National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...
The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de
... Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit... directed by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science... feathers removed to confirm gender of the penguin, and have GPS/TDR tags attached and later removed. The...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... Promontory to collect ground control point with highly precise GPS equipment. Activity would include hiking...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and...-depth sensing equipment is available, however positioning such devices near seabird and pinniped...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... spatial scales of various types of disturbances in and around McMurdo Station, Antarctica. The sampling...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... and spatial scales of various types of disturbances in and around McMurdo Station. The sampling...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... imaging (MRI) scans. The study, to be conducted in collaboration with the University of California San...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... impacts initial CO\\2\\ sequestration and how it impacts the composition of the phytoplankton community...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... educational purposes. Location Palmer Station area, Marguerite Bay including ASPA 107-Dion Islands, ASPA 113...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and..., as well as 500 grams of Artemia salina cysts as food for krill. They plan to measure how fast DNA is...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... pregnancy and future parturition rates; and (3) To what extent might changes in food availability during the...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... overriding incentives is to know how best to conserve this great natural resource of the bird, the food...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... applicant plans to enter ASPA 130-Tramway Ridge, Mt. Erebus to measure soil temperatures and sample gases... in the soil. Location ASPA 130-Tramway Ridge, Mt. Erebus, Ross Island. Dates December 1, 2012 to...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... ASPA 134--Cierva Point and Offshore islands, Danco Coast, Antarctica, to install boreholes and a soil... occurrence and properties, and soil properties along a latitudinal gradient on the western Antarctic...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... transport soil samples to isolate soil microorganisms. Location: Palmer Station vicinity, Anders Island... applicant will use Escherichia coli strain BL21DE3 for the production of \\35\\S-labeled proteins to be used...
... Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit... explore for, discover, and collect vertebrate fossils (primarily those of fishes, marine reptiles, non... be shed on the evolution, faunal dynamics, and/or paleobiogeography of such important vertebrate...
... relief under the law of Federal contracts. Due to the complex legal issues likely to be associated with... submitted to the contracting officer for consideration under the Contract Disputes Act of 1978 because the... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 33.205...
Full Text Available In Arabidopsis and rice, the ubiquitin ligase PUB13-mediated protein degradation plays a significant role in plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI and flowering time control. The Arabidopsis PUB13 has been shown to attenuate the pattern recognition receptor FLS2-mediated immune signaling by ubiquitinating FLS2 and consequently promoting its degradation by the 26S proteasome. Nevertheless, the cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2 with which PUB13 acts to modulate FLS2-mediated PTI are unknown. To address this question, we investigate here the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum homolog of PUB13, SlPUB13 by utilizing the recently characterized complete set of tomato E2s. Of the 13 groups of tomato E2s, only members in group III are found to interact and act with SlPUB13. Knocking-down of the group III E2 genes enhances callose deposition and induction of the RbohB gene in the immunity-associated, early oxidative burst after flg22 treatment. The group III E2s are also found to work with SlPUB13 to ubiquitinate FLS2 in vitro and are required for PUB13-mediated degradation of FLS2 in vivo upon flg22 treatment, suggesting an essential role for group III E2s in the modulation of FLS2-mediated immune signaling by PUB13. Additionally, another immunity-associated E3, NtCMPG1 is shown to also work specifically with members of group III E2 in the in vitro ubiquitination assay, which implies the group III E2 enzymes may cooperate with many E3 ligases to regulate different aspects of PTI. Taken together, these data corroborate the notion that group III E2 enzymes play an important role in PTI and build a foundation for further functional and mechanistic characterization of tomato PUB13.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...
Johansson, Eva E; Alex, Lena; Christianson, Monica
To explore how gender is addressed in medical articles on the prevention of sexually transmissible infections (STI) among adolescents. Sixtyone articles were retrieved from a PubMed search and scrutinized by qualitative content analysis. Most articles were affiliated with North American research institutions, but there were also reports from Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia. Gender turned up in the following four recurrent discourses: Gendered Receptiveness for Information, Stereotyped Heterosexual Expectations, Power Imbalance in Sexual Relations, and Gendered Prevention Approaches. Young women were described as knowledgeable, communicative, and responsible, but at risk because of feminine ideals and a lack of negotiating power. Men were described as less informed, more reluctant to discuss, and more risk taking due to masculine ideals and power dominance. Prevention approaches concerned how to postpone sex and/or tailor gender-sensitive programs for specific groups of young women and men. Researchers' own gender expectations might have a substantial impact on how sex and sexual health is considered in prevention research. To avoid reconstruction of current inequalities and stereotypes regarding sexual practices of young women and men, the impact of gender, the power structures in intimate relations, and the cultural context should be considered. Medical research on STI prevention could benefit from including a wider array of gender perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... brief introduction by Federal officials, followed by presentations from attendees who register to speak...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announces a public meeting for receiving comments from the public on implementing the provisions of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 (Pub...
... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; the Act of September 26, 1961 (Pub. L. 87-312, 75 Stat. 674). 1.9004 Section 1.9004 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., flower pots, and kindred products (without regard to the applicable rate of percentage depletion), if an...
..., Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the establishment of a permit system... additional seals takes into account the loss of tags and incomplete datasets from irretrievable equipment...
... the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the... in Antarctic waters. Likewise, the sex of individual whales can be determined from genetic markers...
... the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the... up to 20 Emperor penguin carcasses on Snow Hill Island. The applicant is working in collaboration...
..., Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the establishment of a permit system... organic pollutants (POPs) stored in glacier ice into the Antarctica marine food web, and (b) provide...
... the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the... of reasonably fit people to participate in ice climbing and mountaineering. No grey water, food waste...
.... 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed... on September 18, 2013 . The issued permit allows the applicant to conduct waste management activities associated with tourism activities including shore [[Page 73894
...), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations.... The surface anchors for both systems are designed to minimize disturbance on shallow soils near... their continued use is granted. Successful deployment of the cameras would allow research on the penguin...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Meeting; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement... Management in Oregon and Washington, under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act of 2004. DATES: The conference call will be held on February 2, 2010 from 12:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. A public input session will be...
... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... certain geographic areas a requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... certain geographic areas a requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of permit applications received under the Antarctic... applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... certain geographic areas a requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...
Report: EPA Office of Inspector General’s Report on Reducing Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in the Small Business Innovative Research Program, as Required by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Pub. L. 112-81 (2012)
September 28, 2012. The EPA OIG is required by Section 5143 of the NDA Act for Fiscal Year 201 2, Pub. L. No. 112-81 (2012), to report on reducing vulnerability to fraud, waste and abuse in the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program.
Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth; Lund, Haakon
the efficiency of biomedical literature searches. PubMed remains the primary resource for biomedical literature, and as PubMed makes the Medline data and Entrez PubMed Programming utilities freely available, any developer can produce alternative tools to search the database. The authors question if PubMed still...... provides the superior search interface for systematic searches or if the innovativeness of third-party tools provide alternatives worth considering. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In all, 76 third-party tools that build on PubMed content were identified in a PubMed...... search and in published studies known to the authors. Only tools that provided free access to the broad PubMed content and designed specifically to enhance the search were included, reducing the set to 16 tools. The functionality of each tool within the scenario of a systematic search was compared across...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PubMed comprises more than 26 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to...
PubMed is the National Library of Medicine's search service that provides access to over 10 million citations in MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, and other related databases, with links to participating online journals.
The new German prevention act attempts to deal with the influx of obesity and chronic diseases by educating and informing. It seeks to change individual behaviour and supress lifestyle-related risk factors. In the past, however this behavioural prevention strategy has proved ineffective. A structural prevention strategy, as requested by the WHO, should additionally be put into effect with measures that reach all walks of life, not just the health-conscious people in society. It proposes the following: · At least one hour of daily physical activity or sport at school and kindergarten. · A differential food tax that makes unhealthy foods more expensive and healthy foods cheaper (taxing sugary / fatty foods). · Mandatory quality standards for kindergarten and school meals. · Banning food advertising targeted at children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information
PubSCIENCE, a component of EnergyFiles, indexes 1,000 scientific and technical journals. It contains over one million multi-source journal citations dating back over 25 years from DOE's Energy Science and Technology Database. The focus of PubSCIENCE is on those journals where DOE researchers report their scientific discoveries. Frequency of contributions by DOE-sponsored researchers to scientific journals has been analyzed to prioritize data collection efforts. OSTI partners with participating publishers to provide information that is both relevant and useful to the DOE scientific community as well as information that was developed as the result of government sponsored R&D.
Reaven Peter D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is a prediabetic state. If IGT can be prevented from progressing to overt diabetes, hyperglycemia-related complications can be avoided. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether pioglitazone (ACTOS® can prevent progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in a prospective randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Methods/Design 602 IGT subjects were identified with OGTT (2-hour plasma glucose = 140–199 mg/dl. In addition, IGT subjects were required to have FPG = 95–125 mg/dl and at least one other high risk characteristic. Prior to randomization all subjects had measurement of ankle-arm blood pressure, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, HbA1C, lipid profile and a subset had frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT, DEXA, and ultrasound determination of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Following this, subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone (45 mg/day or placebo, and returned every 2–3 months for FPG determination and annually for OGTT. Repeat carotid IMT measurement was performed at 18 months and study end. Recruitment took place over 24 months, and subjects were followed for an additional 24 months. At study end (48 months or at time of diagnosis of diabetes the OGTT, FSIVGTT, DEXA, carotid IMT, and all other measurements were repeated. Primary endpoint is conversion of IGT to T2DM based upon FPG ≥ 126 or 2-hour PG ≥ 200 mg/dl. Secondary endpoints include whether pioglitazone can: (i improve glycemic control (ii enhance insulin sensitivity, (iii augment beta cell function, (iv improve risk factors for cardiovascular disease, (v cause regression/slow progression of carotid IMT, (vi revert newly diagnosed diabetes to normal glucose tolerance. Conclusion ACT NOW is designed to determine if pioglitazone can prevent/delay progression to diabetes in high risk IGT subjects, and to define the mechanisms (improved insulin
Cooper, Gregory S; Kou, Tzuyung Doug; Dor, Avi; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D
Out-of-pocket expenditures are thought to be an important barrier to the receipt of cancer preventive services, especially for those of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated out-of-pocket expenditures for recommended services, including mammography and colonoscopy. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the uptake of mammography and colonoscopy among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries before and after ACA implementation. Using Medicare claims data, this study identified women who were 70 years old or older and had not undergone mammography in the previous 2 years and men and women who were 70 years old or older, were at increased risk for colorectal cancer, and had not undergone colonoscopy in the past 5 years. The receipt of procedures in the 2-year period before the ACA's implementation (2009-2010) and after its implementation (2011 to September 2012) was also identified. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to determine the independent association and county-level quartile of median income and education with the receipt of testing. For mammography, a lower SES quartile was associated with less uptake, but the post-ACA disparities were smaller than those in the pre-ACA period. In addition, mammography rates increased from the pre-ACA period to the post-ACA period in all SES quartiles. For colonoscopy, in both the pre- and post-ACA periods, there was an association between uptake and educational level and, to some extent, income. However, there were no appreciable changes in colonoscopy and SES after implementation of the ACA. The removal of out-of-pocket expenditures may overcome a barrier to the receipt of recommended preventive services, but for colonoscopy, other procedural factors may remain as deterrents. Cancer 2017;123:1585-1589. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
been met with denial, procrastination and bungling. From a public health point of view this has been a disaster. Will we again miss the chance to act decisively when it comes to perinatal transmission? For African scientists to try to politicise criticism of placebo trials as intervention from the. West is wrong. Rather, they must ...
Full text: The increasing concern over the malevolent use of radioactive sources and radiological terrorism demands strengthening the preparedness for response to radiological emergencies. In spite of various security measures adopted internationally, availability of orphan sources cannot be completely ruled out. The trends in terrorism also indicates the possibility of various means which may be adopted by terrorists especially if they are aware of the challenges of radioactive contamination in public domain and the capability of 'denial of area' and the fear factor which can be injected during such radiological emergencies. It is to be well understood that whatever measures are taken by some countries in preventing the sources from getting stolen or smuggled in/out of their country are not adequate to eliminate radiological terrorism in a global level unless all nations collectively address and ensure the security of radioactive sources, hence preventing the generation of any orphan sources. While preparedness for response to various radiological emergency scenario have many common factors, the challenges involved in responding to radiological terrorism involves understanding the fear factor due to the presence of radioactive contamination after the blast and thermal effects on the victims and issues like handling of contaminated and seriously injured persons, restriction on the movement of responders and forensic teams in a contaminated field etc. Hence an understanding and anticipation of all possible means of radiological terrorism is very essential to prevent and to reduce the consequences. There are many deterrents, which are to be developed and maintained by all nations collectively which should include intelligence, wide usage of radiation monitors by customs, police and other security agencies, installation of state of the art high sensitive radiation monitors and systems etc to prevent and deter stealing and illicit trafficking of radioactive sources
... deterring future acts of violence or terrorism; (ii) That communications between the inmate and attorneys or... terrorism. 501.3 Section 501.3 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION SCOPE OF RULES § 501.3 Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism. (a) Upon...
The 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology network conference will end on Saturday 3 February with special performances. At 14:30 in the coffee area of restaurant no. 1 (Main Building) all participants and interested CERN members are invited to two events that will address science in an unorthodox and amusing way. Australian scientists will start with Science in the Pub, a fun discussion of topical science in an Australian pub ambiance (free Foster's beer served). Cabaret Pasteur, a French sample of entertainment with a scientific touch will follow.
Defronzo, Ralph A; Tripathy, Devjit; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, Maryann; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D
We examined the metabolic characteristics that attend the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in 441 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects who participated in the ACT NOW Study and had complete end-of-study metabolic measurements. Subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone (PGZ; 45 mg/day) or placebo and were observed for a median of 2.4 years. Indices of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index [MI]), insulin secretion (IS)/insulin resistance (IR; ΔI0-120/ΔG0-120, ΔIS rate [ISR]0-120/ΔG0-120), and β-cell function (ΔI/ΔG × MI and ΔISR/ΔG × MI) were calculated from plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations during oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and study end. Diabetes developed in 45 placebo-treated vs. 15 PGZ-treated subjects (odds ratio [OR] 0.28 [95% CI 0.15-0.49]; P IGT > T2DM) was associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.54-0.80]), IS (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.50-0.75]), and β-cell function (ln IS/IR index and ln ISR/IR index) (OR 0.26 [95% CI 0.19-0.37]; all P < 0.0001). Of the factors measured, improved β-cell function was most closely associated with final glucose tolerance status.
DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Tripathy, Devjit; Schwenke, Dawn C.; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Clement, Stephen C.; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Henry, Robert R.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E.; Stentz, Frankie B.; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D.
We examined the metabolic characteristics that attend the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in 441 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects who participated in the ACT NOW Study and had complete end-of-study metabolic measurements. Subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone (PGZ; 45 mg/day) or placebo and were observed for a median of 2.4 years. Indices of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index [MI]), insulin secretion (IS)/insulin resistance (IR; ΔI0–120/ΔG0–120, ΔIS rate [ISR]0–120/ΔG0–120), and β-cell function (ΔI/ΔG × MI and ΔISR/ΔG × MI) were calculated from plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations during oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and study end. Diabetes developed in 45 placebo-treated vs. 15 PGZ-treated subjects (odds ratio [OR] 0.28 [95% CI 0.15–0.49]; P IGT > T2DM) was associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.54–0.80]), IS (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.50–0.75]), and β-cell function (ln IS/IR index and ln ISR/IR index) (OR 0.26 [95% CI 0.19–0.37]; all P < 0.0001). Of the factors measured, improved β-cell function was most closely associated with final glucose tolerance status. PMID:23863810
Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.
This 3rd edition presents the official explanations of the legislative intent behind the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976 and the 2nd amending ordinance, and the commentaries which as usual refer to the legal aspects and the related medical, scientific, and technical aspects. As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, the existing radiation protection law has been extended by the Act for Preventive Measures for Pretection of the Population Against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiation (Preventive Radiation Protection Act), establishing preventive legal provisions and measures, so that this new edition has likewise been extended by commentaries on the Protective Radiation Protection Act and an introduction to the new area of law. The material also includes the Act for Establishment of a Federal Office for Radiation Protection, of October 9, 1989, which amended the Atomic Energy Act and the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. The correction of the Radiation Protection Ordinance of October 16, 1989 (BGBl. I p. 1926) has been incorporated into the text of the amended version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Court decisions and literature referred to cover material published up to the first months of 1989. (orig.) [de
Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg
In 2000, the California State Legislature passed what is now known as the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA). This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. The Corrections Standards…
... 2713 of the Public Health Service Act requires coverage without cost sharing of certain preventive... Requirement to Cover Contraceptive Services Without Cost Sharing Under Section 2713 of the Public Health..., non-stock, public benefit, and similar types of corporations. However, for this purpose an...
Hähnke, Volker D; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H
Atom environments and fragments find wide-spread use in chemical information and cheminformatics. They are the basis of prediction models, an integral part in similarity searching, and employed in structure search techniques. Most of these methods were developed and evaluated on the relatively small sets of chemical structures available at the time. An analysis of fragment distributions representative of most known chemical structures was published in the 1970s using the Chemical Abstracts Service data system. More recently, advances in automated synthesis of chemicals allow millions of chemicals to be synthesized by a single organization. In addition, open chemical databases are readily available containing tens of millions of chemical structures from a multitude of data sources, including chemical vendors, patents, and the scientific literature, making it possible for scientists to readily access most known chemical structures. With this availability of information, one can now address interesting questions, such as: what chemical fragments are known today? How do these fragments compare to earlier studies? How unique are chemical fragments found in chemical structures? For our analysis, after hydrogen suppression, atoms were characterized by atomic number, formal charge, implicit hydrogen count, explicit degree (number of neighbors), valence (bond order sum), and aromaticity. Bonds were differentiated as single, double, triple or aromatic bonds. Atom environments were created in a circular manner focused on a central atom with radii from 0 (atom types) up to 3 (representative of ECFP_6 fragments). In total, combining atom types and atom environments that include up to three spheres of nearest neighbors, our investigation identified 28,462,319 unique fragments in the 46 million structures found in the PubChem Compound database as of January 2013. We could identify several factors inflating the number of environments involving transition metals, with many
Alegría-Flores, Kei; Raker, Kelli; Pleasants, Robert K; Weaver, Mark A; Weinberger, Morris
Sexual assault, stalking, dating violence, and intimate partner violence, herein collectively termed interpersonal violence (IV), are public health problems affecting 20% to 25% of female college students. Currently, One Act is one of the few IV prevention training programs at universities that teach students bystander skills to intervene in low- and high-risk IV situations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate One Act's effects on date rape attitudes and behaviors, and bystanders' confidence, willingness to help, and behavior, and 2) to compare the effects on bystander skills between One Act and Helping Advocates for Violence Ending Now (HAVEN), an IV response training program with similar participants. Data were collected over 2 years, before and after One Act and HAVEN trainings. We measured outcomes with four scales: College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors, Bystander Confidence, Willingness to Help, and Bystander Behavior. The analysis compared within- and between-group mean differences in scale scores pre- and post-trainings using linear mixed models. One Act showed improvements for date rape attitudes and behaviors (p trainings' effects on bystander willingness to help and behavior had similar patterns but were not statistically significant. We found a larger positive impact on bystander confidence among students who participated in the bystander prevention training compared with the response training. Further research is needed to improve the measures for bystander behavior and measure the bystander trainings' larger impact on the community. © The Author(s) 2015.
In the U.K., pubs can be seen everywhere. They play an important role in the British society. How pubs came into being in the U.K.? Why is pub culture formed and what makes it prosperous? What effects does pub culture make on British society both in the past and in the present? Does any British character be shown in pub culture in the U.K.? In this paper, I will give a brief in-troduction of pub culture's history and development in the U.K.. Besides, the above questions will be explored and analyzed one by one.
... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive Drug...
Fiorini, Nicolas; Lipman, David J; Lu, Zhiyong
Staff from the National Center for Biotechnology Information in the US describe recent improvements to the PubMed search engine and outline plans for the future, including a new experimental site called PubMed Labs.
Arya, Vikram; Au, Stanley; Belew, Yodit; Miele, Peter; Struble, Kimberly
To outline some of the regulatory challenges inherent to the development of long-acting antiretrovirals (ARVs) for the treatment or prevention of HIV infection. Despite advances in drug development that have reduced ARV dosing to once daily, suboptimal drug adherence remains an obstacle to successful HIV treatment. Further, large randomized trials of once daily oral ARVs for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have shown that drug adherence correlates strongly with prophylactic effect and study outcomes. Thus, the prospect of developing long-acting ARVs, which may mitigate drug adherence issues, has attracted considerable attention lately. Because of their pharmacokinetic properties, the development of long-acting ARVs can present novel regulatory challenges. Chief among them is determining the appropriate dosing regimen, the need for an oral lead-in, and whether existing data with an approved oral agent, if available, can be leveraged for a treatment or prevention indication. For PrEP, because validated biomarkers are lacking, additional nonclinical studies and evaluation of tissue concentrations in multiple compartments may be necessary to identify optimal dosages. Study design and choice of controls for registrational trials of new long-acting PrEP agents might also prove challenging following the availability of an oral PrEP drug.
Full Text Available We examined how (a health insurance coverage, and (b familiarity with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA’s or ObamaCare mandate of cost-free access to preventive health services, affect the use of preventive services by residents of a minority community. It was based on primary data collected from a survey conducted during March to April 2012 among a sample of self-identified African American adults in Tallahassee-Leon County area of northwest Florida. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 was used for running frequency analysis on the data set and multivariable regression modeling. The results showed that of 524 respondents, 382 (73% had health insurance while 142 (27% lacked insurance. Majority of insured respondents, 332 (87%, used preventive health services. However, the remaining 13% of respondents did not use preventive services because they were unfamiliar with the ACA provision of free access to preventive services for insured people. Regression analysis showed a high (91.04% probability that, among the insured, the use of preventive health services depended on the person’s age, income, and education. For uninsured residents, the lack of health insurance was the key reason for non-use of preventive health services, while among the insured, lack of knowledge about the ACA benefit of free access contributed to non-use of preventive services. Expansion of Medicaid eligibility can increase insurance coverage rates among African Americans and other minority populations. Health promotion and awareness campaigns about the law’s benefits by local and state health departments can enhance the use of preventive services.
Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1 to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2 to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70, grocery stores (n = 83, and betel nut stalls (n = 81. The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1% of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers’ ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1% to 59 (25.2% and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9% to 175 (74.8% after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ2 = 11.26, p < 0.001. Study II: A total of 476 (89.1% participants had received tobacco hazards prevention education and 58 (10.9% had not. Among the various residential areas, the highest percentage of participants that did not received tobacco hazards prevention education located in the plane regions (8.4%. The government organizations should continue to adopt counseling strategies to reduce the rate of disobedience of the Tobacco Hazards
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pub. L. 85-56 and Pub. L... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.953 Pub. L. 85-56 and Pub. L. 85-857. (a) In receipt of or entitled to receive benefits on December 31, 1958. Any person...
Chen, Min-Li; Chou, Li-Na; Zheng, Ya-Cheng
Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2) to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70), grocery stores (n = 83), and betel nut stalls (n = 81). The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1%) of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers' ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1%) to 59 (25.2%) and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9%) to 175 (74.8%) after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ² = 11.26, p selling tobacco products to minors. Schools should pay close attention to tobacco hazard prevention education for junior high school students to ensure that such students are adequately educated about tobacco hazard prevention.
Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the
Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PubMed Central (PMC) is a full-text, online archive of journal literature operated by the National Library of Medicine. The EPA is using PMC to permanently preserve...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PUG provides access to PubChem services via a programmatic interface. Users may download data, initiate chemical structure searches, standardize chemical structures...
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: PubChem is a public molecular information repository, a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiative. The PubChem database holds over 27 million records of unique chemical structures of compounds (CID) derived from nearly 70 million substance depositions (SID), and contains more than 449,000 bioassay records with over thousands of in vitro biochemical and cell-based screening bioassays established, with targeting more than 7000 proteins and genes linking to over 1.8 million of substances. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This review builds on recent PubChem-related computational chemistry research reported by other authors while providing readers with an overview of the PubChem database, focusing on its increasing role in cheminformatics, virtual screening and toxicity prediction modeling. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: These publicly available datasets in PubChem provide great opportunities for scientists to perform cheminformatics and virtual screening research for computer-aided drug design. However, the high volume and complexity of the datasets, in particular the bioassay-associated false positives/negatives and highly imbalanced datasets in PubChem, also creates major challenges. Several approaches regarding the modeling of PubChem datasets and development of virtual screening models for bioactivity and toxicity predictions are also reviewed. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Novel data-mining cheminformatics tools and virtual screening algorithms are being developed and used to retrieve, annotate and analyze the large-scale and highly complex PubChem biological screening data for drug design.
Benítez-Gutiérrez, Laura; Soriano, Vicente; Requena, Silvia; Arias, Ana; Barreiro, Pablo; de Mendoza, Carmen
Current antiretroviral therapy allows to achieve and sustain maximal suppression of HIV replication in most treated patients. As result, the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons has improved dramatically and is nowadays similar to that of the HIV-negative population. However, oral antiretrovirals have to be taken daily and indefinitely to avoid resumption of HIV replication and selection of drug resistance. Unfortunately, drug adherence is often suboptimal and tends to decline over time. Areas covered: New drugs, formulations and delivery systems are being developed for extended-release of antiretrovirals. At this time, intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine, dapivirine vaginal rings and tenofovir alafenamide subdermal implants are the products in more advanced stages of clinical development. Their pharmacokinetics/dynamics and safety/efficacy are reviewed. Expert commentary: In the absence of eradicative therapy for individuals with HIV infection and protective vaccines for persons at risk, long-term antiretroviral therapy is the best approach for preventing disease progression in patients and halting transmissions, either as result of 'treatment as prevention' for HIV carriers or 'pre-exposure prophylaxis' for uninfected individuals at risk. In all these scenarios, the advent of long-acting antiretrovirals will expand options for overcoming the challenge of suboptimal drug adherence and reduce the burden of HIV infection.
Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total
Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong
Predicting the popularity or access usage of an article has the potential to improve the quality of PubMed searches. We can model the click trend of each article as its access changes over time by mining the PubMed query logs, which contain the previous access history for all articles. In this article, we examine the access patterns produced by PubMed users in two years (July 2009 to July 2011). We explore the time series of accesses for each article in the query logs, model the trends with regression approaches, and subsequently use the models for prediction. We show that the click trends of PubMed articles are best fitted with a log-normal regression model. This model allows the number of accesses an article receives and the time since it first becomes available in PubMed to be related via quadratic and logistic functions, with the model parameters to be estimated via maximum likelihood. Our experiments predicting the number of accesses for an article based on its past usage demonstrate that the mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of our model are 4.0% and 8.1% lower than the power-law regression model, respectively. The log-normal distribution is also shown to perform significantly better than a previous prediction method based on a human memory theory in cognitive science. This work warrants further investigation on the utility of such a log-normal regression approach towards improving information access in PubMed.
Webb, C.F.; Wolffe, G.S.
Environmental laws and regulations have not always been implemented in a manner that allows for the consideration of pollution prevention (P2) alternatives as a means of achieving progress toward air quality goals. Recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been making strides to reinterpret laws and regulations to be more flexible and encourage P2 projects that do not involve end-of-the-pipe controls. For instance, when conducting control technology evaluations such as best available control technology (BACT) and lowest achievable emission rate (LAER), facilities can and should take into consideration P2 options that accomplish the same emission reduction goals as traditional end-of-the-pipe controls. There are also new emissions trading provisions building on those allowed in the acid rain and offset trading programs that promise to make P2 projects much more cost-effective. Several traditional 'command-and-control' programs of the Clean Air Act (CAA) also promote P2 projects. For instance, emission reductions realized through P2 projects show managers a direct cost savings due to reductions in Title V facility annual emissions fees and possibly a direct cost benefit through sale of emission credits. Furthermore, the CAA encourages P2 indirectly through the detail understanding of processes gained from emissions inventories and risk management plans (RMPs). However, many CAA prescriptive programs create disincentives for industry to select P2 alternatives. 30 refs
Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Smith, Carson; Sorg, Amy A
The tobacco industry has challenged new FDA rules restricting outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds on First Amendment grounds, arguing that they would lead to a near complete ban on tobacco advertising in dense urban areas. To examine how the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) rules banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds would affect tobacco retailers. GIS spatial analyses of two different states (Missouri, New York), along with more detailed analyses of two urban areas within those states (St. Louis, New York City), were conducted in 2010. The percentage of tobacco retailers falling within 350-, 500-, and 1000-foot buffer zones was then calculated. 22% of retailers in Missouri and 51% in New York fall within 1000-foot buffers around schools. In urban settings, more retailers are affected, 29% in St. Louis and 79% in New York City. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that smaller buffers decrease the proportion of affected retailers. That is, 350-foot buffers affect only 6.7% of retailers in St. Louis and 29% in New York City. The effects of new outdoor tobacco advertising restrictions vary by location and population density. In Missouri and New York, outdoor tobacco advertising would still be permitted in many locations if such advertising was prohibited in a 1000-foot buffer zone around schools and playgrounds. Much smaller buffer zones of 350 feet may result in almost no reduction of outdoor advertising in many parts of the country. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Cheng, Tiejun; Yu, Bo; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiyao; Bolton, Evan E; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H
PubChem is an open archive consisting of a set of three primary public databases (BioAssay, Compound, and Substance). It contains information on a broad range of chemical entities, including small molecules, lipids, carbohydrates, and (chemically modified) amino acid and nucleic acid sequences (including siRNA and miRNA). Currently (as of Nov. 2015), PubChem contains more than 150 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures, and 225 million biological activity test results provided from over 1 million biological assay records. Many PubChem records (substances, compounds, and assays) include depositor-provided cross-references to scientific articles in PubMed. Some PubChem contributors provide bioactivity data extracted from scientific articles. Literature-derived bioactivity data complement high-throughput screening (HTS) data from the concluded NIH Molecular Libraries Program and other HTS projects. Some journals provide PubChem with information on chemicals that appear in their newly published articles, enabling concurrent publication of scientific articles in journals and associated data in public databases. In addition, PubChem links records to PubMed articles indexed with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) controlled vocabulary thesaurus. Literature information, both provided by depositors and derived from MeSH annotations, can be accessed using PubChem's web interfaces, enabling users to explore information available in literature related to PubChem records beyond typical web search results. Graphical abstractLiterature information for PubChem records is derived from various sources.
Herman-Smith, Robert L.
Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…
Full text: States continue to report cases of illicit trafficking that involve nuclear material and other radioactive materials. Over the past decade a total of about 500 cases have been confirmed by States Points of Contact, another 300 remains unconfirmed. Most of the confirmed cases have a criminal dimension, even if not for known terrorist purposes. Much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases: What specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained, in stock, scrap or waste? Was the small quantity seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as nuclear forensics, an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. The events of 11 September 2001 was a wake-up call for the need to protect against nuclear terrorism. In response to a resolution by the IAEA General Conference, the IAEA Director General has reviewed thoroughly the Agency's activities and programmes with a view of strengthening the protection against acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. A set of specific proposals for the protection against nuclear terrorism, a plan of action, was approved, in principle, by the IAEA Board of Governors in March 2002. While the plan emphasizes prevention, it also recognizes that measures are required to detect and respond to malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The combating of illicit nuclear trafficking remains important in the plan of action. The implementation of the plan will be funded through Member States extra-budgetary contributions. The Agency has adopted an integrated approach to the protection against nuclear terrorism. This brings together Agency activities concerned with physical protection of nuclear material and
Samuel, Hamman W; Zaïane, Osmar R
We present a recommender system, PubMedReco, for real-time suggestions of medical articles from PubMed, a database of over 23 million medical citations. PubMedReco can recommend medical article citations while users are conversing in a synchronous communication environment such as a chat room. Normally, users would have to leave their chat interface to open a new web browser window, and formulate an appropriate search query to retrieve relevant results. PubMedReco automatically generates the search query and shows relevant citations within the same integrated user interface. PubMedReco analyzes relevant keywords associated with the conversation and uses them to search for relevant citations using the PubMed E-utilities programming interface. Our contributions include improvements to the user experience for searching PubMed from within health forums and chat rooms, and a machine learning model for identifying relevant keywords. We demonstrate the feasibility of PubMedReco using BMJ's Doc2Doc forum discussions.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Examining the Impact of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...
... in existing guidelines. Health Resources and Services Administration Women's Preventive Services Guidelines Non-grandfathered plans (plans or policies created or sold after March 23, 2010, or older plans or policies that ...
Sheehan, Johann; Griffiths, Kathleen; Rickwood, Debra; Carron-Arthur, Bradley
Over the past two decades, governments have invested significantly in policies and strategies to prevent the tragic loss of life to suicide. However, there has been little focus on evaluating the implementation of such policies. This paper reports on the evaluation of the implementation of "Managing the Risk of Suicide: A Suicide Prevention Strategy for the ACT 2009-2014," the Australian Capital Territory's (ACT) suicide prevention strategy. We sought to answer two questions: (1) Could agencies provide data reporting on their progress in implementing the activities for which they were responsible?; and (2) Could a judgment about implementation progress be made and, if so, to what extent was the activity implemented? Individually tailored electronic surveys were sent to 18 ACT agencies annually over 4 years to measure their progress in implementing activities for which they had responsibility. By year four, full data were provided for 64% of activities, maximal partial data for 9%, and minimal partial data for 27%. Forty-two per cent of activities were fully implemented, 20% were partially implemented, and 38% were not implemented or could not be measured. It is possible to measure implementation of suicide prevention strategies, but appropriate processes and dedicated resources must be in place at the outset.
Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul
Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O
These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received ...
Ihlenfeldt Wolf D
EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...
Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.
Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular
Full Text Available Der Fachinformationsdienst (FID Pharmazie verfolgt das Ziel, die Informationsinfrastruktur und die Literaturversorgung für die pharmazeutische Hochschulforschung nachhaltig zu verbessern. Das Projekt wird seit dem 1. Januar 2015 von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft gefördert. Eine Besonderheit stellt die Kooperation zwischen der Universitätsbibliothek Braunschweig und dem Institut für Informationssysteme (IfIS der TU Braunschweig dar, wodurch aktuelle Forschung auf dem Gebiet der Informatik in die Implementierung innovativer FID-Dienste mündet. Im Zentrum des Projektes steht der nutzerzentrierte Aufbau einer erweiterbaren und personalisierbaren Informationsinfrastruktur. Das vom FID entwickelte Discovery System „PubPharm“ zur pharmaziespezifischen Recherche basiert, als Weiterentwicklung des beluga-Systems der SUB Hamburg, auf der Open Source Software VuFind. Als Datengrundlage enthält es u.a. die Medline Daten, erweitert durch Normdaten, die unter anderem die Suche nach chemischen Strukturen erlauben. Gleichzeitig werden vom Institut für Informationssysteme innovative Suchmöglichkeiten basierend auf Narrativer Intelligenz untersucht und perspektivisch in das Retrieval des Discovery Systems eingebunden. Im Rahmen von sog. FID-Lizenzen bietet der FID Pharmazie Wissenschaftlern/innen Volltextzugriff auf pharmazeutische Fachzeitschriften. Bestandteil der Lizenzen ist das Recht zur Langzeitarchivierung. Bei deren technischer Umsetzung kooperiert der FID mit der TIB Hannover. Der FID Pharmazie koppelt seine Aktivitäten eng an die pharmazeutische Fachcommunity: unter anderem begleitet ein Fachbeirat die Entwicklungen. Im Rahmen der Öffentlichkeitsarbeit werden Nutzer/innen umfassend über die Angebote informiert, u.a. in Webcasts und im PubPharm Blog. The Specialised Information Service (SIS Pharmacy aims at sustainably improving the information infrastructure and the supply of literature for academic pharmaceutical research in
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease... announced below concerns Clinical, Epidemiologic and Ecologic Factors Impacting the Burden and Distribution... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., discussion, and evaluation of ``Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002, initial review...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging Infections Sentinel... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Centers for Disease Control and...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...
Beeh, Kai M; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Franssen, Frits M E
that combinations of long-acting β2-adrenergic agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) provide greater reductions in exacerbation frequency than either their monocomponents or LABA/inhaled corticosteroids (LABA/ICS) combinations in patients at low and high risk for these events....... In this review, small groups of experts critically evaluated mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased benefit of LABA/LAMA combinations over single LABDs or LABA/ICS in decreasing exacerbation. These included effects on lung hyperinflation and mechanical stress, inflammation, excessive mucus...... production with impaired mucociliary clearance, and symptom severity. The data assembled and analyzed by each group were reviewed by all authors and combined into this manuscript. Available clinical results support the possibility that effects of LABA/LAMA combinations on hyperinflation, mucociliary...
Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike; Smith, Pete; Hiss, Donavon
BACKGROUND. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, particularly in the supplement industry. The increase in supplement sales in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always supported by published peer-reviewed evidence. Such claims often go unchecked, resulting in consumers being mislead about the role of supplements. As a result of poor regulation, contaminants or adulterants in supplements may also cause insidious effects unrelated to the listed ingredients. AIM. To assess the regulations, legislation, and claims associated with nutritional supplement products in South Africa. METHOD. Peer-reviewed literature and the relevant South African statutes were consulted. RESULTS. The National Health Act incorporates the Medicine Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, and related matters, including complementary/alternative medicines. The South African Institute for Drug-Free Sport and Amendment Act provides for testing athletes for using banned substances, but currently does not concern itself with monitoring nutritional supplements for contaminants or adulterants that may cause a positive drug test, which has implications for sports participants and also the health of the general population. The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) could protect consumer rights if it is administered and resourced appropriately. CONCLUSION. The CPA should promote greater levels of policy development, regulatory enforcement, and consumer education of South Africa's supplement industry.
Ribisl, Kurt M
This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.
A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations
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Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agosti, Massimo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo
Growth and development are key characteristics of childhood and sensitive markers of health and adequate nutrition. The first 1000 days of life-conception through 24 months of age-represent a fundamental period for development and thus the prevention of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences is mandatory. There are many growth drivers during this complex phase of life, such as nutrition, genetic and epigenetic factors, and hormonal regulation. The challenge thus involves maximizing the potential for normal growth without increasing the risk of associated disorders. The Mediterranean Nutrition Group (MeNu Group), a group of researchers of the Mediterranean Region, in this Special Issue titled "Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days", presented results that advanced the science of obesity risk factors in early life, coming both from animal model studies and studies in humans. In the future, early-life intervention designs for the prevention of pediatric obesity will need to look at different strategies, and the MeNu Group is available for guidance regarding an appropriate conceptual framework to accomplish either prevention or treatment strategies to tackle pediatric obesity.
Full Text Available Growth and development are key characteristics of childhood and sensitive markers of health and adequate nutrition. The first 1000 days of life—conception through 24 months of age—represent a fundamental period for development and thus the prevention of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences is mandatory. There are many growth drivers during this complex phase of life, such as nutrition, genetic and epigenetic factors, and hormonal regulation. The challenge thus involves maximizing the potential for normal growth without increasing the risk of associated disorders. The Mediterranean Nutrition Group (MeNu Group, a group of researchers of the Mediterranean Region, in this Special Issue titled “Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days”, presented results that advanced the science of obesity risk factors in early life, coming both from animal model studies and studies in humans. In the future, early-life intervention designs for the prevention of pediatric obesity will need to look at different strategies, and the MeNu Group is available for guidance regarding an appropriate conceptual framework to accomplish either prevention or treatment strategies to tackle pediatric obesity.
Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Dai, Hong-Jie; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Chi-Hsin
PubMed-EX is a browser extension that marks up PubMed search results with additional text-mining information. PubMed-EX's page mark-up, which includes section categorization and gene/disease and relation mark-up, can help researchers to quickly focus on key terms and provide additional information on them. All text processing is performed server-side, freeing up user resources. PubMed-EX is freely available at http://bws.iis.sinica.edu.tw/PubMed-EX and http://iisr.cse.yzu.edu.tw:8000/PubMed-EX/.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic has generated thousands of articles and news items. However, finding relevant scientific articles in such rapidly developing health crises is a major challenge which, in turn, can affect decision-makers' ability to utilise up-to-date findings and ultimately shape public health interventions. This study set out to show the impact that the inconsistent naming of the pandemic can have on retrieving relevant scientific articles in PubMed/MEDLINE. METHODOLOGY: We first formulated a PubMed search algorithm covering different names of the influenza pandemic and simulated the results that it would have retrieved from weekly searches for relevant new records during the first 10 weeks of the pandemic. To assess the impact of failing to include every term in this search, we then conducted the same searches but omitted in turn "h1n1," "swine," "influenza" and "flu" from the search string, and compared the results to those for the full string. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On average, our core search string identified 44.3 potentially relevant new records at the end of each week. Of these, we determined that an average of 27.8 records were relevant. When we excluded one term from the string, the percentage of records missed out of the total number of relevant records averaged 18.7% for omitting "h1n1," 13.6% for "swine," 17.5% for "influenza," and 20.6% for "flu." CONCLUSIONS: Due to inconsistent naming, while searching for scientific material about rapidly evolving situations such as the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic, there is a risk that one will miss relevant articles. To address this problem, the international scientific community should agree on nomenclature and the specific name to be used earlier, and the National Library of Medicine in the US could index potentially relevant materials faster and allow publishers to add alert tags to such materials.
Yongming, Shou; Rongzhu, Lu; Jie, Lin; Yan, Xu; Zhu, Yiliang; Schweigert, Michael
The Occupational Disease Prevention and Control Act (ODPC-Act) of the People's Republic of China came into effect on May 1, 2002. Given the scope of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) in China and an unabated increasing trend of foreign investment, compliance with the ODPC-Act among FIEs is of particular interest, yet little is known. The extent to which an employer educates its workforce to understand the ODPC-Act may be a measure of an employer's compliance. Based on a 25-item questionnaire survey, we found that among 166 workers from three FIEs in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, the majority had little knowledge regarding the ODPC-Act; many were unaware of their rights granted under the ODPC-Act. They were also unable to recognize employers' potential violations of the ODPC-Act. Improving FIE workers' awareness of the ODPC-Act is desirable.
Hong, Young-Rock; Jo, Ara; Mainous, Arch G
The utilization of preventive care services has been less than optimal. As part of an effort to address this, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandated that private health insurance plans cover evidence-based preventive services. To evaluate whether the provisions of ACA have increased being up-to-date on recommended preventive care services among privately insured individuals aged 18-64. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine trends in prevalence of being up-to-date on selected preventive services, diagnosis of health conditions, and health expenditures between pre-ACA (2007-2010) and post-ACA (2011-2014). Adjusted difference-in-difference analyses were used to estimate changes in those outcomes in the privately insured that differed from changes in the uninsured (control group). After the passage of ACA, up-to-date rates of routine checkup (2.7%; 95% confidence interval, 0.8%-4.7%; P=0.007) and flu vaccination (5.9%; 95% confidence interval, 4.2%-7.6%; Ppreventive care services. Additional efforts may be required to take full advantage of the elimination of cost-sharing under the ACA.
Pompili, Maurizio; Orsolini, Laura; Lamis, Dorian A; Goldsmith, David R; Nardella, Adele; Falcone, Giulia; Corigliano, Valentina; Luciano, Mario; Fiorillo, Andrea
Suicide risk is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Death by suicide has been reported in approximately 5% of schizophrenia patients although this figure appears to be an underestimate of the problem. A number of risk factors are routinely reported as associated with suicide risk among these patients, some of which are modifiable by targeted therapeutic strategies. Clozapine is the only compound that gathered evidence as an effective treatment for reducing suicide risk in schizophrenia. Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a range of advantages in terms of efficacy, safety and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia, and one area of interest is whether LAI-treatment may decrease suicidality by indirectly acting on a range of risk factors for suicide specific to schizophrenia patients. This background encouraged the present review of research pertaining to LAIs in relation to modifiable risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia. We viewed our task as gathering, speculating and critically appraising the available research relevant to the topic, with the aim of formulating a hypothesis to be tested with further research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fujikawa, Takahiko; Soya, Hideaki; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R; McEwen, Bruce S; Nakai, Naoya; Ogata, Masato; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Nakashima, Kunio
Stress causes hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis in rats. In rats under stressful conditions, a rapid and transient increase in circulating prolactin (PRL) is observed, and this enhanced PRL induces PRL receptors (PRLR) in the choroid plexus of rat brain. In this study we used restraint stress in water to elucidate the mechanism by which PRLR in the rat brain mediate the protective effect of PRL against stress-induced hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis. We show that rat PRL acts through the long form of PRLR in the hypothalamus. This is followed by an increase in the long form of PRLR mRNA expression in the choroid plexus of the brain, which provides protection against restraint stress in water-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosions. We also show that PRL induces the expression of PRLR protein and corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. These results suggest that the PRL levels increase in response to stress, and it moves from the circulation to the cerebrospinal fluid to act on the central nervous system and thereby plays an important role in helping to protect against acute stress-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosions.
Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael
Etten-Jamaludin, van F.; Deurenberg, H.W.J.
Praktische handleidng PubMed is de eerste Nederlandstalige gids die op overzichtelijke wijze op de uitgebreide mogelijkheden van PubMed ingaat. PubMed (www.pubmed.gov) biedt gratis toegang tot MEDLINE en is de meest gebruikte medische zoekmachine. In deze geheel herziene derde editie van Praktisch
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act...
... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under...
Sawyer, Ashlee N; Kwitowski, Melissa A; Benotsch, Eric G
Sexual and reproductive health conditions (eg, infections, cancers) represent public health concerns for American women. The present study examined how knowledge of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) relates to receipt of preventive reproductive health services among women. Cross-sectional online survey. Online questionnaires were completed via Amazon Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing website where individuals complete web-based tasks for compensation. Cisgendered women aged 18 to 44 years (N = 1083) from across the United States. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, insurance status, preventive service use, and knowledge of PPACA provisions. Chi-squares showed that receipt of well-woman, pelvic, and breast examinations, as well as pap smears, was related to insurance coverage, with those not having coverage at all during the previous year having significantly lower rates of use. Hierarchical logistic regressions determined the independent relationship between PPACA knowledge and use of health services after controlling for demographic factors and insurance status. Knowledge of PPACA provisions was associated with receiving well-woman, pelvic, and breast examinations, human papillomavirus vaccination, and sexually transmitted infections testing, after controlling for these factors. Results indicate that expanding knowledge about health-care legislation may be beneficial in increasing preventive reproductive health service use among women. Current findings provide support for increasing resources for outreach and education of the general population about the provisions and benefits of health-care legislation, as well as personal health coverage plans.
