Recent evidence on physical activity/exercise and reduction of chronic major diseases incidence and rehabilitation of patients replicates previous findings. The strongest evidence exists for colon cancer, breast cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. The maximal magnitudes of the risk reduction reported were: 75% for breast cancer, 49% for cardiovascular and heart diseases, 35% for diabetes, 22% for colorectal cancer. Increased physical activity also prevented the weight gain associated with aging at least 2-times greater in individuals who were more active compared with those who were inactive. Limited new findings has been reported for the beneficial role of physical activity in fall-related injures, depression and emotional distress. Recent evidence confirms previous findings that engaging in moderate physical activity is very important for the primary prevention of chronic diseases

  3. New welfare, new policies: towards preventive worker-directed active labour market policies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, H.H.A.; van der Aa, P.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Debates about the new welfare, and the new social policies that go (or should go) with it, share an emphasis on risk-prevention strategies and pluralistic risk management. Focusing specifically on the risk of unemployment, this article discusses the case for so-called preventive worker-directed

  4. Communication between Asian American Adolescents and Health Care Providers about Sexual Activity, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…

  5. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:

  6. PEPFAR support of alcohol-HIV prevention activities in Namibia and Botswana: a framework for investigation, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenshaw, M; Deluca, N; Adams, R; Parry, C; Fritz, K; Du Preez, V; Voetsch, K; Lekone, P; Seth, P; Bachanas, P; Grillo, M; Kresina, T F; Pick, B; Ryan, C; Bock, N

    2016-01-01

    The association between harmful use of alcohol and HIV infection is well documented. To address this dual epidemic, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) developed and implemented a multi-pronged approach primarily in Namibia and Botswana. We present the approach and preliminary results of the public health investigative and programmatic activities designed, initiated and supported by PEPFAR to combat the harmful use of alcohol and its association as a driver of HIV morbidity and mortality from 2008 to 2013. PEPFAR supported comprehensive alcohol programming using a matrix model approach that combined the socio-ecological framework and the Alcohol Misuse Prevention and Intervention Continuum. This structure enabled seven component objectives: (1) to quantify harmful use of alcohol through rapid assessments; (2) to develop and evaluate alcohol-based interventions; (3) to promote screening programs and alcohol abuse resource services; (4) to support stakeholder networks; (5) to support policy interventions and (6) structural interventions; and (7) to institutionalize universal prevention messages. Targeted PEPFAR support for alcohol activities resulted in several projects to address harmful alcohol use and HIV. Components are graphically conceptualized within the matrix model, demonstrating the intersections between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention activities and individual, interpersonal, community, and societal factors. Key initiative successes included leveraging alcohol harm prevention activities that enabled projects to be piloted in healthcare settings, schools, communities, and alcohol outlets. Primary challenges included the complexity of multi-sectorial programming, varying degrees of political will, and difficulties monitoring outcomes over the short duration of the program.

  7. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  8. Development of an Active Ankle Foot Orthosis to Prevent Foot Drop and Toe Drag in Hemiplegic Patients: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyoon Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO that controls dorsiflexion/plantarflexion of the ankle joint to prevent foot drop and toe drag during hemiplegic walking. To prevent foot slap after initial contact, the ankle joint must remain active to minimize forefoot collision against the ground. During late stance, the ankle joint must also remain active to provide toe clearance and to aid with push-off. We implemented a series elastic actuator in our AAFO to induce ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The activator was controlled by signals from force sensing register (FSR sensors that detected gait events. Three dimensional gait analyses were performed for three hemiplegic patients under three different gait conditions: gait without AFO (NAFO, gait with a conventional hinged AFO that did not control the ankle joint (HAFO, and gait with the newly-developed AFO (AAFO. Our results demonstrate that our newly-developed AAFO not only prevents foot drop by inducing plantarflexion during loading response, but also prevents toe drag by facilitating plantarflexion during pre-swing and dorsiflexion during swing phase, leading to improvement in most temporal-spatial parameters. However, only three hemiplegic patients were included in this gait analysis. Studies including more subjects will be required to evaluate the functionality of our newly developed AAFO.

  9. Introducing Physician Assistants to Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Vanstone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC introduced Physician Assistants (PAs through the announcement of demonstration projects, education and training programs, and subsequent funding. PAs are directly supervised by physicians and act as physician extenders by performing acts as delegated to them by their supervising physicians. PAs were proposed as a potential solution to help improve access to health care and reduce wait times throughout the province. Prior to the 2006 Ministry announcement, there was little public discussion regarding the acceptance of the PA role or its sustainability. Opposition from nursing and other groups emerged in response to the 2006 announcement and flared again when stakeholder comments were solicited in 2012 as part of the PA application for status as regulated health professionals. As a health reform, the introduction of PAs has neither succeeded nor failed. In 2013, the majority of PA funding continues to be provided by the MOHLTC, and it is unknown whether the PA role will be sustainable when the MOHTLC withdraws salary funding and health system employers must decide whether or not to continue employing PAs at their own expense.

  10. Two new pollution regulations introduced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    A newly proposed regulation in Ontario will require the mandatory tracking of 358 airborne pollutants by the electricity sector as well as by other large industrial facilities such as iron and steel manufacturers and petroleum refiners. If passed, the regulation would make Ontario the first jurisdiction in the world to require monitoring and reporting of a full suite of major greenhouse gases, including smog and acid-rain causing emissions. The proposed regulation also provides for immediate public access to any reported information. Ontario residents can comment on the proposed regulation through the Environmental Bill of Rights registry. A new, more severe hazardous waste regulation will also take effect on March 31, 2001, whereby testing for 88 contaminants will be done according to a new standard called the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This new regulation also introduces a new 'derived from' rule which requires that a listed hazardous waste keep its classification until it can be demonstrated otherwise. Ontario's list of hazardous wastes has been updated to include 129 new chemicals and industrial processes. The Ontario Ministry has also adopted the Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone, as well as the Canada-wide Standards for mercury emissions from base metal smelters as well as from incineration of sewage sludge and municipal, medical, hazardous waste

  11. HIV prevention and transmission myths among heterosexually active adults in low-income areas of South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dano W; Lalota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Forrest, David W; Lieb, Spencer; Liberti, Thomas M

    2012-04-01

    Misconceptions about HIV transmission and prevention may inhibit individuals' accurate assessment of their level of risk. We used venue-based sampling to conduct a cross-sectional study of heterosexually active adults (N = 1,221) within areas exhibiting high poverty and HIV/AIDS rates in Miami-Dade and Broward counties in 2007. Two logistic regression analyses identified correlates of holding inaccurate beliefs about HIV transmission and prevention. Belief in incorrect HIV prevention methods (27.2%) and modes of transmission (38.5%) was common. Having at least one incorrect prevention belief was associated with being Hispanic compared to white (non-Hispanic), being depressed, and not knowing one's HIV status. Having at least one incorrect transmission belief was associated with being younger, heavy alcohol use, being depressed, not having seen a physician in the past 12 months, and not knowing one's HIV status. Among low-income heterosexuals, HIV prevention and transmission myths are widespread. Debunking them could have HIV prevention value.

  12. Participation of the SCO in Peacekeeping Activities, Prevention and Settlement of Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill M. Barskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Shanghai Cooperation Oprganization is a multi-functional interstate regional organizaton. One of the main priorities in the activities of the SCO is a cooperation in providing regional security and stability in the areas of counteraction against terrorism, separatism, extremism, drug tarfficking, other types of trans-border organized crime and against use of information-communication technologies in destructive purposes. There are all grounds to suppose that in forthcoming years the SCO, especially considering broadening the circle of its permanent state-members, will do some steps in direction of practical application of its latent potential in prevention and settlement of conflicts. Development of the SCO own peacekeeping instruments fully corresponds to the character and scales of security threats and tendencies of their evolution on the modern stage. Such a mechanism in arsenal of the SCO could play deterring role regarding latent local conflicts in its zone of responsibility. Obvious «plus» of involving the SCO in the peacekeeping sphere lays in the fact that its key members China and Russia - both are permamnent members of the UN Security Ciuncil, large powers, possessing serious financial capabilities, military and military-technological resources and rich experience of participation in peacekeeping operations. This is exactly Russia and China who would be able to share main responsibility of organization and financing the SCO peacekeeping operations. Emphasis on promoting settlement of conflicts, peacekeeping and strenhthening of confidence in the military sphere could become one of key vectors of converting the SCO into the regional security community and even become a foundation for the new system of security of Eurasia in the future.

  13. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Anagliptin Prevents Intracranial Aneurysm Growth by Suppressing Macrophage Infiltration and Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Taichi; Minami, Manabu; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Hayashi, Kosuke; Nagata, Manabu; Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Yasui, Mika; Aoki, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Miyuki; Yokode, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-06-19

    Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects, including suppressing macrophage infiltration, in various inflammatory models. We examined whether a DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, could suppress the growth of IAs in a rodent aneurysm model. IAs were surgically induced in 7-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats, followed by oral administration of 300 mg/kg anagliptin. We measured the morphologic parameters of aneurysms over time and their local inflammatory responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, we used lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. In the anagliptin-treated group, aneurysms were significantly smaller 2 to 4 weeks after IA induction. Anagliptin inhibited the accumulation of macrophages in IAs, reduced the expression of MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1), and suppressed the phosphorylation of p65. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, anagliptin treatment significantly reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor α, MCP-1, and IL-6 (interleukin 6) independent of GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), the key mediator in the antidiabetic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, anagliptin activated ERK5 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5), which mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of statins, in RAW264.7 macrophages. Preadministration with an ERK5 inhibitor blocked the inhibitory effect of anagliptin on MCP-1 and IL-6 expression. Accordingly, the ERK5 inhibitor also counteracted the suppression of p65 phosphorylation in vitro. A DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, prevents the growth of IAs via its anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Effect of mouthrinses with different active agents in the prevention of initial dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tatiane Alexandre; Scaramucci, Tais; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Simões, Alyne; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2015-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) from the gastric juice is the only source of intrinsic acid, which can reach the oral cavity in cases of gastroesophageal reflux or chronic vomiting, enhancing the risk of dental erosion. Compare the effects of mouthrinses with different active agents in the prevention of initial dental erosion caused by HCl. Casein (CAS at 0.2%), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP at 0.02%), titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4 at 0.34%), and stannous fluoride (SnF2 at 0.87%) were individually added to an experimental mouthrinse. The mouthrinse without additives was used as the negative control (C) and a commercially available mouthrinse for erosion (ELM-Elmex®) as the reference product. Enamel specimens were exposed to human saliva and randomly assigned to 6 experimental groups (n = 8). Specimens were submitted to erosion in HCl for 10 s, followed by to the experimental mouthrinses for 30 s, and artificial saliva for 60 min. This cycle was repeated 3 times. The total amounts of calcium and phosphorus released by the specimens in the 2nd and 3rd erosive challenges were evaluated by atomic emission spectrometry. Statistical analysis used Shapiro-Wilks and Hartley tests, followed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. When compared with C, ELM and HMP presented significantly less calcium in solution, with no difference between them. All the groups showed similar and significantly less phosphorus than C, except CAS. HMP was the only agent that could match the protection against initial erosion of the commercially available mouthrinse in both analyses.

  15. Effect of mouthrinses with different active agents in the prevention of initial dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Alexandre de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydrochloric acid (HCl from the gastric juice is the only source of intrinsic acid, which can reach the oral cavity in cases of gastroesophageal reflux or chronic vomiting, enhancing the risk of dental erosion. Aim: Compare the effects of mouthrinses with different active agents in the prevention of initial dental erosion caused by HCl. Subjects and Methods: Casein (CAS at 0.2%, sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP at 0.02%, titanium tetrafluoride (TiF 4 at 0.34%, and stannous fluoride (SnF 2 at 0.87% were individually added to an experimental mouthrinse. The mouthrinse without additives was used as the negative control (C and a commercially available mouthrinse for erosion (ELM - Elmex ® as the reference product. Enamel specimens were exposed to human saliva and randomly assigned to 6 experimental groups (n = 8. Specimens were submitted to erosion in HCl for 10 s, followed by to the experimental mouthrinses for 30 s, and artificial saliva for 60 min. This cycle was repeated 3 times. The total amounts of calcium and phosphorus released by the specimens in the 2 nd and 3 rd erosive challenges were evaluated by atomic emission spectrometry. Statistical analysis used Shapiro-Wilks and Hartley tests, followed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: When compared with C, ELM and HMP presented significantly less calcium in solution, with no difference between them. All the groups showed similar and significantly less phosphorus than C, except CAS. Conclusions: HMP was the only agent that could match the protection against initial erosion of the commercially available mouthrinse in both analyses.

  16. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  17. SV40 Utilizes ATM Kinase Activity to Prevent Non-homologous End Joining of Broken Viral DNA Replication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PKcs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PKcs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5′ to 3′ end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication. PMID:25474690

  18. Role of Leisure Time Physical Activity in Cancer Prevention: Awareness and Practice among Medical Students at Cairo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Mohamed Abdelmoaty, Alshaimaa; Fouad Abd El Badei, Alaa; Obaid, Hamzah Ahmed; Mohamed, Esraa Mowafy; abosheab, Alaa; Abdulkarim, Ali; Abdelsadek, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is accountable for a sizable proportion of breast and colorectal cancers and other non-communicable diseases. The higher the individual’s awareness about the protective role of physical activity (PA) in reducing chronic disease, the greater the adoption of PA will be. Objectives: To determine the level of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and awareness towards the role of LTPA in cancer prevention among a sample of Medical students at Cairo University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study, with multistage sampling (a total of 519 students from second to six year students) and a self administered questionnaire covering the study objectives. Results: A significant decrease in the actual?? level of LTPA was noted with students’ year of enrollment at the medical school. However, their knowledge about roles of PA in preventing coronary heart, elevated blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol exceeded 80%, with steady increase in relation to the year of enrolment from the second to 6th years. Their knowledge about PA preventive influence for cancer was low irrespective of the year enrolment (32.2% for prevention of colon and 16.2% for breast cancers). The main sources of knowledge about the role of PA in cancer prevention were the internet and media (77%). Conclusion: The students demonstrated a decline in their LTPA coupled with poor knowledge about the role of LTPA in cancer prevention. Revision of the current curricula should be considered with inclusion of more information on the role of LTPA in cancer prevention to facilitate better awareness of medical students and through them their future patients. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. Introducing Students to Career Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Using a Web-based program he developed, one educator is helping students understand how their career and lifestyle choices are linked. MyLife, a Web-based life-planning program for young people, offers comprehensive budget activity in which participants develop simulations of their fantasy futures and calculate their future monthly…

  20. The role of sports clubs in helping older people to stay active and prevent frailty: a longitudinal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Paul; Webb, Elizabeth; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2017-07-14

    Frailty is a common syndrome in older adults characterised by increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes as a result of decline in functional and physiological measures. Frailty predicts a range of poor health and social outcomes and is associated with increased risk of hospital admission. The health benefits of sport and physical activity and the health risks of inactivity are well known. However, less is known about the role of sports clubs and physical activity in preventing and managing frailty in older adults. The objective of this study is to examine the role of membership of sports clubs in promoting physical activity and reducing levels of frailty in older adults. We used data from waves 1 to 7 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Survey items on physical activity were combined to produce a measure of moderate or vigorous physical activity for each wave. Frailty was measured using an index of accumulated deficits. A total of sixty deficits, including symptoms, disabilities and diseases were recorded through self-report and tests. Direct and indirect relationships between sports club membership, levels of physical activity and frailty were examined using a cross-lagged panel model. We found evidence for an indirect relationship between sports club membership and frailty, mediated by physical activity. This finding was observed when examining time-specific indirect pathways and the total of all indirect pathways across seven waves of survey data (Est = -0.097 [95% CI = -0.124,-0.070], p = sports clubs may be useful in preventing and managing frailty in older adults, both directly and indirectly through increased physical activity levels. Sports clubs accessible to older people may improve health in this demographic by increasing activity levels and reducing frailty and associated comorbidities. There is a need for investment in these organisations to provide opportunities for older people to achieve the levels of physical activity

  1. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Liposomal Bupivacaine did not develop mechanical allodynia following exposure to stress, but did develop social avoidance behavior. Neither drug affected stress-induced activation of monocytes in the bone marrow, blood, or brain. Neuroinflammatory responses developed in all treatment groups, as evidenced by elevated IL-1β mRNA levels in the brain and spinal cord after RSD. In this study, psychosocial stress was associated with increased pain sensitivity in mice. Development of mechanical allodynia with RSD was blocked by regional analgesia with local anesthetics, Ropivacaine or Liposomal Bupivacaine. Despite blocking mechanical allodynia, these anesthetic interventions did not prevent neuroimmune activation or social avoidance associated with RSD. These data suggest that stress-induced neuroinflammatory changes are not associated with increased sensitivity to pain following RSD. Thus, blocking peripheral nociception was effective in inhibiting enhanced pain signaling without altering stress-induced immune or behavioral responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Active body surface warming systems for preventing complications caused by inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Eva; Urrútia, Gerard; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Campos, Juan Manuel; Paniagua, Pilar; Maestre, Luz; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2016-04-21

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a phenomenon that can occur as a result of the suppression of the central mechanisms of temperature regulation due to anaesthesia, and of prolonged exposure of large surfaces of skin to cold temperatures in operating rooms. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia has been associated with clinical complications such as surgical site infection and wound-healing delay, increased bleeding or cardiovascular events. One of the most frequently used techniques to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is active body surface warming systems (ABSW), which generate heat mechanically (heating of air, water or gels) that is transferred to the patient via skin contact. To assess the effectiveness of pre- or intraoperative active body surface warming systems (ABSW), or both, to prevent perioperative complications from unintended hypothermia during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 9, 2015); MEDLINE (PubMed) (1964 to October 2015), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2015), and CINAHL (Ovid) (1982 to October 2015). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ABSW system aimed at maintaining normothermia perioperatively against a control or against any other ABSW system. Eligible studies also had to include relevant clinical outcomes other than measuring temperature alone. Several authors, by pairs, screened references and determined eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consensus, with the collaboration of a third author. We included 67 trials with 5438 participants that comprised 79 comparisons. Forty-five RCTs compared ABSW versus control, whereas 18 compared two different types of ABSW, and 10 compared two different techniques to administer the same type of ABSW. Forced-air warming (FAW) was by far the most studied intervention.Trials varied widely regarding whether the interventions were

  3. Experiences about HIV-AIDS preventive-control activities. Discourses from non-governmental organizations professionals and users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Violan, Concepció; Romaguera, Amparo; Mansilla, Rosa; Giménez, Albert; Almeda, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the experiences of professionals in nongovernmental organizations (NGO) in Catalonia (Spain) working in HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities and potential areas of improvement of these activities and their evaluation. A further aim was to characterize the experiences, knowledge and practices of users of these organizations with regard to HIV infection and its prevention. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted with the participation of both professionals and users of Catalan nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working in HIV/AIDS. Theoretical sampling (professional) and opportunistic sampling (users) were performed. To collect information, the following techniques were used: four focus groups and one triangular group (professionals), 22 semi-structured interviews, and two observations (users). A thematic interpretive content analysis was conducted by three analysts. The professionals of nongovernmental organizations working in HIV/AIDS adopted a holistic approach in their activities, maintained confidentiality, had cultural and professional competence and followed the principles of equality and empathy. The users of these organizations had knowledge of HIV/AIDS and understood the risk of infection. However, a gap was found between knowledge, attitudes and behavior. NGO offer distinct activities adapted to users' needs. Professionals emphasize the need for support and improvement of planning and implementation of current assessment. The preventive activities of these HIV/AIDS organizations are based on a participatory health education model adjusted to people's needs and focused on empowerment. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Food intake during the normal activity phase prevents obesity and circadian desynchrony in a rat model of night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; Saderi, Nadia; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina

    2010-03-01

    Shift work or night work is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and other diseases. The cause for these pathologies is proposed to be the dissociation between the temporal signals from the biological clock and the sleep/activity schedule of the night worker. We investigated the mechanisms promoting metabolic desynchrony in a model for night work in rats, based on daily 8-h activity schedules during the resting phase. We demonstrate that the major alterations leading to internal desynchrony induced by this working protocol, flattened glucose and locomotor rhythms and the development of abdominal obesity, were caused by food intake during the rest phase. Shifting food intake to the normal activity phase prevented body weight increase and reverted metabolic and rhythmic disturbances of the shift work animals to control ranges. These observations demonstrate that feeding habits may prevent or induce internal desynchrony and obesity.

  5. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  6. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities.

  7. Preventing Obesity in Canada’s Aboriginal Children: Not Just a Matter of Eating Right and Getting Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. Ferris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing issue for all children. Many experts say that preventing obesity is largely a matter of eating the right foods and getting enough physical activity. This advice doesn’t recognize the fact that First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children face unique barriers to growing up healthy and strong simply because of theiridentity. This paper discusses how the social determinants of health impact the ability of Aboriginal children to grow up free of obesity. The paper highlights results from a community-based research project conducted amongst Aboriginal parents and service providers in Ontario who wish to prevent obesity amongst their ownyoung children and clients. Research was carried out over two years to help develop a “toolkit” and training program to help service provides increase efforts to prevent obesity amongst First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children from the ages of 2 to 6 in Ontario.

  8. Service-learning in higher education relevant to the promotion of physical activity, healthful eating, and prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rosenkranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  9. New insights into prevention of disability by physical activity and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.; Dronkers, J.; Koeneman, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract for the International Society for Aging and Physical activity's 8th World Congress on Aging and Physical Activity: A celebration of Diversity and Inclusion in Active Ageing, August 13-17 2012.

  10. Activated protein C and its potential applications in prevention of islet β-cell damage and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Meilang; Jackson, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is derived from its precursor, protein C (PC). Originally thought to be synthesized exclusively by the liver, recent reports have shown that PC is also produced by many other cells including pancreatic islet β cells. APC functions as a physiological anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and barrier-stabilizing properties. APC exerts its protective effects via an intriguing mechanism requiring combinations of endothelial PC receptor, protease-activated receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor, Tie2 or CD11b, depending on cell types. Diabetes is a chronic condition resulted from the body's inability to produce and/or properly use insulin. The prevalence of diabetes has risen dramatically and has become one of the major causes of premature mortality and morbidity worldwide. Diabetes prevention is an ideal approach to reduce this burden. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the major forms of diabetes mellitus, and both are characterized by an autoimmune response, intraislet inflammation, β-cell apoptosis, and progressive β-cell loss. Protecting β-cell from damage is critical in both prevention and treatment of diabetes. Recent in vitro and animal studies show that APC's strong anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties are beneficial in preventing β-cell destruction and diabetes in the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Future preventive and therapeutic uses of APC in diabetes look very promising. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Analysis of activities of the preventive dentistry service in the Health Area 8 of the Valencia Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena Puy, M C; Ausina Márquez, V

    1996-02-29

    We describe and analize the activities we carried out in a surgery from a preventive dentistry unit. Longitudinal descriptive study from 1993 since 1994. Health Area 8 from the Valencian Autonomous Region. Children from 3 to 14 year-old attendant to the preventive dentistry unit's surgery (2.497). We visited 5.012 children. The highest percentage of population corresponded to the zona 4, where began at first the preventive service. The activities distribution was as follow: oral explorations and plaque control (100%), fluoride topic aplication (90.38%), diet control (36.81%), pit and fisure sealants (6.46%), profilaxis (8.71%), radiological diagnosis (6.46%), dental emergencies (2.17%). The users origin was: 38.88% school oral explorations made over 6- and 10-year-old children; 63.71% from self-request; and 16.45% sent by other health professionals. 41.42% were continuated visits. Demand of preventive dental services is very high in our health area, although incorporation of therapeutic techniques is wished by the population. This demand increase as well as the surgery is closer to the user. People from big cities are stubborn using these services from smallest villages, even having transport facilities. Children start coming to the consults between 5-6 year-old, keeping an acceptable control until 12 approximately.

  12. The negative effect of financial constraints on planning prevention activities: some evidence from the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Annalisa; De Vito, Corrado; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; D'Andrea, Elvira; Villari, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to assess the association between regional financial deficits and Recovery Plans and the quality of the 702 projects developed by the Italian Regions within the National Prevention Plan 2010-13. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between Recovery Plans and low quality of projects, possibly due to weak regional public health capacities. Regions with Recovery Plans are likely to focus mainly on short-term issues with a high impact on health care costs, leaving few resources available for prevention. A different approach to financial deficit focused on long-term strategies, including those for health promotion and disease prevention, is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability of a Novel Social Activity Questionnaire: Perceived Social Support and Verbal Interaction in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Koscik, Rebecca L; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Peppard, Paul E; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Engelman, Corinne D

    2018-02-01

    Social activity is associated with healthy aging and preserved cognition. Such activity includes a confluence of social support and verbal interaction, each influencing cognition through rarely parsed, mechanistically distinct pathways. We created a novel verbal interaction measure for the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) and assessed reliability of resultant data, a first step toward mechanism-driven examination of social activity as a modifiable predictor of cognitive health. Two WRAP subsamples completed a test-retest study to determine 8-week stability ( n = 107) and 2-year stability ( n = 136) of verbal interaction, and 2-year stability of perceived social support. Reliability was determined using quadratic-weighted kappa, percent agreement, or correlation coefficients. Reliability was fair to almost perfect. The association between social support and interaction quantity decreased with age. Social activity data demonstrate moderate to excellent temporal stability. Moreover, in older individuals, social support and verbal interaction represent two distinct dimensions of social activity.

  14. Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of diseases of affluence – the key role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Grochowska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, we can observe an increasing number of people with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. The main reason for this phenomenon is the abnormal energy balance due to sedentary lifestyles. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in many countries around the world, nowadays. In this paper, the impact of physical activity on the effectiveness of treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases and cancer is considered. Exercise is one of the factors activating 5’AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. This enzyme is crucial in maintaining the energy balance of the cell and the entire organism, and its activation results in excluding the anabolic and switching on the catabolic processes. It is believed that the activation of AMPK is responsible for most of the positive effects resulting from physical exercise. Although there are pharmacological methods of activation of this enzyme, they seem to be not as effective as physical exercise. Therefore, physical activity should be the most important form of prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

  15. Totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro and ameliorates brain ischemic stroke: Potential roles of Akt activation and HO-1 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yuanxue; Xu, Xiaojun; Chang, Sai; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yazhou; Ran, Siqi [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Huang, Zhangjian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Ping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Jia [National Center for Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Guo Shoujing Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang, Luyong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Saavedra, Juan M. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Liao, Hong, E-mail: liaohong56@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Pang, Tao, E-mail: tpang@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The natural product totarol, a phenolic diterpenoid and a major constituent isolated from the sap of Podocarpus totara, has been reported to have a potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether totarol possessed an additional neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo. We found that totarol prevented glutamate- and oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death in primary rat cerebellar granule neuronal cells and cerebral cortical neurons. Totarol increased Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions and suppressed oxidative stress by increasing GSH and SOD activities. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 prevented totarol neuroprotective effect by suppressing the totarol-induced changes in HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. The HO-1 inhibitor ZnPPIX also prevented totarol-increased GSH and SOD activities. In a model of acute cerebral ischemic injury in Sprague–Dawley rats, produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 h followed by 22 h or 46 h of reperfusion, totarol significantly reduced infarct volume and improved the neurological deficit. In this model, totarol increased HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. These observations suggest that totarol may be a novel activator of the Akt/HO-1 pathway protecting against ischemic stroke through reduction of oxidative stress. - Graphical abstract: It is unknown whether the natural product totarol has neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. This study underscores that totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro, not only by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, but also via induction of Nrf2, HO-1, GSH and SOD expressions. Totarol also ameliorated acute cerebral ischemic injury in a rat ischemic stroke model. The findings highlight that totarol may be exploited for protecting against ischemic stroke through Akt/HO-1 pathway. - Highlights: • Totarol protects glutamate- and OGD-induced neuronal injury in vitro.

  16. Totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro and ameliorates brain ischemic stroke: Potential roles of Akt activation and HO-1 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yuanxue; Xu, Xiaojun; Chang, Sai; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yazhou; Ran, Siqi; Huang, Zhangjian; Li, Ping; Li, Jia; Zhang, Luyong; Saavedra, Juan M.; Liao, Hong; Pang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The natural product totarol, a phenolic diterpenoid and a major constituent isolated from the sap of Podocarpus totara, has been reported to have a potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether totarol possessed an additional neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo. We found that totarol prevented glutamate- and oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death in primary rat cerebellar granule neuronal cells and cerebral cortical neurons. Totarol increased Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions and suppressed oxidative stress by increasing GSH and SOD activities. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 prevented totarol neuroprotective effect by suppressing the totarol-induced changes in HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. The HO-1 inhibitor ZnPPIX also prevented totarol-increased GSH and SOD activities. In a model of acute cerebral ischemic injury in Sprague–Dawley rats, produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 h followed by 22 h or 46 h of reperfusion, totarol significantly reduced infarct volume and improved the neurological deficit. In this model, totarol increased HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. These observations suggest that totarol may be a novel activator of the Akt/HO-1 pathway protecting against ischemic stroke through reduction of oxidative stress. - Graphical abstract: It is unknown whether the natural product totarol has neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. This study underscores that totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro, not only by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, but also via induction of Nrf2, HO-1, GSH and SOD expressions. Totarol also ameliorated acute cerebral ischemic injury in a rat ischemic stroke model. The findings highlight that totarol may be exploited for protecting against ischemic stroke through Akt/HO-1 pathway. - Highlights: • Totarol protects glutamate- and OGD-induced neuronal injury in vitro.

  17. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paola Corrêa da SILVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective: In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods: Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results: EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm, as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae (15.04±2.29 mm. EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLactive extracts, discovered in the Amazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries.

  18. Pretreatment with quercetin prevents changes in lymphocytes E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and cytokines secretion in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Josiane B S; Ruchel, Jader B; Manzoni, Alessandra G; Abdalla, Fátima H; Casalli, Emerson A; Castilhos, Lívia G; Passos, Daniela F; Leal, Daniela B R

    2017-11-29

    Hyperlipidemia (HL) is a condition associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory disorders. Purinergic system ectoenzymes play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and immune response. This study investigated whether the preventive treatment with quercetin is able to prevent changes caused by hyperlipidemia in the purinergic system, through the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in lymphocytes, and quantify the nucleotides and nucleoside, and the secretion of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines. Animals were divided into saline/control, saline/quercetin 5 mg/kg, saline/quercetin 25 mg/kg, saline/quercetin 50 mg/kg, saline/simvastatin (0.04 mg/kg), hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 5 mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 25 mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 50 mg/kg, and hyperlipidemia/simvastatin. Animals were pretreated with quercetin for 30 days and hyperlipidemia was subsequently induced by intraperitoneal administration of 500 mg/kg of poloxamer-407. Simvastatin was administered after the induction of hyperlipidemia. Lymphocytes were isolated and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were determined. Serum was separated for the cytokines and nucleotide/nucleoside quantification. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were increased in lymphocytes from hyperlipidemic rats and pretreatment with quercetin was able to prevent the increase in the activities of these enzymes caused by hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemic rats when receiving pretreatment with quercetin and treatment with simvastatin showed decreased levels of ATP and ADP when compared to the untreated hyperlipidemic group. The IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines were increased in the hyperlipidemic group when compared with control group, and decreased when hyperlipidemic rats received the pretreatment with quercetin. However, pretreatment with quercetin was able to prevent the alterations caused by hyperlipidemia probably by regulating the inflammatory process. We can suggest that the quercetin is a

  19. The biflavonoid amentoflavone inhibits neovascularization preventing the activity of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarallo, Valeria; Lepore, Laura; Marcellini, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    collections consisting of >100 plant extracts. Here, we report the isolation and identification from an extract of the Malian plant Chrozophora senegalensis of the biflavonoid amentoflavone as an antiangiogenic bioactive molecule. Amentoflavone can to bind VEGFs preventing the interaction and phosphorylation...

  20. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Piracetam prevents scopolamine-induced memory impairment and decrease of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisco, Patricia C; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Rosa, Michelle M; Girardi, Bruna A; Gutierres, Jessié M; Jaques, Jeandre A S; Salla, Ana P S; Pimentel, Víctor C; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Leal, Daniela B R; Mello, Carlos F; Rubin, Maribel A

    2013-08-01

    Piracetam improves cognitive function in animals and in human beings, but its mechanism of action is still not completely known. In the present study, we investigated whether enzymes involved in extracellular adenine nucleotide metabolism, adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) are affected by piracetam in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of animals subjected to scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Piracetam (0.02 μmol/5 μL, intracerebroventricular, 60 min pre-training) prevented memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, immediately post-training) in the inhibitory avoidance learning and in the object recognition task. Scopolamine reduced the activity of NTPDase in hippocampus (53 % for ATP and 53 % for ADP hydrolysis) and cerebral cortex (28 % for ATP hydrolysis). Scopolamine also decreased the activity of 5'-nucleotidase (43 %) and ADA (91 %) in hippocampus. The same effect was observed in the cerebral cortex for 5'-nucleotidase (38 %) and ADA (68 %) activities. Piracetam fully prevented scopolamine-induced memory impairment and decrease of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In vitro experiments show that piracetam and scopolamine did not alter enzymatic activity in cerebral cortex synaptosomes. Moreover, piracetam prevented scopolamine-induced increase of TBARS levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These results suggest that piracetam-induced improvement of memory is associated with protection against oxidative stress and maintenance of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and ADA activities, and suggest the purinergic system as a putative target of piracetam.

  2. Identifying environmental, social, and psychological correlates of meeting the recommended physical activity levels for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-11-01

    Although physical activity reduces the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, a large proportion of the population is not sufficiently physically active. Therefore, the present study examined the environmental, social, and psychological correlates for meeting the 2 recommended physical activity criteria: ≥420 min per week of at least moderate-intensity activity (MPA criterion) and ≥210 min per week of vigorous activity (VPA criterion) for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults. Cross-sectional study. The sample included 2000 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. An Internet-based survey was used to assess seven sociodemographic variables (e.g., education level, employment status), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, residential area), social variables (social support), psychological variables (self-efficacy, perceived positive (pros) and negative (cons) aspects of exercise), and physical activity. The adjusted odds of meeting each physical activity criterion by these variables were calculated. Overall, 22.3% of the study population met the criterion of MPA, and 7.3% met the criterion of VPA. Having high self-efficacy, fewer perceived cons, possessing home fitness equipment, reporting enjoyable scenery, and living in a rural area were significantly associated with meeting the recommended criteria. Participants who met the 2 activity recommendations differed by self-efficacy, cons, possession of home fitness equipment, reporting of enjoyable scenery, and residential area. These findings imply that strategies to promote more intense physical activities specifically in terms of these variables may be necessary for colon cancer prevention. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Introducing Spoken Dialogue Systems into Intelligent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Heinroth, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Introducing Spoken Dialogue Systems into Intelligent Environments outlines the formalisms of a novel knowledge-driven framework for spoken dialogue management and presents the implementation of a model-based Adaptive Spoken Dialogue Manager(ASDM) called OwlSpeak. The authors have identified three stakeholders that potentially influence the behavior of the ASDM: the user, the SDS, and a complex Intelligent Environment (IE) consisting of various devices, services, and task descriptions. The theoretical foundation of a working ontology-based spoken dialogue description framework, the prototype implementation of the ASDM, and the evaluation activities that are presented as part of this book contribute to the ongoing spoken dialogue research by establishing the fertile ground of model-based adaptive spoken dialogue management. This monograph is ideal for advanced undergraduate students, PhD students, and postdocs as well as academic and industrial researchers and developers in speech and multimodal interactive ...

  4. Policies for promotion of physical activity and prevention of obesity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Flynn, Jennifer I; Dowda, Marsha

    2016-12-01

    Obesity rates among children and adolescents in developed countries have increased dramatically since the 1970s. During that same period, numerous secular changes have combined to reduce the demand for physical activity in day-to-day life, and many barriers to physical activity are now evident. As a consequence, most children and adolescents do not meet the accepted public health guidelines for physical activity. Accordingly, public health interventions are needed to increase physical activity in adolescence. Such interventions, if successfully implemented, can be expected to improve fitness and health as well as reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young people. Promotion of physical activity in populations of children and adolescents will require comprehensive strategic planning and adoption of new policies in multiple societal sectors. This paper highlights nine initiatives that can address the problem of physical activity in children. The initiatives are to: establish comprehensive school physical activity programming; demand high quality physical education; require physical activity in early child care and education; require physical activity in afterschool programs; create equity in community resources; activate youth sports programs; re-normalize active transport to school; institutionalize clinic-based physical activity assessment and counseling; and build activity-friendly homes. A case will be made for comprehensive national and international strategic planning aimed at effective and large-scale implementation of these initiatives and tactics.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is expressed in hippocampal neurons and its activation prevents β-amyloid neurodegeneration: role of Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Godoy, Juan A.; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Koenig, Cecilia S.; Bronfman, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the participation of the amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ), which plays a critical role in the neurodegeneration that triggers the disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors, which are members of the nuclear receptor family. We report here that (1) PPARγ is present in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. (2) Activation of PPARγ by troglitazone and rosiglitazone protects rat hippocampal neurons against Aβ-induced neurodegeneration, as shown by the 3-[4,5 -2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, immunofluorescence using an anti-heavy neurofilament antibody, and quantitative electron microscopy. (3) Hippocampal neurons treated with several PPARγ agonists, including troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone, prevent the excitotoxic Aβ-induced rise in bulk-free Ca 2+ . (4) PPARγ activation results in the modulation of Wnt signaling components, including the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and an increase of the cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin levels. We conclude that the activation of PPARγ prevents Aβ-induced neurodegeneration by a mechanism that may involve a cross talk between neuronal PPARγ and the Wnt signaling pathway. More important, the fact that the activation of PPARγ attenuated Aβ-dependent neurodegeneration opens the possibility to fight AD from a new therapeutic perspective

  6. Pediatric Obesity: Is There Room for Active Video Games in Prevention or Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; OʼMalley, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents spend a considerable amount of time engaged in sedentary behaviors that have been shown to favor weight gain and impaired physical fitness. Active video games have been proposed to increase physical activity levels. Although active video games may offer an interesting alternative to reducing sedentary time for children, the present commentary aimed to determine whether there is adequate evidence that compared active video gaming to real-life play and exercise. Given the dearth of data, it is not possible at present to support the use of active video games as substitutes for traditional forms of active play and health-enhancing physical activity. Further research should be encouraged and therapists should not consider active video games exclusively for intervention in children with obesity.

  7. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pressure ulcers (PU) are the most costly secondary complication following an SCI. In addition to the medical costs ...Introduction Pressure ulcers (PU) are the most costly secondary complication following an SCI. In addition to the medical costs , the development of a...Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen Sprigle, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Tech Research

  8. VIEWS REGARDING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE ACTIVITIES RELATEDTO THE PREVENTION AND COMBAT AGAINST MONEY LAUNDERING

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRESCU Serju; AVRAM Marioara

    2012-01-01

    The present paper tries to render different aspects of money laundering in Romania according to the present legislation. We have tried to identify several aspects related to this issue such as: the sequences of the money laundering process, the entities having reporting obligations, the duties of the persons in charge with the prevention & combat against money laundering, report deadlines, different types of reporting which have to be done to the Money Laundering Department , the contraventio...

  9. Herbal Medicine Goshajinkigan Prevents Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia without Impairing Antitumor Activity of Paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Muh. Akbar; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Ogura, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Ikuo; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are no effective strategies to treat the neuropathy. We examined whether Goshajinkigan, a herbal medicine, would prevent paclitaxel-induced allodynia without affecting the anticancer action in mice. Murine breast cancer 4T1 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad. Paclitaxel (10 and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, alternate day from day 7 postinoculation) ...

  10. Herbal Medicine Goshajinkigan Prevents Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia without Impairing Antitumor Activity of Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Akbar Bahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are no effective strategies to treat the neuropathy. We examined whether Goshajinkigan, a herbal medicine, would prevent paclitaxel-induced allodynia without affecting the anticancer action in mice. Murine breast cancer 4T1 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad. Paclitaxel (10 and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, alternate day from day 7 postinoculation inhibited the tumor growth, and Goshajinkigan (1 g/kg, oral, daily from day 2 postinoculation did not affect the antitumor action of paclitaxel. Mechanical allodynia developed in the inoculated region due to tumor growth and in the hind paw due to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Paclitaxel-induced allodynia was markedly prevented by Goshajinkigan, although tumor-associated allodynia was not inhibited by Goshajinkigan. These results suggest that Goshajinkigan prevents paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy without interfering with the anti-cancer action of paclitaxel.

  11. The Role of Mesolimbic Reward Neurocircuitry in Prevention and Rescue of the Activity-Based Anorexia (ABA) Phenotype in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Claire J; Milton, Laura K; Oldfield, Brian J

    2017-11-01

    Patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic; unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) model recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, including anhedonia, and allows investigation of the underlying neurobiology of AN. The potential for increased neuronal activity in reward/hedonic circuits to prevent and rescue weight loss is investigated in this model. The mesolimbic pathway extending from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was activated using a dual viral strategy, involving retrograde transport of Cre (CAV-2-Cre) to the VTA and coincident injection of DREADD receptors (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mCherry). Systemic clozapine-n-oxide (CNO; 0.3 mg/kg) successfully recruited a large proportion of the VTA-NAc dopaminergic projections, with activity evidenced by colocalization with elevated levels of Fos protein. The effects of reward circuit activation on energy balance and predicted survival was investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats, where free access to running wheels was paired with time-limited (90 min) access to food, a paradigm (ABA) which will cause anorexia and death if unchecked. Excitation of the reward pathway substantially increased food intake and food anticipatory activity (FAA) to prevent ABA-associated weight loss, while overall locomotor activity was unchanged. Similar activation of reward circuitry, delayed until establishment of the ABA phenotype, rescued rats from their precipitous weight loss. Although these data are consistent with shifts primarily in food intake, the contribution of mechanisms including energy expenditure to survival remains to be determined. These results will inform the neurobiological underpinnings of AN, and provide insight into the mechanisms of reward circuitry relevant to feeding and weight loss.