Background PubMed is the largest biomedical bibliographic information source on the Internet. PubMed has been considered one of the most important and reliable sources of up-to-date health care evidence. Previous studies examined the effects of domain expertise/knowledge on search performance using PubMed. However, very little is known about PubMed users’ knowledge of information retrieval (IR) functions and their usage in query formulation. Objective The purpose of this study was to shed light on how experienced/nonexperienced PubMed users perform their search queries by analyzing a full-day query log. Our hypotheses were that (1) experienced PubMed users who use system functions quickly retrieve relevant documents and (2) nonexperienced PubMed users who do not use them have longer search sessions than experienced users. Methods To test these hypotheses, we analyzed PubMed query log data containing nearly 3 million queries. User sessions were divided into two categories: experienced and nonexperienced. We compared experienced and nonexperienced users per number of sessions, and experienced and nonexperienced user sessions per session length, with a focus on how fast they completed their sessions. Results To test our hypotheses, we measured how successful information retrieval was (at retrieving relevant documents), represented as the decrease rates of experienced and nonexperienced users from a session length of 1 to 2, 3, 4, and 5. The decrease rate (from a session length of 1 to 2) of the experienced users was significantly larger than that of the nonexperienced groups. Conclusions Experienced PubMed users retrieve relevant documents more quickly than nonexperienced PubMed users in terms of session length. PMID:26139516
Dudlik, A.; Schlueter, S.; Prasser, H.M.
Shut-off valves are often applied for a quick safety shut-down of pipelines for dangerous liquids. When the valve is suddenly closed at a certain flow rate, the pressure behind the valve decreases due to the momentum of the liquid. This leads to an evaporation and to a formation of a cavitation bubble if the resulting minimum pressure becomes lower than the saturation pressure at the given temperature. This type of water hammer was studied at a test facility of Fraunhofer UMSICHT in Oberhausen. The task of FZR was the development of an adequate two-phase flow instrumentation to visualise the cavitation phenomenon. During the project unique digital movie sequences of appearing and condensing cavitation bubbles were recorded, that gave valuable insights into the transient process. In the result, a new method was found to prevent the collapse of the cavitation bubbles and to avoid the corresponding pressure peaks. (orig.)
M. R. Restuccia
Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of the collecting bag and its associated tubing occurs. It is considered a benign condition. PUBS is usually associated with urinary tract infection occurring in elderly bedridden women, with chronic urinary catheterization. This syndrome is usually reported to occur in alkaline urine, but here we describe a rare case of PUBS involving acidic urine.
Restuccia, M. R.; Blasi, M.
Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of the collecting bag and its associated tubing occurs. It is considered a benign condition. PUBS is usually associated with urinary tract infection occurring in elderly bedridden women, with chronic urinary catheterization. This syndrome is usually reported to occur in alkaline urine, but here we describe a rare case of PUBS involving acidic urine.
Vand, Kasra; Wahlestedt, Thor; Khomtchouk, Kelly; Sayed, Mohammed; Wahlestedt, Claes; Khomtchouk, Bohdan
We propose a search engine and file retrieval system for all bioinformatics databases worldwide. PubData searches biomedical data in a user-friendly fashion similar to how PubMed searches biomedical literature. PubData is built on novel network programming, natural language processing, and artificial intelligence algorithms that can patch into the file transfer protocol servers of any user-specified bioinformatics database, query its contents, retrieve files for download, and adapt to the use...
Statistics from the French Employee National Health Insurance Fund indicate high accident levels in the transport sector. This study represents initial thinking on a new approach to transport sector prevention based on the assumption that a work situation could be improved by acting on another interconnected work situation. Ergonomic analysis of two connected work situations, involving the road haulage drivers and cross-docking platform employees, was performed to test this assumption. Our results show that drivers are exposed to a number of identified risks, but their multiple tasks raise the question of activity intensification. The conditions, under which the drivers will perform their work and take to the road, are partly determined by the quality and organisation of the platform with which they interact. We make a number of recommendations (e.g. changing handling equipment, re-appraising certain jobs) to improve platform organisation and employee working conditions with the aim of also improving driver conditions. These initial steps in this prevention approach appear promising, but more detailed investigation is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hawley, R. L.; Serrell, N.; Tobery, C. E.; Riordan, S. A.
The "Cafe Scientifique" (or "Science Cafe") has existed around theworld for decades. In an informal setting, one or more scientistsengage with a lay audience, typically over refreshments of some kind.These Science Cafes have taken many formats and taken place in manyvenues. Some feature a single presenter, some multiple; somecongregate in large venues, some small; some restrict the use of thepowerpoint slides, some do not.Our team at Dartmouth has hosted "Science Pubs" for three years. OurScience Pub takes place in a local pub, from 5-7pm on a weekday once amonth. We choose a theme for a pub and select three presenters. Thecomposition of our panel varies, but we generally have at least onefaculty member and one "less-academic" member, such as a town plannerwhen discussing hurricanes or an organic farmer when discussingpesticides. Often we include a graduate student in the panel. ThePub takes place in three "acts": 1) the presenters each give a briefintroduction to thier take on the topic, usually 10-15 minutes,extemporaneous with no slides, 2) the "wedding reception" phase, whichis a break during which the presenters circulate to the pub tables,answering questions and chatting with the attendees informally, and 3)reconvening for a more 'formal' question and answer period duringwhich the presenters answer questions from the audience.Here, we outline the format that makes up a Dartmouth Science Pub andshare insignts and lessons learned. Among many findings, we havelearned: 1) a group of three presenters makes for a lively discussion,as often presenters 'riff' off one another's points, 2) it is cruicalto have a facilitator, to 'run the show', freeing the sciencepresenters to concentrate on thier audience engagement, and 3) a shortmeeting ahead of time with the presenters is simple and very importantin creating a smooth event, and serves to help the presenters 'codeswitch' and adapt language, in lieu of a formal 'training'.
Shane, Dan M; Wehby, George L
Oral health problems are the leading chronic conditions among children and younger adults. Lack of dental coverage is thought to be an important barrier to care but little empirical evidence exists on the causal effect of private dental coverage on use of dental services. We explore the relationship between dental coverage and dental services utilization with an analysis of a natural experiment of increasing private dental coverage stemming from the Affordable Care Act's (ACA)-dependent coverage mandate. To evaluate whether increased private dental insurance due to the spillover effect of the ACA-dependent coverage health insurance mandate affected utilization of dental services among a group of affected young adults. 2006-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. We used a difference-in-difference regression approach comparing changes in dental care utilization for 25-year olds affected by the policy to unaffected 27-year olds. We evaluate effects on dental treatments and preventive services RESULTS:: Compared to 27-year olds, 25-year olds were 8 percentage points more likely to have private dental coverage in the 3 years following the mandate. We do not find compelling evidence that young adults increased their use of preventive dental services in response to gaining insurance. We do find a nearly 5 percentage point increase in the likelihood of dental treatments among 25-year olds following the mandate, an effect that appears concentrated among women. Increases in private dental coverage due to the ACA's-dependent coverage mandate do not appear to be driving significant changes in overall preventive dental services utilization but there is evidence of an increase in restorative care.
Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael
Summary PubMed Informer is a Web-based monitoring tool for topics of interest from MEDLINE/PubMed primarily designed for healthcare professionals. Five tracking methods are available: Web access, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), PDA downloads and RSS feeds. PubMed Informer delivers focused search updates and specific information to users with varying information-seeking practices. PMID:16779344
The passing of the Prevention of Industrial Risks Act, in force from 9 February 1996 has altered previous ideas on the subject, which is currently considered to be of utmost importance for national and community legislation. In this article we describe the preventive functions of the Mutual Aid Societies for Industrial Accidents and professional diseases of the National Health Service. We have analysed the current legislation so as to clarify the activities of the Mutual Aid Societies in the field of the prevention of industrial accidents, and have defined the actions which may be taken in this field according to the present laws. Two different types of preventive activities are considered: (1) Those which depend on contributions, included in the professional risks cover, and which are obliged to prepare an annual plan of the measures taken to prevent industrial accidents and professional illness, following the guidelines established by the Ministry of Labor and Social Services and according to certain priorities. (2) The functions corresponding to the services for third-party prevention exclusively for their associated companies when the Mutual Aid Society is approved as a service for third party cover. This requires a voluntary or professional contract and the financial cost is borne by the company which requests it. The objective of the current legislation is, amongst other things, to introduce the new preventive approach established by the Prevention of Industrial Risks Act in the workplace and through the Mutual Aid Societies as well as to foment a new culture of prevention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding research activity within any given biomedical field is important. Search outputs generated by MEDLINE/PubMed are not well classified and require lengthy manual citation analysis. Automation of citation analytics can be very useful and timesaving for both novices and experts. Results PubFocus web server automates analysis of MEDLINE/PubMed search queries by enriching them with two widely used human factor-based bibliometric indicators of publication quality: journal impact factor and volume of forward references. In addition to providing basic volumetric statistics, PubFocus also prioritizes citations and evaluates authors' impact on the field of search. PubFocus also analyses presence and occurrence of biomedical key terms within citations by utilizing controlled vocabularies. Conclusion We have developed citations' prioritisation algorithm based on journal impact factor, forward referencing volume, referencing dynamics, and author's contribution level. It can be applied either to the primary set of PubMed search results or to the subsets of these results identified through key terms from controlled biomedical vocabularies and ontologies. NCI (National Cancer Institute thesaurus and MGD (Mouse Genome Database mammalian gene orthology have been implemented for key terms analytics. PubFocus provides a scalable platform for the integration of multiple available ontology databases. PubFocus analytics can be adapted for input sources of biomedical citations other than PubMed.
Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A
Commercial student pub crawls are associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, and are of growing concern amongst public health and student bodies. However, little is currently known about drinking behaviours whilst participating in these events. A questionnaire was implemented amongst 227 students attending commercial pub crawls across three UK events. Questions established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview and throughout the remaining night out, and pub crawl experience. Breathalyser tests were used to measure breath alcohol concentration (converted to blood alcohol concentration [BAC]) at interview. Analyses used chi squared, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression. 94.3% of participants had consumed alcohol, 90.9% of whom reported preloading. Drinkers reported consuming a median of 10.0 alcohol units (80g of pure alcohol) up to the point of interview (range one-40.6), with estimated total consumption over the evening exceeding 16units (range three-70.6). Median BAC of drinkers at the time of interview was 0.10%BAC (range 0.00-0.27). High BAC (>0.08%; at interview) was associated with having not eaten food in the four hours prior (AOR 4.8, palcohol consumption before and during commercial pub crawls should aim to alter drinking behaviours such as preloading and rapid and excessive drinking. Organisers, local authorities, universities and students should all be involved in ensuring the effective management of pub crawls, including implementation of harm prevention measures. © 2013.
We also used the same method to obtain data on the PubMed medical publications from Tunisia, Morocco and Yemen. Tunisia had the largest number of PubMed publications among the studied countries: 20.4 publications per million population per year and 7.2 publications per year per one billion US$ GDP. Libya had ...
Saindane, Shashank S.; Chatterjee, M.K.; Romal, Jis; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Singh, B.R.
Radioactive sources are widely used in industry, research, agriculture and medical applications. In spite of various measures adopted for ensuring the safety and security of these sources, similar to Mayapuri incident, many cases of lost, misplaced, stolen radioactive sources and inadvertent radiation exposure due to radiological emergencies are reported world over. In the aftermath of the attack on the World Trade Center 2001, malicious acts using radioactive material is considered as a threat for which prevention and preparedness for response are recommended by IAEA. Hence radiation monitoring of all related area prior to and during Major Public Events (MPEs) like Olympics, World cup football etc are implemented by many nations for prevention and preparedness to such radiological threats/emergencies. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) through their Emergency Response Centres planned and executed detailed radiation monitoring programme for the Delhi Common Wealth Games (CWG 2010) which covered all CWG stadiums. Commonwealth village etc. In addition to DAE emergency response teams of 15 members in readiness, source recovery and shielding facilities, Portable Personnel Decontamination Unit (PPDU), Radiation monitors, Protective gears, Aerial Gamma Spectrometry System (AGSS for Aerial surveys) etc. were maintained at two DAE control rooms. This paper discusses the mobile radiation monitoring carried out on Delhi city roads with the help of various state-of-the-art monitoring systems to detect the presence or movement of any orphan sources. The mobile radiation monitoring was focused on main road networks connecting to stadiums, areas surrounding stadiums, airport and Games village. For this state-of-the-art systems like Portable Mobile Gamma Spectrometry System (PMGSS), Portable Radiation Scanner (PRS), Compact Radiation Monitoring System integrated with GPS, GSM based Radiation Monitoring System (GRaMS), Gammatracers, Selection and placement of different monitoring
Byrne, Jo; Xu, Gang; Carr, Sue
In the UK, recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for acute kidney injury point to the need for interventions to help prevent this condition. Effective medicines management is of prime importance in reducing the risk of AKI. Part of this challenge is to increase patients' awareness of their medicines and the possible need to temporarily withhold certain medications when acutely unwell. The objectives were to use a service improvement approach (the Plan, Do, Study, Act cycle) to develop an intervention and to evaluate current delivery of acute kidney injury management and to test and generate new ideas relating to patients' needs. A postal feedback form sent to a random sample of over 200 patients with chronic kidney disease. The feedback form collected information on: what patients know about acute kidney injury and managing medicines; where patients get their information from; whether patients want more information and where from; and what patients feel about self-managing their medicines. Completed feedback forms were received from 113 participants. Of these, 92% said they had received no advice, 77% of respondents wanted more advice but only 17% said they would feel comfortable to stop their own medication without medical consent. The PDSA cycle offered a very useful framework to evaluate the current service delivery and to test and generate new ideas for the development of an AKI intervention. Our findings highlighted that the current service is limited and more robust research is needed. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M
We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17, 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors' access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment.
Lindsey, Wesley T; Olin, Bernie R
PubMed is a biomedical and life sciences database maintained by a division of the National Library of Medicine known as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). It is a large resource with more than 5600 journals indexed and greater than 22 million total citations. Searches conducted in PubMed provide references that are more specific for the intended topic compared with other popular search engines. Effective PubMed searches allow the clinician to remain current on the latest clinical trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. PubMed continues to evolve by allowing users to create a customized experience through the My NCBI portal, new arrangements and options in search filters, and supporting scholarly projects through exportation of citations to reference managing software. Prepackaged search options available in the Clinical Queries feature also allow users to efficiently search for clinical literature. PubMed also provides information regarding the source journals themselves through the Journals in NCBI Databases link. This article provides an overview of the PubMed database's structure and features as well as strategies for conducting an effective search.
Deng, Chao; Deng, Bo; Jia, Liqun; Tan, Huangying
Diarrhoea is a common adverse effect induced by chemotherapy that can reduce the dose of chemotherapeutic drugs or interrupt the chemotherapy schedule. The current treatment strategies have various limitations. It has been shown that long-acting release octreotide (octreotide LAR) can decrease the occurrence and severity of diarrhoea, yet the efficacy of octreotide LAR in preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID) remains to be assessed. The main objective of this paper was to draw up a protocol for systematic review to evaluate the protective effects of octreotide LAR on CID. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and the VIP Database without language restrictions from inception until 1 September 2016. The references of relevant studies were also manually searched. Two investigators independently accessed the selected studies, extracted data and assessed the reliability of the studies. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third investigator. The effect size of the selected studies was assessed by different measures based on the type of data. The selected studies were descriptively analysed. We then chose a fixed-effect model or a random-effect model based on statistical homogeneity, and pooled data from the studies for meta-analysis, if possible. The primary outcome was the incidence of diarrhoea. The secondary outcomes were the duration of diarrhoea, incidence of diarrhoea-associated symptoms, physical function and quality of life. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager V.5.3. This systematic review did not require ethics approval, because it included aggregated published data, and not individual patient data. The review was published in a peer-reviewed journal. This systematic review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD 42016048573). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights
Lee, Joseph G L; Baker, Hannah M; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O
Retailer noncompliance with limited US tobacco regulations on advertising and labeling was historically patterned by neighborhood in ways that promote health disparities. In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began enforcing stronger tobacco retailer regulations under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. However, recent research has found no differences in compliance by neighborhood characteristics for FDA advertising and labeling inspections. We sought to investigate the neighborhood characteristics associated with retailer noncompliance with specific FDA advertising and labeling inspections (ie, violations of bans on self-service displays, selling single cigarettes, false or mislabeled products, vending machines, flavored cigarettes, and free samples). We coded FDA advertising and labeling warning letters (n = 718) for type of violations and geocoded advertising and labeling inspections from January 1 through July 31, 2014 (N = 33,543). Using multilevel models, we examined cross-sectional associations between types of violations and neighborhood characteristics previously associated with disparities (ie, percentage black, Latino, under the poverty line, and younger than 18 years). Retailer advertising and labeling violations are patterned by who lives in the neighborhood; regulated tobacco products are more likely to be stored behind the counter as the percentage of black or Latino residents increases, and single cigarettes are more often available for purchase in neighborhoods as the percentage of black, poor, or young residents increases. Contrary to previous null findings, noncompliance with FDA advertising and labeling regulations is patterned by neighborhood characteristics, sometimes in opposite directions. Given the low likelihood of self-service violations in the same neighborhoods that have high likelihood of single cigarette sales, we suggest targeted approaches to FDA retailer inspections and education campaigns.
Anders, Michael E; Evans, Dennis P
Literature searches are essential to evidence-based respiratory care. To conduct literature searches, respiratory therapists rely on search engines to retrieve information, but there is a dearth of literature on the comparative efficiencies of search engines for researching clinical questions in respiratory care. To compare PubMed and Google Scholar search results for clinical topics in respiratory care to that of a benchmark. We performed literature searches with PubMed and Google Scholar, on 3 clinical topics. In PubMed we used the Clinical Queries search filter. In Google Scholar we used the search filters in the Advanced Scholar Search option. We used the reference list of a related Cochrane Collaboration evidence-based systematic review as the benchmark for each of the search results. We calculated recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) with 2 x 2 contingency tables. We compared the results with the chi-square test of independence and Fisher's exact test. PubMed and Google Scholar had similar recall for both overall search results (71% vs 69%) and full-text results (43% vs 51%). PubMed had better precision than Google Scholar for both overall search results (13% vs 0.07%, P PubMed searches with the Clinical Queries filter are more precise than with the Advanced Scholar Search in Google Scholar for respiratory care topics. PubMed appears to be more practical to conduct efficient, valid searches for informing evidence-based patient-care protocols, for guiding the care of individual patients, and for educational purposes.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Full Text Available This study empirically examines the synergistic negative effect of two kinds of job demand on job-related affective wellbeing (JAW and the accelerating effects of cynicism in the negative relationships between job demands and JAW using a sample of 299 employees in the Chinese banking industry. Job demands include quantitative role overload and surface acting to represent the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job demands. Cynicism is introduced as a state where one’s energy resource is lost. The results of this study show that surface acting has a negative relationship with JAW, but quantitative role overload has no relationship with JAW. High levels of quantitative role overload exacerbate the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW. Cynicism also exacerbates the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW but does not have any moderating effect in the relationship between quantitative role overload and JAW. These results are consistent with the relationships predicted by resource loss spiral and resource loss cycle. The resource loss spiral means that resource loss, caused by handling with a quantitative role overload, lessens the employee’s ability to cope with surface acting. The resource loss cycle represents a vicious circle that amplifies the resource loss caused by surface acting. Surface acting reduces the level of one’s resources. Furthermore, surface acting reduces JAW and resources more strongly when an individual has low levels of previous energy resources than it reduces JAW and resources when he or she has high levels of previous energy resources.
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1260.128 Section 1260.128 Agriculture... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.128 Act. Act means the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985, Title XVI, Subtitle A of the Food Security Act of 1985, Pub. L. 99-198 and any amendments thereto. ...
As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr
Holmes, Emily A; James, Ella L; Kilford, Emma J; Deeprose, Catherine
Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a 'cognitive vaccine'  against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task . However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game--Pub Quiz--which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post-trauma. Clinically
Schmidt, Cynthia M; Cox, Roxanne; Fial, Alissa V; Hartman, Teresa L; Magee, Martha L
The authors sought to determine whether unexpected gaps existed in Scopus's author affiliation indexing of publications written by the University of Nebraska Medical Center or Nebraska Medicine (UNMC/NM) authors during 2014. First, we compared Scopus affiliation identifier search results to PubMed affiliation keyword search results. Then, we searched Scopus using affiliation keywords (UNMC, etc.) and compared the results to PubMed affiliation keyword and Scopus affiliation identifier searches. We found that Scopus's records for approximately 7% of UNMC/NM authors' publications lacked appropriate UNMC/NM author affiliation identifiers, and many journals' publishers were supplying incomplete author affiliation information to PubMed. Institutions relying on Scopus to track their impact should determine whether Scopus's affiliation identifiers will, in fact, identify all articles published by their authors and investigators.
This Act amends the French Family and Social Aid Code to insert provisions designed to prevent the mistreatment of minors. It provides that childhood social aid services are to have the additional objectives of preventing mistreatment and collecting information on the mistreatment of minors and are to inform and sensitize the public at large, as well as concerned persons, about the conditions of mistreated minors. The Act requires the president of each local general council to establish a system for collection of information, require the collaboration of professionals and associations dealing with the protection of the family and children, and notify legal authorities when a minor has or appears to have been mistreated and it is impossible to evaluate the situation or the family refuses to cooperate. The Act also creates a free telephone service to respond at any time of the day to requests for information or advice on minors who are or appear to be mistreated and to convey to the presidents of local general councils information and recommendations about these minors. In addition, all physicians, medical and paramedical personnel, magistrates, teachers, and police are to receive initial and continuing training to allow them to respond to cases of mistreated children and take actions necessary to prevent mistreatment and protect children.
Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…
As of July 23, 1993 the National Contingency Plan (NCP) for oil spills and hazardous substance releases (40CFR300) is being revised to comply with Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA '90) requirements. An important OPA '90 development is the creation of localized groups to write Area Contingency Plans (ACPs). During the ACP process many political, economical, and environmental issues will be addressed by representatives from several local, county, state, federal agencies and industry. Some of the difficulty decision makers must face is weighing environmental tradeoffs considering socio-economic aspects and determining what is the most effective ecologically sensible/environmental protection oil spill response strategy. Ideally, the NCP is designed as a democratic process providing a voice to all effected parties on how to best protect the environment, natural resources, and commercial resources. However, practice has shown successful emergency response is best handled when a single focal point of command, commonly referred to as incident command, has an agreed upon response agenda. The following will address the need for decision makers and contingency planners to at least address waste minimization principles, if not make it their primary focus, when developing and executing the oil spill response plan
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Act. 901.10 Section 901.10 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.10 Act. Act means the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-465, October 17, 1980), as amended. [56 FR 55458, Oct. 28...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1280.101 Section 1280.101 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.101 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425; Pub. L. 104-127; 110 Stat...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1250.302 Section 1250.302 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.302 Act. Act means the Egg Research and Consumer Information Act and as it may be amended (Pub. L. 93-428). ...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1218.1 Section 1218.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7401-7425; Pub. L. 104-127; 110 Stat...