  12. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, de M.; Seidell, J.; Vet, de E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective - The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of

  13. Replacing non-active video gaming by active video gaming to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, M. de; Seidell, J.; Vet, E. de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of

  14. Fluoro-Phenyl-Styrene-Sulfonamide, a Novel Inhibitor of σB Activity, Prevents the Activation of σB by Environmental and Energy Stresses in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringus, Daina L.; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sigma B (σB) is an alternative sigma factor that regulates the general stress response in Bacillus subtilis and in many other Gram-positive organisms. σB activity in B. subtilis is tightly regulated via at least three distinct pathways within a complex signal transduction cascade in response to a variety of stresses, including environmental stress, energy stress, and growth at high or low temperatures. We probed the ability of fluoro-phenyl-styrene-sulfonamide (FPSS), a small-molecule inhibitor of σB activity in Listeria monocytogenes, to inhibit σB activity in B. subtilis through perturbation of signal transduction cascades under various stress conditions. FPSS inhibited the activation of σB in response to multiple categories of stress known to induce σB activity in B. subtilis. Specifically, FPSS prevented the induction of σB activity in response to energy stress, including entry into stationary phase, phosphate limitation, and azide stress. FPSS also inhibited chill induction of σB activity in a ΔrsbV strain, suggesting that FPSS does not exclusively target the RsbU and RsbP phosphatases or the anti–anti-sigma factor RsbV, all of which contribute to posttranslational regulation of σB activity. Genetic and biochemical experiments, including artificial induction of σB, analysis of the phosphorylation state of the anti–anti-sigma factor RsbV, and in vitro transcription assays, indicate that while FPSS does not bind directly to σB to inhibit activity, it appears to prevent the release of B. subtilis σB from its anti-sigma factor RsbW. PMID:23524614

  15. Audit of preventive activities in 16 inner London practices using a validated measure of patient population, the 'active patient' denominator. Healthy Eastenders Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, J; Falshaw, M

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Reliable comparison of the results of audit between general practices and over time requires standard definitions of numerators and denominators. This is particularly relevant in areas of high population turnover and practice list inflation. Without simple validation to remove supernumeraries, population coverage and professional activity may be underestimated. AIM. This audit study aimed to define a standard denominator, the 'active patient' denominator, to enable comparison of professional activity and population coverage for preventive activities between general practices and over time. It also aimed to document the extent to which computers were used for recording such activities. METHOD. A random sample of people in the age group 30-64 years was drawn from the computerized general practice registers of the 16 inner London general practices that participated in the 'healthy eastenders project'. A validation procedure excluded those patients who were likely to have died or moved away, or who for administrative reasons were unable to contribute to the numerator; this allowed the creation of the active patient denominator. An audit of preventive activities with numerators drawn from both paper and computerized medical records was carried out and results were presented so that practices could compare their results with those of their peers and over time. RESULTS. Of the original sample of 2331 people, 25% (practice range 13%-37%) were excluded as a result of the validation procedure. A denominator based on the complete, unexpurgated practice register rather than the validated active patient denominator would have reduced the proportion of people with blood pressure recorded within the preceding five years from 77% to 61%, recording of smoking status from 68% to 53% and recording of cervical smears from 80% to 66%. Only 53% of the last recordings, within the preceding five years, of blood pressure and only 54% of those of smoking status were recorded on

  16. A Community-Level Initiative to Prevent Obesity: Results From Kaiser Permanente's Healthy Eating Active Living Zones Initiative in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Atiedu, Akpene; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Keene, Laura; Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Spring, Rebecca; Molina, Michelle; Lee, Lynda; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Steimberg, Clara; Tinajero, Roberta; Ravel, Jodi; Nudelman, Jean; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Kuo, Elena S; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    A growing number of health systems are leading health promotion efforts in their wider communities. What impact are these efforts having on health behaviors and ultimately health status? This paper presents evaluation results from the place-based Kaiser Permanente Healthy Eating Active Living Zones obesity prevention initiative, implemented in 2011-2015 in 12 low-income communities in Kaiser Permanente's Northern and Southern California Regions. The Healthy Eating Active Living Zones design targeted places and people through policy, environmental, and programmatic strategies. Each Healthy Eating Active Living Zone is a small, low-income community of 10,000 to 20,000 residents with high obesity rates and other health disparities. Community coalitions planned and implemented strategies in each community. A population-dose approach and pre and post surveys were used to assess impact of policy, program, and environmental change strategies; the analysis was conducted in 2016. Population dose is the product of reach (number of people affected by a strategy divided by target population size) and strength (the effect size or relative change in behavior for each person exposed to the strategy). More than 230 community change strategies were implemented over 3 years, encompassing policy, environmental, and programmatic changes as well as efforts to build community capacity to sustain strategies and make changes in the future. Positive population-level results were seen for higher-dose strategies, particularly those targeting youth physical activity. Higher-dose strategies were more likely to be found in communities with the longest duration of investment. These results demonstrate that strong (high-dose), community-based obesity prevention strategies can lead to improved health behaviors, particularly among youth in school settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is

  17. Use of lymphokine-activated killer cells to prevent bone marrow graft rejection and lethal graft-vs-host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Kaplan, J.

    1989-01-01

    Prompted by our recent finding that lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells mediate both veto and natural suppression, we tested the ability of adoptively transferred LAK cells to block two in vivo alloreactions which complicate bone marrow transplantation: resistance to transplanted allogeneic bone marrow cells, and lethal graft-vs-host disease. Adoptive transfer of either donor type B6D2 or recipient-type B6 lymphokine-activated bone marrow cells, cells found to have strong LAK activity, abrogated or inhibited the resistance of irradiated B6 mice to both B6D2 marrow and third party-unrelated C3H marrow as measured by CFU in spleen on day 7. The ability of lymphokine-activated bone marrow cells to abrogate allogeneic resistance was eliminated by C lysis depletion of cells expressing asialo-GM1, NK1.1, and, to a variable degree, Thy-1, but not by depletion of cells expressing Lyt-2, indicating that the responsible cells had a LAK cell phenotype. Similar findings were obtained by using splenic LAK cells generated by 3 to 7 days of culture with rIL-2. Demonstration that allogeneic resistance could be blocked by a cloned LAK cell line provided direct evidence that LAK cells inhibit allogeneic resistance. In addition to inhibiting allogeneic resistance, adoptively transferred recipient-type LAK cells prevented lethal graft-vs-host disease, and permitted long term engraftment of allogeneic marrow. Irradiation prevented LAK cell inhibition of both allogeneic resistance and lethal graft-vs-host disease. These findings suggest that adoptive immunotherapy with LAK cells may prove useful in preventing graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease in human bone marrow transplant recipients

  18. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  19. Activation of lower back muscles via FES for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoncini, M; Holderbaum, W; Andrews, B J

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower back muscles for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia. The hypothesis under study is that FES induces a change in the pressure distribution on the contact area during sitting. Tests were conducted on a paraplegic subject (T5), sitting on a standard wheelchair and cushion. Trunk extensors (mainly the erector spinae) were stimulated using surface electrodes placed on the skin. A pressure mapping system was used to measure the pressure on the sitting surface in four situations: (a) no stimulation; (b) stimulation on one side of the spine only; (c) stimulation on both sides, at different levels; and (d) stimulation at the same level on both sides, during pressure-relief manoeuvres. A session of prolonged stimulation was also conducted. The experimental results show that the stimulation of the erector spinae on one side of the spine can induce a trunk rotation on the sagittal plane, which causes a change in the pressure distribution. A decrease of pressure on the side opposite to the stimulation was recorded. The phenomenon is intensified when different levels of stimulation are applied to the two sides, and such change can be sustained for a considerable time (around 5 minutes). The stimulation did not induce changes during pressure-relief manoeuvres. Finally, from this research we can conclude that the stimulation of the trunk extensors can be a useful tool for pressure sores prevention, and can potentially be used in a routine for pressure sores prevention based on periodical weight shifts.

  20. SIRT7 Represses Myc Activity to Suppress ER Stress and Prevent Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyung Shin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disorder in developed countries. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and therapeutic options are limited. Here, we show that SIRT7, an NAD+-dependent H3K18Ac deacetylase, functions at chromatin to suppress ER stress and prevent the development of fatty liver disease. SIRT7 is induced upon ER stress and is stabilized at the promoters of ribosomal proteins through its interaction with the transcription factor Myc to silence gene expression and to relieve ER stress. SIRT7-deficient mice develop chronic hepatosteatosis resembling human fatty liver disease. Myc inactivation or pharmacological suppression of ER stress alleviates fatty liver caused by SIRT7 deficiency. Importantly, SIRT7 suppresses ER stress and reverts the fatty liver disease in diet-induced obese mice. Our study identifies SIRT7 as a cofactor of Myc for transcriptional repression and delineates a druggable regulatory branch of the ER stress response that prevents and reverts fatty liver disease.

  1. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet Amandine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. Results In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4+ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not

  2. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Amandine; Randrianarison-Huetz, Voahangy; Nzounza, Patrycja; Nedelec, Martine; Chazal, Maxime; Waast, Laetitia; Pene, Sabrina; Bazarbachi, Ali; Mahieux, Renaud; Bénit, Laurence; Pique, Claudine

    2012-09-25

    The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4⁺ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK) complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4⁺ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not SUMOylation. These data reveal that the

  3. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥ 2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (n = 130). BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes). Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline) were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted. The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14), and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17) (overall effects). The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32) and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88) than the control group (overall effects). The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥ 1 hour/week during the whole intervention period. The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of 'excessive' non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week) who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI-SDS and skin folds than the intervention group

  4. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Simons

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight.We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥ 2 hours/week non-active video game time adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140 (receiving active video games and encouragement to play or a waiting-list control group (n = 130. BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score, waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes. Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted.The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14, and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17 (overall effects. The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32 and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88 than the control group (overall effects. The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥ 1 hour/week during the whole intervention period.The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of 'excessive' non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI-SDS and skin folds than the intervention

  5. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. Methods We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (n = 130). BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes). Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline) were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted. Results The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14), and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17) (overall effects). The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32) and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88) than the control group (overall effects). The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥1 hour/week during the whole intervention period. Conclusions The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of ‘excessive’ non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week) who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI

  6. Analysis of the Hamstring Muscle Activation During two Injury Prevention Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to perform an electromyographic and kinetic comparison of two commonly used hamstring eccentric strengthening exercises: Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl. After determining the maximum isometric voluntary contraction of the knee flexors, ten female athletes performed 3 repetitions of both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl, while knee angular displacement and electromyografic activity of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus were monitored. No significant differences were found between biceps femoris and semitendinosus activation in both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl. However, comparisons between exercises revealed higher activation of both the biceps femoris (74.8 ± 20 vs 50.3 ± 25.7%, p = 0.03 d = 0.53) and semitendinosus (78.3 ± 27.5 vs 44.3 ± 26.6%, p = 0.012, d = 0.63) at the closest knee angles in the Nordic Curl vs Ball Leg Curl, respectively. Hamstring muscles activation during the Nordic Curl increased, remained high (>70%) between 60 to 40° of the knee angle and then decreased to 27% of the maximal isometric voluntary contraction at the end of movement. Overall, the biceps femoris and semitendinosus showed similar patterns of activation. In conclusion, even though the hamstring muscle activation at open knee positions was similar between exercises, the Nordic Curl elicited a higher hamstring activity compared to the Ball Leg Curl. PMID:29339983

  7. Rottlerin Inhibits ROS Formation and Prevents NFκB Activation in MCF-7 and HT-29 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Maioli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rottlerin, a polyphenol isolated from Mallotus Philippinensis, has been recently used as a selective inhibitor of PKC δ, although it can inhibit many kinases and has several biological effects. Among them, we recently found that Rottlerin inhibits the Nuclear Factor κB (NFκB, activated by either phorbol esters or H2O2. Because of the redox sensitivity of NFκB and on the basis of Rottlerin antioxidant property, we hypothesized that Rottlerin could prevent NFκB activation acting as a free radicals scavenger, as other natural polyphenols. The current study confirms the antioxidant property of Rottlerin against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH in vitro and against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and by menadione in culture cells. We also demonstrate that Rottlerin prevents TNFα-dependent NFκB activation in MCF-7 cells and in HT-29 cells transfected with the NFκB-driven plasmid pBIIX-LUC, suggesting that Rottlerin can inhibit NFκB via several pathways and in several cell types.

  8. The importance of food, nutrition and physical activity in cancer prevention: an interview with Dr Kate Allen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kate

    2018-05-02

    Kate Allen speaks to Roshaine Wijayatunga, Managing Commissioning Editor. Dr Kate Allen works as an Executive Director in Science and Public Affairs at World Cancer Research Fund International ( http://wcrf.org ), an NGO and leading authority in the field of cancer prevention through diet, weight and physical activity. Kate is responsible for the organization's scientific, policy and conference programs in the areas of food, nutrition, physical activity and weight management. An important aspect of her role is helping to create collaborative relationships and activities across the WCRF national charities (in Europe, America and Asia) in these areas, as well as maintaining and creating external partnerships. Previously, Kate worked at the Institute of Cancer Research, where she set up an award-winning Interactive Education Unit to develop learning materials for scientists, healthcare professionals, students, patients and the general public. Before that she worked at Medi Cine International, a medical education agency, where she developed educational materials across all media, mainly for specialist physician audiences. Kate has a PhD in neuroscience, carried out at the Institute of Neurology and the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery at Queen Square, London and the Royal College of Surgeons of England. The Third Expert Report that Kate mentions in the interview, featuring the updated World Cancer Research Fund Cancer Prevention Recommendations is launched 24 May 2018. For more information see http://wcrf.org .

  9. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Physical cardiovascular activity in the physical preventive medecine of the diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The indication of physical activity in patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 and in the metabolic syndrome has a scientific proven evidence. There does no exist a general definite program of this activity. There is designed his methodology, modality, intensity, frequency and duration. The first results are presented in diabete type 2 patients and of them those who meet with metabolic syndrome by means of evaluation of the HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and IMC. On emphasizes that there is reached a very high and linear decrease of the HbA1c, with the individualized program of physical cardiovascular activity.

  11. Which factors play a role in Dutch health promotion professionals' decision to recruit actively primary schools to use a web-based smoking prevention programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Oenema, Anke; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2013-12-03

    Municipal Health Promotion Organisations (MHPOs) play an important role in promoting and disseminating prevention programmes, such as smoking prevention programmes, in schools. This study identifies factors that may facilitate or hinder MHPOs' willingness to recruit actively primary schools to use a smoking prevention programme. In 2011, 31 Dutch MHPOs were invited to recruit schools to use a smoking prevention programme. All MHPO employees involved in smoking prevention activities (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing psychological factors and characteristics of their organisation that might affect their decision to be involved in active recruitment of schools. T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance assessed potential differences in psychological and organisational factors between active and non-active recruiters. A total of 45 professionals returned the questionnaire (66.2%). Active recruiters (n = 12) had more positive attitudes (p = 0.02), higher self-efficacy expectations (p primary schools, compared with non-active recruiters. Organisational factors did not discriminate between active and non-active recruiters. Primarily psychological factors seem to be associated with MHPOs' decision to recruit schools actively. This indicates that creating more positive attitude, self-efficacy beliefs and formation of plans may help in getting more MHPOs involved in active recruitment procedures.

  12. Activity of closantel in the prevention of Gasterophilus and Strongylus vulgaris larval infections in equine foals and yearlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J; Newcomb, K; Seibert, B P; Michael, B F

    1985-01-01

    Two controlled tests were conducted in equine foals and yearlings to determine the optimal oral dosage and the duration of activity of closantel for the prevention of Gasterophilus spp larval infections. Additional data were collected on the activity of closantel against Strongylus vulgaris larval infections. In experiment 1, 12 foals and 12 yearlings were equally allocated to 4 experimental groups, and were given oral treatments with closantel at dosages of 0 (nontreated controls), 2, 5, or 8 mg/kg of body weight every 2 months during bot season. The foals and yearlings were allowed to graze on open pasture throughout the experiment to provide a natural source for bot and helminth infections. All animals were euthanatized and necropsied 6 weeks after the final treatment. Closantel was highly effective (98.6% to 100%) at all doses in preventing Gasterophilus spp larval infections in the foals, but only the 8 mg/kg dose had significant (P less than 0.05) activity (99.7%) in the yearlings. This dose also significantly reduced the numbers of 4th-stage and immature adult S vulgaris (86.0%) in the mesenteric arteries as compared with nontreated controls. In experiment 2, 9 foals and 9 yearlings received a single oral treatment of 8 mg of closantel/kg of body weight; 3 foals and 3 yearlings were kept as nontreated controls. Groups of 6 treated (3 foals, 3 yearlings) and 2 control (1 foal, 1 yearling) animals were euthanatized and necropsied 1, 2, and 3 months after treatment. Closantel remained effective for 2 months in preventing infections of G intestinalis larvae in these foals and yearlings. Clinical signs of toxicosis were not observed in the treated animals of either study.

  13. NecroX-7 prevents oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joonghoon; Park, Eok; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Jin [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-hoon [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Sun Young; Kwak, Hyo-Shin; Park, Heui Sul; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Myoungsub; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Seo, Dong Ook [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soon Ha, E-mail: shakim@lgls.com [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cardiomyopathy. In the present study, NecroXs, novel class of mitochondrial ROS/RNS scavengers, were evaluated for cardioprotection in in vitro and in vivo model, and the putative mechanism of the cardioprotection of NecroX-7 was investigated by global gene expression profiling and subsequent biochemical analysis. NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced death of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes at EC{sub 50} = 0.057 μM. In doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy in rats, NecroX-7 significantly reduced the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which were increased by DOX treatment (p < 0.05). Microarray analysis revealed that 21 genes differentially expressed in tBHP-treated H9C2 cells were involved in ‘Production of reactive oxygen species’ (p = 0.022), and they were resolved by concurrent NecroX-7 treatment. Gene-to-gene networking also identified that NecroX-7 relieved cell death through Ncf1/p47phox and Rac2 modulation. In subsequent biochemical analysis, NecroX-7 inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity by 53.3% (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that NecroX-7, in part, provides substantial protection of cardiomyopathy induced by tBHP or DOX via NOX-mediated cell death. -- Highlights: ► NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced in vitro cardiac cell death. ► NecroX-7 ameliorated doxorubicin-induced in vivo cardiomyopathy. ► NecroX-7 prevented oxidative stress and necrosis-enriched transcriptional changes. ► NecroX-7 effectively inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. ► Cardioprotection of Necro-7 was brought on by modulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  14. Controlled ecological evaluation of an implemented exercise training programme to prevent lower limb injuries in sport: differences in implementation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda J; Lloyd, David G; Cook, Jill; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-04-24

    The public health benefits of injury prevention programmes are maximised when programmes are widely adopted and adhered to. Therefore, these programmes require appropriate implementation support. This study evaluated implementation activity outcomes associated with the implementation of FootyFirst, an exercise training injury prevention programme for community Australian football, both with (FootyFirst+S) and without (FootyFirst+NS) implementation support. An evaluation plan based on the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) Sports Setting Matrix was applied in a controlled ecological evaluation of the implementation of FootyFirst. RE-AIM dimension-specific (range: 0-2) and total RE-AIM scores (range: 0-10) were derived by triangulating data from a number of sources (including surveys, interviews, direct observations and notes) describing FootyFirst implementation activities. The mean dimension-specific and total scores were compared for clubs in regions receiving FootyFirst+S and FootyFirst+NS, through analysis of variance. The mean total RE-AIM score forclubs in the FootyFirst+S regions was 2.4 times higher than for clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region (4.73 vs 1.94; 95% CI for the difference: 1.64 to 3.74). Similarly, all dimension-specific scores were significantly higher for clubs in the FootyFirst+S regions compared with clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region. In all regions, the dimension-specific scores were highest for reach and adoption, and lowest for implementation. Implementing exercise training injury prevention programmes in community sport is challenging. Delivering programme content supported by a context-specific and evidence-informed implementation plan leads to greater implementation activity, which is an important precursor to injury reductions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  15. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François

    2010-01-01

    of a healthy lifestyle. These secondary prevention targets are included in the overall goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac rehabilitation can be viewed as the clinical application of preventive care by means of a professional multi-disciplinary integrated approach for comprehensive risk reduction...... and global long-term care of cardiac patients. The CR approach is delivered in tandem with a flexible follow-up strategy and easy access to a specialized team. To promote implementation of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation, the CR Section of the EACPR (European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention...... and Rehabilitation) has recently completed a Position Paper, entitled 'Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: A condition-oriented approach'. Components of multidisciplinary CR for seven clinical presentations have been addressed. Components include patient assessment, physical activity counselling...

  16. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) do not prevent LPS-induced behavioral alterations and microglial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buel, E. M.; Bosker, F. J.; van Drunen, J.; Strijker, J.; Douwenga, W.; Klein, H. C.; Eisel, U. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term neuroimmune activation is a common finding in major depressive disorder (MDD). Literature suggests a dual effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a highly effective treatment strategy for MDD, on neuroimmune parameters: while ECT acutely increases inflammatory parameters,

  17. Fluoxetine Prevents Oligodendrocyte Cell Death by Inhibiting Microglia Activation after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Y.; Kang, So R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oligodendrocyte cell death and axon demyelination after spinal cord injury (SCI) are known to be important secondary injuries contributing to permanent neurological disability. Thus, blocking oligodendrocyte cell death should be considered for therapeutic intervention after SCI. Here, we demonstrated that fluoxetine, an antidepressant drug, alleviates oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation after SCI. After injury at the T9 level with a Precision Systems and Instrumentation (Lexington, KY) device, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered once a day for the indicated time points. Immunostaining with CD11b (OX-42) antibody and quantification analysis showed that microglia activation was significantly inhibited by fluoxetine at 5 days after injury. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and expression of pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF), which is known to mediate oligodendrocyte cell death through the p75 neurotrophin receptor after SCI. In addition, fluoxetine attenuated activation of Ras homolog gene family member A and decreased the level of phosphorylated c-Jun and, ultimately, alleviated caspase-3 activation and significantly reduced cell death of oligodendrocytes at 5 days after SCI. Further, the decrease of myelin basic protein, myelin loss, and axon loss in white matter was also significantly blocked by fluoxetine, as compared to vehicle control. These results suggest that fluoxetine inhibits oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation and p38-MAPK activation, followed by pro-NGF production after SCI, and provide a potential usage of fluoxetine for a therapeutic agent after acute SCI in humans. PMID:25366938

  18. Active lifestyle all your life : a multifactorial group-based falls-prevention programme

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, gerontology focuses on an emerging paradigm of healthy ageing where the goal is to extend the senior years in absence of morbidity by improving human health. A major threat to healthy ageing is accidental falls, as falls are the second-leading cause of unintentional injury or deaths worldwide. For the individual who falls, it is crucial to be able to continue living an active, independent life in one’s senior years. Additionally social engagement, valued activities, as well a...

  19. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew T. Ludlow; Stephen M. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and...

  20. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, B?rbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in ...

  1. Liver-Specific Activation of AMPK Prevents Steatosis on a High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Woods

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a key role in integrating metabolic pathways in response to energy demand. We identified a mutation in the γ1 subunit (γ1D316A that leads to activation of AMPK. We generated mice with this mutation to study the effect of chronic liver-specific activation of AMPK in vivo. Primary hepatocytes isolated from these mice have reduced gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis, but there is no effect on fatty acid oxidation compared to cells from wild-type mice. Liver-specific activation of AMPK decreases lipogenesis in vivo and completely protects against hepatic steatosis when mice are fed a high-fructose diet. Our findings demonstrate that liver-specific activation of AMPK is sufficient to protect against hepatic triglyceride accumulation, a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of activating AMPK in the liver to combat NAFLD and potentially other associated complications (e.g., cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Preventive activity of banana peel polyphenols on CCl4-induced experimental hepatic injury in Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Suo, Huayi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of banana peel polyphenols (BPPs) against hepatic injury. Mice were divide into normal, control, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg banana peel polyphenol and silymarin groups. All the mice except normal mice were induced with hepatic damage using CCl 4 . The serum and tissue levels of mice were determined by a kit and the tissues were further examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. BPPs reduced the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in a CCl 4 -induced mouse model of hepatic injury. Furthermore, BPPs reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and triglyceride, while increasing glutathione levels in the serum and liver tissues of mice. In addition, the effects of 200 mg/kg treatment were more evident, and these effects were comparable to those of the drug silymarin. Serum levels of the cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ, were reduced in the mice treated with BPPs compared with injury control group mice, and these levels were comparable to those of the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histopathological examination indicated that BPPs were able to reduce the extent of CCl 4 -induced liver tissue injury and protect the liver cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of the inflammation-associated factors cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α and IL-1β were reduced in mice treated with BPPs compared with the control group mice. Mice that received 200 mg/kg BPP exhibited reduced expression levels of these factors compared with mice that received 100 mg/kg BPP. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that BPPs exert a good preventive effect against hepatic injury.

  3. Spirulina maxima Extract Prevents Neurotoxicity via Promoting Activation of BDNF/CREB Signaling Pathways in Neuronal Cells and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Young-Jin; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-08-17

    Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes. SM70EE increased the factors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cyclic AMPresponsive elementbinding protein (CREB) signalling pathways. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was suppressed by SM70EE. Furthermore, we investigated whether SM70EE prevents cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice by applying behavioral tests. SM70EE increased step-through latency time and decreased the escape latency time. Therefore, our data suggest that SM70EE may prevent TMT neurotoxicity through promoting activation of BDNF/CREB neuroprotective signaling pathways in neuronal cells. In vivo study, SM70EE would prevent cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  4. The role of 1-h physical activity every day in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-Xiu, Zhang; Jing-Yang, Zhou; Jin-Shan, Zhao; Zun-Hua, Chu

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have reported that physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle are associated with being overweight and obese in children and adults. A new policy of 1-h physical activity (PA) every day was released by the Chinese government. The present study examined the role of 1-h PA every day in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 29,030 students (14,578 boys and 14,452 girls) aged 10-18 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and skinfold thickness (SFT) of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) of adolescents was calculated from their height and weight, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was obtained according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. All subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 had a PA of more than 1 h/day while group 2 had less than 1 h/day. Comparisons of BMI, WC, SFT, and prevalences of overweight and obesity between the two groups were made. The overall percentages of students in group 1 were 34.29 % in boys and 30.15 % in girls. The prevalences of overweight and obesity for both boys and girls were all significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 in all age categories. In conclusion, 1-h PA every day has a beneficial effect in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China. These observations highlight the importance of PA in the prevention of overweight and obesity in adolescents.

  5. Educational Activities for Rural and Urban Students to Prevent Skin Cancer in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasques, Kelle; Michels, Luana Roberta; Colome, Leticia Marques; Haas, Sandra Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to the sun during childhood is strongly associated with the development of skin cancer in the future. The only way to prevent the development of skin cancer is to protect against ultraviolet radiation, which can be achieved through strategic awareness during childhood and adolescence. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of educational activities for rural and urban students to promote the use of sunscreens and prevent skin cancer. This study was carried out with students (9-12 years) of rural (n=70) and urban (n=70) schools in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The educational interventions were lectures and games. The impact of this strategy was evaluated through the application of a questionnaire before and after the interventions. Before the intervention, it was found around 50% of rural and urban students were not aware of the damage caused by sun exposure, often exposing themselves to UV radiation without use sunscreen ( ~ 25 %) and at the most critical times of the day/year. After the lectures we observed an improvement in the behavior of the students with regard to sun exposure and knowledge about skin cancer. The results of this study emphasize the importance of prevention strategies for skin cancer and promoting the use of sunscreens based educational strategies. The interventions were of great value in relation to disseminating knowledge on the subject.

  6. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease—Implications for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. McCarty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD, a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways—exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea, and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine—which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine—mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD—including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine—also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date.

  7. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease-Implications for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-04-15

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways-exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea), and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine-which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine-mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD-including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine-also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date.

  8. Cardiac-Specific SOCS3 Deletion Prevents In Vivo Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury through Sustained Activation of Cardioprotective Signaling Molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu Nagata

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI adversely affects cardiac performance and the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Although myocardial signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 is potently cardioprotective during IRI, the inhibitory mechanism responsible for its activation is largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the myocardial suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-3, an intrinsic negative feedback regulator of the Janus kinase (JAK-STAT signaling pathway, in the development of myocardial IRI. Myocardial IRI was induced in mice by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 h, followed by different reperfusion times. One hour after reperfusion, the rapid expression of JAK-STAT-activating cytokines was observed. We precisely evaluated the phosphorylation of cardioprotective signaling molecules and the expression of SOCS3 during IRI and then induced myocardial IRI in wild-type and cardiac-specific SOCS3 knockout mice (SOCS3-CKO. The activation of STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2 rapidly peaked and promptly decreased during IRI. This decrease correlated with the induction of SOCS3 expression up to 24 h after IRI in wild-type mice. The infarct size 24 h after reperfusion was significantly reduced in SOCS3-CKO compared with wild-type mice. In SOCS3-CKO mice, STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was sustained, myocardial apoptosis was prevented, and the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1 was augmented. Cardiac-specific SOCS3 deletion led to the sustained activation of cardioprotective signaling molecules including and prevented myocardial apoptosis and injury during IRI. Our findings suggest that SOCS3 may represent a key factor that exacerbates the development of myocardial IRI.

  9. Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain inhibits FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Jiang, Yuan; An, Yuan; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Yu, Chundong, E-mail: cdyu@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) was effectively expressed. {yields} FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced palmitic acid-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice. {yields} FGFR4-ECD partially restored tetracycline-repressed PPAR{alpha} expression. -- Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine whether neutralization of FGFR4 ligands by soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) can inhibit the activation of FGFR4, we constructed FGFR4-ECD expression vector and showed that FGFR4-ECD was effectively expressed in cells and secreted into culture medium. FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and reduced steatosis of HepG2 induced by palmitic acid in vitro. Furthermore, in a tetracycline-induced fatty liver model, expression of FGFR4-ECD in mouse liver reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and partially restored the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which promotes the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation but is repressed by tetracycline. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGFR4-ECD can block FGFR4 signaling and prevent hepatic steatosis, highlighting the potential value of inhibition of FGFR4 signaling as a method for therapeutic intervention against NAFLD.

  10. Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain inhibits FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan; An, Yuan; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Chundong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) was effectively expressed. → FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling. → FGFR4-ECD reduced palmitic acid-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells. → FGFR4-ECD reduced tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice. → FGFR4-ECD partially restored tetracycline-repressed PPARα expression. -- Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine whether neutralization of FGFR4 ligands by soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) can inhibit the activation of FGFR4, we constructed FGFR4-ECD expression vector and showed that FGFR4-ECD was effectively expressed in cells and secreted into culture medium. FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and reduced steatosis of HepG2 induced by palmitic acid in vitro. Furthermore, in a tetracycline-induced fatty liver model, expression of FGFR4-ECD in mouse liver reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and partially restored the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), which promotes the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation but is repressed by tetracycline. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGFR4-ECD can block FGFR4 signaling and prevent hepatic steatosis, highlighting the potential value of inhibition of FGFR4 signaling as a method for therapeutic intervention against NAFLD.

  11. Sulforaphane prevents angiotensin II-induced cardiomyopathy by activation of Nrf2 via stimulating the Akt/GSK-3ß/Fyn pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xin

    2018-05-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that Nrf2 plays a central role in the prevention of Ang II-induced cardiomyopathy, and SFN prevents Ang II-induced cardiomyopathy partially via the Akt/GSK-3β/Fyn-mediated Nrf2 activation.

  12. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  13. Physical activity as a remedy for "cheerful" aging which prevents from chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Rzepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. According to GUS, only 3.6% of the elderly declare active leisure activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of motor function improvement program implemented in sanatorium on functional condition and functional status of patients suffered from spinal degenerative diseases. Methods. The studies were carried out once in a group of 46 patients aged above 60 in Solanki Inowrocław health resort. The assessment was made based on a questionnaire. Moreover, assessment of pain in the lumbar spine according to thee VAS was made along with evaluation of lumbar spine mobility using Zebris MLS. Results. Evaluation of patients in terms of free time spending have showed that more than half of patients spent their free time actively (57%. The intensity of pain according to the VAS, during flexion, extension, rotation in both direction and lateral flexion of the spine, was decreased at the end of therapy. Flexion, extension and rotation in the right sight increase when Zebris MLS was used before and after therapy. Rotation to the left and lateral flexion to the left were not change. Conclusion. Rehabilitation in sanatorium mobilizes physical activity of patients. It improves the physical activity by significant increase in the motion range of the spine. It exerts a significant analgesic effect.

  14. Antihelminthic benzimidazoles are novel HIF activators that prevent oxidative neuronal death via binding to tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleyasin, Hossein; Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Kumar, Amit; Sleiman, Sama; Basso, Manuela; Ma, Thong; Siddiq, Ambreena; Chinta, Shankar J; Brochier, Camille; Langley, Brett; Haskew-Layton, Renee; Bane, Susan L; Riggins, Gregory J; Gazaryan, Irina; Starkov, Anatoly A; Andersen, Julie K; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2015-01-10

    Pharmacological activation of the adaptive response to hypoxia is a therapeutic strategy of growing interest for neurological conditions, including stroke, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We screened a drug library with known safety in humans using a hippocampal neuroblast line expressing a reporter of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcription. Our screen identified more than 40 compounds with the ability to induce hypoxia response element-driven luciferase activity as well or better than deferoxamine, a canonical activator of hypoxic adaptation. Among the chemical entities identified, the antihelminthic benzimidazoles represented one pharmacophore that appeared multiple times in our screen. Secondary assays confirmed that antihelminthics stabilized the transcriptional activator HIF-1α and induced expression of a known HIF target gene, p21(cip1/waf1), in post-mitotic cortical neurons. The on-target effect of these agents in stimulating hypoxic signaling was binding to free tubulin. Moreover, antihelminthic benzimidazoles also abrogated oxidative stress-induced death in vitro, and this on-target effect also involves binding to free tubulin. These studies demonstrate that tubulin-binding drugs can activate a component of the hypoxic adaptive response, specifically the stabilization of HIF-1α and its downstream targets. Tubulin-binding drugs, including antihelminthic benzimidazoles, also abrogate oxidative neuronal death in primary neurons. Given their safety in humans and known ability to penetrate into the central nervous system, antihelminthic benzimidazoles may be considered viable candidates for treating diseases associated with oxidative neuronal death, including stroke.

  15. Preventing Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Cheri

    1986-01-01

    To prevent learned helplessness in learning disabled students, teachers can share responsibilities with the students, train students to reinforce themselves for effort and self control, and introduce opportunities for changing counterproductive attitudes. (CL)

  16. The Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) health promotion and prevention study: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Reynolds, Charles F; Alegría, Margarita; Harvey, Philip; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-12-18

    Results of previous studies attest to the greater illness burden of common mental disorders (anxiety and depression) in older Latinos and the need for developing preventive interventions that are effective, acceptable, and scalable. Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) is a newly developed intervention that uses a community health worker (CHW) to lead a health promotion program in order to prevent common mental disorders among at-risk older Latinos. This pilot study tests the feasibility and acceptability of delivering HOLA to older, at-risk Latinos. HOLA is a multi-component, health promotion intervention funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). This prevention approach will be tested against a fotonovela, an enhanced psychoeducation control condition, in a sample of Latino elderly with minor or subthreshold depression or anxiety. A total of 60 older Latinos (aged 60+) will be randomized to receive HOLA or the fotonovela. The primary outcomes of interest are recruitment, adherence, retention, and acceptability. Data will also be collected on: preemption of incident and recurrent major depression, generalized anxiety, and social phobia; reduction in depression and anxiety symptom severity; physical functioning; sedentary behaviors; social engagement; and self-efficacy. The results of this study could have implications for other high-risk, highly disadvantaged populations. The development of a health promotion intervention designed to prevent common mental disorders could be a means of addressing multiple disparities (for example, mental health outcomes, mental health service use, stigma) among racial/ethnic minority elderly. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02371954 . Date of registration: 21 January 2015.

  17. Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 prevents the development of tactile sensitivity in a rodent model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndong Christian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain due to nerve injury is one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. Following peripheral nerve injury, neuronal and glial plastic changes contribute to central sensitization and perpetuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodents. The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK family is pivotal in this spinal cord plasticity. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs limit inflammatory processes by dephosphorylating MAPKs. For example, MKP-1 preferentially dephosphorylates p-p38. Since spinal p-p38 is pivotal for the development of chronic hypersensitivity in rodent models of pain, and p-p38 inhibitors have shown clinical potential in acute and chronic pain patients, we hypothesize that induction of spinal MKP-1 will prevent the development of peripheral nerve-injury-induced hypersensitivity and p-p38 overexpression. Results We cloned rat spinal cord MKP-1 and optimize MKP-1 cDNA in vitro using transfections to BV-2 cells. We observed that in vitro overexpression of MKP-1 blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced phosphorylation of p38 (and other MAPKs as well as release of pro-algesic effectors (i.e., cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide. Using this cDNA MKP-1 and a non-viral, in vivo nanoparticle transfection approach, we found that spinal cord overexpression of MKP-1 prevented development of peripheral nerve-injury-induced tactile hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the phosphorylated form of p38. Conclusions Our results indicate that MKP-1, the natural regulator of p-p38, mediates resolution of the spinal cord pro-inflammatory milieu induced by peripheral nerve injury, resulting in prevention of chronic mechanical hypersensitivity. We propose that MKP-1 is a potential therapeutic target for pain treatment or prevention.

  18. [Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Claudia; Lackinger, Christian; Weitgasser, Raimund; Haber, Paul; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a "physical activity adviser" in multi-professional diabetes care.

  19. Security of material: Preventing criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    The report emphasizes the need for national regulatory authorities to include in the regulatory systems, measures to control and protect nuclear materials from being used in illegal activities, as well as aspects of relevance for detecting and responding to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The report will give an overview of the international treaties and agreements that underpin the establishment of a regulatory structure necessary for States to meet their non-proliferation policy and undertakings. Ongoing work to strengthen the protection of nuclear material and to detect and respond to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive material will be included. The focus of the paper is on the need for standards and national regulation in the nuclear security area. (author)

  20. Early signs of mobility decline and physical activity counseling as a preventive intervention in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina

    indicate that self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history should be considered as important early indicators of functional decline among community-dwelling older adults. In addition, the results suggest that physical activity counseling for older adults may provide an effective means......The purpose of this study was to examine the early signs of mobility decline and falls in older people. In addition, the effects of physical activity counseling on the development of mobility limitation in an older community-dwelling population were studied. Data from two larger studies were used......: Screening and Counseling for Physical activity and Mobility among Older People, SCAMOB, a 2-year single-blinded randomized controlled trial (n=632) with a 1.5-year post-intervention follow-up, focused on 75 to 81-year-old community-dwelling people and the FITSA study, a 3-year prospective observational...

  1. Active Climate Stabilization: Practical Physics-Based Approaches to Prevention of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.; Hyde, T.; Wood, L.

    2002-04-18

    We offer a case for active technical management of the radiative forcing of the temperatures of the Earth's fluid envelopes, rather than administrative management of atmospheric greenhouse gas inputs, in order to stabilize both the global- and time-averaged climate and its mesoscale features. We suggest that active management of radiative forcing entails negligible--indeed, likely strongly negative--economic costs and environmental impacts, and thus best complies with the pertinent mandate of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. We propose that such approaches be swiftly evaluated in sub-scale in the course of an intensive international program.

  2. Implementation of an active aging model in Mexico for prevention and control of chronic diseases in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Maldonado, María de la Luz; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa

    2009-08-26

    World Health Organization cites among the main challenges of populational aging the dual disease burden: the greater risk of disability, and the need for care. In this sense, the most frequent chronic diseases during old age worldwide are high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, depression, and dementia. Chronic disease-associated dependency represents an onerous sanitary and financial burden for the older adult, the family, and the health care system. Thus, it is necessary to propose community-level models for chronic disease prevention and control in old age. The aim of the present work is to show our experience in the development and implementation of a model for chronic disease prevention and control in old age at the community level under the active aging paradigm. A longitudinal study will be carried out in a sample of 400 elderly urban and rural-dwelling individuals residing in Hidalgo State, Mexico during five years. All participants will be enrolled in the model active aging. This establishes the formation of 40 gerontological promoters (GPs) from among the older adults themselves. The GPs function as mutual-help group coordinators (gerontological nuclei) and establish self-care and self-promotion actions for elderly well-being and social development. It will be conformed a big-net of social network of 40 mutual-help groups of ten elderly adults each one, in which self-care is a daily practice for chronic disease prevention and control, as well as for achieving maximal well-being and life quality in old age. Indicators of the model's impact will be (i) therapeutic adherence; (ii) the incidence of the main chronic diseases in old age; (iii) life expectancy without chronic diseases at 60 years of age; (iv) disability adjusted life years lost; (v) years of life lost due to premature mortality, and (vi) years lived with disability. We propose that the implementation of the model active aging framework will permits the

  3. Implementation of an active aging model in Mexico for prevention and control of chronic diseases in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa-Muñoz Elsa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World Health Organization cites among the main challenges of populational aging the dual disease burden: the greater risk of disability, and the need for care. In this sense, the most frequent chronic diseases during old age worldwide are high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, depression, and dementia. Chronic disease-associated dependency represents an onerous sanitary and financial burden for the older adult, the family, and the health care system. Thus, it is necessary to propose community-level models for chronic disease prevention and control in old age. The aim of the present work is to show our experience in the development and implementation of a model for chronic disease prevention and control in old age at the community level under the active aging paradigm. Methods/Design A longitudinal study will be carried out in a sample of 400 elderly urban and rural-dwelling individuals residing in Hidalgo State, Mexico during five years. All participants will be enrolled in the model active aging. This establishes the formation of 40 gerontological promoters (GPs from among the older adults themselves. The GPs function as mutual-help group coordinators (gerontological nuclei and establish self-care and self-promotion actions for elderly well-being and social development. It will be conformed a big-net of social network of 40 mutual-help groups of ten elderly adults each one, in which self-care is a daily practice for chronic disease prevention and control, as well as for achieving maximal well-being and life quality in old age. Indicators of the model's impact will be (i therapeutic adherence; (ii the incidence of the main chronic diseases in old age; (iii life expectancy without chronic diseases at 60 years of age; (iv disability adjusted life years lost; (v years of life lost due to premature mortality, and (vi years lived with disability. Discussion We propose that the

  4. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  5. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesma, Francine C; Cornelis, Janine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Children participated in the program (n=30) or in a control condition (n=24). They filled out questionnaires before and after the program and reported their levels of stress before and after each of the five sessions. The program consisted of weekly sessions. Each session incorporated yoga postures, visualization, and social exercises. Breathing techniques were integrated. Stress reductions were only seen in the intervention group and mainly in children with high BIS--irrespective of their behavioral activation system. The results demonstrate that children with high BIS may benefit from a mind-body-based stress reduction program.

  6. Work activity in food service: The significance of customer relations, tipping practices and gender for preventing musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Ève; Messing, Karen; Bourbonnais, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Some evidence shows that food servers are exposed to an elevated risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and that their work activity varies by gender. Interviews of servers and observations of food service in Québec, Canada, were carried out in three restaurants and a questionnaire was administered to 64 workers from 44 other restaurants. The relationship with the customer has specific effects on work activity and transforms the physical, emotional and cognitive work. Strategies intended to speed service or otherwise related to the customer relationship can involve health risks. Women reported more direct food service (p work per week (p < 0.01). Women workers reported experiencing more sites of pain (p < 0.003). This exploratory study suggests that managing the server-customer relationship could be important in preventing musculoskeletal disorders in this population and that women are at particular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress-induced activation of brown adipose tissue prevents obesity in conditions of low adaptive thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Razzoli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that thermogenesis and BAT function are determinant of the resilience or vulnerability to stress-induced obesity. Our data support a model in which adrenergic and purinergic pathways exert complementary/synergistic functions in BAT, thus suggesting an alternative to βARs agonists for the activation of human BAT.

  8. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    This Report has a number of inter-related general purposes. One is to explore the extent to which food, nutrition, physical activity, and body composition modify the risk of cancer, and to specify which factors are most important. To the extent that environmental factors such as food, nutrition, and

  9. Economic analysis of activities to prevent foot and mouth disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    indicate that some changes in risk-reducing activities may significantly affect expected costs of an outbreak while other changes have no effect. Our results suggest that increased efforts in terms of efficiently restricting low-risk contacts between farms, such as non-professional visitors and trucks...

  10. Deregulated MAPK activity prevents adipocyte differentiation of fibroblasts lacking the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Jørgensen, Claus

    2002-01-01

    A functional retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is required for adipose conversion of preadipocyte cell lines and primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to treatment with standard adipogenic inducers. Interestingly, lack of functional pRB in MEFs was recently linked to elevated Ras activity...

  11. In vitro chemo-preventative activity of Strelitzia nicolai aril extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The aril extract decreased cell viability by 52% and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells; as shown by the Annexin V-PE Apoptosis detection kit and morphological studies with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Conclusion: The activity of the extract as a potent antioxidant was immensely enhanced as ...

  12. Older persons afraid of falling reduce physical activity to prevent outdoor falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Jong, R. de; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective.: The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the level of outdoor physical activity mediates the relationship between fear of falling and actual outdoor falls according to the Task Difficulty Homeostasis Theory. Method.: A prospective follow-up study of 10 months conducted in

  13. 76 FR 58835 - Information Collection Activity: Revision for Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... do not exceed required emission levels; Discharge or disposal of drill cuttings, sand, and other well... Agency (EPA) promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone, fine (i.e., 2.5 ), and... activities in the GOMR. This data will be used in future regional air quality modeling in support of...

  14. Activation of TRPV1 by dietary capsaicin improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and prevents hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dachun; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Shuangtao

    2010-01-01

    Some plant-based diets lower the cardiometabolic risks and prevalence of hypertension. New evidence implies a role for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Little is known about impact of chronic TRPV1 activation...

  15. Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes through a Physically Active Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Raymond W.; Kamla, Jim; Lee, Man-Cheong; Mak, Jennifer Y.