Plake, Conrad; Schiemann, Torsten; Pankalla, Marcus; Hakenberg, Jörg; Leser, Ulf
The biomedical literature contains a wealth of information on associations between many different types of objects, such as protein-protein interactions, gene-disease associations and subcellular locations of proteins. When searching such information using conventional search engines, e.g. PubMed, users see the data only one-abstract at a time and 'hidden' in natural language text. AliBaba is an interactive tool for graphical summarization of search results. It parses the set of abstracts that fit a PubMed query and presents extracted information on biomedical objects and their relationships as a graphical network. AliBaba extracts associations between cells, diseases, drugs, proteins, species and tissues. Several filter options allow for a more focused search. Thus, researchers can grasp complex networks described in various articles at a glance. http://alibaba.informatik.hu-berlin.de/
Blümle, A; Lagrèze, W A; Motschall, E
In order to identify current (and relevant) evidence for a specific clinical question within the unmanageable amount of information available, solid skills in performing a systematic literature search are essential. An efficient approach is to search a biomedical database containing relevant literature citations of study reports. The best known database is MEDLINE, which is searchable for free via the PubMed interface. In this article, we explain step by step how to perform a systematic literature search via PubMed by means of an example research question in the field of ophthalmology. First, we demonstrate how to translate the clinical problem into a well-framed and searchable research question, how to identify relevant search terms and how to conduct a text word search and a search with keywords in medical subject headings (MeSH) terms. We then show how to limit the number of search results if the search yields too many irrelevant hits and how to increase the number in the case of too few citations. Finally, we summarize all essential principles that guide a literature search via PubMed.
Mota, Suetonio [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)
This paper discusses the environmental impacts that becomes from works of water resources exploitation, like dam construction, river rectification and irrigation projects, and its impacts on the biotic, physical and social environment, and shows the actions will be made to prevent or minimize this impacts 6 refs., 3 tabs.
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
Lokker, Cynthia; Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, K Ann; Walter, Stephen D
Clinical Queries filters were developed to improve the retrieval of high-quality studies in searches on clinical matters. The study objective was to determine the yield of relevant citations and physician satisfaction while searching for diagnostic and treatment studies using the Clinical Queries page of PubMed compared with searching PubMed without these filters. Forty practicing physicians, presented with standardized treatment and diagnosis questions and one question of their choosing, entered search terms which were processed in a random, blinded fashion through PubMed alone and PubMed Clinical Queries. Participants rated search retrievals for applicability to the question at hand and satisfaction. For treatment, the primary outcome of retrieval of relevant articles was not significantly different between the groups, but a higher proportion of articles from the Clinical Queries searches met methodologic criteria (p=0.049), and more articles were published in core internal medicine journals (p=0.056). For diagnosis, the filtered results returned more relevant articles (p=0.031) and fewer irrelevant articles (overall retrieval less, p=0.023); participants needed to screen fewer articles before arriving at the first relevant citation (p<0.05). Relevance was also influenced by content terms used by participants in searching. Participants varied greatly in their search performance. Clinical Queries filtered searches returned more high-quality studies, though the retrieval of relevant articles was only statistically different between the groups for diagnosis questions. Retrieving clinically important research studies from Medline is a challenging task for physicians. Methodological search filters can improve search retrieval.
Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel
Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of 'high-quality' SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments.
Implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act; here: Regulation governing ambient radioactivity monitoring subject to the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Pt. 1. Measuring programme for specified normal operation monitoring (routine measuring programme). BMU circular letter dated 28.07.94 -RS II 6 - 15 603/3
The regulation addresses the competent Federal and Land authorities responsible for implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, and the competent highest Land authorities. The regulation defines the scope of obligatory measurement of ambient radioactivity during normal operation of installations and determines the measuring techniques to be applied for this purpose. The programme determines compulsory instructions to be observed in the performance of the routine measuring programme by the competent Federal and Land authorities and thus ensures nationwide application of standard procedures
Emily A Holmes
Full Text Available Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a 'cognitive vaccine'  against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task . However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1 Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2 Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game--Pub Quiz--which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2, and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2.The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1 no-task control condition (2 Tetris or (3 Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not.First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post
Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Dalgard, Olav; Bruggmann, Philip; Treloar, Carla; Hickman, Matthew; Hellard, Margaret; Roberts, Teri; Crooks, Levinia; Midgard, Håvard; Larney, Sarah; Degenhardt, Louisa; Alho, Hannu; Byrne, Jude; Dillon, John F; Feld, Jordan J; Foster, Graham; Goldberg, David; Lloyd, Andrew R; Reimer, Jens; Robaeys, Geert; Torrens, Marta; Wright, Nat; Maremmani, Icro; Norton, Brianna L; Litwin, Alain H; Dore, Gregory J
Globally, it is estimated that 71.1 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including an estimated 7.5 million people who have recently injected drugs (PWID). There is an additional large, but unquantified, burden among those PWID who have ceased injecting. The incidence of HCV infection among current PWID also remains high in many settings. Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease among PWID with HCV infection continues to increase, despite the advent of well-tolerated, simple interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV regimens with cure rates >95%. As a result of this important clinical breakthrough, there is potential to reverse the rising burden of advanced liver disease with increased treatment and strive for HCV elimination among PWID. Unfortunately, there are many gaps in knowledge that represent barriers to effective prevention and management of HCV among PWID. The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney and the International Network on Hepatitis in Substance Users (INHSU) established an expert round table panel to assess current research gaps and establish future research priorities for the prevention and management of HCV among PWID. This round table consisted of a one-day workshop held on 6 September, 2016, in Oslo, Norway, prior to the International Symposium on Hepatitis in Substance Users (INHSU 2016). International experts in drug and alcohol, infectious diseases, and hepatology were brought together to discuss the available scientific evidence, gaps in research, and develop research priorities. Topics for discussion included the epidemiology of injecting drug use, HCV, and HIV among PWID, HCV prevention, HCV testing, linkage to HCV care and treatment, DAA treatment for HCV infection, and reinfection following successful treatment. This paper highlights the outcomes of the roundtable discussion focused on future research priorities for enhancing HCV prevention, testing, linkage to care and DAA treatment for PWID as we strive
Title III, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and to reduce the severity of those releases that do occur. The final EPA rule for Risk Management Programs under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA, promulgated June 20, 1996, applies to all stationary sources with processes that contain more than a threshold quantity of any of 139 regulated substances listed under 40 CFR 68.130. All affected sources will be required to prepare a risk management plan which must be submitted to EPA and be made available to state and local governments and to the public. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the K-25 Site. The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the K-25 Site conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. ORR activities underway and soon to be undertaken toward implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule include: compilation of inventories of regulated substances at all processes at each of the three ORR Facilities for determination of affected processes and facilities; plans for inventory reduction to levels below threshold quantities, where necessary and feasible; determination of the overlap of processes subject to the OSHA PSM Standard and determination of parallel requirements; preparation of Risk Management Plans and Programs for affected processes and facilities including detailed requirements
Wang, Zhengting; Chen, Yongdi; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Liu, Kui; Chen, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Gu, Hua
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), a pandemic threat to human beings, has aroused huge concern worldwide, but no bibliometric studies have been conducted on MERS research. The aim of this study was to map research productivity on the disease based on the articles indexed in PubMed. The articles related to MERS dated from 2012 to 2015 were retrieved from PubMed. The articles were classified into three categories according to their focus. Publication outputs were assessed and frequently used terms were mapped using the VOS viewer software. A total of 443 articles were included for analysis. They were published in 162 journals, with Journal of Virology being the most productive (44 articles; 9.9%) and by six types of organizations, with universities being the most productive (276 articles; 62.4%).The largest proportion of the articles focused on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (47.2%) and those on prevention and control ranked third (26.2%), with those on other focuses coming in between (26.6%). The articles on prevention and control had the highest mean rank for impact factor (IF) (226.34), followed by those on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (180.23) and those on other focuses (168.03). The mean rank differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Besides, "conronavirus", "case", "transmission" and "detection" were found to be the most frequently used terms. The findings of this first bibliometric study on MERS suggest that the prevention and control of the disease has become a big concern and related research should be strengthened.
Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey Michael
Astronomy on Tap is a series of free lectures by astronomers in the pub, aimed at disseminating the latest research to the public in an informal setting. Started in New York City in 2013, Astronomy on Tap has now expanded to seven cities across North and South America. Organized by local astronomers, each event features talks by astronomers from local institutions or visitors, or others whose professions or hobbies intersect with astronomy, along with games and opportunities for the public to interact with professional astronomers. The largest Astronomy on Tap events are in Austin, Texas, attracting over 150 people each month, which consists of populations outside of the self-selected groups that might be reached by more formal EPO activities. The organisers of Astronomy on Tap in Austin (AoTATX) will discuss the impact of and feedback from all of the locations, and present information on setting up new satellite locations.
Full Text Available There had been a great dedication on the prevention of the acquired disease in the past. The well known are eugenetic advisory centers in which people could get information for a given inherited disease, later so called genetic advisory centers. Their work, besides is based on the principles of informing the patients for the difficulties, importance and prognoses of determined inherited disease. This activity, which is the highest achievement in the medical genetics, can be called genetic information, which is very important for regular treatment of every patient.The accurate etiological diagnosis is an essential precondition for giving the genetic information, assessment of the risk, the eventual treatment, as for the prenatal diagnosis e.i. prevention of congenital malformations.The genetic consulting is applicable in all possible phenotype manifestations of the breaking genes, regardless to the categorical custody of the examinees with retards in their development. In fact, that’s a summary of standards which are applicable in the basic prevention in disabilities in the psycho-physical development, whose reasons are genetically determined. Preventive activities are mostly used with mentally retarded as a result of the frequent intercession of the psychological disorders all together in different syndromes and diseases.The genetic consulting activities of the Center for Mental Health for children and adolescents in Skopje are based on the appliance of the following methodology: fortification of the risk for the appearance of inherited anomalies; explanation and assessment of the established risk in the concrete family situation, assurance of adequate assistance concerning the accurate and practical assessment of the risk and preparation of rational plan for subsequent treatment and decisions; consequent observation of the situations and evaluation of achieved results etc. In that way, the acting of medical-genetic advising center in the
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Act. 619.9000 Section 619.9000 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9000 The Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971; Pub. L. 92-181 and amendments. ...
... 1974; Computer Matching Program AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and... Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503) and the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Amendments of 1990 (Pub. L. 101...
Kaster, Manuella P; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A
The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function.
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true The Act. 4.103 Section 4.103 Labor Office of the Secretary... Contract Act Introductory § 4.103 The Act. The McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act of 1965 (Pub. L. 89-286, 79 Stat. 1034, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq.), hereinafter referred to as the Act, was approved by the...
Fujimori, Tsutomu; Suno, Ryoji; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Wada, Ikuo; Hosokawa, Nobuko
The folding of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is assisted by ER-resident chaperone proteins. BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein), a member of the HSP70 family, plays a central role in protein quality control. The chaperone function of BiP is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase activity, which is stimulated by ER-resident proteins of the HSP40/DnaJ family, including ERdj3. Here, we report that two closely related proteins, SDF2 and SDF2L1, regulate the BiP chaperone cycle. Both are ER-resident, but SDF2 is constitutively expressed, whereas SDF2L1 expression is induced by ER stress. Both luminal proteins formed a stable complex with ERdj3 and potently inhibited the aggregation of different types of misfolded ER cargo. These proteins associated with non-native proteins, thus promoting the BiP-substrate interaction cycle. A dominant-negative ERdj3 mutant that inhibits the interaction between ERdj3 and BiP prevented the dissociation of misfolded cargo from the ERdj3-SDF2L1 complex. Our findings indicate that SDF2 and SDF2L1 associate with ERdj3 and act as components in the BiP chaperone cycle to prevent the aggregation of misfolded proteins, partly explaining the broad folding capabilities of the ER under various physiological conditions. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Coupet, Edouard; Karp, David; Wiebe, Douglas J; Kit Delgado, M
Investment in violence prevention programs is hampered by lack of clearly identifiable stakeholders with a financial stake in prevention. We determined the total annual charges for the acute care of injuries from interpersonal violence and the shift in financial responsibility for these charges after the Medicaid expansion from the Affordable Care Act in 2014. We analyzed all emergency department (ED) visits from 2009 to 2014 with diagnosis codes for violent injury in the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). We used sample weights to estimate total charges with adjusted generalized linear models to estimate charges for the 15% of ED visits with missing charge data. We then calculated the share attributable by payer and determined the difference in proportion by payer from 2013 to 2014. Between 2009 and 2013, the uninsured accounted for 28.2-31.3% of annual charges for the acute care of violent injury, while Medicaid was responsible for a similar amount (29.0-31.0%). In 2014, there were $10.7 billion in total charges for violent injury. Medicaid assumed the greatest share, 39.8% (95% CI: 38.0-41.5%, $3.5-5.1 billion), while the uninsured accounted for 23.6% (95% CI: 22.2-24.9%, $2.0-3.0 billion), and Medicare accounted for 7.8% (95% CI: 7.7-8.0%, $0.7-1.0 billion). After Medicaid expansion, taxpayers are now accountable for nearly half of the $10.7 billion in annual charges for the acute care of violent injury in the U.S. These findings highlight the benefit to state Medicaid programs of preventing interpersonal violence. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers’ various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%. Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033. Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as “listeners”, to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling.
Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakao, Rieko; Kawasaki, Ryokko; Nitta, Akiko; Hamada, Yukari; Nakane, Hideyuki
Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers' various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%). Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033). Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as "listeners", to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling.
... What is the difference between MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed? To use the sharing features on this page, ... latest health professional articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature Is ...
Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J; Sladek, Ruth M
PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed's unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms ('textwords'), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword-only strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed's unique heart failure literature. We translated an OvidSP Medline heart failure search filter for PubMed and established version equivalence in terms of indexed literature retrieval. The PubMed version was then run within PubMed to identify citations retrieved by the filter's MeSH terms (Heart failure, Left ventricular dysfunction, and Cardiomyopathy). It was then rerun with the same MeSH terms restricted to searching on title and abstract fields (i.e. as 'textwords'). Citations retrieved by the MeSH search but not the textword search were isolated. Frequency analysis of their titles/abstracts identified natural language alternatives for those MeSH terms that performed less effectively as textwords. These terms were tested in combination to determine the best performing search string for reclaiming this 'lost set'. This string, restricted to searching on PubMed's unique content, was then combined with the validated PubMed translation to extend the filter's performance in this database. The PubMed heart failure filter retrieved 6829 citations. Of these, 834 (12%) failed to be retrieved when MeSH terms were converted to textwords. Frequency analysis of the 834 citations identified five high frequency natural language alternatives that could improve retrieval of this set (cardiac failure, cardiac resynchronization, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and LV dysfunction). Together these terms reclaimed
Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population with a relevant chronic impact on social and occupational functioning and daily activities. People with schizophrenia are 2-2.5 times more likely to die early than the general population. Non-adherence to antipsychotic medications, both in chronic and first episode schizophrenia, is one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization, that consequently contributes to increased costs due to psychiatric hospitalization. Atypical long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics can improve treatment adherence and decrease re-hospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia since its onset. The primary goals in the management of schizophrenia are directed not only at symptom reduction in the short and long term, but also at maintaining physical and mental functioning, improving quality of life, and promoting patient recovery. To propose a scientific evidence-based integrated model that provides an algorithm for recovery of patients with schizophrenia and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of antipsychotics LAI in the treatment, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery of schizophrenia. After an accurate literature review we identified, collected and analyzed the crucial points in taking care schizophrenia patients, through which we defined the steps described in the model of management and the choice of the better treatment option. Results. In the management model we propose, the choice of a second generation long acting antipsychotic, could allow from the earliest stages of illness better patient management, especially for young individuals with schizophrenia onset, a better recovery and significant reductions of relapse and health care costs. LAI formulations of antipsychotics are valuable, because they help patients to remain adherent to their medication through regular contact with healthcare professionals and to prevent covert non-adherence. The
M Shahriar Hossain
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and diseases. Each article investigates subsets of a biological process, but to gain insight into the functioning of a system as a whole, we must integrate information from multiple publications. Particularly, unraveling relationships between extra-cellular inputs and downstream molecular response mechanisms requires integrating conclusions from diverse publications. METHODOLOGY: We present an automated approach to biological knowledge discovery from PubMed abstracts, suitable for "connecting the dots" across the literature. We describe a storytelling algorithm that, given a start and end publication, typically with little or no overlap in content, identifies a chain of intermediate publications from one to the other, such that neighboring publications have significant content similarity. The quality of discovered stories is measured using local criteria such as the size of supporting neighborhoods for each link and the strength of individual links connecting publications, as well as global metrics of dispersion. To ensure that the story stays coherent as it meanders from one publication to another, we demonstrate the design of novel coherence and overlap filters for use as post-processing steps. CONCLUSIONS: WE DEMONSTRATE THE APPLICATION OF OUR STORYTELLING ALGORITHM TO THREE CASE STUDIES: i a many-one study exploring relationships between multiple cellular inputs and a molecule responsible for cell-fate decisions, ii a many-many study exploring the relationships between multiple cytokines and multiple downstream transcription factors, and iii a one-to-one study to showcase the ability to recover a cancer related association, viz. the Warburg effect, from past literature. The storytelling pipeline helps narrow down a scientist's focus from several hundreds of thousands of relevant documents to only
Hossain, M. Shahriar; Gresock, Joseph; Edmonds, Yvette; Helm, Richard; Potts, Malcolm; Ramakrishnan, Naren
Background There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and diseases. Each article investigates subsets of a biological process, but to gain insight into the functioning of a system as a whole, we must integrate information from multiple publications. Particularly, unraveling relationships between extra-cellular inputs and downstream molecular response mechanisms requires integrating conclusions from diverse publications. Methodology We present an automated approach to biological knowledge discovery from PubMed abstracts, suitable for “connecting the dots” across the literature. We describe a storytelling algorithm that, given a start and end publication, typically with little or no overlap in content, identifies a chain of intermediate publications from one to the other, such that neighboring publications have significant content similarity. The quality of discovered stories is measured using local criteria such as the size of supporting neighborhoods for each link and the strength of individual links connecting publications, as well as global metrics of dispersion. To ensure that the story stays coherent as it meanders from one publication to another, we demonstrate the design of novel coherence and overlap filters for use as post-processing steps. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of our storytelling algorithm to three case studies: i) a many-one study exploring relationships between multiple cellular inputs and a molecule responsible for cell-fate decisions, ii) a many-many study exploring the relationships between multiple cytokines and multiple downstream transcription factors, and iii) a one-to-one study to showcase the ability to recover a cancer related association, viz. the Warburg effect, from past literature. The storytelling pipeline helps narrow down a scientist's focus from several hundreds of thousands of relevant documents to only around a hundred
The indexing of a journal in a prominent database (such as PubMed) is an important imprimatur. Journals accepted for inclusion in PubMed Central (PMC) are automatically indexed in PubMed but must provide the entire contents of their publications as XML-tagged (Extensible Markup Language) data files compliant with PubMed's document type definition (DTD). This paper describes the various attempts that the journal Images in Paediatric Cardiology made in its efforts to convert the journal contents (including all of the extant backlog) to PMC-compliant XML for archiving and indexing in PubMed after the journal was accepted for inclusion by the database.
Markowitz, Michael; Fu, Dong-Jing; Levitan, Bennett; Gopal, Srihari; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Alphs, Larry
Increasing availability and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics have generated a need to compare these formulations with their oral equivalents; however, a paucity of relevant data is available. This post hoc comparison of the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of maintenance treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus oral paliperidone extended release (ER) used data from two similarly designed, randomised, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled schizophrenia relapse prevention trials. Assessments included measures of time to relapse, symptom changes/functioning and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Time to relapse between treatment groups was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Between-group differences for continuous variables for change scores during the DB phase were assessed using analysis of co-variance models. Categorical variables were evaluated using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Approximately 45% of enrolled subjects in both trials were stabilised and randomised to the DB relapse prevention phase. Risk of relapse was higher in subjects treated with paliperidone ER than in those treated with PP [paliperidone ER/PP hazard ratio (HR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-4.35; p 70, both approximately 58.5%; p = 1.000] compared with a 10.9% decrease for paliperidone ER (58.5% vs 47.6%, respectively; p = 0.048). The least squares mean change for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at DB end point in these previously stabilised subjects was 3.5 points in favour of PP (6.0 vs 2.5; p = 0.025). The rates of TEAEs and AEs of interest appeared similar. This analysis supports maintenance of effect with the injectable compared with the oral formulation of paliperidone in patients with schizophrenia. The safety profile of PP was similar to that of paliperidone ER. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Somarajan, Bindu I; Mehta, Rachna; Mallick, Birendra Nath
Normally, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) does not appear during waking or non-REMS. Isolated, independent studies showed that elevated noradrenaline (NA) levels inhibit REMS and induce REMS loss-associated cytomolecular, cytomorphological, psychosomatic changes and associated symptoms. However, the source of NA and its target in the brain for REMS regulation and function in health and diseases remained to be confirmed in vivo . Using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-siRNA and virus-coated TH-shRNA in normal freely moving rats, we downregulated NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) REM-OFF neurons in vivo . These TH-downregulated rats showed increased REMS, which was prevented by infusing NA into the pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons, normal REMS returned after recovery. Moreover, unlike normal or control-siRNA- or shRNA-injected rats, upon REMS deprivation (REMSD) TH-downregulated rat brains did not show elevated Na-K ATPase (molecular changes) expression and activity. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first in vivo findings in an animal model confirming that NA from the LC REM-OFF neurons (1) acts on the PPT REM-ON neurons to prevent appearance of REMS, and (2) are responsible for inducing REMSD-associated molecular changes and symptoms. These observations clearly show neuro-physio-chemical mechanism of why normally REMS does not appear during waking. Also, that LC neurons are the primary source of NA, which in turn causes some, if not many, REMSD-associated symptoms and behavioral changes. The findings are proof-of-principle for the first time and hold potential to be exploited for confirmation toward treating REMS disorder and amelioration of REMS loss-associated symptoms in patients.
Oba, Yuji; Lone, Nazir A
A combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting beta agonist (LABA) is recommended in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing frequent exacerbations. Currently, there are five ICS/LABA combination products available on the market. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of various ICS/LABA combinations with a network meta-analysis. Several databases and manufacturer's websites were searched for relevant clinical trials. Randomized control trials, at least 12 weeks duration, comparing an ICS/LABA combination with active control or placebo were included. Moderate and severe exacerbations were chosen as the outcome assessment criteria. The primary analyses were conducted with a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Most of the ICS/LABA combinations reduced moderate-to-severe exacerbations as compared with placebo and LABA, but none of them reduced severe exacerbations. However, many studies excluded patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy. Moderate-dose ICS was as effective as high-dose ICS in reducing exacerbations when combined with LABA. ICS/LABA combinations had a class effect with regard to the prevention of COPD exacerbations. Moderate-dose ICS/LABA combination therapy would be sufficient for COPD patients when indicated. The efficacy of ICS/LABA combination therapy appeared modest and had no impact in reducing severe exacerbations. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of ICS/LABA combination therapy in severely affected COPD patients requiring long-term oxygen therapy.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 5.1 Section 5.1 Education Office of the Secretary...-10) Definitions § 5.1 Act. As used in this part, Act means section 552 of title 5, United States Code, as amended by Pub. L. 90-23, codifying the Act of July 4, 1966, sometimes referred to as the “Freedom...