    2007-01-01

    The general decrease in physical activity in the United States population has led to an increase of cases of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Remarkable scientific advancements have been made toward understanding the beneficial effects of physical activity…

  16. Post-Transcriptional Regulation Prevents Accumulation of Glutathione Reductase Protein and Activity in the Bundle Sheath Cells of Maize1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastori, Gabriela M.; Mullineaux, Philip M.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2000-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) activity was assayed in bundle sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L. var H99) from plants grown at 20°C, 18°C, and 15°C. The purity of each fraction was determined by measuring the associated activity of the compartment-specific marker enzymes, Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, respectively. GR activity and the abundance of GR protein and mRNA increased in plants grown at 15°C and 18°C compared with those grown at 20°C. In all cases GR activity was found only in mesophyll fractions of the leaves, with no GR activity being detectable in bundle sheath extracts. Immunogold labeling with GR-specific antibodies showed that the GR protein was exclusively localized in the mesophyll cells of leaves at all growth temperatures, whereas GR transcripts (as determined by in situ hybridization techniques) were observed in both cell types. These results indicate that post-transcriptional regulation prevents GR accumulation in the bundle sheath cells of maize leaves. The resulting limitation on the capacity for regeneration of reduced glutathione in this compartment may contribute to the extreme chilling sensitivity of maize leaves. PMID:10712529

  17. Wen-Luo-Tong Prevents Glial Activation and Nociceptive Sensitization in a Rat Model of Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Jia, Liqun; Pan, Lin; Song, Aiping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Tan, Huangying; Xiang, Qing; Yu, Lili; Ke, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main dose-limiting complications of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin (OXL) is painful neuropathy. Glial activation and nociceptive sensitization may be responsible for the mechanism of neuropathic pain. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Wen-luo-tong (WLT) has been widely used in China to treat chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain. However, there is no study on the effects of WLT on spinal glial activation induced by OXL. In this study, a rat model of OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain was established and WLT was administrated. Pain behavioral tests and morphometric examination of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were conducted. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining was performed, glial activation was evaluated, and the excitatory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) and glial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were analyzed. WLT treatment alleviated OXL-induced mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. Changes in the somatic, nuclear, and nucleolar areas of neurons in DRG were prevented. In the spinal dorsal horn, hypertrophy and activation of GFAP-positive astrocytes were averted, and the level of GFAP mRNA decreased significantly. Additionally, TNF-α mRNA and protein levels decreased. Collectively, these results indicate that WLT reversed both glial activation in the spinal dorsal horn and nociceptive sensitization during OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain in rats.

  18. Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls and their Perceptions of Obesity Prevention in Shahr-e Kord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity (PA has positive effects on physical, psychological and social health in the individual and the community. Reduced PA is a major global problem that is increasing in prevalence every day. The present study aimed to determine the status of PA among adolescent girls and their perceptions of obesity prevention. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 308 randomly-selected female high-school students in in Shahr-e Kord, Iran. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model and the Standard Physical Activity Questionnaire and were then analyzed in SPSS-16 using statistical tests including the Chi-square test and Pearson’s and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficients. Results: According to the results, 217 (70.1% of the adolescents had light PA, 84 (27.3% had moderate and only 8 (2.6% had severe physical activity. The adolescents obtained mean scores of 39.61±19.46 in knowledge, 31.88±15.04 in perceived susceptibility, 34.76±19.82 in perceived severity, 43.11±2.6 in perceived benefits of PA and 39.94±1.93 in perceived barriers. The mean score of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity and perceived benefits were higher in those with moderate physical activity compared to those with light physical activity (P

  19. The novel orally active guanylhydrazone CPSI-2364 prevents postoperative ileus in mice independently of anti-inflammatory vagus nerve signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, S; Vilz, T O; Sommer, N; Sielecki, T; Hong, G S; Lysson, M; Stoffels, B; Pantelis, D; Kalff, J C

    2012-10-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an iatrogenic complication of abdominal surgery, mediated by a severe inflammation of the muscularis externa (ME). Previously, we demonstrated that intravenous application of the tetravalent guanylhydrazone semapimod (CNI-1493) prevents POI, but the underlying mode of action could not definitively be confirmed. Herein, we investigated the effect of a novel orally active salt of semapimod (CPSI-2364) on POI in rodents and distinguished between its inhibitory peripheral and stimulatory central nervous effects on anti-inflammatory vagus nerve signaling. Distribution of radiolabeled orally administered CPSI-2364 was analyzed by whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. POI was induced by intestinal manipulation with or without preoperative vagotomy. CPSI-2364 was administered preoperatively via gavage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ME specimens were assessed for p38-MAP kinase activity by immunoblotting, neutrophil extravasation, and nitric oxide production. Furthermore, in vivo gastrointestinal (GIT) and colonic transit were measured. Autoradiography demonstrated a near-exclusive detection of CPSI-2364 within the gastrointestinal wall and contents. Preoperative CPSI-2364 application significantly reduced postoperative neutrophil counts, nitric oxide release, GIT deceleration, and delay of colonic transit time, while intraoperatively administered CPSI-2364 failed to improve POI. CPSI-2364 also prevents postoperative neutrophil increase and GIT deceleration in vagotomized mice. Orally administered CPSI-2364 shows a near-exclusive dispersal in the gastrointestinal tract and effectively reduces POI independently of central vagus nerve stimulation. Its efficacy after single oral dosage affirms CPSI-2364 treatment as a promising strategy for prophylaxis of POI.

  20. Curcumin, an active component of turmeric in the prevention and treatment of ulcerative colitis: preclinical and clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Joseph, Nandhini; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V; Saxena, Arpit; Ponemone, Venkatesh; Fayad, Raja

    2012-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprising of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) is a major ailment affecting the small and large bowel. In clinics, IBD is treated using 5-amninosalicylates, antibiotics, the steroids and immunomodulators. Unfortunately, the long term usages of these agents are associated with undue side effects and compromise the therapeutic advantage. Accordingly, there is a need for novel agents that are effective, acceptable and non toxic to humans. Preclinical studies in experimental animals have shown that curcumin, an active principle of the Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) is effective in preventing or ameliorating UC and inflammation. Over the last few decades there has been increasing interest in the possible role of curcumin in IBD and several studies with various experimental models of IBD have shown it to be effective in mediating the inhibitory effects by scavenging free radicals, increasing antioxidants, influencing multiple signaling pathways, especially the kinases (MAPK, ERK), inhibiting myeloperoxidase, COX-1, COX-2, LOX, TNF-α, IFN-γ, iNOS; inhibiting the transcription factor NF-κB. Clinical studies have also shown that co-administration of curcumin with conventional drugs was effective, to be well-tolerated and treated as a safe medication for maintaining remission, to prevent relapse and improve clinical activity index. Large randomized controlled clinical investigations are required to fully understand the potential of oral curcumin for treating IBD.

  1. Modeling the Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Followed by an Assembly Stage Considering Aging Effects and Preventive Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problem for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem (HFSP followed by an assembly stage considering aging effects additional preventive and maintenance activities is studied in this paper. In this production system, a number of products of different kinds are produced. Each product is assembled with a set of several parts. The first stage is a hybrid flow shop to produce parts. All machines can process all kinds of parts in this stage but each machine can process only one part at the same time. The second stage is a single assembly machine or a single assembly team of workers. The aim is to schedule the parts on the machines and assembly sequence and also determine when the preventive maintenance activities get done in order to minimize the completion time of all products (makespan. A mathematical modeling is presented and its validation is shown by solving an example in small scale. Since this problem has been proved strongly NP-hard, in order to solve the problem in medium and large scale, four heuristic algorithms is proposed based on the Johnson’s algorithm. The numerical experiments are used to run the mathematical model and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  2. Training Cambodian Village Health Support Guides in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Guides' Knowledge and Teaching Activities Over 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Keuky, Lim; Fraser-King, Lorraine; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a pressing public health concern in Cambodia, a country with limited human resource capacity due to genocide. Cambodian village health support guides (Guides) promote health at the local level. This paper reports preliminary results of training Guides in diabetes prevention. The curriculum, called Eat, Walk, Sleep was delivered to Guides in Siem Reap province once over 3 h. Participants completed a pretest and posttest on diabetes knowledge. Guides were offered continuing education through Eat, Walk, Sleep resources and were encouraged to teach Eat, Walk, Sleep in their villages. For each of 6 months following their training, Guides completed a checklist regarding their activities. One hundred eighty-five Guides attended one of ten trainings. Knowledge scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest. During 6 months of follow-up, n = 159 Guides (85 %) completed at least one monthly checklist. Guides reported high rates of uptake and delivery of the Eat, Walk, Sleep curriculum and moderate rates of continuing education about diabetes. Diabetes prevention in Cambodia is nascent. Guides show excellent uptake and dissemination of the curriculum. Future research should examine effect of support for Guide activities and the effect of the curriculum on villager health behaviors, and ultimately, on rates of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Activities related to the prevention of climatic change in some major urban areas of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    1990-12-01

    After a perspective on the need for action to prevent and prepare for global warming, and the potential consequences of inaction on North American communities, local and regional government perspectives are presented on the response to global warming in Chicago, Los Angeles, Montreal, New York, and Toronto. It is seen that local government and its agencies in these urban areas are little touched by the profound dangers to human existence posed by the continued release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases. Explanations are offered for the apparent unwillingness to act, including ignorance and confusion about the greenhouse effect and global warming, unpalatable socio-economic and political costs of remedial action, a perception that global warming is not the responsibility of local governments, and a perception that cities are sources of environmental degradation rather than solutions to it. It is suggested that city living results in less overall atmospheric degradation than a suburban sprawl scenario, notably with regard to transportation. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Hypothyroidism Enhanced Ectonucleotidases and Acetylcholinesterase Activities in Rat Synaptosomes can be Prevented by the Naturally Occurring Polyphenol Quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Santi, Adriana; Schmatz, Roberta; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Martins, Caroline Curry; Dias, Glaecir R Mundstock; Calgaroto, Nicéia Spanholi; Pelinson, Luana Paula; Reichert, Karine Paula; Loro, Vania Lucia; Morsch, Vera Maria Melchiors; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have an influence on the functioning of the central nervous system. Furthermore, the cholinergic and purinergic systems also are extensively involved in brain function. In this context, quercetin is a polyphenol with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism on the NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in synaptosomes of rats and whether the quercetin can prevent it. MMI at a concentration of 20 mg/100 mL was administered for 90 days in the drinking water. The animals were divided into six groups: control/water (CT/W), control/quercetin 10 mg/kg, control/quercetin 25 mg/kg, methimazole/water (MMI/W), methimazole/quercetin 10 mg/kg (MMI/Q10), and methimazole/quercetin 25 mg/kg (MMI/Q25). On the 30th day, hormonal dosing was performed to confirm hypothyroidism, and the animals were subsequently treated with 10 or 25 mg/kg quercetin for 60 days. NTPDase activity was not altered in the MMI/W group. However, treatment with quercetin decreased ATP and ADP hydrolysis in the MMI/Q10 and MMI/Q25 groups. 5'-nucleotidase activity increased in the MMI/W group, but treatments with 10 or 25 mg/kg quercetin decreased 5'-nucleotidase activity. ADA activity decreased in the CT/25 and MMI/Q25 groups. Furthermore, AChE activity was reduced in all groups with hypothyroidism. In vitro tests also demonstrated that quercetin per se decreased NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, and AChE activities. This study demonstrated changes in the 5'-nucleotidase and AChE activities indicating that purinergic and cholinergic neurotransmission are altered in this condition. In addition, quercetin can alter these parameters and may be a promising natural compound with important neuroprotective actions in hypothyroidism.

  5. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1 years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2 cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4 kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10 m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10 m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly.

  6. Explanatory chapter: introducing exogenous DNA into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently introduce DNA into cells is essential for many experiments in biology. This is an explanatory chapter providing an overview of the various methods for introducing DNA into bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and their significance for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huoliang; Ju, Ying; Li, Junjie; Yu, Min

    2012-01-01

    The crude polysaccharide (LEP) was extracted by hot water from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, and further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, giving three polysaccharide fractions coded as LEPA1, LEPB1 and LEPC1. In this study, their chemical and physical characteristics of polysaccharide fractions and antioxidant capacities, including scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, were valuated. The results showed that LEPC1 exhibited significantly antioxidant activity at a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore these results indicated that the water-extractable polysaccharide fraction was a potent antioxidant and could be developed to be new health medicine for fighting against various human diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Summary of Injury Prevention Activities Supporting the Army Soldier Medical Readiness Campaign, 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-30

    Carson • Explore eProfile and Digital Training Management System (DTMS) data, and • Plan a stakeholder meeting to identify Commanders’ injury...materials, and resources. In 2014, APHC Health Communication Science created an additional Web page (Appendix K) to advertise the SMRC Injury...Healthy Food Choices with an Environmental Intervention in Military Dining Facilities,” and “H.E.A.L.T.H.” [Healthy Eating Activity Lifestyle Training

  9. Spinal Cord Injury and Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Using Functional Activity in Pressure Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, May; Schofield, Rachel; Gillan, Cathy; Morton, Julie; Gardner, Evie; Sprigle, Stephen; Porter-Armstrong, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background. People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of pressure ulcers due to prolonged periods of sitting. Concordance with pressure relieving movements is poor amongst this population, and one potential alternative to improve this would be to integrate pressure relieving movements into everyday functional activities. Objectives. To investigate both the current pressure relieving behaviours of SCI individuals during computer use and the application of an ergonomically adap...

  10. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    interface pressures and increased blood flow. This level of off-loading is achieved by postural changes during sustained reaching, leaning and other...project has been designed to fill two significant gaps in the current state of knowledge: 1) accurate measurement of dedicated pressure reliefs and other...significant gaps in the current state of knowledge: 1) accurate measurement of dedicated pressure reliefs and other weight shift activities and 2) the

  11. Constitutive activation of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase prevents abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Fenzi, Francesca; Valon, Christiane; Costa, Miguel; Piette, Laurie; Vavasseur, Alain; Genty, Bernard; Boivin, Karine; Müller, Axel; Giraudat, Jérôme; Leung, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Light activates proton (H+)-ATPases in guard cells, to drive hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to initiate stomatal opening, allowing diffusion of ambient CO2 to photosynthetic tissues. Light to darkness transition, high CO2 levels and the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) promote stomatal closing. The overall H+-ATPase activity is diminished by ABA treatments, but the significance of this phenomenon in relationship to stomatal closure is still debated. We report two dominant mutations in the OPEN STOMATA2 (OST2) locus of Arabidopsis that completely abolish stomatal response to ABA, but importantly, to a much lesser extent the responses to CO2 and darkness. The OST2 gene encodes the major plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA1, and both mutations cause constitutive activity of this pump, leading to necrotic lesions. H+-ATPases have been traditionally assumed to be general endpoints of all signaling pathways affecting membrane polarization and transport. Our results provide evidence that AHA1 is a distinct component of an ABA-directed signaling pathway, and that dynamic downregulation of this pump during drought is an essential step in membrane depolarization to initiate stomatal closure. PMID:17557075

  12. Physical activity in the classroom to prevent childhood obesity: a pilot study in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Soto-Sánchez, Johana; Saavedra, Juana; Domínguez, Angélica; Rozowski, Jaime; Iriarte, Laura; Cantwell Wood, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a 4-month pilot study that tested the suitability of a physical activity intervention for first graders (children aged 6 and 7 years) in a public school in Santiago, Chile. Teachers were trained to deliver the programme in the classroom during the school day. Teachers were surveyed to determine if this intervention fit within their curriculum and classroom routines and they reported in a focus group that it was suitable for them. All children actively participated in the programme and positive changes in their attitudes towards physical activity were observed by their teachers. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and hand grip strength were measured in the students. A significant reduction was observed in children with high waist circumference ≥ 90th percentile, and in mean systolic blood pressure. However, statistical power values for those comparisons were rather low. Anthropometry and hand grip strength were not modified. The latter calculations and the lack of a control group are showing the weaknesses of this pilot study and that further research with a larger sample size and an experimental design is strongly needed.

  13. Neutrophil Microvesicles from Healthy Control and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Prevent the Inflammatory Activation of Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefin I. Rhys

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs are emerging as a novel means to enact cell-to-cell communication in inflammation. Here, we aimed to ascertain the ability of neutrophil-derived MVs to modulate target cell behaviour, the focus being the macrophage.MVs were generated in response to tumour necrosis factor-α, from healthy control neutrophils or those from rheumatoid arthritis patients. MVs were used to stimulate human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro, or administered intra-articularly in the K/BxN mouse model of arthritis. A macrophage/fibroblast-like synoviocyte co-culture system was used to study the effects of vesicles on the crosstalk between these cells.We demonstrate a direct role for phosphatidylserine and annexin-A1 exposed by the MVs to counteract classical activation of the macrophages, and promote the release of transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Classically-activated macrophages exposed to neutrophil MVs no longer activated fibroblast-like synoviocytes in subsequent co-culture settings. Finally, intra-articular administration of neutrophil MVs from rheumatoid arthritis patients in arthritic mice affected the phenotype of joint macrophages.Altogether these data, with the identification of specific MV determinants, open new opportunities to modulate on-going inflammation in the synovia – mainly by affecting macrophage polarization and potentially also fibroblast-like synoviocytes - through the delivery of autologous or heterologous MVs produced from neutrophils. Keywords: Neutrophils, Macrophages, Vesicles, Rheumatoid arthritis

  14. Spinal Cord Injury and Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Using Functional Activity in Pressure Relief

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    May Stinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. People with spinal cord injury (SCI are at increased risk of pressure ulcers due to prolonged periods of sitting. Concordance with pressure relieving movements is poor amongst this population, and one potential alternative to improve this would be to integrate pressure relieving movements into everyday functional activities. Objectives. To investigate both the current pressure relieving behaviours of SCI individuals during computer use and the application of an ergonomically adapted computer-based activity to reduce interface pressure. Design. Observational and repeated measures design. Setting. Regional Spinal Cord Injury Unit. Participants. Fourteen subjects diagnosed with SCI (12 male, 2 female. Intervention.Comparing normal sitting to seated movements and induced forward reaching positions. Main Outcome Measures. Interface pressure measurements: dispersion index (DI, peak pressure index (PPI, and total contact area (CA. The angle of trunk tilt was also measured. Results. The majority of movements yielded less than 25% reduction in interface pressure compared to normal sitting. Reaching forward by 150% of arm length during an adapted computer activity significantly reduced DI (P<0.05, angle of trunk tilt (p<0.05, and PPI for both ischial tuberosity regions (P<0.001 compared to normal sitting. Conclusion. Reaching forward significantly redistributed pressure at the seating interface, as evidenced by the change in interface pressures compared to upright sitting.

  15. THE TEAM BUILDING IN COLLECTIVES AS PREVENTIVE AND THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC STRESS

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    Tsvetelina Mihaylova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The stress contributes to almost all medical illnesses while the acute and chronic stress - related to work - is a primary cause of such life-threatening conditions as myocardial infarction, brain stroke, etc. The aim of the current study is an investigation of the methods for team building related to prevention and therapy in connection with acute or chronic stress. The accomplishment of the aim set is achieved by means of assessment of the applicability of laughter therapy, as a method for team building suitable in practice. It was found that the laughter therapy may help reduction of stress and tension, improvement of the quality of work, strengthening of the social relations and interrelations, etc. Increasingly more studies maintain the theory that the laughter may have therapeutic value and brings about physical benefits to the particular individual, as a member of the personnel. The laughter is a part of human behavior, and it helps people to clarify their intentions in the social interaction. The laughter is used as a signal for accepting the positive interactions with other people and is a precondition for friendly attitude in the working environment as well. Conclusions may be drawn that the laughter therapy is a suitable method for team building; the laughter therapy is appropriate for everyone as a means for the alleviation of stress, and it has a positive impact on the working process. In terms of business, a positive assessment of the methods for pulling together of members of the collective (team building may be given by a way which has subsequent positive consequences on their work.

  16. Ultraviolet-irradiated simian virus 40 activates a mutator function in rat cells under conditions preventing viral DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, J.; Su, Z.Z.; Dinsart, C.; Rommelaere, J. (Universite libre de Bruxelles, Rhode St Genese (Belgium))

    The UV-irradiated temperature-sensitive early SV40 mutant tsA209 is able to activate at the nonpermissive temperature the expression of mutator and recovery functions in rat cells. Unirradiated SV40 activates these functions only to a low extent. The expression of these mutator and recovery functions in SV40-infected cells was detected using the single-stranded DNA parvovirus H-1 as a probe. Because early SV40 mutants are defective in the initiation of viral DNA synthesis at the nonpermissive temperature, these results suggest that replication of UV-damaged DNA is not a prerequisite for the activation of mutator and recovery functions in mammalian cells. The expression of the mutator function is dose-dependent, i.e., the absolute number of UV-irradiated SV40 virions introduced per cell determines its level. Implications for the interpretation of mutation induction curves in the progeny of UV-irradiated SV40 in permissive host cells are discussed.

  17. Activated carbons as potentially useful non-nutritive additives to prevent the effect of fumonisin B1 on sodium bentonite activity against chronic aflatoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Alejandra Paola; Bergesio, Maria Virginia; Tancredi, Nestor; Magnoli, Carina E; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins that often co-occur in feedstuffs. The ingestion of AFB1 causes aflatoxicosis in humans and animals. Sodium bentonite (NaB), a cheap non-nutritive unselective sequestering agent incorporated in animal diets, can effectively prevent aflatoxicosis. Fumonisins are responsible for equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary oedema, and often have subclinical toxic effects in poultries. Fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 are both strongly adsorbed in vitro on sodium bentonite. Co-adsorption studies, carried out with a weight ratio of FB1 to AFB1 that mimics the natural occurrence (200:1), showed that FB1 greatly decreases the in vitro ability of NaB to adsorb AFB1. The ability of two activated carbons to adsorb FB1 was also investigated. Both carbons showed high affinity for FB1. A complex behaviour of the FB1 adsorption isotherms with pH was observed. In vitro results suggest that under natural contamination levels of AFB1 and FB1, a mixture of activated carbon and sodium bentonite might be potentially useful for prevention of sub-acute aflatoxicosis.

  18. Reduced prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8 activity eliminates HAI-1 and HAI-2 deficiency-associated developmental defects by preventing matriptase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Szabo

    Full Text Available Loss of either hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI-1 or -2 is associated with embryonic lethality in mice, which can be rescued by the simultaneous inactivation of the membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, thereby demonstrating that a matriptase-dependent proteolytic pathway is a critical developmental target for both protease inhibitors. Here, we performed a genetic epistasis analysis to identify additional components of this pathway by generating mice with combined deficiency in either HAI-1 or HAI-2, along with genes encoding developmentally co-expressed candidate matriptase targets, and screening for the rescue of embryonic development. Hypomorphic mutations in Prss8, encoding the GPI-anchored serine protease, prostasin (CAP1, PRSS8, restored placentation and normal development of HAI-1-deficient embryos and prevented early embryonic lethality, mid-gestation lethality due to placental labyrinth failure, and neural tube defects in HAI-2-deficient embryos. Inactivation of genes encoding c-Met, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2, or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC alpha subunit all failed to rescue embryonic lethality, suggesting that deregulated matriptase-prostasin activity causes developmental failure independent of aberrant c-Met and PAR-2 signaling or impaired epithelial sodium transport. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of PAR-1 and matriptase double-deficient embryos suggests that the protease may not be critical for focal proteolytic activation of PAR-2 during neural tube closure. Paradoxically, although matriptase auto-activates and is a well-established upstream epidermal activator of prostasin, biochemical analysis of matriptase- and prostasin-deficient placental tissues revealed a requirement of prostasin for conversion of the matriptase zymogen to active matriptase, whereas prostasin zymogen activation was matriptase-independent.

  19. IN VITRO CHEMO-PREVENTATIVE ACTIVITY OF STRELITZIA NICOLAI ARIL EXTRACT CONTAINING BILIRUBIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarka, Depika; Thaver, Veneesha; Naidu, Mickey; Koorbanally, Neil A; Baijnath, And Himansu

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the only animal pigment, bilirubin, in the plant Strelitzia nicolai has triggered a vast number of questions regarding bilirubin's formation and its role in the human body. Recent studies have confirmed that bilirubin at certain levels have many medical benefits. Various case studies have revealed that bilirubin is a potent antioxidant. Cervical cancer is one of South Africa's largest womens' health crises. It is estimated that it affects one out of 41 South African women and kills approximately 8 women in the country every day. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate if the aril extract of Strelitzia nicolai (Regel and Körn.) containing bilirubin possesses anti-cancer activity and to determine its effect on the induction of apoptosis. The DPPH activity was firstly used to determine the antioxidant effect of the extract. Thereafter, the cytotoxic effect was tested using the XTT assay. Apoptosis was confirmed and quantified using the Annexin V-PE kit and the morphology was studied using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The aril extract decreased cell viability by 52% and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells; as shown by the Annexin V-PE Apoptosis detection kit and morphological studies with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The activity of the extract as a potent antioxidant was immensely enhanced as compared to the bilirubin standard. These results suggest that S. nicolai aril extract containing bilirubin works synergistically as opposed to bilirubin on its own. Furthermore, this extract might be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of cervical cancer.

  20. Dietary compounds that induce cancer preventive phase 2 enzymes activate apoptosis at comparable doses in HT29 colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlin, W G; Cai, J; DeLong, M J; Patten, E J; Jones, D P

    1999-10-01

    Dietary agents that induce glutathione S-transferases and related detoxification systems (Phase 2 enzyme inducers) are thought to prevent cancer by enhancing elimination of chemical carcinogens. The present study shows that compounds of this group (benzyl isothiocyanate, allyl sulfide, dimethyl fumarate, butylated hydroxyanisole) activated apoptosis in human colon carcinoma (HT29) cells in culture over the same concentration ranges that elicited increases in enzyme activity (5-25, 25-100, 10-100, 15-60 micromol/L, respectively). Pretreatment of cells with sodium butyrate, an agent that induces HT29 cell differentiation, resulted in parallel increases in Phase 2 enzyme activities and induction of apoptosis in response to the inducers. Cell death characteristics included apoptotic morphological changes, appearance of cells at sub-G1 phase on flow cytometry, caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL-positive staining. The results suggest that dietary Phase 2 inducers may protect against cancer by a mechanism distinct from and in addition to that associated with enhanced elimination of carcinogens. If this occurs in vivo, diets high in such compounds could eliminate precancerous cells by apoptosis at time points well after initial exposure to chemical mutagens and carcinogens.

  1. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

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    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  2. Evaluation of the adsorption capacity of nano-graphene and nano-graphene oxide for xylene removal from air and their comparison with the standard adsorbent of activated carbon to introduce the optimized one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Tabrizi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Volatile organic compounds from industrial activities are one of the most important pollutants released into the air and have adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, they should be removed before releasing into atmosphere. The aim of the study was to evaluate xylene removal from air by nano-grapheme and nano-graphene oxide in comparison with activated carbon adsorbent. Material and Method:  After preparing adsorbents of activated carbon, nano-graphene, and nano-graphene oxide, experiments adsorption capacity in static mode (Batch were carried out in a glass vial. Some variables including contact time, the amount of adsorbent, the concentration of xylene, and the temperature were studied. Langmuir absorption isotherms were used in order to study the adsorption capacity of xylene on adsorbents. Moreover, sample analysis was done by gas chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. Results: The adsorption capacities of activated carbon, nano-graphene oxide and nano-graphene for removal of xylene were obtained 349.8, 14.5, and 490 mg/g, respectively. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM for nano-graphene and nano-graphene oxide showed particle size of less than 100 nm. While, the results of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM showed particle size of 45nm for nano-graphene and 65 nm for nano-graphene oxide. Also, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD showed cube structure of nano-adsorbents. Conclusion: In constant humidity, increase in exposure time and temperature caused an increase in the adsorption capacity. The results revealed greater adsorption capacity of xylene removal for nano-graphene compared to the activated carbon, and nano-graphene oxide.

  3. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

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    Peter D. Hart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9% of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1% reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3% who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.

  4. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D.; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  5. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  6. Preventing slips and falls through leisure-time physical activity: findings from a study of limited-service restaurants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Caban-Martinez

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been shown to be beneficial at improving health in some medical conditions and in preventing injury. Epidemiologic studies suggest that physical activity is one factor associated with a decreased risk for slips and falls in the older (≥ 65 years adult population. While the risk of slips and falls is generally lower in younger than in older adults; little is known of the relative contribution of physical activity in preventing slips and falls in younger adults. We examined whether engagement in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA was protective of slips and falls among a younger/middle-aged (≤ 50 years old working population.475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in six states in the U.S. were recruited to participate in a prospective cohort study of workplace slipping. Information on LTPA was collected at the time of enrollment. Participants reported their slip experience and work hours weekly for up to 12 weeks. We investigated the association between the rate of slipping and the rate of major slipping (i.e., slips that resulted in a fall and/or injury and LTPA for workers 50 years of age and younger (n = 433, range 18-50 years old using a multivariable negative binomial generalized estimating equation model.The rate of major slips among workers who engaged in moderate (Adjusted Rate Ratio (RR  = 0.65; 95% Confidence Interval (CI  =  [0.18-2.44] and vigorous (RR = 0.64; 95%CI  =  [0.18-2.26] LTPA, while non-significant, were approximately one-third lower than the rate of major slips among less active workers.While not statistically significant, the results suggest a potential association between engagement in moderate and vigorous LTPA and the rate of major slips in younger adults. Additional studies that examine the role of occupational and non-occupational physical activity on the risk of slips, trips and falls among younger and middle aged adults appear warranted.

  7. Physical activity and cardiovascular prevention: Is healthy urban living a possible reality or utopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Giordano, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Favoring correct lifestyles is the most important measure to contrast cardiovascular diseases and the epidemic of high cardiovascular risk conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Lifestyle is a broad expression that includes diet, physical exercise, and psychological and socio-economic factors, each of which must be taken into due consideration because of their intertwining influences, which may be a barrier to healthy changes at both the individual and population levels. While physical activity has probably received less attention in the last decades, it is likely the most important among the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Improving the habitual physical activity level is an achievable goal, and even small improvements may have important favorable effects on health. Strategies at the population level have to be urgently taken, and involve not only public health, but also administrators and politicians, starting from a rethinking of our cities. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heparin Interaction with the Primed Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte CD11b Induces Apoptosis and Prevents Cell Activation

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    Meital Cohen-Mazor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparin is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, yet the mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that heparin has a direct effect on activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, changing their activation state, and can explain its anti-inflammatory effect. To test our hypothesis, we designed both in vitro and ex vivo studies to elucidate the mechanism by which heparin modulates PMNL functions and therefore the inflammatory response. We specifically tested the hypothesis that priming of PMNLs renders them more susceptible to heparin. Amplified levels of CD11b and increased rate of superoxide release manifested PMNL priming. Increase in cell priming resulted in a dose-dependent increase in heparin binding to PMNLs followed by augmented apoptosis. Blocking antibodies to CD11b inhibited heparin binding and abolished the apoptotic response. Moreover, heparin caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the rate of superoxide release from PMNLs, which was blunted by blocking antibodies to CD11b. Altogether, this study shows that the interaction of heparin with the PMNL CD11b results in cell apoptosis and explains heparin’s anti-inflammatory effects.

  9. Screening of plant resources with anti-ice nucleation activity for frost damage prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Fukuda, Satoshi; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that some polyphenols have anti-ice nucleation activity (anti-INA) against ice-nucleating bacteria that contribute to frost damage. In the present study, leaf disk freezing assay, a test of in vitro application to plant leaves, was performed for the screening of anti-INA, which inhibits the ice nucleation activity of an ice-nucleating bacterium Erwinia ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. The application of polyphenols with anti-INA, kaempferol 7-O-β-glucoside and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, to the leaf disk freezing assay by cooling at -4--6 °C for 3 h, revealed that both the compounds showed anti-INAs against E. ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. Further, this assay also revealed that the extracts of five plant leaves showed high anti-INA against E. ananas in water droplets on leaf surfaces, indicating that they are the candidate resources to protect crops from frost damage.

  10. Does bilirubin prevent hepatic steatosis through activation of the PPARα nuclear receptor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Terry D; Adeosun, Samuel O; Alamodi, Abdulhadi A; Stec, David E

    2016-10-01

    Several large population studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between serum bilirubin levels and the development of obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disease. Despite the strong correlative data demonstrating the protective role of bilirubin, the mechanism by which bilirubin can protect against these pathologies remains unknown. Bilirubin has long been known as a powerful antioxidant and also has anti-inflammatory actions, each of which may contribute to the protection afforded by increased levels. We have recently described a novel function of bilirubin as a ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα), which we show specifically binds to the nuclear receptor. Bilirubin may function as a selective PPAR modulator (SPPARM) to control lipid accumulation and blood glucose. However, it is not known to what degree bilirubin activation of PPARα is responsible for the protection afforded to reduce hepatic steatosis. We hypothesize that bilirubin, acting as a novel SPPARM, increases hepatic fatty acid metabolism through a PPARα-dependent mechanism which reduces hepatic lipid accumulation and protects against hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity prevents augmented body fat accretion in moderately iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Andersen, Nancy E; Tarr, Tyson N; Stahl, Chad H; Young, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies describe an association between poor iron status and obesity in humans, although the mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of moderate iron deficiency and physical activity (PA) on body composition in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed iron-adequate (IA; 40 mg/kg) or moderately iron-deficient (ID; 9 mg/kg) diets ad libitum for 12 wk. Rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group): IA, sedentary (IAS); IA, PA (IAPA); ID, sedentary (IDS); or ID, PA (IDPA). Activity involved running on motorized running wheels at 4 m/min for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk. After 12 wk, ID rats were not anemic, but body iron stores were reduced as indicated by diminished (P IA rats. Treatment group did not affect body weight or feed consumption. However, fat mass was greater (P IAS (31.8 +/- 2.9%), IAPA (31.8 +/- 2.0%), and IDPA (32.8 +/- 4.5%) rats. Furthermore, lean body mass was diminished in IDS rats (58.7 +/- 6.8%) compared with IAS (65.6 +/- 3.0%), IAPA (65.6 +/- 2.1%), and IDPA (64.7 +/- 4.5%) rats. Thus, moderate iron deficiency may cause increased body fat accretion in rats and PA attenuates that effect.

  12. Nootkatone, a characteristic constituent of grapefruit, stimulates energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi

    2010-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the control of energy metabolism and is considered to be a molecular target for the suppression of obesity and the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Here, we identified and characterized nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, as a naturally occurring AMPK activator. Nootkatone induced an increase in AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activity along with an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and an increase the phosphorylation of AMPKalpha and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in C(2)C(12) cells. Nootkatone-induced activation of AMPK was possibly mediated both by LKB1 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Nootkatone also upregulated PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha in C(2)C(12) cells and C57BL/6J mouse muscle. In addition, administration of nootkatone (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly enhanced AMPK activity, accompanied by LKB1, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of mice. Whole body energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was also increased by nootkatone administration. Long-term intake of diets containing 0.1% to 0.3% (wt/wt) nootkatone significantly reduced high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced body weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation, and the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, endurance capacity, evaluated as swimming time to exhaustion in BALB/c mice, was 21% longer in mice fed 0.2% nootkatone than in control mice. These findings indicate that long-term intake of nootkatone is beneficial toward preventing obesity and improving physical performance and that these effects are due, at least in part, to enhanced energy metabolism through AMPK activation in skeletal muscle and liver.

  13. A multicenter controlled study for dementia prevention through physical, cognitive and social activities – GESTALT-kompakt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streber A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Streber, Karim Abu-Omar, Christian Hentschke, Alfred Rütten Department of Sport Science and Sport, Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences, and Theology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Prevention of dementia is a public health priority. Physical activity (PA can reduce the risk of dementia, but the majority of people remain sedentary. We conducted a multicenter controlled study with older adults (60+ years. We hypothesized that an evidence-based PA intervention – GEhen, Spielen und Tanzen Als Lebenslange Tätigkeiten – kompakt [walking, playing and dancing as lifelong activities-compact] (GESTALT-kompakt – would lead to significantly larger improvements in PA levels (step counts/Fitbit Zip™, cognitive functions (DemTect and social activities (Social Activity Log, compared to an active control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. The intervention group received a 12-week (1/week multimodal and multicomponent PA program, which combined PA with cognitive and social activities. The control group received either regular gymnastics or cognitive training (1/week. A mixed linear model was chosen for analysis. A total of 87 older individuals were recruited in the GESTALT-kompakt study (68 females, average age =76.0 years, SD ±9.2, range 52–95 years. Marginally significant differences were observed in the intervention group (n=57 in comparison to the control group (n=30, regarding improvements in PA (difference of mean changes =866.4 steps, p=0.055 after 3 months. However, their PA decreased to the baseline score value after 12 months (-866.0 steps, p=0.061. GESTALT-kompakt did not cause significant differences in cognitive functioning (-0.8620, p=0.074 and social activities (-0.2428, p=0.288 in comparison to the control intervention from T0 to T1. Sixteen (24.2% study participants who finished T2 reported a negative life event during the follow-up period

  14. SHRINKAGE REDUCTION AND CRACK PREVENTION OF ALKALI-ACTIVATED PHOSPHOROUS SLAG CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fly ash, calcium oxide and polypropylene fiber on the physical and mechanical properties, shrinkage and cracking behaviors of alkali-activated phosphorous slag cement (AA-PS-C were studied. The results show that replacing 10-15% phosphorous slag by fly ash and adding calcium oxide as an expansive agent reduce the shrinkage of AA-PS-C. Fly ash will increase the flexural strength, although the compressive strength will be slightly decreased, while the calcium oxide expansive agent coated with aluminum stearate will slightly shorten the setting time and reduce the strength. Adding polypropylene fiber can greatly increase the crack-resistance of AA-PS-C.

  15. [Wellness-activities to prevent metabolic syndrome among patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brönner, Monika; Betz, Christine; Christ, Sarah; Froböse, Teresa; Pitschel-Walz, Gabi; Bäuml, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Weight gain and metabolic disturbances are growing side effects of a modern antipsychotic therapy. Different programs were developed to reduce them. This article gives an overview of existing and evaluated programs. A literature research was made through PubMed. Relevant reviews and intervention studies were identified. Studies with the main outcome variable of weight reductions are numerous, even randomised controlled trials. Short-term weight loss under antipsychotic treatment is possible, but there is still a lack of long-term studies. Life style interventions, which include e. g. physical exercise, are not that common. Also, interventions such as wellness-activities, which contribute by means of adequate motivation strategies to an enhancement of the general well-being, are still missing. Present results turned out to be positive. Further programs which exceed weight management are required. There is necessity for more studies with consistent outcome variables and methods, especially long-term programs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  16. Kalanchoe pinnata inhibits mast cell activation and prevents allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E A; Reuter, S; Martin, H; Dehzad, N; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Buhl, R; Stassen, M; Taube, C

    2012-01-15

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin (QE) and quercitrin (QI) on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo. Treatment with Kp and QE in vitro inhibited degranulation and cytokine production of bone marrow-derived mast cells following IgE/FcɛRI crosslinking, whereas treatment with QI had no effect. Similarly, in vivo treatment with Kp and QE decreased development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and production of IL-5, IL-13 and TNF. In contrast, treatment with QI had no effect on these parameters. These findings demonstrate that treatment with Kp or QE is effective in treatment of allergic airway disease, providing new insights to the immunomodulatory functions of this plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of risk prioritization and budget allocation methods for pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.; Jones, E.; Lmont, A.; Ladmn, T.; Watz, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study reviews the structure of two main risk prioritization budget allocation methods developed by the DOE Risk-Based Priority Mode (RPM) and Management Evaluation Matrix (MEM). It identifies potential augmentations to the process that will address both risk reduction and cost-effective investments of finite resources for future Environmental Management activities. The evaluation was performed in accordance with the EM ten-year vision and principles for site cleanup. The evaluation and recommendations in this report strive to reflect four key principles, namely to eliminate the most urgent risks, reduce mortgage and support costs to make funds available for further risk reduction, protect worker health and safety, and reduce the generation of wastes

  18. Leveraging Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs to Prevent Drug Resistance in Solid Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that one key factor in driving the emergence of drug resistance in solid tumors is tumor hypoxia, which leads to the formation of localized environmental niches where drug-resistant cell populations can evolve and survive. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs are compounds designed to penetrate to hypoxic regions of a tumor and release cytotoxic or cytostatic agents; several of these HAPs are currently in clinical trial. However, preliminary results have not shown a survival benefit in several of these trials. We hypothesize that the efficacy of treatments involving these prodrugs depends heavily on identifying the correct treatment schedule, and that mathematical modeling can be used to help design potential therapeutic strategies combining HAPs with standard therapies to achieve long-term tumor control or eradication. We develop this framework in the specific context of EGFR-driven non-small cell lung cancer, which is commonly treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We develop a stochastic mathematical model, parametrized using clinical and experimental data, to explore a spectrum of treatment regimens combining a HAP, evofosfamide, with erlotinib. We design combination toxicity constraint models and optimize treatment strategies over the space of tolerated schedules to identify specific combination schedules that lead to optimal tumor control. We find that (i combining these therapies delays resistance longer than any monotherapy schedule with either evofosfamide or erlotinib alone, (ii sequentially alternating single doses of each drug leads to minimal tumor burden and maximal reduction in probability of developing resistance, and (iii strategies minimizing the length of time after an evofosfamide dose and before erlotinib confer further benefits in reduction of tumor burden. These results provide insights into how hypoxia-activated prodrugs may be used to enhance therapeutic effectiveness in the

  19. Preventing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum infections by anti-adhesion-active components of edible seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmaninov Ofra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to animal/human cells for infection establishment involves adhesive proteins, including its galactose- and fucose-binding lectins PA-IL (LecA and PA-IIL (LecB. The lectin binding to the target-cell receptors may be blocked by compatible glycans that compete with those of the receptors, functioning as anti-adhesion glycodecoys. The anti-adhesion treatment is of the utmost importance for abrogating devastating antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa infections in immunodeficient and cystic fibrosis (CF patients. This strategy functions in nature in protecting embryos and neonates. We have shown that PA-IL, PA-IIL, and also CV-IIL (a PA-IIL homolog produced in the related pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum are highly useful for revealing natural glycodecoys that surround embryos in diverse avian eggs and are supplied to neonates in milks and royal jelly. In the present study, these lectins were used as probes to search for seed embryo-protecting glycodecoys. Methods The lectin-blocking glycodecoy activities were shown by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Lectin-binding glycoproteins were detected by Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled lectins. Results The present work reports the finding - by using PA-IL, PA-IIL, and CV-IIL - of rich glycodecoy activities of low ( 10 kDa compounds (including glycoproteins in extracts of cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato seeds, resembling those of avian egg whites, mammal milks, and royal jelly. Conclusions Edible seed extracts possess lectin-blocking glycodecoys that might protect their embryos from infections and also might be useful for hampering human and animal infections.

  20. Blood Stem Cell Activity Is Arrested by Th1-Mediated Injury Preventing Engraftment following Nonmyeloablative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Mareike; Kohrt, Holbrook E. K.; Küpper, Natascha J.; Filatenkov, Alexander; Linderman, Jessica A.; Hadeiba, Husein; Negrin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    T cells are widely used to promote engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Their role in overcoming barriers to HSC engraftment is thought to be particularly critical when patients receive reduced doses of preparative chemotherapy and/or radiation compared with standard transplantations. In this study, we sought to delineate the effects CD4+ cells on engraftment and blood formation in a model that simulates clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation by transplanting MHC-matched, minor histocompatibility–mismatched grafts composed of purified HSCs, HSCs plus bulk T cells, or HSCs plus T cell subsets into mice conditioned with low-dose irradiation. Grafts containing conventional CD4+ T cells caused marrow inflammation and inhibited HSC engraftment and blood formation. Posttransplantation, the marrows of HSCs plus CD4+ cell recipients contained IL-12–secreting CD11c+ cells and IFN-γ–expressing donor Th1 cells. In this setting, host HSCs arrested at the short-term stem cell stage and remained in the marrow in a quiescent cell cycling state (G0). As a consequence, donor HSCs failed to engraft and hematopoiesis was suppressed. Our data show that Th1 cells included in a hematopoietic allograft can negatively impact HSC activity, blood reconstitution, and engraftment of donor HSCs. This potential negative effect of donor T cells is not considered in clinical transplantation in which bulk T cells are transplanted. Our findings shed new light on the effects of CD4+ T cells on HSC biology and are applicable to other pathogenic states in which immune activation in the bone marrow occurs such as aplastic anemia and certain infectious conditions. PMID:27815446

  1. [Exploration on feasibility of introducing bioassay method into quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines by studying on the correlation between antioxidant activity of Prunella vulgaris and its total phenolic acids content for example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei-Hong; Li, Chun; Xin, Wei-Mei; Lin, Li-Mei; Xia, Bo-Hou; Rong, Li-Xin; Yang, Li-Xin; Yi, Hong; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to investigate the correlation between the antioxidant activity of Prunella vulgaris and its total phenolic acids content by measuring the antioxidant activity of different sources and different organs of P. vulgaris and the total contents of protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid, salviaflaside and rosmarinic acid in these samples. Using the 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris samples as the research object, DPPH method and HPLC method were used respectively to determine the antioxidant activities and the total contents of the above-mentioned five analytes in P. vulgaris samples. 0.5 mL of 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris reacts with 0.1 mmol•L⁻¹ DPPH ethanol solution for 60 min, then the absorbance of the reaction solution was measured at 517 nm, scavenging rate and IC₅₀ values were calculated by the absorbance and the sample concentration for evaluating the antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis was made on a C₁₈ Epic column, with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase (gradient elution), and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. The correlation between the antioxidant capacity of different habitats and different organs of P. vulgaris and the total contents of five kinds of phenolic acids was analyzed by partial least squares method. The reaction dose-response range of 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris with 0.1 mmol•L⁻¹ DPPH ethanol solution was 0.300-1.65 g•L⁻¹. When the quantities of potocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid, salviaflaside and rosmarinic acid were respectively in 0.007 84-0.980, 0.011 5-1.44, 0.008 64-1.08, 0.080 0-1.00 and 0.079 8-0.998 μg range, their quantities were in good linear relationship with the corresponding peak areas. The average recovery of 5 components were 97.76%, 96.88%, 100.3%, 102.1%, 104.5%, with RSD of 1.8%, 1.6%, 1.7%, 1.6% and 1.7%, respectively. In a certain range of crude drug quantity, the antioxidant activity

  2. Long term effects of preventive activities of youth health care in The Netherlands: results of a four-part study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter A. Wiegersma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. In this article the results are presented of a four part study on the effect of screening for scoliosis and (repeated well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools, on the incidence and prevalence of (parasuicide, mental health, adolescent health compromising behaviour and lastly obesity.