The German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Radiation Protection Office) is assigned the competence to perform the necessary activities for measurement and large-area monitoring of ambient gamma dose rates on behalf of the Federal Government in compliance with the German Preventive Radiation Protection Act (StrSchVG). (orig./CB) [de
Cho, Seok Keun; Bae, Hansol; Ryu, Moonyoung
and PUB23, two U-box E3 ligase homologs, tether ubiquitins to 19S proteasome regulatory particle (RP) subunit RPN6, leading to its degradation. RPN6 was identified as an interacting substrate of PUB22 by yeast two-hybrid screening, and in vitro pull-down assay confirmed that RPN6 interacts not only......Drought stress strongly affects plant growth and development, directly connected with crop yields, accordingly. However, related to the function of U-BOX E3 ligases, the underlying molecular mechanisms of desiccation stress response in plants are still largely unknown. Here we report that PUB22...
... Transmission System. Hydro H-1 P-12107-005 Granite County, Montana. H-2 P-2496-222 Eugene Water and Electric... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sunshine Act Meeting Notice October 14... Sunshine Act (Pub. L. 94-409), 5 U.S.C. 552b: Agency Holding Meeting: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...
Baker, Hannah M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.
Introduction Retailer noncompliance with limited US tobacco regulations on advertising and labeling was historically patterned by neighborhood in ways that promote health disparities. In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began enforcing stronger tobacco retailer regulations under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. However, recent research has found no differences in compliance by neighborhood characteristics for FDA advertising and labeling inspections. We sought to investigate the neighborhood characteristics associated with retailer noncompliance with specific FDA advertising and labeling inspections (ie, violations of bans on self-service displays, selling single cigarettes, false or mislabeled products, vending machines, flavored cigarettes, and free samples). Methods We coded FDA advertising and labeling warning letters (n = 718) for type of violations and geocoded advertising and labeling inspections from January 1 through July 31, 2014 (N = 33,543). Using multilevel models, we examined cross-sectional associations between types of violations and neighborhood characteristics previously associated with disparities (ie, percentage black, Latino, under the poverty line, and younger than 18 years). Results Retailer advertising and labeling violations are patterned by who lives in the neighborhood; regulated tobacco products are more likely to be stored behind the counter as the percentage of black or Latino residents increases, and single cigarettes are more often available for purchase in neighborhoods as the percentage of black, poor, or young residents increases. Conclusion Contrary to previous null findings, noncompliance with FDA advertising and labeling regulations is patterned by neighborhood characteristics, sometimes in opposite directions. Given the low likelihood of self-service violations in the same neighborhoods that have high likelihood of single cigarette sales, we suggest targeted approaches to FDA
Comprehensive Smoking Prevention Education Act of 1981. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, on S. 1929 to Amend the Public Health Service Act and the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act to Increase the Availability to the Americna Public of Information on the Health Consequences of Smoking and Thereby Improve Informed Choice, and for Other Purposes.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
These proceedings detail the first of two hearings on the Comprehensive Smoking Prevention Education Act of 1981. This report of the first hearing focuses on health related issues. The report presents testimony from representatives of the administration, from a panel of scientists, and from representatives of the American Cancer Society, American…
Comprehensive Smoking Prevention Education Act of 1981. Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, on S. 1929 to Amend the Public Health Service Act and the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act to Increase the Availability to the American Public of Information on the Health Consequences of Smoking and Thereby Improve Informed Choice, and for Other Purposes.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.
This report of the second hearing on the Smoking Prevention Education Act focuses on advertising practices of the tobacco industry; the first hearing dealt with health related issues. The report includes testimony of three panels of witnesses who discussed the effectiveness of European programs in cigarette labeling and consumer education, the…
Shariff, Salimah Z; Bejaimal, Shayna Ad; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X
Physicians frequently search PubMed for information to guide patient care. More recently, Google Scholar has gained popularity as another freely accessible bibliographic database. To compare the performance of searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. We surveyed nephrologists (kidney specialists) and provided each with a unique clinical question derived from 100 renal therapy systematic reviews. Each physician provided the search terms they would type into a bibliographic database to locate evidence to answer the clinical question. We executed each of these searches in PubMed and Google Scholar and compared results for the first 40 records retrieved (equivalent to 2 default search pages in PubMed). We evaluated the recall (proportion of relevant articles found) and precision (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. We further documented whether relevant articles were available as free full-texts. Compared with PubMed, the average search in Google Scholar retrieved twice as many relevant articles (PubMed: 11%; Google Scholar: 22%; PGoogle Scholar: 8%; P=.07). Google Scholar provided significantly greater access to free full-text publications (PubMed: 5%; Google Scholar: 14%; PGoogle Scholar returns twice as many relevant articles as PubMed and provides greater access to free full-text articles.
Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi
The practice of evidence-based medicine requires efficient biomedical literature search such as PubMed/MEDLINE. Retrieval performance relies highly on the efficient use of search field tags. The purpose of this study was to analyze PubMed log data in order to understand the usage pattern of search tags by the end user in PubMed/MEDLINE search. A PubMed query log file was obtained from the National Library of Medicine containing anonymous user identification, timestamp, and query text. Inconsistent records were removed from the dataset and the search tags were extracted from the query texts. A total of 2,917,159 queries were selected for this study issued by a total of 613,061 users. The analysis of frequent co-occurrences and usage patterns of the search tags was conducted using an association mining algorithm. The percentage of search tag usage was low (11.38% of the total queries) and only 2.95% of queries contained two or more tags. Three out of four users used no search tag and about two-third of them issued less than four queries. Among the queries containing at least one tagged search term, the average number of search tags was almost half of the number of total search terms. Navigational search tags are more frequently used than informational search tags. While no strong association was observed between informational and navigational tags, six (out of 19) informational tags and six (out of 29) navigational tags showed strong associations in PubMed searches. The low percentage of search tag usage implies that PubMed/MEDLINE users do not utilize the features of PubMed/MEDLINE widely or they are not aware of such features or solely depend on the high recall focused query translation by the PubMed's Automatic Term Mapping. The users need further education and interactive search application for effective use of the search tags in order to fulfill their biomedical information needs from PubMed/MEDLINE.
Geum Hee Jeong
Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the bibliometric characteristics and content of medical articles from North Korea in PubMed and characterizing the patterns of international cooperation of medical researchers in North Korea. We hypothesized that the number of publications from North Korea in PubMed has increased recently as a result of active cooperation with foreign researchers. PubMed was searched on July 19, 2017 using the search term “(North Korea [Affiliation] OR Democratic People’s Republic of Korea [Affiliation] OR DPRK [Affiliation].” The content of medical articles was analyzed and cooperative work with foreign researchers was noted. The number of medical articles in PubMed through July 2017 was 16, of which 2 were by North Korean authors only. From the content of these articles, it was found that researchers in top-notch institutions, including Kim Il Sung University, can access the internet, and that a dental caries prevention program supported by Finland has been in place for more than 10 years. The number of publications from North Korea in PubMed has increased recently, although the amount is still very small. Providing internet access to North Korean researchers will accelerate their submissions to international journals.
Discussion Australian HI publications in PubMed increased consistently throughout the period 1970-2005, which is on a par with world trends in HI publications. In Australia, most HI publications are in general medical journals. Lack of consistency in author names and failure to include the country name and even the state are the main obstacles to PubMed bibliometric analysis.
Setty, V.J.; Kreitz, G; Urdaneta, G; Vitenberg, R; van Steen, M.R.
Publish/subscribe (pub/sub) is a popular communication paradigm in the design of large-scale distributed systems. A provider of a pub/sub service (whether centralized, peer-assisted, or based on a federated organization of cooperatively managed servers) commonly faces a fundamental challenge: given
Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Knudsen, Lisbeth E
to environmental pollutants. The search, done on the PubMed/MedLine database, was based on a strategy combining descriptors listed in the PubMed Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus and other available tools (free text or phrase search tools). 178 articles were retrieved by searching the period from January 1...
Leclercq, Edith; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.
To identify and validate PubMed search filters for retrieving studies including children and to develop a new pediatric search filter for PubMed. We developed 2 different datasets of studies to evaluate the performance of the identified pediatric search filters, expressed in terms of sensitivity,
Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; van Beek, Pieter; Bouwhuis, Maurice; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Polman, Jan; Alkema, Wynand
Medline is a rich information source, from which links between genes and keywords describing biological processes, pathways, drugs, pathologies and diseases can be extracted. We developed a publicly available tool called CoPub that uses the information in the Medline database for the biological interpretation of microarray data. CoPub allows batch input of multiple human, mouse or rat genes and produces lists of keywords from several biomedical thesauri that are significantly correlated with the set of input genes. These lists link to Medline abstracts in which the co-occurring input genes and correlated keywords are highlighted. Furthermore, CoPub can graphically visualize differentially expressed genes and over-represented keywords in a network, providing detailed insight in the relationships between genes and keywords, and revealing the most influential genes as highly connected hubs. CoPub is freely accessible at http://services.nbic.nl/cgi-bin/copub/CoPub.pl.
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to the...
... enrollment data, work history, educational history, affiliations, and other related data, dates of birth... information, station and career history, firearms qualifications, medical history, background investigation... Security Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-296); USA PATRIOT ACT of 2001 (Pub. L. 107-56); USA PATRIOT Improvement...
Shimada, Tatsuo; Takayama, Hisako; Nakamura, Yoshiki
To find current high-quality evidence for orthodontic practice within a reasonable time, we tested the performance of a PubMed search. PubMed was searched using publication type randomized controlled trial and medical subject heading term "orthodontics" for articles published between 2003 and 2007. The PubMed search results were compared with those from a hand search of four orthodontic journals to determine the sensitivity of PubMed search. We evaluated the precision of the PubMed search result and assessed the quality of individual randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. Sensitivity and precision were 97.46% and 58.12%, respectively. In PubMed, of the 277 articles retrieved, 161 (58.12%) were randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice, and 115 of the 161 articles (71.42%) were published in four orthodontic journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, The Angle Orthodontist, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Journal of Orthodontics. Assessment by the Jadad scale revealed 60 high-quality randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice, of which 45 (75%) were published in these four journals. PubMed is a highly desirable search engine for evidence-based orthodontic practice. To stay current and get high-quality evidence, it is reasonable to look through four orthodontic journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, The Angle Orthodontist, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Journal of Orthodontics.
Turner, Rose L; M Ketchum, Andrea; Ratajeski, Melissa A; Wessel, Charles B
This column describes the development of a one-shot PubMed instruction class for medical students at a health sciences library. Background information on the objective is presented and discussed in the context of educational practice literature. The new course design centers on a guided group method of instruction in order to integrate more active learning. Surveyed students reported that the method was an effective way to learn how to search PubMed and that they preferred it to a traditional lecture. Pros and cons of the method are offered for other health sciences libraries interested in presenting PubMed instruction in a similar manner.
Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.
Rink, M; Kluth, L A; Shariat, S F; Chun, F K; Fisch, M; Dahm, P
Applying evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice is the basis of patient-centered medicine and knowledge of accurate literature acquisition skills is necessary for informed clinical decision-making. PubMed is an easy accessible, free bibliographic database comprising over 21 million citations from the medical field, life-science journals and online books. The article summarizes the effective use of PubMed in routine urological clinical practice based on a common case scenario. This article explains the simple use of PubMed to obtain the best search results with the highest evidence. Accurate knowledge about the use of PubMed in routine clinical practice can improve evidence-based medicine and also patient treatment.
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Keywords: teenage pregnancy, social support, pre-natal clinic visits, pregnancy outcomes. INTRODUCTION .... In this sense, social support has meliorating influence on the ..... graphic Change, Mexico, 25-28 October,. 1994. Oppong, C.
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EPA and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) share responsibility for prevention: OSHA has the Process Safety Management Standard to protect workers, and EPA the Risk Management Program to protect the general public and environment.
Döring, Kersten; Grüning, Björn A; Telukunta, Kiran K; Thomas, Philippe; Günther, Stefan
Information extraction from biomedical literature is continuously growing in scope and importance. Many tools exist that perform named entity recognition, e.g. of proteins, chemical compounds, and diseases. Furthermore, several approaches deal with the extraction of relations between identified entities. The BioCreative community supports these developments with yearly open challenges, which led to a standardised XML text annotation format called BioC. PubMed provides access to the largest open biomedical literature repository, but there is no unified way of connecting its data to natural language processing tools. Therefore, an appropriate data environment is needed as a basis to combine different software solutions and to develop customised text mining applications. PubMedPortable builds a relational database and a full text index on PubMed citations. It can be applied either to the complete PubMed data set or an arbitrary subset of downloaded PubMed XML files. The software provides the infrastructure to combine stand-alone applications by exporting different data formats, e.g. BioC. The presented workflows show how to use PubMedPortable to retrieve, store, and analyse a disease-specific data set. The provided use cases are well documented in the PubMedPortable wiki. The open-source software library is small, easy to use, and scalable to the user's system requirements. It is freely available for Linux on the web at https://github.com/KerstenDoering/PubMedPortable and for other operating systems as a virtual container. The approach was tested extensively and applied successfully in several projects.
Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano
Objectives: Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. Methods: We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to...
Evdokimov, Pavel; Kudryavtsev, Alexey; Ilgisonis, Ekaterina; Ponomarenko, Elena; Lisitsa, Andrey
Background Keeping up with journal articles on a daily basis is an important activity of scientists engaged in biomedical research. Usually, journal articles and papers in the field of biomedicine are accessed through the Medline/PubMed electronic library. In the process of navigating PubMed, researchers unknowingly generate user-specific reading profiles that can be shared within a social networking environment. This paper examines the structure of the social networking environment generated...
Evdokimov, Pavel; Kudryavtsev, Alexey; Ilgisonis, Ekaterina; Ponomarenko, Elena; Lisitsa, Andrey
Keeping up with journal articles on a daily basis is an important activity of scientists engaged in biomedical research. Usually, journal articles and papers in the field of biomedicine are accessed through the Medline/PubMed electronic library. In the process of navigating PubMed, researchers unknowingly generate user-specific reading profiles that can be shared within a social networking environment. This paper examines the structure of the social networking environment generated by PubMed users. A web browser plugin was developed to map [in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms] the reading patterns of individual PubMed users. We developed a scientific social network based on the personal research profiles of readers of biomedical articles. A browser plugin is used to record the digital object identifier or PubMed ID of web pages. Recorded items are posted on the activity feed and automatically mapped to PubMed abstract. Within the activity feed a user can trace back previously browsed articles and insert comments. By calculating the frequency with which specific MeSH occur, the research interests of PubMed users can be visually represented with a tag cloud. Finally, research profiles can be searched for matches between network users. A social networking environment was created using MeSH terms to map articles accessed through the Medline/PubMed online library system. In-network social communication is supported by the recommendation of articles and by matching users with similar scientific interests. The system is available at http://bioknol.org/en/.
Mendis, Kumara; Bailey, Jannine; McLean, Rick
To assess Australian health and medical research (HMR) investment returns by measuring the trends in HMR expenditure and PubMed publications by Australian authors. Bibliometric analysis collating Australian HMR expenditure reported by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian HMR publications indexed in PubMed. Similar methods were applied to data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand. From financial year 2000/01 through 2011/12, HMR investment increased by 232% from $1.49 to $4.94 billion (current prices adjusted for inflation), while PubMed publications increased by 123% from 10,696 to 23,818. The average HMR investment required for a single PubMed publication rose by 49% from $139,304 in 2000/01 to $207,364 in 2011/12. Quality analyses showed an increase in systematic reviews, cohort studies and clinical trials, and a decrease in publications in PubMed's core clinical journal collection. Comparisons with New Zealand and the United Kingdom showed that Australia has had the greatest overall percentage increase in gross publication numbers and publications per capita. Our analyses confirm that increased HMR expenditure is associated with an increase in HMR publications in PubMed. Tracking HMR investment outcomes using this method could be useful for future policy and funding decisions at a federal and specific institution level. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Zheng, Hai-Tao; Borchert, Charles; Kim, Hong-Gee
Concurrent with progress in biomedical sciences, an overwhelming of textual knowledge is accumulating in the biomedical literature. PubMed is the most comprehensive database collecting and managing biomedical literature. To help researchers easily understand collections of PubMed abstracts, numerous clustering methods have been proposed to group similar abstracts based on their shared features. However, most of these methods do not explore the semantic relationships among groupings of documents, which could help better illuminate the groupings of PubMed abstracts. To address this issue, we proposed an ontological clustering method called GOClonto for conceptualizing PubMed abstracts. GOClonto uses latent semantic analysis (LSA) and gene ontology (GO) to identify key gene-related concepts and their relationships as well as allocate PubMed abstracts based on these key gene-related concepts. Based on two PubMed abstract collections, the experimental results show that GOClonto is able to identify key gene-related concepts and outperforms the STC (suffix tree clustering) algorithm, the Lingo algorithm, the Fuzzy Ants algorithm, and the clustering based TRS (tolerance rough set) algorithm. Moreover, the two ontologies generated by GOClonto show significant informative conceptual structures.
Somayyeh Nadi Ravandi
Full Text Available MEDLINE is one of the valuable sources of medical information on the Internet. Among the different open access sites of MEDLINE, PubMed is the best-known site. In 2010, iPubMed was established with an interaction-fuzzy search method for MEDLINE access. In the present work, we aimed to compare the precision of the retrieved sources (Best, Useful and Objective precision in the PubMed and iPubMed using two search methods (simple and MeSH search in PubMed and interaction-fuzzy method in iPubmed. During our semi-empirical study period, we held training workshops for 61 students of higher education to teach them Simple Search, MeSH Search, and Fuzzy-Interaction Search methods. Then, the precision of 305 searches for each method prepared by the students was calculated on the basis of Best precision, Useful precision, and Objective precision formulas. Analyses were done in SPSS version 11.5 using the Friedman and Wilcoxon Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the three search methods. The mean precision of the interaction-fuzzy Search method was higher than that of the simple search and MeSH search for all three types of precision, i.e., Best precision, Useful precision, and Objective precision, and the Simple search method was in the next rank, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P < 0.001. The precision of the interaction-fuzzy search method in iPubmed was investigated for the first time. Also for the first time, three types of precision were evaluated in PubMed and iPubmed. The results showed that the Interaction-Fuzzy search method is more precise than using the natural language search (simple search and MeSH search, and users of this method found papers that were more related to their queries; even though search in Pubmed is useful, it is important that users apply new search methods to obtain the best results.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8% and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0. We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit, indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a
Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J
Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a web-based prototype
... operator for access to these trails. A $60 annual pass will also be available for purchase by the public... recreational experience at the facility. Comparable recreational use fees are being proposed at other sites...
... soil fauna within the McMurdo Dry Valleys and their influence on the ecosystem function, and to... USA. The applicant plans to enter the Canada Glacier area (ASPA 131) to collect a number of soil and... barren dry soils, moist to wet soils, and soils and sediment associated with mosses, lichens and algal...
... than 12 months due to an emergency, as specified by Sec. 671.17. SUMMARY: The Program of Environment... in the form of batteries and contaminated snow from small glycol and oil spills has been stored at... waste was packaged into 42 sealed containers, with lithium and lead acid batteries filling 21 of the...
... escort is cognizant of--and will follow the requirements contained in--the ASPA management plans and the...'' documentary procedures with regard to the natural environment as well as to adhere to all USAP operations and...
... (ASMA 7). All materials collected would be salvaged; the applicant would not interact with live animals... birds and mammals. Location ASPA 149 Cape Shireff and ASMA 7 Southwest Anvers Island (Palmer Station...
... certain other assistance programs in a period of economic downturn. The increased FMAP rates apply during... and certain other assistance programs in a period of economic downturn, referred to as the ``recession...
... certain other assistance programs in a period of economic downturn. The increased FMAP rates apply during... and certain other assistance programs in a period of economic downturn, referred to as the ``recession...
... certain other assistance programs in a period of economic downturn. The increased FMAP rates apply during... assistance programs in a period of economic downturn, referred to as the ``recession adjustment period.'' The...
.... Applicant: Ron Naveen, Oceanites, Inc., P.O. Box 15259, Chevy Chase, MD 20825. Activity for Which Permit Is...-Rothera Point, ASPA 132-Potter Peninsula, ASPA 133-Harmony Point, ASPA 134-Cierva Point, ASPA 139-Biscoe... Admiralty Bay, ASPA 129-Rothera Point, ASPA 132-Potter Peninsula, ASPA 133-Harmony Point, ASPA 134-Cierva...
..., regulated medical waste, non-controlled medicines, laboratory chemical waste, contaminated laboratory... provision for hazardous waste stored in Antarctica at South Pole Station for more than 15 months due to an... equipment and facilities of high value, or the protection of the environment caused hazardous waste to be...
... photographs for (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) STEM educational purposes. The gathered..., engineering or mathematics aspects of the historic Antarctic expeditions. The lesson plans would be... 30, 2013 to January 31, 2014. Nadene G. Kennedy, Polar Coordination Specialist, Division of Polar...
.... Applicant: Stevem D. Emslie, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina... Point, Anvers Island, Palmer Archipelago, ASPA 143-Marine Plain, Mule Peninsula, Vestfold Hills, ASPA...
... Requested Waste Permit; The Earth Vision Trust proposes to install a maximum of 10 cameras distributed between 5 sites that are often visited by tourists. No more than 2 cameras would be installed at any one... 6-8 rock bolts drilled into rock outcrops. Each camera would be powered by a 10w solar panel and a...
... station. The new AWS will be installed on a tripod support and will include standard meteorological instrumentation (wind, pressure, solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity). Location: Cape Hallett--ASPA...
... Region Recreation RAC, 1323 Club Drive, Vallejo, CA 94592, 707-562-8856 or [email protected] . FOR... Recreation RAC, 1323 Club Drive, Vallejo, CA 94592. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The meeting is open to the...
... used to monitor the colonies as part of the long term ecological study, the Antarctic Site Inventory... Antarctic. Location Bailey Head, Barrientos Island, Booth Island, Brown Bluff, Cuvervile Island Damoy Point, Danco Island, Georges Point, Jougla Point, Moot Point, Neko Harbor, Petermann Island, Pleneau [[Page...
.... Applicant: Sam Feola, Director, Raytheon Polar Services Company, 7400 South Tucson Way, Centennial, CO 80112..., Raytheon Polar Services Company, 7400 South Tucson Way, Centennial, CO 80112. Activity for Which Permit is... Way, Centennial, CO 80112. Activity for Which Permit is Requested: Enter Antarctic Specially Protected...
...) Conduct regular consultations with Mexican human rights organizations and other relevant Mexican civil... with Mexican and international law; (C) Ensure that civilian prosecutors and judicial authorities are investigating and prosecuting, in accordance with Mexican and international law, members of the Federal police...
... activities in Antarctica and designation of certain animals and certain geographic areas a requiring special... Weddell seals, a prominent Antarctic apex predator associated with fast ice, has been intensively studied..., then released. In addition, the applicant plans to salvage parts of dead animals encountered and remove...
... activities in Antarctica and designation of certain animals and certain geographic areas a requiring special... this apex predator that might be indicative of ecosystem change. Location Cape Evans (ASPA 155...
... activities in Antarctica and designation of certain animals and certain geographic areas requiring special.... Such data may provide evidence of a potential shift in the diet of this apex predator that might be...
... services provided, cost of operation and maintenance, market assessment, and public comment. Funds from... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ann King, Public Service Group Leader, 435-636-3535. Information about the proposed fees...
... of amenities and services provided, cost of operation and maintenance, and market comparison. Funds... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ann King, Public Service Group Leader, 435-636-3535 or email at [email protected
... certain animals and certain geographic areas a requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas. Application Details 1. Applicant... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic...
... certain animals and certain geographic areas a requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas. Application Details 1. Applicant... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic...
... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... facilities that may be present, verify that the reasons for special protection remain valid, verify that the... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic...
.... Applicant: Steven D. Emslie, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina... bone concentrations, rich vegetation). These sites will be sampled by placing a test pit, no more than...
Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Lazarus, Jeffrey V
of HCV among PWID. The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney and the International Network on Hepatitis in Substance Users (INHSU) established an expert round table panel to assess current research gaps and establish future research priorities for the prevention and management of HCV among PWID. This round table......, gaps in research, and develop research priorities. Topics for discussion included the epidemiology of injecting drug use, HCV, and HIV among PWID, HCV prevention, HCV testing, linkage to HCV care and treatment, DAA treatment for HCV infection, and reinfection following successful treatment. This paper...
Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John
PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users' search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments.
McGowan, Ian; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Siegel, Aaron; Engstrom, Jarret; Nikiforov, Alexiy; Duffill, Kathryn; Shetler, Cory; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Abebe, Kaleab; Back, David; Else, Laura; Egan, Deidre; Khoo, Saye; Egan, James E; Stall, Ronald; Williams, Peter E; Rehman, Khaleel K; Adler, Amy; Brand, Rhonda M; Chen, Beatrice; Achilles, Sharon; Cranston, Ross D
Long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents are being developed for HIV-1 prevention. The MWRI-01 study was done to characterise the safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of long-acting rilpivirine. We did a phase 1 open-label study at the University of Pittsburgh. We enrolled healthy individuals (aged 18-45 years) who were seronegative for HIV-1. Participants were assigned alternately one intramuscular dose of either 1200 mg or 600 mg long-acting rilpivirine, beginning with the 1200 mg dose. We obtained plasma specimens, genital and rectal fluids, and tissue samples (rectal, cervical, and vaginal) before and after exposure to long-acting rilpivirine for assessment of pharmacokinetics and ex-vivo biopsy challenge with HIV-1. Our primary objective was to characterise product safety, and the analysis included all enrolled participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01656018. 36 participants were enrolled into the study, of whom 24 were women and 12 men. 12 women and six men received each dose. 204 adverse events were reported among the 36 participants, of which 200 (98%) were grade 1-2. The most common adverse event was injection site reaction. All grade 3 and 4 adverse events were deemed not related to rilpivirine. Geometric mean (90% CI) concentrations in plasma of rilpivirine at day 28 post dose were 53 ng/mL (38-67) in women and 43 ng/mL (23-63) in men for the 1200 mg dose and 28 ng/mL (19-37) in women and 17 ng/mL (9-24) in men for the 600 mg dose. The tissue-to-plasma ratio for rilpivirine in rectal tissue was about two-fold higher than in vaginal and cervical tissue (1·10-1·53 vs 0·61-0·72 and 0·50-0·71, respectively). Exposure to long-acting rilpivirine suppressed viral replication significantly in rectal tissue (psuppression persisted for up to 4 months. By contrast, no viral suppression was seen in cervical or vaginal tissue. Ongoing research will characterise longer term safety and
Revell, Lynn; Bryan, Hazel
In requiring that teachers should "not undermine fundamental British values (FBV)," a phrase originally articulated in the Home Office counter-terrorism document, Prevent, the Teachers' Standards has brought into focus the nature of teacher professionalism. Teachers in England are now required to promote FBV within and outside school,…
Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.
This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…
Samuel, Marcus A.; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Salt, Jennifer N.; Delmas, Frédéric; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Chilelli, Andrea; Goring, Daphne R.
The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encompasses multiple receptor kinase families with highly variable extracellular domains. Despite their large numbers, the various ligands and the downstream interacting partners for these kinases have been deciphered only for a few members. One such member, the S-receptor kinase, is known to mediate the self-incompatibility (SI) response in Brassica. S-receptor kinase has been shown to interact and phosphorylate a U-box/ARM-repeat-containing E3 ligase, ARC1, which, in turn, acts as a positive regulator of the SI response. In an effort to identify conserved signaling pathways in Arabidopsis, we performed yeast two-hybrid analyses of various S-domain receptor kinase family members with representative Arabidopsis plant U-box/ARM-repeat (AtPUB-ARM) E3 ligases. The kinase domains from S-domain receptor kinases were found to interact with ARM-repeat domains from AtPUB-ARM proteins. These kinase domains, along with M-locus protein kinase, a positive regulator of SI response, were also able to phosphorylate the ARM-repeat domains in in vitro phosphorylation assays. Subcellular localization patterns were investigated using transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and changes were detected in the presence of interacting kinases. Finally, potential links to the involvement of these interacting modules to the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. Interestingly, AtPUB9 displayed redistribution to the plasma membrane of BY-2 cells when either treated with ABA or coexpressed with the active kinase domain of ARK1. As well, T-DNA insertion mutants for ARK1 and AtPUB9 lines were altered in their ABA sensitivity during germination and acted at or upstream of ABI3, indicating potential involvement of these proteins in ABA responses. PMID:18552232
Samuel, Marcus A; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Salt, Jennifer N; Delmas, Frédéric; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Chilelli, Andrea; Goring, Daphne R
The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encompasses multiple receptor kinase families with highly variable extracellular domains. Despite their large numbers, the various ligands and the downstream interacting partners for these kinases have been deciphered only for a few members. One such member, the S-receptor kinase, is known to mediate the self-incompatibility (SI) response in Brassica. S-receptor kinase has been shown to interact and phosphorylate a U-box/ARM-repeat-containing E3 ligase, ARC1, which, in turn, acts as a positive regulator of the SI response. In an effort to identify conserved signaling pathways in Arabidopsis, we performed yeast two-hybrid analyses of various S-domain receptor kinase family members with representative Arabidopsis plant U-box/ARM-repeat (AtPUB-ARM) E3 ligases. The kinase domains from S-domain receptor kinases were found to interact with ARM-repeat domains from AtPUB-ARM proteins. These kinase domains, along with M-locus protein kinase, a positive regulator of SI response, were also able to phosphorylate the ARM-repeat domains in in vitro phosphorylation assays. Subcellular localization patterns were investigated using transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and changes were detected in the presence of interacting kinases. Finally, potential links to the involvement of these interacting modules to the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. Interestingly, AtPUB9 displayed redistribution to the plasma membrane of BY-2 cells when either treated with ABA or coexpressed with the active kinase domain of ARK1. As well, T-DNA insertion mutants for ARK1 and AtPUB9 lines were altered in their ABA sensitivity during germination and acted at or upstream of ABI3, indicating potential involvement of these proteins in ABA responses.
Anekalla, Kishore R; Courneya, J P; Fiorini, Nicolas; Lever, Jake; Muchow, Michael; Busby, Ben
Biomedical text mining promises to assist biologists in quickly navigating the combined knowledge in their domain. This would allow improved understanding of the complex interactions within biological systems and faster hypothesis generation. New biomedical research articles are published daily and text mining tools are only as good as the corpus from which they work. Many text mining tools are underused because their results are static and do not reflect the constantly expanding knowledge in the field. In order for biomedical text mining to become an indispensable tool used by researchers, this problem must be addressed. To this end, we present PubRunner, a framework for regularly running text mining tools on the latest publications. PubRunner is lightweight, simple to use, and can be integrated with an existing text mining tool. The workflow involves downloading the latest abstracts from PubMed, executing a user-defined tool, pushing the resulting data to a public FTP or Zenodo dataset, and publicizing the location of these results on the public PubRunner website. We illustrate the use of this tool by re-running the commonly used word2vec tool on the latest PubMed abstracts to generate up-to-date word vector representations for the biomedical domain. This shows a proof of concept that we hope will encourage text mining developers to build tools that truly will aid biologists in exploring the latest publications.
Kim, Sun; Yeganova, Lana; Comeau, Donald C.; Wilbur, W. John; Lu, Zhiyong
In biomedicine, key concepts are often expressed by multiple words (e.g., ‘zinc finger protein’). Previous work has shown treating a sequence of words as a meaningful unit, where applicable, is not only important for human understanding but also beneficial for automatic information seeking. Here we present a collection of PubMed® Phrases that are beneficial for information retrieval and human comprehension. We define these phrases as coherent chunks that are logically connected. To collect the phrase set, we apply the hypergeometric test to detect segments of consecutive terms that are likely to appear together in PubMed. These text segments are then filtered using the BM25 ranking function to ensure that they are beneficial from an information retrieval perspective. Thus, we obtain a set of 705,915 PubMed Phrases. We evaluate the quality of the set by investigating PubMed user click data and manually annotating a sample of 500 randomly selected noun phrases. We also analyze and discuss the usage of these PubMed Phrases in literature search. PMID:29893755
Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian
Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET.Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Melberg, Hans Olav; Lund, Karl E
In the debate about laws regulating smoking in restaurants and pubs, there has been some controversy as to whether smoke-free laws would reduce revenues in the hospitality industry. Norway presents an interesting case for three reasons. First, it was among the first countries to implement smoke-free laws, so it is possible to assess the long-term effects. Second, it has a cold climate so if there is a negative effect on revenue one would expect to find it in Norway. Third, the data from Norway are detailed enough to distinguish between revenue from pubs and restaurants. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention analysis of bi-monthly observations of revenues in restaurants and pubs show that the law did not have a statistically significant long-term effect on revenue in restaurants or on restaurant revenue as a share of personal consumption. Similar analysis for pubs shows that there was no significant long-run effect on pub revenue.
...: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching...: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law (Pub. L.) 100-503...), as amended, (Pub. L. 100-503, the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act (CMPPA) of 1988), the...
Tran, Nam; Alves, Pedro; Ma, Shuangge
PubMed related article links identify closely related articles and enhance our ability to navigate the biomedical literature. They are derived by calculating the word similarity between two articles, relating articles with overlapping word content. In this paper, we propose to enrich PubMed with a new type of related article link based on citations within a single sentence (i.e. sentence level co-citations or SLCs). Using different similarity metrics, we demonstrated that articles linked by SLCs are highly related. We also showed that only half of SLCs are found among PubMed related article links. Additionally, we discuss how the citing sentence of an SLC explains the connection between two articles. PMID:20351935
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal fusion surgery is currently recommended when curve magnitude exceeds 40–45 degrees. Early attempts at spinal fusion surgery which were aimed to leave the patients with a mild residual deformity, failed to meet such expectations. These aims have since been revised to the more modest goals of preventing progression, restoring 'acceptability' of the clinical deformity and reducing curvature. In view of the fact that there is no evidence that health related signs and symptoms of scoliosis can be altered by spinal fusion in the long-term, a clear medical indication for this treatment cannot be derived. Knowledge concerning the rate of complications of scoliosis surgery may enable us to establish a cost/benefit relation of this intervention and to improve the standard of the information and advice given to patients. It is also hoped that this study will help to answer questions in relation to the limiting choice between the risks of surgery and the "wait and see – observation only until surgery might be recommended", strategy widely used. The purpose of this review is to present the actual data available on the rate of complications in scoliosis surgery. Materials and methods Search strategy for identification of studies; Pub Med and the SOSORT scoliosis library, limited to English language and bibliographies of all reviewed articles. The search strategy included the terms; 'scoliosis'; 'rate of complications'; 'spine surgery'; 'scoliosis surgery'; 'spondylodesis'; 'spinal instrumentation' and 'spine fusion'. Results The electronic search carried out on the 1st February 2008 with the key words "scoliosis", "surgery", "complications" revealed 2590 titles, which not necessarily attributed to our quest for the term "rate of complications". 287 titles were found when the term "rate of complications" was used as a key word. Rates of complication varied between 0 and 89% depending on the aetiology of the entity investigated
Syftet med detta examensarbete är att skapa en franchisehandbok för franchiserestaurangen Pub Niska. En franchisehandbok innehåller mer detaljerad information om ett företag, dess riktlinjer och vardagliga rutiner. En franchisehandboks viktigaste uppgift är att säkra kvaliteten i ett koncept. Franchisehandboken för Pub Niska innehåller information om företaget i allmänhet och beskriver hur företaget är uppbyggt samt presenterar riktlinjer för marknadsföring, inredning och ekonomi. Dessuto...
Jessen, Walter; Landschulz, Katherine; Turi, Thomas; Reams, Rachel
Biomedical knowledge is growing exponentially; however, meta-knowledge around the data is often lacking. PubMed is a database comprising more than 21 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE and additional life science journals dating back to the 1950s. To explore the use and frequency of biomarkers across human disease, we mined PubMed for biomarker-disease associations. We then ranked the top 100 linked diseases by relevance and mapped them to medical subject headings (MeSH)...
The immediate eff ect of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement on HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men in Nigeria: analysis of prospective data from the TRUST cohort.
Schwartz, Sheree R; Nowak, Rebecca G; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Keshinro, Babajide; Ake, Julie; Kennedy, Sara; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Baral, Stefan D
In January, 2014, the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law in Nigeria, further criminalising same-sex sexual relationships. We aimed to assess the immediate effect of this prohibition act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement in HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. The TRUST cohort study uses respondent-driven sampling to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of engagement of MSM in HIV prevention and treatment services at a clinical site located with a community-based organisation trusted by the MSM community. TRUST is a prospective implementation research cohort of MSM (≥16 years) in Abuja, Nigeria. We compared HIV clinical outcomes and stigma, including fear and avoidance of health care, across baseline and quarterly visits before and after implementation of the the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act. Outcomes assessed were measures of stigma and discrimination, loss to follow-up, antiretroviral therapy status, and viral load. We compared outcomes before and after the legislation with χ2 statistics, and estimated incident stigma-related events and loss to follow-up with Poisson regression. Between March 19, 2013, and Aug 7, 2014, 707 MSM participated in baseline study procedures, contributing to 756 before legislation (prelaw) and 420 after legislation (postlaw) visits. Reported history of fear of seeking health care was significantly higher in postlaw visits than in prelaw visits (n=161 [38%] vs n=187 [25%]; psex practices. The negative effects of HIV treatment and care in MSM reinforce the unintended consequences of such legislation on global goals of HIV eradication. Strategies to reach MSM less likely to engage in HIV testing and care in highly stigmatised environments are needed to reduce time to HIV diagnosis and treatment. National Institutes of Health.
... entitled ``Treasury/IRS 42.888--Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project Records.'' DATES: Comments must be... with the Department of Health and Human Services, the Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Program pursuant... and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-152) (Affordable Care Act). The qualifying...
... Security Administration. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, Public Law 100-503, the Computer Matching and Privacy Protections Amendments of 1990, Pub. L. 101-508... Interpreting the Provisions of Public Law 100-503, the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DHS-2013-0011] Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and... amended by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503) and the Computer...
Bruguera, M; Arimany, J; Bruguera, R; Barberia, E; Ferrer, F; Sala, J; Pujol Robinat, A; Medallo Muñiz, J
Claims due to presumed medical malpractice are increasing in all developed countries and many of them have no basis. To prevent legal complaints, the physicians should know the reasons why complaints are made by their patients and adopt the adequate preventive measures. In the case of a complaint, it is essential to follow the guidelines that allow for adequate legal defense and the action of the physician before the judge that inspires confidence and credibility. The risk of the claims can be reduced with adequate information to the patient, the following of the clinical guidelines, control of the risk factors and adoption of verification lists in each invasive procedure. In case of complication or serious adverse effect, explanations should be given to the patient and family and it should be reported to the facility where one works and to the insurance company. If the physician received a claim, he/she should report it to the insurance compare so that it can name a lawyer responsible for the legal defense who will advise the physician regarding the appearance in court before the judge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....
Falagas, Matthew E; Pitsouni, Eleni I; Malietzis, George A; Pappas, Georgios
The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous medical databases on the World Wide Web, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. We compared the content coverage and practical utility of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The official Web pages of the databases were used to extract information on the range of journals covered, search facilities and restrictions, and update frequency. We used the example of a keyword search to evaluate the usefulness of these databases in biomedical information retrieval and a specific published article to evaluate their utility in performing citation analysis. All databases were practical in use and offered numerous search facilities. PubMed and Google Scholar are accessed for free. The keyword search with PubMed offers optimal update frequency and includes online early articles; other databases can rate articles by number of citations, as an index of importance. For citation analysis, Scopus offers about 20% more coverage than Web of Science, whereas Google Scholar offers results of inconsistent accuracy. PubMed remains an optimal tool in biomedical electronic research. Scopus covers a wider journal range, of help both in keyword searching and citation analysis, but it is currently limited to recent articles (published after 1995) compared with Web of Science. Google Scholar, as for the Web in general, can help in the retrieval of even the most obscure information but its use is marred by inadequate, less often updated, citation information.
Odete Máyra Mesquita Sales
Full Text Available Objective. Based on principles proposed by Rosenfeld and Morville (2006, the present study examined the PubMed database interface, since a well-structured information architecture contributes to good usability in any digital environment. Method. The research development occurred through the use of literature techniques and empirical study on the analysis of information architecture based on organization, navigation, recommended labeling and search for Rosenfeld and Morville (2006 for the sake of usability base PubMed. For better understanding and description of these principles, we used the technique of content analysis. Results. The results showed that the database interface meets the criteria established by the elements of Information Architecture, such as organization based on hypertext structure, horizontal menu and local content divided into categories, identifying active links, global navigation , breadcrumb, textual labeling and iconographic and highlight the search engine. Conclusions. This research showed that the PubMed database interface is well structured, friendly and objective, with numerous possibilities of search and information retrieval. However, there is a need to adopt accessibility standards on this website, so that it reaches more efficiently its purpose of facilitating access to information organized and stored in the PubMed database.
Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse
PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.
Joshi, Ashish; Preslan, Elicia
The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors for bladder cancer using PubMed articles from January 2000 to December 2009. The study also aimed to describe the challenges encountered in the methodology of a literature search for bladder cancer risk factors using PubMed. Twenty-six categories of risk factors for bladder cancer were identified using the National Cancer Institute Web site and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Web site. A total of 1,338 PubMed searches were run using the term "urinary bladder cancer" and a risk factor term (e.g., "cigarette smoking") and were screened to identify 260 articles for final analysis. The search strategy had an overall precision of 3.42 percent, relative recall of 12.64 percent, and an F-measure of 5.39 percent. Although search terms derived from MeSH had the highest overall precision and recall, the differences did not reach significance, which indicates that for generalized, free-text searches of the PubMed database, the searchers' own terms are generally as effective as MeSH terms.
This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)
Xie, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Jian-Zhong
PubChem is a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiatives. It is a compound repository created to facilitate information exchange and data sharing among the NIH Roadmap-funded Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN) and the scientific community. However, PubChem has more than 10 million records of compound information. It will be challenging to conduct a drug screening of the whole database of millions of compounds. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a data mining cheminformatics approach in order to construct a representative and structure-diverse sublibrary from the large PubChem database. In this study, a new chemical diverse representative subset, rePubChem, was selected by whole-molecule chemistry-space matrix calculation using the cell-based partition algorithm. The representative subset was generated and was then subjected to evaluations by compound property analyses based on 1D and 2D molecular descriptors. The new subset was also examined and assessed for self-similarity analysis based on 2D molecular fingerprints in comparing with the source compound library. The new subset has a much smaller library size (540K compounds) with minimum similarity and redundancy without loss of the structural diversity and basic molecular properties of its parent library (5.3 million compounds). The new representative subset library generated could be a valuable structure-diverse compound resource for in silico virtual screening and in vitro HTS drug screening. In addition, the established subset generation method of using the combined cell-based chemistry-space partition metrics with pairwised 2D fingerprint-based similarity search approaches will also be important to a broad scientific community interested in acquiring structurally diverse compounds for efficient drug screening, building representative virtual combinatorial chemistry libraries for syntheses, and data mining large compound databases like the PubChem library in general.
Azim Majumder, Md Anwarul; Shaban, Sami F; Rahman, Sayeeda; Rahman, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Moslehuddin; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Islam, Ziauddin
To conduct a geographical analysis of biomedical publications from the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries over the past 25 years (1985-2009) using the PubMed database. A qualitative study. Web-based search during September 2010. A data extraction program, developed by one of the authors (SFS), was used to extract the raw publication counts from the downloaded PubMed data. A search of PubMed was performed for all journals indexed by selecting the advanced search option and entering the country name in the 'affiliation' field. The publications were normalized by total population, adult illiteracy rate, gross domestic product (GDP), secondary school enrollment ratio and Internet usage rate. The number of PubMed-listed papers published by the SAARC countries over the last 25 years totalled 141,783, which is 1.1% of the total papers indexed by PubMed in the same period. India alone produced 90.5% of total publications generated by SAARC countries. The average number of papers published per year from 1985 to 2009 was 5671 and number of publication increased approximately 242-fold. Normalizing by the population (per million) and GDP (per billion), India (133, 27.6%) and Nepal (323, 37.3%) had the highest publications respectively. There was a marked imbalance among the SAARC countries in terms of biomedical research and publication. Because of huge population and the high disease burden, biomedical research and publication output should receive special attention to formulate health policies, re-orient medical education curricula, and alleviate diseases and poverty.
Leclercq, Edith; Leeflang, Mariska M G; van Dalen, Elvira C; Kremer, Leontien C M
To identify and validate PubMed search filters for retrieving studies including children and to develop a new pediatric search filter for PubMed. We developed 2 different datasets of studies to evaluate the performance of the identified pediatric search filters, expressed in terms of sensitivity, precision, specificity, accuracy, and number needed to read (NNR). An optimal search filter will have a high sensitivity and high precision with a low NNR. In addition to the PubMed Limits: All Child: 0-18 years filter (in May 2012 renamed to PubMed Filter Child: 0-18 years), 6 search filters for identifying studies including children were identified: 3 developed by Kastner et al, 1 developed by BestBets, one by the Child Health Field, and 1 by the Cochrane Childhood Cancer Group. Three search filters (Cochrane Childhood Cancer Group, Child Health Field, and BestBets) had the highest sensitivity (99.3%, 99.5%, and 99.3%, respectively) but a lower precision (64.5%, 68.4%, and 66.6% respectively) compared with the other search filters. Two Kastner search filters had a high precision (93.0% and 93.7%, respectively) but a low sensitivity (58.5% and 44.8%, respectively). They failed to identify many pediatric studies in our datasets. The search terms responsible for false-positive results in the reference dataset were determined. With these data, we developed a new search filter for identifying studies with children in PubMed with an optimal sensitivity (99.5%) and precision (69.0%). Search filters to identify studies including children either have a low sensitivity or a low precision with a high NNR. A new pediatric search filter with a high sensitivity and a low NNR has been developed. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Shariff, Salimah Z; Sontrop, Jessica M; Haynes, R Brian; Iansavichus, Arthur V; McKibbon, K Ann; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Weir, Matthew A; Speechley, Mark R; Thind, Amardeep; Garg, Amit X
Physicians face challenges when searching PubMed for research evidence, and they may miss relevant articles while retrieving too many nonrelevant articles. We investigated whether the use of search filters in PubMed improves searching by physicians. We asked a random sample of Canadian nephrologists to answer unique clinical questions derived from 100 systematic reviews of renal therapy. Physicians provided the search terms that they would type into PubMed to locate articles to answer these questions. We entered the physician-provided search terms into PubMed and applied two types of search filters alone or in combination: a methods-based filter designed to identify high-quality studies about treatment (clinical queries "therapy") and a topic-based filter designed to identify studies with renal content. We evaluated the comprehensiveness (proportion of relevant articles found) and efficiency (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the filtered and nonfiltered searches. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. The average physician-provided search terms retrieved 46% of the relevant articles, while 6% of the retrieved articles were relevant (corrected) (the ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles was 1:16). The use of both filters together produced a marked improvement in efficiency, resulting in a ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles of 1:5 (16 percentage point improvement; 99% confidence interval 9% to 22%; p PubMed search filters improves the efficiency of physician searches. Improved search performance may enhance the transfer of research into practice and improve patient care.