    Methods. An ecologic case-referent study design was used with data from the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Defence, the 1992 High-School Student Study, all of the youth health care departments in The Netherlands and relevant censuses.

    Results. Attention to mental and physical health and health compromising behaviour, either during screening, open consultation hours or during well-care visits seems to be ineffective and in some instances even detrimental to youth health.

    Of the 18 different outcome measurements, 5 were significantly negative and none were significantly positive.

    Conclusions. This four part study does not support the hypothesis that on a population level, the preventive activities of youth health care departments such as screening for scoliosis, (more frequent well-care visits or offering open consultation hours at secondary schools, have a beneficial effect on prevention of (parasuicide, poor mental health, health compromising behaviour or obesity.

  3. Introducing Product Lines through Open Source Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to introducing product lines to companies that lower their initial risk by applying open source tools and a smooth learning curve into the use and creation of domain specific modeling combined with standardized variability modeling.

  4. Introducing Relativity: Less May Be More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how relativity can be introduced in four stages, each building on those before it, but the teacher can choose to stop after whichever stage he/she believes the pupils are capable of tackling.

  5. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  6. Triamcinolone acetonide activates an anti-inflammatory and folate receptor-positive macrophage that prevents osteophytosis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, Michiel; Korthagen, Nicoline; Wei, Wu; Groen, Harald; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne; Müller, Christina; Waarsing, Jan Hendrik; de Jong, Marion; Weinans, Harrie

    2015-12-05

    Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is used for osteoarthritis management to reduce pain, and pre-clinical studies have shown that TA limits osteophyte formation. Osteophyte formation is known to be facilitated by synovial macrophage activation. TA injections might influence macrophage activation and subsequently reduce osteophytosis. Although widely applied in clinical care, the mechanism through which TA exerts this effect remains unknown. In this animal study, we investigated the in vivo effects of TA injections on macrophage activation, osteophyte development and joint degeneration. Furthermore, in vitro macrophage differentiation experiments were conducted to further explain working mechanisms of TA effects found in vivo. Osteoarthritis was induced in rat knees using papain injections and a running protocol. Untreated and TA-treated animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes. Synovial macrophage activation was measured in vivo using folate receptor β (FRβ)-targeted single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced μCT and histology. To further explain the outcomes of our in vivo study, TA on macrophages was also studied in vitro. These cultured macrophages were either M1- or M2-activated, and they were analyzed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting for CD163 and FRβ expression as well as for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interleukin (IL)-10. Our in vivo study showed that intra-articular injections with TA strongly enhanced FRβ(+) macrophage activation. Despite stimulated macrophage activation, osteophyte formation was fully prevented. There was no beneficial effect of TA against cartilage degradation or subchondral bone sclerosis. In vitro macrophage cultures showed that TA strongly induced monocyte differentiation towards CD163(+) and FRβ(+) macrophages. Furthermore

  7. Evaluation of activities aimed at preventing microbiological risks in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17

  8. Disrupting neural activity related to awake-state sharp wave-ripple complexes prevents hippocampal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokia, Miriam S; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Penttonen, Markku; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in hippocampal local-field potentials (LFPs) reflect the crucial involvement of the hippocampus in memory trace formation: theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations and ripples (~200 Hz) occurring during sharp waves are thought to mediate encoding and consolidation, respectively. During sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs), hippocampal cell firing closely follows the pattern that took place during the initial experience, most likely reflecting replay of that event. Disrupting hippocampal ripples using electrical stimulation either during training in awake animals or during sleep after training retards spatial learning. Here, adult rabbits were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent associative learning task. A bright light was presented to the animals during the inter-trial interval (ITI), when awake, either during SPW-Rs or irrespective of their neural state. Learning was particularly poor when the light was presented following SPW-Rs. While the light did not disrupt the ripple itself, it elicited a theta-band oscillation, a state that does not usually coincide with SPW-Rs. Thus, it seems that consolidation depends on neuronal activity within and beyond the hippocampus taking place immediately after, but by no means limited to, hippocampal SPW-Rs.

  9. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  10. Modified atmosphere packaging for prevention of mold spoilage of bakery products with different pH and water activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2003-10-01

    A sponge cake analog was used to study the influence of pH, water activity (aw), and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of seven fungal species commonly causing bakery product spoilage (Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium repens, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum). A full factorial design was used. Water activity, CO2, and their interaction were the main factors significantly affecting fungal growth. Water activity at levels of 0.80 to 0.90 had a significant influence on fungal growth and determined the concentration of CO2 needed to prevent cake analog spoilage. At an aw level of 0.85, lag phases increased twofold when the level of CO2 in the headspace increased from 0 to 70%. In general, no fungal growth was observed for up to 28 days of incubation at 25 degrees C when samples were packaged with 100% CO2, regardless of the aw level. Partial least squares projection to latent structures regression was used to build a polynomial model to predict sponge cake shelf life on the basis of the lag phases of all seven species tested. The model developed explained quite well (R2 = 79%) the growth of almost all species, which responded similarly to changes in tested factors. The results of this study emphasize the importance of combining several hurdles, such as modified atmosphere packaging, aw, and pH, that have synergistic or additive effects on the inhibition of mold growth.

  11. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ 2 test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  12. The Role of Youth Sports in Promoting Children's Physical Activity and Preventing Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2018-01-01

    Youth sport participation plays an important role in promoting physical activity among children and may be a possible venue for the prevention of pediatric obesity. To design effective physical activity interventions, it is imperative to understand how different aspects of sport participation influence physical activity (PA). The purpose of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the impact of youth sport participation on children's PA and obesity status. A total of 44 studies published up to January 2014 concerning youth sport participation, PA, and obesity status were identified. Inclusion criteria were studies comparing PA levels of sport participants to nonparticipants or those comparing PA levels in different sport types and settings. Studies with the outcome variables of obesity status (e.g., body mass index, fat percentage, waist circumference) were also included. Participation in youth sport was positively associated with children's PA levels, and youth participating in sports were more likely to persist in their PA. However, the relationship between youth sport participation and obesity status was inconclusive. Educators and sports professionals should find ways to involve children in various sports settings and policies and help obese children engage more in sports.

  13. Occupational activity and cognitive reserve: implications in terms of prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stéphane Adam1, Eric Bonsang2, Catherine Grotz1, Sergio Perelman3 1Unité de Psychologie de la Sénescence, University of Liège, Belgium; 2Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market, Maastricht University, The Netherlands; 3Center of Research in Public Economics and Population Economics, University of Liège, Belgium Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between the concept of activity (including both professional and nonprofessional and cognitive functioning among older European individuals. In this research, we used data collected during the first wave of SHARE (Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, and a measurement approach known as stochastic frontier analysis, derived from the economic literature. SHARE includes a large population (n > 25,000 geographically distributed across Europe, and analyzes several dimensions simultaneously, including physical and mental health activity. The main advantages of stochastic frontier analysis are that it allows estimation of parametric function relating cognitive scores and driving factors at the boundary and disentangles frontier noise and distance to frontier components, as well as testing the effect of potential factors on these distances simultaneously. The analysis reveals that all activities are positively related to cognitive functioning in elderly people. Our results are discussed in terms of prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease, and regarding the potential impact that some retirement programs might have on cognitive functioning in individuals across Europe. Keywords: cognitive aging, cognitive reserve, retirement, Alzheimer’s disease

  14. Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabriso, Nadia; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; D'Amore, Simona; Gnoni, Antonio; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties by pure olive oil polyphenols; however, the effects of olive oil phenolic fraction on the inflammatory angiogenesis are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of the phenolic fraction (olive oil polyphenolic extract, OOPE) from extra virgin olive oil and related circulating metabolites on the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses and NADPH oxidase activity and expression in human cultured endothelial cells. We found that OOPE (1-10 μg/ml), at concentrations achievable nutritionally, significantly reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the VEGF-induced cell migration, invasiveness and tube-like structure formation through the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. OOPE significantly (Pextra virgin olive oil, with high polyphenol content, decreased VEGF-induced NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 expression, as well as, MMP-9 expression, as compared with fasting control serum. Overall, native polyphenols and serum metabolites of extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols are able to lower the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and decreasing the expression of selective NADPH oxidase subunits. Our results provide an alternative mechanism by which the consumption of olive oil rich in polyphenols may account for a reduction of oxidative stress inflammatory-related sequelae associated with chronic degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transient ureteral obstruction prevents against kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2α activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Zhang

    Full Text Available Although the protective effect of transient ureteral obstruction (UO prior to ischemia on subsequent renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury has been documented, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be understood. We showed in the current study that 24 h of UO led to renal tubular hypoxia in the ipsilateral kidney in mice, with the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2α, which lasted for a week after the release of UO. To address the functions of HIF-2α in UO-mediated protection of renal IRI, we utilized the Mx-Cre/loxP recombination system to knock out target genes. Inactivation of HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α blunted the renal protective effects of UO, as demonstrated by much higher serum creatinine level and severer histological damage. UO failed to prevent postischemic neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis induction in HIF-2α knockout mice, which also diminished the postobstructive up-regulation of the protective molecule, heat shock protein (HSP-27. The renal protective effects of UO were associated with the improvement of the postischemic recovery of intra-renal microvascular blood flow, which was also dependent on the activation of HIF-2α. Our results demonstrated that UO protected the kidney via activation of HIF-2α, which reduced tubular damages via preservation of adequate renal microvascular perfusion after ischemia. Thus, preconditional HIF-2α activation might serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic acute renal failure.

  16. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Song, Seung Ryel; Park, Do-Sim; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation

  17. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyeong-Won [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Immune-network Pioneer Research Center, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung Ryel [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do-Sim [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory of Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Raekil [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  18. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François

    2010-01-01

    , exercise training, diet/nutritional counselling, weight control management, lipid management, blood pressure monitoring, smoking cessation, and psychosocial management. Cardiac rehabilitation services are by definition multi-factorial and comprehensive, with physical activity counselling and exercise...... training as central components in all rehabilitation and preventive interventions. Many of the risk factor improvements occurring in CR can be mediated through exercise training programmes. This call-for-action paper presents the key components of a CR programme: physical activity counselling and exercise...

  19. Radon balneotherapy and physical activity for osteoporosis prevention: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklmayr, Martina; Kluge, Christian; Winklmayr, Wolfgang; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Steiner, Martina; Ritter, Markus; Hartl, Arnulf

    2015-03-01

    Low-dose radon hyperthermia balneo treatment (LDRnHBT) is applied as a traditional measure in the non-pharmacological treatment of rheumatic diseases in Europe. During the last decades, the main approach of LDRnHBT was focused on the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, but scientific evidence for the biological background of LDRnHBT is weak. Recently, evidence emerged that LDRnHBT influences bone metabolism. We investigated, whether combined LDRnHBT and exercise treatment has an impact on bone metabolism and quality of life in a study population in an age group at risk for developing osteoporosis. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprised guided hiking tours and hyperthermia treatment in either radon thermal water (LDRnHBT) or radon-free thermal water (PlaceboHBT). Markers of bone metabolism, quality of life and somatic complaints were evaluated. Statistics was performed by linear regression and a linear mixed model analysis. Significant changes over time were observed for most analytes investigated as well as an improvement in self-assessed health in both groups. No significant impact from the LDRnHBT could be observed. After 6 months, the LDRnHBT group showed a slightly stronger reduction of the osteoclast stimulating protein receptor activator of nuclear kB-ligand compared to the PlaceboHBT group, indicating a possible trend. A combined hyperthermia balneo and exercise treatment has significant immediate and long-term effects on regulators of bone metabolism as well as somatic complaints. LDRnHBT and placeboHBT yielded statistically equal outcomes.

  20. Thioredoxin-albumin fusion protein prevents copper enhanced zinc-induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Shimoda, Mikako; Chuang, Victor T G; Nishida, Kento; Kawahara, Masahiro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru; Ishima, Yu

    2018-01-15

    Zinc (Zn) is a co-factor for a vast number of enzymes, and functions as a regulator for immune mechanism and protein synthesis. However, excessive Zn release induced in pathological situations such as stroke or transient global ischemia is toxic. Previously, we demonstrated that the interaction of Zn and copper (Cu) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various metal ions induced neuronal death. Thioredoxin-Albumin fusion (HSA-Trx) is a derivative of thioredoxin (Trx), an antioxidative protein, with improved plasma retention and stability of Trx. In this study, we examined the effect of HSA-Trx on Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neurotoxicity. Firstly, HSA-Trx was found to clearly suppress Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neuronal cell death in mouse hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1-7 cells). Moreover, HSA-Trx markedly suppressed Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced ROS production and the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as heme oxygenase-1. In contrast, HSA-Trx did not affect the intracellular levels of both Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ after Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ treatment. Finally, HSA-Trx was found to significantly suppress endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ treatment in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that HSA-Trx counteracted Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neurotoxicity by suppressing the production of ROS via interfering the related gene expressions, in addition to the highly possible radical scavenging activity of the fusion protein. Based on these findings, HSA-Trx has great potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of refractory neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR THE PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yakushin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of physical activity (PA is today one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis­related deaths. Its level is falling worldwide. A study in the UK, USA, India, Brazil and China (45 % of the world population total PA declined in these countries and will continue to fall over the next 15 years. In Russia, the level of the PA population decreased. PA is responsible for 12.2 % of the global burden of myo­ cardial infarction. These more than 40 observational studies demonstrate the complete proofs of the linear relationship between the level of PA and total mortality in younger and older men and women. The minimum threshold PA, which can reduce the risk of all­cause mortal­ ity is at a level of 2.5–5 hours a week. Further increase of the PA (its duration and/or intensity leads to a further reduction of risks. PA should take most days of the week and have a duration of more than 10 minutes a day. Only then did she summed up. In patients with cardiovascular disease to determine the necessary level of PA is difficult. Therefore, before the training they have to undergo stress testing. The program of training should be determined on the basis of findings and the clinical status. Even brief moderate and/or intense exercise can reduce the risk of death of the patient. If an individual does not reach the target of 150 minutes of moderate PA per week, but has been a regular, his risk of CHD was significantly reduced (14 %, 95 % CI 0.76–0.97. The development of programs to improve the PA of the population can have a significant impact on the overall and cardiovascular mortality. 

  2. Tissue factor/FVIIa activates Bcl-2 and prevents doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jun; Gu, Lubing; Zhu, Ningxi; Tang, Hao; Alvarado, Carlos S; Zhou, Muxiang

    2008-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane protein that acts as a receptor for activated coagulation factor VII (FVIIa), initiating the coagulation cascade. Recent studies demonstrate that expression of tumor-derived TF also mediates intracellular signaling relevant to tumor growth and apoptosis. Our present study investigates the possible mechanism by which the interaction between TF and FVIIa regulates chemotherapy resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines. Gene and siRNA transfection was used to enforce TF expression in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line and to silence endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma line, respectively. The expression of TF, Bcl-2, STAT5, and Akt as well as the phosphorylation of STAT5 and Akt in gene transfected cells or cells treated with JAK inhibitor and LY294002 were determined by Western blot assay. Tumor cell growth was determined by a clonogenic assay. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of doxorubicin on neuroblastoma cell lines was analyzed by WST assay and annexin-V staining (by flow cytometry) respectively. Enforced expression of TF in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line in the presence of FVIIa induced upregulation of Bcl-2, leading to resistance to doxorubicin. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma cell line using siRNA resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 and sensitization to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, neuroblastoma cells expressing high levels of either endogenous or transfected TF treated with FVIIa readily phosphorylated STAT5 and Akt. Using selective pharmacologic inhibitors, we demonstrated that JAK inhibitor I, but not the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, blocked the TF/FVIIa-induced upregulation of Bcl-2. This study shows that in neuroblastoma cell lines overexpressed TF ligated with FVIIa produced upregulation of Bcl-2 expression through the JAK/STAT5 signaling pathway, resulting in resistance to apoptosis. We surmise that this TF

  3. Urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore have a market potential. It is recommended that market development activities including organising and training farmers in improved agronomic methods, handling bananas for local markets; and promotional studies of the introduced dessert bananas among the urban consumers be done to widen their demand.

  4. Introducing the History of Science at the French Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Danielle M. E.

    2009-01-01

    In scientific teaching, especially in physics and chemistry, some historical aspects have been introduced at the secondary level in France, since 1993. Particularly, in 2007, the syllabuses of 11'-15' years old level ("college") propose precise activities in history of science and technology. Detailed guidance has been distributed in…

  5. Preventive effect of the flavonoid, quercetin, on hepatic cancer in rats via oxidant/antioxidant activity: molecular and histological evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seufi AlaaEddeen M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing in many countries. The estimated number of new cases annually is over 500,000, and the yearly incidence comprises between 2.5 and 7% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The incidence varies between different geographic areas, being higher in developing areas; males are predominantly affected, with a 2:3 male/female ratio Methods Experiments were designed to examine the effect of N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA as cancer-inducer compound and to confirm the preventive effect of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Briefly, thirty six male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into 3 groups: the 1st group was administered NDEA alone (NDEA-treated, the 2nd group was treated simultaneously with NDEA and quercetin (NDEA+Q and the 3rd group was used as control (CON. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR as well as p53-specifi PCR assays were employed to determine genomic difference between treated, and control animals. Histological confirmation as well as oxidant/antioxidant status of the liver tissue was done. Results RAPD analysis of liver samples generated 8 monomorphic bands and 22 polymorphic bands in a total of 30-banded RAPD patterns. Cluster analysis and statistical analyses of RAPD data resulted in grouping control and NDEA+Q samples in the same group with 80% similarity cut-off value. NDEA-treated samples were clustered in a separate group. Specific PCR assay for polymorphism of P53 gene revealed a uniform pattern of allele separation in both control and NDEA+Q samples. Quercetin anticancer effect was exhibited in significant decrease of oxidative stress and significant decrease of antioxidant activity. Histopathological studies showed normal liver histology of the NDEA+Q samples. Meanwhile, several cancer-induced features were clearly observable in NDEA-treated samples. Conclusion This paper demonstrated that

  6. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  7. The Study About Physical Activity for Subjects With Prevention of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Won Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH subjects has been increasing worldwide, and many studies have been conducted to determine the treatment that can delay drug therapy or surgery. Subsequently, most of these studies involved physical activity (PA and associated factors. Therefore, we aimed to determine factors associated with BPH prevalence based on a review of past and present studies and to investigate the effect of a healthy lifestyle as a protective factor of BPH occurrence.MethodsWe selected 582 subjects aged ≥40 years from an initial 779 subjects recruited from Gyeonggi, Yangpyeong, South Korea, during August 2009 to August 2011. Trained investigators surveyed International Prostate Symptom Score and demographic information, including PA and lifestyle questionnaire during face-to-face interviews; further, they performed digital rectal examination, rectal ultrasonography, and measured prostate-specific antigen levels. The statistical association between PA and BPH was analyzed by logistic regression analysis using multivariable regression models which use categorical variables by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and continuous variables by the general linear model.ResultsSeven statistically significant variables for PA were selected. Regular exercise, frequency of exercise, sedentary time, nonsedentary time, leisure time PA (metabolic equivalent, hr/wk were not statistically associated with prostate volume but sedentary time (hr/day was the only factor that showed a significant association in the multivariable model, including a linear effect relationship. Subjects with lower levels of sedentary time (4.5-7.0 hr/day had a significantly lower risk of BPH (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-1.67 than those with a higher sedentary time (>7 hr/day (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.96-3.09 (P for trend=0.05.ConclusionsOur study showed that reducing sedentary time could have a protective effect and reduce the

  8. Strategies to improve the implementation of healthy eating, physical activity and obesity prevention policies, practices or programmes within childcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Jones, Jannah; Williams, Christopher M; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca J; Kingsland, Melanie; Tzelepis, Flora; Wiggers, John; Williams, Amanda J; Seward, Kirsty; Small, Tameka; Welch, Vivian; Booth, Debbie; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-10-04

    Despite the existence of effective interventions and best-practice guideline recommendations for childcare services to implement policies, practices and programmes to promote child healthy eating, physical activity and prevent unhealthy weight gain, many services fail to do so. The primary aim of the review was to examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving the implementation of policies, practices or programmes by childcare services that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention. The secondary aims of the review were to:1. describe the impact of such strategies on childcare service staff knowledge, skills or attitudes;2. describe the cost or cost-effectiveness of such strategies;3. describe any adverse effects of such strategies on childcare services, service staff or children;4. examine the effect of such strategies on child diet, physical activity or weight status. We searched the following electronic databases on 3 August 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL and SCOPUS. We also searched reference lists of included trials, handsearched two international implementation science journals and searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp/) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov). We included any study (randomised or non-randomised) with a parallel control group that compared any strategy to improve the implementation of a healthy eating, physical activity or obesity prevention policy, practice or programme by staff of centre-based childcare services to no intervention, 'usual' practice or an alternative strategy. The review authors independently screened abstracts and titles, extracted trial data and assessed risk of bias in pairs; we resolved discrepancies via consensus. Heterogeneity across studies precluded pooling of data and undertaking quantitative

  9. [Acute asthma attacks introduced by anesthesia before nasal endoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiaofei; Han, Demin; Zhou, Bing; Ding, Bin

    2004-05-01

    In order to pay our attention to the perioperative treatment before nasal endoscopic surgery. Three patients with asthma accompanied chronic sinusitis were analyzed systemically, who had undergone acute attacks of asthma introduced by anesthesia. Anesthetic drugs and instruments can lead to acute attacks of asthma, because sinusitis with asthma means allergic airway inflammation, broncho-hyperreactivity and lower compensatory pulmonary function. Then all of the 3 cases had missed the preoperative treatment. Anesthetic drugs and instruments can lead to acute attacks of asthma. The perioperative treatment before nasal endoscopic surgery is very important for the prevention of the occurrences of this severe complication. Except emergency, the operation should be can celled for avoiding the acute attack of asthma introduced by anesthesia.