Bogaerts, Annick; Ameye, Lieveke; Bijlholt, Margriet; Amuli, Kelly; Heynickx, Dorine; Devlieger, Roland
Excessive maternal pre-pregnancy and gestational weight gain are related to pregnancy- and birth outcomes. The interpregnancy time window offers a unique opportunity to intervene in order to acquire a healthy lifestyle before the start of a new pregnancy. INTER-ACT is an e-health driven multicentre randomised controlled intervention trial targeting women at high risk of pregnancy- and birth related complications. Eligible women are recruited for the study at day 2 or 3 postpartum. At week 6 postpartum, participants are randomised into the intervention or control arm of the study. The intervention focuses on weight, diet, physical activity and mental well-being, and comprises face-to-face coaching, in which behavioural change techniques are central, and use of a mobile application, which is Bluetooth-connected to a weighing scale and activity tracker. The intervention is rolled out postpartum (4 coaching sessions between week 6 and month 6) and in a new pregnancy (3 coaching sessions, one in each trimester of pregnancy); the mobile app is used throughout the two intervention phases. Data collection includes data from the medical record of the participants (pregnancy outcomes and medical history), anthropometric data (height, weight, waist- and hip circumferences, skinfold thickness and body composition by bio-electrical impedance analysis), data from the mobile app (physical activity and weight; intervention group only) and questionnaires (socio-demographics, breastfeeding, food intake, physical activity, lifestyle, psychosocial factors and process evaluation). Medical record data are collected at inclusion and at delivery of the subsequent pregnancy. All other data are collected at week 6 and month 6 postpartum and every subsequent 6 months until a new pregnancy, and in every trimester in the new pregnancy. Primary outcome is the composite endpoint score of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, caesarean section, and large
Casilag, Fiordiligie; Lorenz, Anne; Krueger, Jonas; Klawonn, Frank; Weiss, Siegfried; Häussler, Susanne
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of establishing severe and persistent infections in various eukaryotic hosts. It encodes a wide array of virulence factors and employs several strategies to evade immune detection. In the present study, we screened the Harvard Medical School transposon mutant library of P. aeruginosa PA14 for bacterial factors that modulate interleukin-8 responses in A549 human airway epithelial cells. We found that in addition to the previously identified alkaline protease AprA, the elastase LasB is capable of degrading exogenous flagellin under calcium-replete conditions and prevents flagellin-mediated immune recognition. Our results indicate that the production of two proteases with anti-flagellin activity provides a failsafe mechanism for P. aeruginosa to ensure the maintenance of protease-dependent immune-modulating functions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M
The objectives of this study were to document retailer opinions about tobacco control policy at the point of sale (POS) and link these opinions with store level compliance with sales and marketing provisions of the Tobacco Control Act. This study conducted interviews of 252 tobacco retailers in three counties in North Carolina and linked their opinions with in-person observational audit data of their stores' compliance with POS policies. We conducted analyses examining retailer factors associated with noncompliance using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) controlling for individual, store, neighborhood, and county factors. Over 90 % of retailers support minors' access provisions and a large minority (over 40 %) support graphic warnings and promotion bans. Low levels of support were found for a potential ban on menthol cigarettes (17 %). Store noncompliance with tobacco control policies was associated with both more reported retailer barriers to compliance and less support for POS policies. Awareness of and source of information about tobacco control regulations were not associated with compliance when accounting for neighborhood and county characteristics. Retailers expressed some support for a wide range of POS policies. Advocates and government agencies tasked with enforcement can work with retailers as stakeholders to enhance support, mitigate barriers, and promote compliance with tobacco control efforts at the point of sale.
Full Text Available Vitamin D status during pregnancy is related to neonatal vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Aim of this study was to investigate 25OHD levels in maternal serum and in neonatal blood spots in native and migrant populations living in Novara (North Italy, 45°N latitude.We carried out a cross sectional study from April 1st 2012 to March 30th 2013, in a tertiary Care Center. Maternal blood samples after delivery and newborns' blood spots were analyzed for 25OHD levels in 533 pairs. Maternal country of origin, skin phototype, vitamin D dietary intake and supplementation during pregnancy were recorded. Multivariate regression analysis, showed a link between neonatal and maternal 25OHD levels (R-square:0.664. Severely deficient 25OHD values (<25 nmol/L were found in 38% of Italian and in 76.2% of migrant's newborns (p <0.0001, and in 18% of Italian and 48,4% of migrant mothers (p <0.0001 while 25OHD deficiency (≥25 and <50 nmol/L was shown in 40.1% of Italian and 21.7% of migrant's newborns (p <0.0001, and in 43.6% of Italian and 41.3% of migrant mothers (p <0.0001. Italian newborns and mothers had higher 25OHD levels (34.4±19.2 and 44.9±21.2 nmol/L than migrants (17.7±13.7 and 29.7±16.5 nmol/L; p<0.0001. A linear decrease of 25OHD levels was found with increasing skin pigmentation (phototype I 42.1 ±18.2 vs phototype VI 17.9±10.1 nmol/l; p<0.0001. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in higher 25OHD values both in mothers and in their newborns (p<0.0001.Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy and in newborns is frequent especially among migrants. A prevention program in Piedmont should urgently be considered and people identified as being at risk should be closely monitored. Vitamin D supplementation should be taken into account when considering a preventative health care policy.
Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common yet complex retinal degeneration that causes irreversible central blindness in the elderly. Pathology is widely believed to follow loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and photoreceptor degeneration. Here we report aberrant expression of interleukin-17A (IL17A and the receptor IL17RC in the macula of AMD patients. In vitro, IL17A induces RPE cell death characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipids and autophagosomes with subsequent activation of pro-apoptotic Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. This pathology is reduced by siRNA knockdown of IL17RC. IL17-dependent retinal degeneration in a mouse model of focal retinal degeneration can be prevented by gene therapy with adeno-associated virus vector encoding soluble IL17 receptor. This intervention rescues RPE and photoreceptors in a MAPK-dependent process. The IL17 pathway plays a key role in RPE and photoreceptor degeneration and could hold therapeutic potential in AMD.
Full Text Available A suicide prevention strategy was launched in Japan in 2006 to address the high suicide rate, which had increased considerably since 1998. The national strategy from 2007 involved the enhancement of psychiatric treatment services at emergency medical facilities and supportive observation by individuals close to patients. The national suicide rate has decreased gradually since 2008; however, national information regarding the number of patients who had engaged in deliberate self-harm was absent. Therefore, the present study examined the longitudinal trend in hospital admissions due to deliberate self-harm in Japan. Data from the National Patient Survey between 1996 and 2014—a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of inpatient care every 3 years—were used. Data for 13,014 patients were included in the estimation of the number of hospital admissions due to deliberate self-harm. The results show that the estimated number of admissions due to deliberate self-harm increased from 2078 in September 1996 to 3189 in September 2008, when the national number of suicide cases peaked, and decreased to 1783 in 2014. Approximately half of the patients were admitted to hospital because of self-harm via means other than drug poisoning, which had a high mortality rate (5.6%. The proportion of patients receiving public assistance was higher in those who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (8.5% relative to that observed in the general population. Overall, the trend in deliberate self-harm was synchronous with the number of suicide cases over time. As economic poverty has been associated with suicidal ideation and behavior and some recipients of public assistance tend to abuse psychotropic medication, the public assistance program should provide mental health support for recipients of social benefit schemes.
Valente, Maria Maddalena; Bortolotto, Valeria; Cuccurazzu, Bruna; Ubezio, Federica; Meneghini, Vasco; Francese, Maria Teresa; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia
Although the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis remains to be fully elucidated, several studies suggested that the process is involved in cognitive and emotional functions and is deregulated in various neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depression. Several psychoactive drugs, including antidepressants, can modulate adult neurogenesis. Here we show for the first time that the α2δ ligands gabapentin [1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid] and pregabalin (PGB) [(S)-(+)-3-isobutyl-GABA or (S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid] can produce concentration-dependent increases in the numbers of newborn mature and immature neurons generated in vitro from adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells and, in parallel, a decrease in the number of undifferentiated precursor cells. These effects were confirmed in vivo, because significantly increased numbers of adult cell-generated neurons were observed in the hippocampal region of mice receiving prolonged treatment with PGB (10 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days), compared with vehicle-treated mice. We demonstrated that PGB administration prevented the appearance of depression-like behaviors induced by chronic restraint stress and, in parallel, promoted hippocampal neurogenesis in adult stressed mice. Finally, we provided data suggesting involvement of the α2δ1 subunit and the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in drug-mediated proneurogenic effects. The new pharmacological activities of α2δ ligands may help explain their therapeutic activity as supplemental therapy for major depression and depressive symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorders. These data contribute to the identification of novel molecular pathways that may represent potential targets for pharmacological modulation in depression.
Griffon, Nicolas; Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques
PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese.
Halladay, Christopher W; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Schmid, Ian T; Schmid, Christopher H; Dahabreh, Issa J
Searching multiple sources when conducting systematic reviews is considered good practice. We aimed to investigate the impact of using sources beyond PubMed in systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions. We randomly selected 50 Cochrane reviews that searched the PubMed (or MEDLINE) and EMBASE databases and included a meta-analysis of ≥10 studies. We checked whether each eligible record in each review (n = 2,700) was retrievable in PubMed and EMBASE. For the first-listed meta-analysis of ≥10 studies in each review, we examined whether excluding studies not found in PubMed affected results. A median of one record per review was indexed in EMBASE but not in PubMed; a median of four records per review was not indexed in PubMed or EMBASE. Meta-analyses included a median of 13.5 studies; a median of zero studies per meta-analysis was indexed in EMBASE but not in PubMed; a median of one study per meta-analysis was not indexed in PubMed or EMBASE. Meta-analysis using only PubMed-indexed vs. all available studies led to a different conclusion in a single case (on the basis of conventional criteria for statistical significance). In meta-regression analyses, effects in PubMed- vs. non-PubMed-indexed studies were statistically significantly different in a single data set. For systematic reviews of the effects of therapeutic interventions, gains from searching sources beyond PubMed, and from searching EMBASE in particular are modest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Swartz, Marvin S; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W
Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal. Relevant publications were identified for review in PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, personal communications, and relevant Internet searches of advocacy and policy-related publications. Most research on OPC has focussed on outcomes such as community functioning and hospital recidivism and not on interpersonal violence. As a result, research on violence towards others has been limited but suggests that low-level acts of interpersonal violence such as minor, noninjurious altercations without weapon use and arrests can be reduced by OPC, but there is no evidence that OPC can reduce major acts of violence resulting in injury or weapon use. The impact of OPC on major violence, including mass shootings, is difficult to assess because of their low base rates. Effective implementation of OPC, when combined with intensive community services and applied for an adequate duration to take effect, can improve treatment adherence and related outcomes, but its promise as an effective means to reduce serious acts of violence is unknown.
In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,
Buz, José; Sanchez, Marta; Levenson, Michael R; Aldwin, Carolyn M
We examined whether the social convoy model and socioemotional selectivity theory apply in collectivistic cultures by examining the contextual factors which are hypothesized to mediate age-related differences in social support in a collectivist European country. Five hundred Spanish community-dwelling older adults (Mean age = 74.78, SD = 7.76, range = 60-93) were interviewed to examine structural aspects of their social networks. We found that age showed highly complex relationships with network size and frequency of interaction, depending on the network circle and the mediation of cultural factors. Family structure was important for social relations in the inner circle, while pubs and churches were important for peripheral relations. Surprisingly, pub attendance was the most important variable for maintenance of social support of peripheral network members. In general, the results support the applicability of the social convoy and socioemotional selectivity constructs to social support among Spanish older adults.
Decullier, Evelyne; Huot, Laure; Maisonneuve, Hervé
To investigate fraud and errors, scientists have studied cohorts of retraction notices. These researches have been performed using a PubMed search on publication type "retraction of publication" which retrieves the notices of the retractions. We assessed the stability of the indexation of retraction notices over a 15-month period and what was the time-lag to get stability. A search on notices of retraction issued in 2008 was repeated every 3 months during 15 months from February 2011. The first search resulted in 237 notices of retraction. Throughout the study period, 14 discrepancies with the initial search were observed (6%). We found that the number of retraction notices became stable 35 months after the retraction. The time-lag observed in this study has to be taken into account when performing a PubMed search.
Katchamart, Wanruchada; Faulkner, Amy; Feldman, Brian; Tomlinson, George; Bombardier, Claire
To compare the performance of Ovid-MEDLINE vs. PubMed for identifying randomized controlled trials of methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We created search strategies for Ovid-MEDLINE and PubMed for a systematic review of MTX in RA. Their performance was evaluated using sensitivity, precision, and number needed to read (NNR). Comparing searches in Ovid-MEDLINE vs. PubMed, PubMed retrieved more citations overall than Ovid-MEDLINE; however, of the 20 citations that met eligibility criteria for the review, Ovid-MEDLINE retrieved 17 and PubMed 18. The sensitivity was 85% for Ovid-MEDLINE vs. 90% for PubMed, whereas the precision and NNR were comparable (precision: 0.881% for Ovid-MEDLINE vs. 0.884% for PubMed and NNR: 114 for Ovid-MEDLINE vs. 113 for PubMed). In systematic reviews of RA, PubMed has higher sensitivity than Ovid-MEDLINE with comparable precision and NNR. This study highlights the importance of well-designed database-specific search strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hypersensitive response programmed cell death (HR-PCD is a critical feature in plant immunity required for pathogen restriction and prevention of disease development. The precise control of this process is paramount to cell survival and an effective immune response. The discovery of new components that function to suppress HR-PCD will be instrumental in understanding the regulation of this fundamental mechanism. Here we report the identification and characterisation of a BTB domain E3 ligase protein, POB1, that functions to suppress HR-PCD triggered by evolutionarily diverse pathogens. Nicotiana benthamiana and tobacco plants with reduced POB1 activity show accelerated HR-PCD whilst those with increased POB1 levels show attenuated HR-PCD. We demonstrate that POB1 dimerization and nuclear localization are vital for its function in HR-PCD suppression. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we identify the Plant U-Box E3 ligase PUB17, a well established positive regulator of plant innate immunity, as a target for POB1-mediated proteasomal degradation. Using confocal imaging and in planta immunoprecipitation assays we show that POB1 interacts with PUB17 in the nucleus and stimulates its degradation. Mutated versions of POB1 that show reduced interaction with PUB17 fail to suppress HR-PCD, indicating that POB1-mediated degradation of PUB17 U-box E3 ligase is an important step for negative regulation of specific immune pathways in plants. Our data reveals a new mechanism for BTB domain proteins in suppressing HR-PCD in plant innate immune responses.
Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Taehoon; Oh, Jinoh; Ko, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungchul; Han, Wook-Shin
Finding relevant articles from PubMed is challenging because it is hard to express the user's specific intention in the given query interface, and a keyword query typically retrieves a large number of results. Researchers have applied machine learning techniques to find relevant articles by ranking the articles according to the learned relevance function. However, the process of learning and ranking is usually done offline without integrated with the keyword queries, and the users have to provide a large amount of training documents to get a reasonable learning accuracy. This paper proposes a novel multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, called RefMed, which supports both ad-hoc keyword queries and a multi-level relevance feedback in real time on PubMed. RefMed supports a multi-level relevance feedback by using the RankSVM as the learning method, and thus it achieves higher accuracy with less feedback. RefMed "tightly" integrates the RankSVM into RDBMS to support both keyword queries and the multi-level relevance feedback in real time; the tight coupling of the RankSVM and DBMS substantially improves the processing time. An efficient parameter selection method for the RankSVM is also proposed, which tunes the RankSVM parameter without performing validation. Thereby, RefMed achieves a high learning accuracy in real time without performing a validation process. RefMed is accessible at http://dm.postech.ac.kr/refmed. RefMed is the first multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, which achieves a high accuracy with less feedback. It effectively learns an accurate relevance function from the user's feedback and efficiently processes the function to return relevant articles in real time.
Mendis, Kumara; Kidd, Michael R; Schattner, Peter; Canalese, Joseph
We analysed Australian general practice (GP) publications in PubMed from 1980 to 2007 to determine journals, authors, publication types, national health priority areas (NHPA) and compared the results with those from three specialties (public health, cardiology and medical informatics) and two countries (the UK and New Zealand). Australian GP publications were downloaded in MEDLINE format using PubMed queries and were written to a Microsoft Access database using a software application. Search Query Language and online PubMed queries were used for further analysis. There were 4777 publications from 1980 to 2007. Australian Family Physician (38.1%) and the Medical Journal of Australia (17.6%) contributed 55.7% of publications. Reviews (12.7%), letters (6.6%), clinical trials (6.5%) and systematic reviews (5%) were the main PubMed publication types. Thirty five percent of publications addressed National Health Priority Areas with material on mental health (13.7%), neoplasms (6.5%) and cardiovascular conditions (5.9%). The comparable numbers of publications for the three specialties were: public health - 80 911, cardiology - 15 130 and medical informatics - 3338; total country GP comparisons were: UK - 14 658 and New Zealand - 1111. Australian GP publications have shown an impressive growth from 1980 to 2007 with a 15-fold increase. This increase may be due in part to the actions of the Australian government over the past decade to financially support research in primary care, as well as the maturing of academic general practice. This analysis can assist governments, researchers, policy makers and others to target resources so that further developments can be encouraged, supported and monitored.
Marius BĂLĂŞESCU; Lavinia DOVLEAC
The fast development of smartphone technology has created an opportunity to use QR code, considered a popular way of mobile tagging due to its ease of use. Various types of hospitality units, such as accommodations or restaurants and bars have found in QR codes an excellent marketing tool. This paper presents the results of a marketing research study conducted in Brasov city from Romania regarding the consumers’ interest in using QR codes in restaurants and pubs. The results show that mostly ...
Kurpas, Donata; Wojtal, Mariola; Bielska, Dorota; Rogalska, Monika; Sapilak, Bartosz; Steciwko, Andrzej
nicotine and every fourth has the knowledge. The preparing graduates of the Medical Faculty for the participation in realization of basic schedules of the promotion of the health and the diseases prevention is developing unusually pessimistically towards above data, the fight against the nicotine addiction is filling one of the essential positions, independently on the medical specialty.
Vergoulis, Thanasis; Kanellos, Ilias; Kostoulas, Nikos; Georgakilas, Georgios; Sellis, Timos; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis; Dalamagas, Theodore
Identifying, amongst millions of publications available in MEDLINE, those that are relevant to specific microRNAs (miRNAs) of interest based on keyword search faces major obstacles. References to miRNA names in the literature often deviate from standard nomenclature for various reasons, since even the official nomenclature evolves. For instance, a single miRNA name may identify two completely different molecules or two different names may refer to the same molecule. mirPub is a database with a powerful and intuitive interface, which facilitates searching for miRNA literature, addressing the aforementioned issues. To provide effective search services, mirPub applies text mining techniques on MEDLINE, integrates data from several curated databases and exploits data from its user community following a crowdsourcing approach. Other key features include an interactive visualization service that illustrates intuitively the evolution of miRNA data, tag clouds summarizing the relevance of publications to particular diseases, cell types or tissues and access to TarBase 6.0 data to oversee genes related to miRNA publications. mirPub is freely available at http://www.microrna.gr/mirpub/. email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.
Nourbakhsh, Eva; Nugent, Rebecca; Wang, Helen; Cevik, Cihan; Nugent, Kenneth
Medical literature searches provide critical information for clinicians. However, the best strategy for identifying relevant high-quality literature is unknown. We compared search results using PubMed and Google Scholar on four clinical questions and analysed these results with respect to article relevance and quality. Abstracts from the first 20 citations for each search were classified into three relevance categories. We used the weighted kappa statistic to analyse reviewer agreement and nonparametric rank tests to compare the number of citations for each article and the corresponding journals' impact factors. Reviewers ranked 67.6% of PubMed articles and 80% of Google Scholar articles as at least possibly relevant (P = 0.116) with high agreement (all kappa P-values PubMed searches and Google Scholar searches often identify different articles. In this study, Google Scholar articles were more likely to be classified as relevant, had higher numbers of citations and were published in higher impact factor journals. The identification of frequently cited articles using Google Scholar for searches probably has value for initial literature searches. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Lee, Christopher W C; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, Ann; Shariff, Salimah Z; Blake, Peter G; Lindsay, Robert M; Garg, Amit X
Physicians frequently search bibliographic databases, such as MEDLINE via PubMed, for best evidence for patient care. The objective of this study was to develop and test search filters to help physicians efficiently retrieve literature related to dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) from all other articles indexed in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase. A diagnostic test assessment framework was used to develop and test robust dialysis filters. The reference standard was a manual review of the full texts of 22,992 articles from 39 journals to determine whether each article contained dialysis information. Next, 1,623,728 unique search filters were developed, and their ability to retrieve relevant articles was evaluated. The high-performance dialysis filters consisted of up to 65 search terms in combination. These terms included the words "dialy" (truncated), "uremic," "catheters," and "renal transplant wait list." These filters reached peak sensitivities of 98.6% and specificities of 98.5%. The filters' performance remained robust in an independent validation subset of articles. These empirically derived and validated high-performance search filters should enable physicians to effectively retrieve dialysis information from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase.
Lee, Paul H; Tse, Andy C Y
Statistical analysis is essential for reporting of the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), as well as evaluating their effectiveness. However, the validity of a statistical analysis also depends on whether the assumptions of that analysis are valid. To review all RCTs published in journals indexed in PubMed during December 2014 to provide a complete picture of how RCTs handle assumptions of statistical analysis. We reviewed all RCTs published in December 2014 that appeared in journals indexed in PubMed using the Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy. The 2014 impact factors of the journals were used as proxies for their quality. The type of statistical analysis used and whether the assumptions of the analysis were tested were reviewed. In total, 451 papers were included. Of the 278 papers that reported a crude analysis for the primary outcomes, 31 (27·2%) reported whether the outcome was normally distributed. Of the 172 papers that reported an adjusted analysis for the primary outcomes, diagnosis checking was rarely conducted, with only 20%, 8·6% and 7% checked for generalized linear model, Cox proportional hazard model and multilevel model, respectively. Study characteristics (study type, drug trial, funding sources, journal type and endorsement of CONSORT guidelines) were not associated with the reporting of diagnosis checking. The diagnosis of statistical analyses in RCTs published in PubMed-indexed journals was usually absent. Journals should provide guidelines about the reporting of a diagnosis of assumptions. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
The past decade has witnessed the modern advances of high-throughput technology and rapid growth of research capacity in producing large-scale biological data, both of which were concomitant with an exponential growth of biomedical literature. This wealth of scholarly knowledge is of significant importance for researchers in making scientific discoveries and healthcare professionals in managing health-related matters. However, the acquisition of such information is becoming increasingly difficult due to its large volume and rapid growth. In response, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is continuously making changes to its PubMed Web service for improvement. Meanwhile, different entities have devoted themselves to developing Web tools for helping users quickly and efficiently search and retrieve relevant publications. These practices, together with maturity in the field of text mining, have led to an increase in the number and quality of various Web tools that provide comparable literature search service to PubMed. In this study, we review 28 such tools, highlight their respective innovations, compare them to the PubMed system and one another, and discuss directions for future development. Furthermore, we have built a website dedicated to tracking existing systems and future advances in the field of biomedical literature search. Taken together, our work serves information seekers in choosing tools for their needs and service providers and developers in keeping current in the field. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/search PMID:21245076
Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
Full Text Available Retraction Watch is a social media organization that relies on a blog to transmit information primarily about retractions in the scientific literature. One of the Retraction Watch co-founders, Ivan Oransky, is in fact a “Distinguished Writer in Residence at New York University’s Carter Journalism Institute” and the vice president of the Association of Health Care Journalists. Sharing a common funder, a philanthropic organization, the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, Retraction Watch regularly coordinates with a whistle-blower website that refers to itself as an “online journal club”, PubPeer. Retraction Watch regularly cites and refers to PubPeer, and vice versa. It is therefore surprising that PubPeer does not list Retraction Watch on its “Press” and media coverage page. This potentially deliberate omission may be equivalent to a hidden conflict of interest, undermining the ethical fortitude and image of these science watchdogs, and fortifying the fake news era.