  10. Prevention of alloimmunization by ultraviolet-B irradiation. Inactivation of leukocytes and the generation of active oxygen and radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tsuneo; Mogi, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Sadayoshi; Akasaka, Junichi; Kamo, Naoki; Kuwabara, Mikinori.

    1994-01-01

    UV-B irradiation of platelet concentrates (PC) has been tried in several institutes to inactivate leukocytes in PC and prevent alloimmunization on platelet transfusion. However, the mechanism of inactivation of leukocytes contaminating PC has not been fully understood. It is known that UV-B light is absorbed by photosensitizers in cells and produces active oxygen and radicals, such as singlet oxygen, superioxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. These active oxygen or radicals should injure cellular components and this could cause the suppression of cellular functions. In this study, we investigated the relationships among UV-B irradiation, free radical generation and leukocyte inactivation. We found the evidence that active oxygen and radicals were produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by UV-B irradiation. UV-B irradiation suppressed the stimulatory function of leukocytes in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and the suppression depended on the dosage of UV-B. Even a low dosage of UV-B, 10 J/m 2 , could inhibit the MLR if the irradiated cells were incubated at 37degC for 24 hours before co-culture with responder cells. Treatments of cells with the exogenous singlet oxygen or superoxide anions also caused suppression of the stimulatory function in the MLR, inhibition of capping formation of HLA-DR antigens, and an increase of intracellular free Ca 2+ levels as did the UV-B treatment. These results indicate that the active oxygen or radicals generated in UV-B-irradiated leukocytes could be one of the causes of leukocyte inactivation. (author0

  11. Combined aspirin and cilostazol treatment is associated with reduced platelet aggregation and prevention of exercise-induced platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleanthis, M; Bhattacharya, V; Smout, J; Ashour, H; Stansby, G

    2009-05-01

    Cilostazol has proven efficacy in increasing walking distance in claudicants, but it has not been demonstrated to be more effective than placebo in secondary cardiovascular prevention. The direct effect of exercise on platelet function remains less well defined. We have investigated the effect of combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol on platelet activity in claudicants subjected to repeated treadmill exercise. Nineteen claudicants completed a double-blind, randomised, controlled, cross-over trial. Each subject received a 2-week course of aspirin (75mg) and placebo and aspirin and cilostazol (100mg twice daily). Following each 2-week treatment period, patients participated in a standardised treadmill test (3.2kmh(-1), 10 degrees incline) walking to maximal claudication distance. The exercise was repeated thrice in total, and blood was sampled before and after exercise. Platelet activation was measured using free platelet counting aggregation, flow cytometry for surface markers of platelet activation and soluble P-selectin assay. Compared to aspirin and placebo, combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol was associated with reduced arachidonic-acid-induced platelet aggregation (pWilcoxon signed-rank test). Aspirin and placebo treatment were associated with elevated P-selectin expression, platelet-monocyte aggregation and reduced CD42b expression (pWilcoxon signed-rank test) post-exercise. No difference was seen in spontaneous platelet aggregation whilst soluble P-selectin was reduced post-exercise with combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol (pWilcoxon signed-rank test). Combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol results in suppression of platelet activation and reduces the effect of exercise on platelets. The benefit seen may be a result of cilostazol enhancing the inhibitory effect of aspirin on the cyclo-oxygenase pathway.

  12. A strategy for introducing hydrogen into transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.E.; Keith, D.W.; Corbett, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable effort is being expended on research and demonstration projects aimed at introducing hydrogen into the transportation sector as a fuel, generally motivated by concerns about carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum imports (or scarcity). In this paper we focus on one aspect of strategy for introducing hydrogen--the choice of transportation mode. Our analysis suggests that cost of introducing hydrogen can be reduced by selecting a mode that uses a small number of relatively large vehicles that are operated by professional crews along a limited number of point-to-point routes or within a small geographic area. In addition, technological innovation in vehicle design will take place most quickly in modes where individual vehicles are produced to order and each receives significant engineering attention (not those manufactured in vast quantities on assembly lines). The immediate environmental benefits of introducing hydrogen fuel will occur in modes that have relatively less stringent pollution regulations applied to them. These insights, suggest that heavy-duty freight modes would be a less costly way to introduce hydrogen as a transportation fuel and a more effective way to advance hydrogen-related technologies so that they could subsequently be used more widely in light-duty vehicles

  13. Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Marya, Rehmani; Rastegar, Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intak...

  14. [Improving prevention activities of infectious diseases during preparation and holding of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Bragina, I V; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Grechanaia, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Balaeva, M I; Tesheva, S Ch; Biriukov, V A; Kulichenko, A N; Vasilenko, N F; Maletskaia, O V; Manin, E A; Orobeĭ, V G

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on the implementation of a set of preventive activities to ensure sanitation and epidemiological welfare during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi. The importance of monitoring and evaluation of epidemiological risk, as the basis of formation of preventive measures is noticed. The questions of specific, and nonspecific prevention of infectious diseases, especially the work done during the pre-Olympic period are considered. The importance of specifically developed regulatory basis, and health education are emphasized. The conclusion about the effectiveness of the measures taken, which led to a significant reduction of infectious diseases in the region is made.

  15. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques: towards miniaturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Sampling and sample preparation are of crucial importance in an analytical procedure, representing quite often a source of errors. The technique chosen for the isolation of analytes greatly affects the success of a chemical determination. On the other hand, growing concerns about environmental and human safety, along with the introduction of international regulations for quality control, have moved the interest of scientists towards specific needs. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques are challenged to meet new criteria: (i) miniaturization, (ii) higher sensitivity and selectivity, and (iii) automation. In this survey, the most recent techniques introduced in the field of sample preparation will be described and discussed, along with many examples of applications.

  16. Introducing particle physics a graphic guide

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071677

    2013-01-01

    What really happens at the most fundamental levels of nature? Introducing Particle Physics explores the very frontiers of our knowledge, even showing how particle physicists are now using theory and experiment to probe our very concept of what is real. From the earliest history of the atomic theory through to supersymmetry, micro-black holes, dark matter, the Higgs boson, and the possibly mythical graviton, practising physicist and CERN contributor Tom Whyntie gives us a mind-expanding tour of cutting-edge science. Featuring brilliant illustrations from Oliver Pugh, Introducing Particle Physics is a unique tour through the most astonishing and challenging science being undertaken today.

  17. A single-chain variable fragment intrabody prevents intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin while allowing its antiproteinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Adriana; Pérez, Juan; Tan, Lu; Dickens, Jennifer A; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Irving, James A; Haq, Imran; Ekeowa, Ugo; Marciniak, Stefan J; Miranda, Elena; Lomas, David A

    2015-06-01

    Mutant Z α1-antitrypsin (E342K) accumulates as polymers within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes predisposing to liver disease, whereas low levels of circulating Z α1-antitrypsin lead to emphysema by loss of inhibition of neutrophil elastase. The ideal therapy should prevent polymer formation while preserving inhibitory activity. Here we used mAb technology to identify interactors with Z α1-antitrypsin that comply with both requirements. We report the generation of an mAb (4B12) that blocked α1-antitrypsin polymerization in vitro at a 1:1 molar ratio, causing a small increase of the stoichiometry of inhibition for neutrophil elastase. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) intrabody was generated based on the sequence of mAb4B12. The expression of scFv4B12 within the ER (scFv4B12KDEL) and along the secretory pathway (scFv4B12) reduced the intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin by 60%. The scFv4B12 intrabody also increased the secretion of Z α1-antitrypsin that retained inhibitory activity against neutrophil elastase. MAb4B12 recognized a discontinuous epitope probably located in the region of helices A/C/G/H/I and seems to act by altering protein dynamics rather than binding preferentially to the native state. This novel approach could reveal new target sites for small-molecule intervention that may block the transition to aberrant polymers without compromising the inhibitory activity of Z α1-antitrypsin. © FASEB.

  18. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...

  19. Introducing Simulation via the Theory of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arvid C.

    2011-01-01

    While spreadsheet simulation can be a useful method by which to help students to understand some of the more advanced concepts in an introductory statistics course, introducing the simulation methodology at the same time as these concepts can result in student cognitive overload. This article describes a spreadsheet model that has been…

  20. Introducing Technology Education at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts are seeing a need to introduce technology education to students at the elementary level. Pennsylvania's Penn Manor School District is one of them. Pennsylvania has updated science and technology standards for grades 3-8, and after several conversations the author had with elementary principals and the assistant superintendent…

  1. Introducing GIS across Levels: Designing for Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Joana

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a strategy for designing introductory GIS modules at Birkbeck, University of London. Seven design aspects or elements (content, practical exercises, assessment, pace, mode, level of support, and level of difficulty) for tailoring modules at appropriate levels and for diversity are introduced and their application in Birkbeck's…

  2. Introducing Grounded Theory into translation studies | Wehrmeyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...

  3. Comparing macrophyte herbivory by introduced Louisiana crayfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The omnivorous Louisiana crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, has caused significant changes to macrophyte communities worldwide and may have similar negative effects in Kenya if used as a biological control agent for snails harbouring human schistosomes. Here we examine how herbivory by the introduced Louisiana ...

  4. Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple resistance genes from American to Chinese wheat. JN Qi, X Zhang, C Yin, H Li, F Lin. Abstract. Stripe rust is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars with resistance genes is the most effective method to control this ...

  5. Hybridisation between native Oreochromis species and introduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been introduced throughout Africa outside its native range for aquaculture purposes. Hybridisation between escaped O. niloticus and native Oreochromis species is of concern due to potential negative effects on wild genetic resources for conservation, aquaculture and capture ...

  6. Introducing Giovanni Gentile, the "Philosopher of Fascism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This essay aims to introduce Giovanni Gentile to scholars of Gramsci studies broadly and Gramsci-education studies more specifically. The largest part of the essay explores Gentile's academic life, his philosophical agenda, and his political career. Having established a basis for understanding the educational reform Gentile enacted as Mussolini's…

  7. Vitamin D treatment during pregnancy prevents autism-related phenotypes in a mouse model of maternal immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillermot, Stephanie; Luan, Wei; Meyer, Urs; Eyles, Darryl

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to infection is a recognized environmental risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders of developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. Experimental work in animals indicates that this link is mediated by maternal immune activation (MIA) involving interactions between cytokine-associated inflammatory events, oxidative stress, and other pathophysiological processes such as hypoferremia and zinc deficiency. Maternal administration of the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in mice produces several behavioral phenotypes in adult offspring of relevance to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we investigated whether some of these phenotypes might also present in juveniles. In addition, given the known immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of vitamin D, we also investigated whether the co-administration of vitamin D could block MIA-induced ASD-related behaviors. We co-administered the hormonally active form of vitamin D, 1α,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25OHD), simultaneously with poly(I:C) and examined (i) social interaction, stereotyped behavior, emotional learning and memory, and innate anxiety-like behavior in juveniles and (ii) the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in maternal plasma and fetal brains. We show that like adult offspring that were exposed to MIA, juveniles display similar deficits in social approach behavior. Juvenile MIA offspring also show abnormal stereotyped digging and impaired acquisition and expression of tone-cued fear conditioning. Importantly, our study reveals that prenatal administration of 1,25OHD abolishes all these behavioral deficits in poly(I:C)-treated juveniles. However, prenatal administration of vitamin D had no effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in dams or in fetal brains suggesting the anti-inflammatory actions of vitamin D are not the critical mechanism for its preventive actions in this ASD

  8. Art therapy and music reminiscence activity in the prevention of cognitive decline: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Rawtaer, Iris; Fam, Johnson; Wong, Jonathan; Kumar, Alan Prem; Gandhi, Mihir; Jing, Kenny Xu; Feng, Lei; Kua, Ee Heok

    2017-07-12

    Attention has shifted to the use of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent cognitive decline as a preventive strategy, as well as for those at risk and those with mild cognitive impairment. Early introduction of psycho-social interventions can address cognitive decline and significantly impact quality of life and the wellbeing of elderly individuals. This pilot study explores the feasibility of using art therapy and music reminiscence activity to improve the cognition of community living elderly with mild cognitive impairment. This open-label, interventional study involves a parallel randomized controlled trial design with three arms (two intervention arms and a control group) over a nine-month period. Participants will be community-living elderly individuals aged 60-85 years, both genders, who meet predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the initial three months, interventions will be provided weekly and for the remaining six months fortnightly. A sample size of 90 participants is targeted based on expected neuropsychological test performance, a primary outcome measure, and drop-out rates. The randomization procedure will be carried out via a web-based randomization system. Interventions will be provided by trained staff with a control group not receiving any intervention but continuing life as usual. Assessments will be done at baseline, three months, and nine months, and include neuroimaging to measure cerebral changes and neuropsychological tests to measure for changes in cognition. Secondary outcome measures will include mood changes in anxiety and depression and telomere lengths. Statistical analysis will be undertaken by statisticians; all efficacy analysis will be carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Primary and secondary outcomes will be modeled using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements and further analysis may be undertaken to adjust for potential confounders. This will be the first study to compare the effectiveness of

  9. Introducing information technologies into medical education: activities of the AAMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, A A; Anderson, M B

    1997-03-01

    Previous articles in this column have discussed how new information technologies are revolutionizing medical education. In this article, two staff members from the Association of American Medical College's Division of Medical Education discuss how the Association (the AAMC) is working both to support the introduction of new technologies into medical education and to facilitate dialogue on information technology and curriculum issues among AAMC constituents and staff. The authors describe six AAMC initiatives related to computing in medical education: the Medical School Objectives Project, the National Curriculum Database Project, the Information Technology and Medical Education Project, a professional development program for chief information officers, the AAMC ACCESS Data Collection and Dissemination System, and the internal Staff Interest Group on Medical Informatics and Medical Education.

  10. Sulforaphane Prevents Testicular Damage in Kunming Mice Exposed to Cadmium via Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN is a natural and highly effective antioxidant. Studies suggest that SFN protects cells and tissues against cadmium (Cd toxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of SFN against oxidative damage in the testes of Kunming mice exposed to cadmium, and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Cadmium greatly reduced the serum testosterone levels in mice, reduced sperm motility, total sperm count, and increased the sperm deformity rate. Cadmium also reduces superoxide dismutase (T-SOD and glutathione (GSH levels and increases malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. SFN intervention improved sperm quality, serum testosterone, and antioxidant levels. Both mRNA and protein expression of mouse testicular nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 was reduced in cadmium-treated group. Furthermore, the downstream genes of Nrf2, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1 were also decreased in cadmium-treated group. SFN intervention increases the expression of these genes. Sulforaphane prevents cadmium-induced testicular damage, probably via activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  11. Life course impact of school-based promotion of healthy eating and active living to prevent childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools is a comprehensive school health program that is proven feasible and effective in preventing obesity among school aged children. To support decision making on expanding this program, evidence on its long-term health and economic impacts is particularly critical. In the present study we estimate the life course impact of the APPLE Schools programs in terms of future body weights and avoided health care costs.We modeled growth rates of body mass index (BMI using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey collected between 1996-2008. These growth rate characteristics were used to project BMI trajectories for students that attended APPLE Schools and for students who attended control schools (141 randomly selected schools in the Canadian province of Alberta.Throughout the life course, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 1.2% to 2.8% (1.7 on average less among students attending APPLE Schools relative to their peers attending control schools. The life course prevalence of obesity was 0.4% to 1.4% (0.8% on average less among APPLE Schools students. If the APPLE Schools program were to be scaled up, the potential cost savings would be $33 to 82 million per year for the province of Alberta, or $150 to 330 million per year for Canada.These projected health and economic benefits seem to support broader implementation of school-based health promotion programs.

  12. A Pilot Study of Stress System Activation in Children Enrolled in a Targeted Prevention Program: Implications for Personalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirically validated interventions addressing childhood psychological problems are now readily available, but success likely depends in part on accurately identifying which children will benefit from which intervention. This pilot study examined the stress activation and response system, first as a way to differentiate high versus low-risk children, and second to explore indicators of the stress system associated with favorable intervention response. Method. Participants (N = 43, 58% male were school-aged children who qualified for inclusion in the Early Risers “Skills for Success” Prevention Program based on their elevated levels of aggressive and/or socially withdrawn behavior and a normally developing comparison group. Compared to the normally developing group, children who were participants in the intervention exhibited a more blunted cortisol response to the stress paradigm. However, for the children in the intervention group, elevated cortisol levels at the start of the stress paradigm were concurrently associated with internalizing problems and predictive of improvement in internalizing problems over time. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis biological variables may be helpful tools for identifying children who would benefit from intervention and personalizing interventions.

  13. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  14. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  15. Introducing the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: Key concepts related to self-care and adherence were defined, discussed, and implemented as part of the ASEF framework. ASEF was applied to seven self-care case studies, and the perceived usefulness and feasibility of ASEF was evaluated in a questionnaire study by the case study participants...... resulting in reduced data quality and suboptimal treatment. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to introduce the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF) as a method for developing novel technology-based adherence strategies to assess and improve patient adherence levels in the unsupervised setting....... Finally, we reviewed the individual case studies usage of ASEF. Results: A range of central self-care concepts were defined and the ASEF methodological framework was introduced. ASEF was successfully used in seven case studies with a total of 25 participants. Of these, 16 provided answers...

  16. Introducing a patient-controlled analgesia-based acute pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    say: 'The treatment of pain after surgery in British hos- pitals has been ... Senior registrars are assigned to share the service load. This enables .... The physiotherapists are active supporrers ofthe. APRS. ... of the registrars fall ill or take leave. Consultant .... raises the importance ofpain prevention in the minds of all clinical ...

  17. Introducing the new business demography statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Grierson; Andrew Allen

    2008-01-01

    Introducing the new business demography statisticsA new National Statistics series waspublished on 28 November 2008 bythe Offi ce for National Statistics (ONS),providing data on business births,deaths and survival rates, called BusinessDemography: Enterprise Births andDeaths. The Department for Business,Enterprise & Regulatory Reform (BERR)also published its series Business start upsand closures: VAT registrations andde-registrations in 2007 on the sameday. The year 2008 is the final update t...

  18. The challenges of introducing internal social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges associated with introducing internal social media (ISM) into organizations in order to help them reap the benefits of coworker communication on ISM. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on an exploratory study in ten...... facilitators and sense-givers. Keywords Organizational communication, Internal communication, Coworker, Internal social media Paper type Research paper...

  19. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  20. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  1. Prevention of pathogenic Escherichia coli infection in mice and stimulation of macrophage activation in rats by an oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei I-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida-Fujii, Keiko; Sato, Rieko; Goto, Shingo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Kuboki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Michikatsu

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus casei I-5 isolated from an alcohol fermentation broth enhanced immunity and prevented pathogenic infection as a probiotic. Mice fed with I-5 cells for 11 days prior to an intraperitoneal challenge with pathogenic Escherichia coli Juhl exhibited a high survival rate compared with the control group. Rats fed with I-5 cells for 10 days significantly increased the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. In a cell culture system employing peritoneal macrophages from rats, the I-5 administration activated NF-kappaB stimulated by LPS. It also enhanced LPS-stimulated IL-12 and TNF-alpha production, but not IL-6 production. These results show that L. casei I-5 effectively prevented infection by pathogenic E. coli possibly through the activation of peritoneal macrophages. The strain would be useful to prevent pathogenic microbial infections in humans and farm animals.

  2. Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Rina; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2014-07-07

    Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. 1,000 Japanese women aged 20-69 years (mean age: 44.3 ± 13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95% CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05-2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36-0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01-2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51-2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75-3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22-0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention. Awareness was especially low among

  3. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases - A Danish case study of foot and mouth disease and swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid...... in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated...... by the pig and cattle industries, respectively. Data were retrieved from multiple sources such as databases, legal documents, official statistics, yearly reports and expert opinions. As no previous studies have assessed such costs, data collection and estimation procedures were discussed and decided upon...

  4. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Ano

    Full Text Available Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD, intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production, and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF. A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia.

  5. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia.

  6. Preventive Effects of a Fermented Dairy Product against Alzheimer’s Disease and Identification of a Novel Oleamide with Enhanced Microglial Phagocytosis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia. PMID:25760987

  7. Plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor does not prevent mechanical ventilation-induced pulmonary complement activation in a rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, F. M.; Aslami, H.; Hoeksma, J.; van Mierlo, G.; Wouters, D.; Zeerleder, S.; Roelofs, J. J. T. H.; Juffermans, N. P.; Schultz, M. J.; Lagrand, W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation has the potential to cause lung injury, and the role of complement activation herein is uncertain. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement cascade by administration of plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) prevents ventilation-induced pulmonary

  8. Factors Influencing the Implementation of Organized Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Snacks in the HOP'N After-School Obesity Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastmann, Tanis J.; Bopp, Melissa; Fallon, Elizabeth A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify barriers and facilitators for improving the after-school organized physical activity (PA) and snack quality. Methods: After-school staff (Year 1, n = 20; Year 2, n = 17) participated in qualitative, semistructured interviews about the implementation of an after-school obesity prevention intervention. Interviews were…

  9. How to introduce the magnetic dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, M; Kort-Kamp, W J M; Cougo-Pinto, M V; Farina, C

    2012-01-01

    We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the magnetic field at distant points, identifying the magnetic dipole moment of the distribution. We also present a simple but general demonstration of the torque exerted by a uniform magnetic field on a current loop of general form, not necessarily planar. For pedagogical reasons we start by reviewing briefly the concept of the electric dipole moment. (paper)