The past decade has witnessed the modern advances of high-throughput technology and rapid growth of research capacity in producing large-scale biological data, both of which were concomitant with an exponential growth of biomedical literature. This wealth of scholarly knowledge is of significant importance for researchers in making scientific discoveries and healthcare professionals in managing health-related matters. However, the acquisition of such information is becoming increasingly difficult due to its large volume and rapid growth. In response, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is continuously making changes to its PubMed Web service for improvement. Meanwhile, different entities have devoted themselves to developing Web tools for helping users quickly and efficiently search and retrieve relevant publications. These practices, together with maturity in the field of text mining, have led to an increase in the number and quality of various Web tools that provide comparable literature search service to PubMed. In this study, we review 28 such tools, highlight their respective innovations, compare them to the PubMed system and one another, and discuss directions for future development. Furthermore, we have built a website dedicated to tracking existing systems and future advances in the field of biomedical literature search. Taken together, our work serves information seekers in choosing tools for their needs and service providers and developers in keeping current in the field. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/search.
Greene, George J; Swann, Greg; Fought, Angela J; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Hope, Thomas J; Kiser, Patrick F; Mustanski, Brian; D'Aquila, Richard T
HIV prevention method preferences were evaluated among 512 U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM; median age: 22 years). Approximately 90 % consistently preferred one option across pairwise comparisons of condoms, daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and long-acting PrEP delivered via either an injectable or one of two types of PrEP implants differing in visibility. Condoms were most frequently preferred (33.8 %), followed by non-visible implants (21.5 %), and oral PrEP (17.0 %); HIV risk was reported by more choosing implants. In a follow-up question comparing the four PrEP options only, daily oral pills and non-visible implants were most frequently preferred (35.5 and 34.3 %, respectively), followed by injections (25.2 %) and visible implants (4.3 %). An inductive, open-coding approach determined that convenience, duration of protection, and privacy were the most commonly cited reasons for a PrEP method choice, and associated with self-report of HIV risk. Tailoring PrEP product development to privacy and other concerns important to those at highest HIV risk may improve HIV prevention.
... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... facilities and equipment. Location Antarctic Peninsula region, ASPA 117-Avian Island, ASPA 128 Cape...
... the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism... of the ongoing effort to monitor the spatial scale of human impacts in Antarctica. Samples taken near...
... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... to be used for K-12 educational outreach activities. In general, the bird parts will be an example of...
... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and..., bill and flipper dimensions taken, 3-5 feathers removed to confirm gender of the penguin, and have GPS...
... by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science... measure ablation and GPS units to monitor the motion of the glacier. The GPR system will be moved...
Ugrinska, A.; Mustafa, B.
Full text: Abstract databases available on Internet free of charge were searched for nuclear medicine contents. The only comprehensive database found was PubMed. Analysis of nuclear medicine journals included in PubMed was performed. PubMed contains 25 medical journals that contain the phrase 'nuclear medicine' in different languages in their title. Searching the Internet with the search engine 'Google' we have found four more peer-reviewed journals with the phrase 'nuclear medicine' in their title. In addition, we are fully aware that many articles related to nuclear medicine are published in national medical journals devoted to general medicine. For example in year 2000 colleagues from Institute of Pathophysiology and Nuclear Medicine, Skopje, Macedonia have published 10 articles out of which none could be found on PubMed. This suggested that a big amount of research work is not accessible for the people professionally involved in nuclear medicine. Therefore, we have created a database framework for abstracts that couldn't be found in PubMed. The database is organized in user-friendly manner. There are two main sections: 'post an abstract' and 'search for abstracts'. Authors of the articles are expected to submit their work in the section 'post an abstract'. During the submission process authors should fill the separate boxes with the Title in English, Title in original language, Country of origin, Journal name, Volume, Issue and Pages. Authors should choose up to five keywords from a drop-down menu. Authors are encouraged if the abstract is not published in English to translate it. The section 'search for abstract' is searchable according to Author, Keywords, and words and phrases incorporated in the English title. The abstract database currently resides on an MS Access back-end, with a front-end in ASP (Active Server Pages). In the future, we plan to migrate the database on a MS SQL Server, which should provide a faster and more reliable framework for hosting a
Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong
Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as 'CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2' With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical-disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order
This Act enables the United Kingdom Government to ratify both the Oslo Convention of 1972 for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft and the London Convention of 1972 on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. (NEA) [fr
... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-05, approved February 17, 2009) (Recovery Act), and implementing guidance... stalls at the River Terrace Senior Apartments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dominique G. Blom, Deputy... the Recovery Act and OMB's implementing guidance published on April 23, 2009 (74 FR 18449), this...
... to Section 3004 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) (Pub. L. 111-148), amending the Social Security Act (the Act) (42 U.S.C. 1886(m)). DATES: Effective Dates: Effective 30 days..., Office of Enterprise Management, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 7500 Security Boulevard...
...)(ii)(D) states that ``creditor'' is defined in the Consumer Credit Protection Act at 15 U.S.C. 1602(f... ``creditor'', as defined in section 103(g) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 U.S.C. 1602(g)), that... enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Financial Protection Act (Pub. L. 110-203...
... to clot, the higher the degree of clotting inhibition. During surgery, the ACT is kept above a ... What is ECLS? An Introduction to Extracorporeal Life Support. University of Michigan Health System [On-line information]. ...
Avillach, P; Kerdelhué, G; Devos, P; Maisonneuve, H; Darmoni, S J
Medline/PubMed is the most frequently used medical bibliographic research database. The aim of this study was to propose a new generic method to limit any Medline/PubMed query based on the relative impact factor and the A & B categories of the SIGAPS score. The entire PubMed corpus was used for the feasibility study, then ten frequent diseases in terms of PubMed indexing and the citations of four Nobel prize winners. The relative impact factor (RIF) was calculated by medical specialty defined in Journal Citation Reports. The two queries, which included all the journals in category A (or A OR B), were added to any Medline/PubMed query as a central point of the feasibility study. Limitation using the SIGAPS category A was larger than the when using the Core Clinical Journals (CCJ): 15.65% of PubMed corpus vs 8.64% for CCJ. The response time of this limit applied to the entire PubMed corpus was less than two seconds. For five diseases out of ten, limiting the citations with the RIF was more effective than with the CCJ. For the four Nobel prize winners, limiting the citations with the RIF was more effective than the CCJ. The feasibility study to apply a new filter based on the relative impact factor on any Medline/PubMed query was positive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ralph van Hoorn
Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of respecting patients’ preferences when making treatment decisions is increasingly recognized. Efficiently retrieving papers from the scientific literature reporting on the presence and nature of such preferences can help to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to create a search filter for PubMed to help retrieve evidence on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. Methods A total of 27 journals were hand-searched for articles on patient preferences for treatment outcomes published in 2011. Selected articles served as a reference set. To develop optimal search strategies to retrieve this set, all articles in the reference set were randomly split into a development and a validation set. MeSH-terms and keywords retrieved using PubReMiner were tested individually and as combinations in PubMed and evaluated for retrieval performance (e.g. sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp. Results Of 8238 articles, 22 were considered to report empirical evidence on patient preferences for specific treatment outcomes. The best search filters reached Se of 100 % [95 % CI 100-100] with Sp of 95 % [94–95 %] and Sp of 97 % [97–98 %] with 75 % Se [74–76 %]. In the validation set these queries reached values of Se of 90 % [89–91 %] with Sp 94 % [93–95 %] and Se of 80 % [79–81 %] with Sp of 97 % [96–96 %], respectively. Conclusions Narrow and broad search queries were developed which can help in retrieving literature on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. Identifying such evidence may in turn enhance the incorporation of patient preferences in clinical decision making and health technology assessment.
Bian, Jiantao; Morid, Mohammad Amin; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Luo, Gang; Del Fiol, Guilherme
The practice of evidence-based medicine involves integrating the latest best available evidence into patient care decisions. Yet, critical barriers exist for clinicians' retrieval of evidence that is relevant for a particular patient from primary sources such as randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. To help address those barriers, we investigated machine learning algorithms that find clinical studies with high clinical impact from PubMed®. Our machine learning algorithms use a variety of features including bibliometric features (e.g., citation count), social media attention, journal impact factors, and citation metadata. The algorithms were developed and evaluated with a gold standard composed of 502 high impact clinical studies that are referenced in 11 clinical evidence-based guidelines on the treatment of various diseases. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) our high impact classifier outperforms a state-of-the-art classifier based on citation metadata and citation terms, and PubMed's® relevance sort algorithm; and (2) the performance of our high impact classifier does not decrease significantly after removing proprietary features such as citation count. The mean top 20 precision of our high impact classifier was 34% versus 11% for the state-of-the-art classifier and 4% for PubMed's® relevance sort (p=0.009); and the performance of our high impact classifier did not decrease significantly after removing proprietary features (mean top 20 precision=34% vs. 36%; p=0.085). The high impact classifier, using features such as bibliometrics, social media attention and MEDLINE® metadata, outperformed previous approaches and is a promising alternative to identifying high impact studies for clinical decision support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pillastrini, Paolo; Vanti, Carla; Curti, Stefania; Mattioli, Stefano; Ferrari, Silvano; Violante, Francesco Saverio; Guccione, Andrew
The aim of this study was to construct PubMed search strings that could efficiently retrieve studies on manual therapy (MT), especially for time-constrained clinicians. Our experts chose 11 Medical Subject Heading terms describing MT along with 84 additional potential terms. For each term that was able to retrieve more than 100 abstracts, we systematically extracted a sample of abstracts from which we estimated the proportion of studies potentially relevant to MT. We then constructed 2 search strings: 1 narrow (threshold of pertinent articles ≥40%) and 1 expanded (including all terms for which a proportion had been calculated). We tested these search strings against articles on 2 conditions relevant to MT (thoracic and temporomandibular pain). We calculated the number of abstracts needed to read (NNR) to identify 1 potentially pertinent article in the context of these conditions. Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of the proposed PubMed search strings to identify relevant articles included in a systematic review on spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain. Fifty-five search terms were able to extract more than 100 citations. The NNR to find 1 potentially pertinent article using the narrow string was 1.2 for thoracic pain and 1.3 for temporomandibular pain, and the NNR for the expanded string was 1.9 and 1.6, respectively. The narrow search strategy retrieved all the randomized controlled trials included in the systematic review selected for comparison. The proposed PubMed search strings may help health care professionals locate potentially pertinent articles and review a large number of MT studies efficiently to better implement evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Self-immolation is a fatal and devastating method of committing suicide used around the world. The chief aim of the present article is to look at the trend of indexed papers in PubMed covering different aspects of self-immolation. PubMed search engine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) was searched by using six keywords i.e. "self-immolation", "self-inflicted burn", "self-burning", "self-incineration", "suicidal burns" and "suicide by burning". These keywords should appear either in the title or the abstract of the articles. The time frame was set as to retrieve papers expanding from early indexing time up to end of the year 2011. Based on the search strategy 132 papers were retrieved from these total numbers; 12 (9%) were categorized as review papers; 24 (18%) as case reports and the rest 96 (73%) were original studies. It seems that the number of papers increased during the years of investigations and the highest indexed papers i.e. 14 (10.6%) belonged to the year 2011. While most journals, published only one article the highest indexed papers i.e. 35 (26.5%) belonged to Burns. There was an increasing trend in the number of self-immolation articles indexed in PubMed since 1965. Three journals i.e. Burns, Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation and Journal of Forensic Sciences hosted for more than 37% of all those indexed articles. However, given the increasing trend of self-immolation still more studies are needed to shed light on the diverse aspects of this appalling human behavior.
van Hoorn, Ralph; Kievit, Wietske; Booth, Andrew; Mozygemba, Kati; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Refolo, Pietro; Sacchini, Dario; Gerhardus, Ansgar; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tummers, Marcia
The importance of respecting patients' preferences when making treatment decisions is increasingly recognized. Efficiently retrieving papers from the scientific literature reporting on the presence and nature of such preferences can help to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to create a search filter for PubMed to help retrieve evidence on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. A total of 27 journals were hand-searched for articles on patient preferences for treatment outcomes published in 2011. Selected articles served as a reference set. To develop optimal search strategies to retrieve this set, all articles in the reference set were randomly split into a development and a validation set. MeSH-terms and keywords retrieved using PubReMiner were tested individually and as combinations in PubMed and evaluated for retrieval performance (e.g. sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)). Of 8238 articles, 22 were considered to report empirical evidence on patient preferences for specific treatment outcomes. The best search filters reached Se of 100 % [95 % CI 100-100] with Sp of 95 % [94-95 %] and Sp of 97 % [97-98 %] with 75 % Se [74-76 %]. In the validation set these queries reached values of Se of 90 % [89-91 %] with Sp 94 % [93-95 %] and Se of 80 % [79-81 %] with Sp of 97 % [96-96 %], respectively. Narrow and broad search queries were developed which can help in retrieving literature on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. Identifying such evidence may in turn enhance the incorporation of patient preferences in clinical decision making and health technology assessment.
Deeter, Anthony; Dalman, Mark; Haddad, Joseph; Duan, Zhong-Hui
The PubMed database offers an extensive set of publication data that can be useful, yet inherently complex to use without automated computational techniques. Data repositories such as the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) offer experimental data storage and retrieval as well as curated gene expression profiles. Genetic interaction databases, including Reactome and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, offer pathway and experiment data analysis using data curated from these publications and data repositories. We have created a method to generate and analyze consensus networks, inferring potential gene interactions, using large numbers of Bayesian networks generated by data mining publications in the PubMed database. Through the concept of network resolution, these consensus networks can be tailored to represent possible genetic interactions. We designed a set of experiments to confirm that our method is stable across variation in both sample and topological input sizes. Using gene product interactions from the KEGG pathway database and data mining PubMed publication abstracts, we verify that regardless of the network resolution or the inferred consensus network, our method is capable of inferring meaningful gene interactions through consensus Bayesian network generation with multiple, randomized topological orderings. Our method can not only confirm the existence of currently accepted interactions, but has the potential to hypothesize new ones as well. We show our method confirms the existence of known gene interactions such as JAK-STAT-PI3K-AKT-mTOR, infers novel gene interactions such as RAS- Bcl-2 and RAS-AKT, and found significant pathway-pathway interactions between the JAK-STAT signaling and Cardiac Muscle Contraction KEGG pathways.
In izakaya, Japanese - style pubs, menus can play an important role in wall-space design and merchandising, because, unlike those of an American restaurant or bar, they are much bigger in size and hang on the wall. In general, however, they are not artistic in quality and hence do not function as an effective means of spatial design, even though they occupy much of the wall. Moreover, since they are written only in Japanese and have no pictures, the menus are not sufficient as a source of inf...
Full Text Available The fast development of smartphone technology has created an opportunity to use QR code, considered a popular way of mobile tagging due to its ease of use. Various types of hospitality units, such as accommodations or restaurants and bars have found in QR codes an excellent marketing tool. This paper presents the results of a marketing research study conducted in Brasov city from Romania regarding the consumers’ interest in using QR codes in restaurants and pubs. The results show that mostly the young generation of consumers is aware of QR codes existence because they have smartphones and they are always interested in testing the latest technologies.
Muñoz Núñez, C F; Sendra Portero, F
Searching on Internet looking for clinically relevant medical information, used as a clinical decision aid tool, for self-learning or for research, is currently a common practice in Radiology. This task has been strengthened by the technological environment where radiologists work with direct access to information sources from the Workstation. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of information searching tools in order to understand their functions and to optimize medical information searching on Internet. Google, Google Scholar and PubMed are reviewed as models for that purpose. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites.
Schoenthaler, Martin; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Wilhelm, Konrad; Schlager, Daniel; Schoeb, Dominik Stefan; Adams, Fabian; Dahm, Philipp; Hein, Simon
To evaluate published trials on urolithiasis regarding level of evidence, type of sponsorship and declared conflicts of interest (COIs), and to elucidate a potential commercial impact. We performed a systematic PubMed(®) literature search using a predefined Boolean search term to identify PubMed-listed clinical research studies on urolithiasis in 2014 (fourth quarter). All authors screened the results for eligibility criteria and two independent reviewers evaluated and performed data extraction of predefined endpoints, including level of evidence, declaration of COI and sponsorship/funding (as indicated in the published print version), and commercial impact. A total of 110 clinical trials in urolithiasis listed in PubMed met the inclusion criteria. Levels of evidence 1, 2, 3 and 4 were found in 15%, 14%, 21% and 51% of trials, respectively. A COI was indicated in a total of 90% of publications, 93% of which declared no existing conflict of interest. Sponsorship was indicated in 36% of publications, 55% of which stated public funding, 33% institutional funding, 10% industrial funding and 2% both public and industrial funding. A total of 11% of the published trials were rated as having a high commercial impact. The present study provides evidence of increasing levels of evidence for published clinical trials on urolithiasis in 2014 (as compared with earlier data). Ninety percent of publications indicated conflicts of interest, whereas sponsoring of studies was declared only by one-third. A considerable number of trials involved issues of high commercial impact. Recently established legal programmes and voluntary acts on self-reporting of financial relationships will enhance transparency in the future; however, increased public funding will be needed to further promote the quality of trials on urolithiasis. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Full Text Available With the rapidly increasing availability of High-Throughput Screening (HTS data in the public domain, such as the PubChem database, methods for ligand-based computer-aided drug discovery (LB-CADD have the potential to accelerate and reduce the cost of probe development and drug discovery efforts in academia. We assemble nine data sets from realistic HTS campaigns representing major families of drug target proteins for benchmarking LB-CADD methods. Each data set is public domain through PubChem and carefully collated through confirmation screens validating active compounds. These data sets provide the foundation for benchmarking a new cheminformatics framework BCL::ChemInfo, which is freely available for non-commercial use. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models are built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, Support Vector Machines (SVMs, Decision Trees (DTs, and Kohonen networks (KNs. Problem-specific descriptor optimization protocols are assessed including Sequential Feature Forward Selection (SFFS and various information content measures. Measures of predictive power and confidence are evaluated through cross-validation, and a consensus prediction scheme is tested that combines orthogonal machine learning algorithms into a single predictor. Enrichments ranging from 15 to 101 for a TPR cutoff of 25% are observed.
Thomas, Philippe; Starlinger, Johannes; Vowinkel, Alexander; Arzt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf
Research results are primarily published in scientific literature and curation efforts cannot keep up with the rapid growth of published literature. The plethora of knowledge remains hidden in large text repositories like MEDLINE. Consequently, life scientists have to spend a great amount of time searching for specific information. The enormous ambiguity among most names of biomedical objects such as genes, chemicals and diseases often produces too large and unspecific search results. We present GeneView, a semantic search engine for biomedical knowledge. GeneView is built upon a comprehensively annotated version of PubMed abstracts and openly available PubMed Central full texts. This semi-structured representation of biomedical texts enables a number of features extending classical search engines. For instance, users may search for entities using unique database identifiers or they may rank documents by the number of specific mentions they contain. Annotation is performed by a multitude of state-of-the-art text-mining tools for recognizing mentions from 10 entity classes and for identifying protein-protein interactions. GeneView currently contains annotations for >194 million entities from 10 classes for ∼21 million citations with 271,000 full text bodies. GeneView can be searched at http://bc3.informatik.hu-berlin.de/.
Kim, Sun; Kwon, Dongseop; Shin, Soo-Yong; Wilbur, W John
Finding protein-protein interaction (PPI) information from literature is challenging but an important issue. However, keyword search in PubMed(®) is often time consuming because it requires a series of actions that refine keywords and browse search results until it reaches a goal. Due to the rapid growth of biomedical literature, it has become more difficult for biologists and curators to locate PPI information quickly. Therefore, a tool for prioritizing PPI informative articles can be a useful assistant for finding this PPI-relevant information. PIE (Protein Interaction information Extraction) the search is a web service implementing a competition-winning approach utilizing word and syntactic analyses by machine learning techniques. For easy user access, PIE the search provides a PubMed-like search environment, but the output is the list of articles prioritized by PPI confidence scores. By obtaining PPI-related articles at high rank, researchers can more easily find the up-to-date PPI information, which cannot be found in manually curated PPI databases. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/PIE/.
Zhang, Ming-jie; Yu, Sheng-yuan; Chu, Bing-qian; Dai, Wei
To investigate the distribution and hot spots of literatures on headache by bibliometric analysis in order to provide reference for further study. Literatures that contained headache or migraine in text words published in 2011 in PubMed databases (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Pubmed) were searched. Journals, countries and subjects were bibliometrically analysed. There were 3683 papers involved to headache published in PubMed in 2011, of which 1527 papers were on headache research. The number of papers on headache research published by USA was the most followed by Italy and Germany (USA 23.25%, Italy 10.74%, Germany 5.83%). The mainly studied subjects were therapy (29.60%), pathophysiology (18.66%) and etiology (16.31%). 14.86% papers published in Cephalalgia, which is one of the most important journals, reported negative results. The emphasis of headache research was on migraine. Therapy, pathophysiology and etiology were the hot spot. Literatures with negative result attracted authors to give the more attention.
This Act will enter into force on 1 January 1992. The scope of the Act is extensive as, in addition to ionizing radiation, it will also apply to activities involving exposure to natural radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Its purpose is to prevent and restrict harmful effects to health resulting from radiation. The basic principles of the Act are that the practice involving radiation should be justified; radiation protection should be optimized; and radiation doses should be as low as reasonably achievable. Licensed organisations using radiation will be responsible for the safety of the activity involving exposure to radiation and for having available the appropriate expertise to this effect. The required so-called safety licence provides the regulatory control to ensure that radiation is used sensibly, that the equipment and shields are technically acceptable and the operating personnel is competent, and that the radioactive waste is dealt with appropriately. The Radiation Act will also apply to nuclear activities within the scope of the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act [fr
The importance of the treatment of the unsafe acts for the prevention of accidents in petrochemical industry; A importancia do tratamento dos atos inseguros para a prevencao de acidentes na industria petroquimica
Meneguetti, Alexander A.; Santos, Helio R.F.; Alevato, Hilda; Lima, Luciana S. [Dupont do Brasil S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)
Due to the fact that, the workers' behavior is characterized by its complexity and diversity, this issue has been seen as a great 'black box' in discussions regarding the Management Systems of SHE. Associated with this issue other arises: How conscious people? How to engage them with the process? How to improve the risk control? How to motivate the prevention? Most of these responses are discussed in the Social and Human Sciences for many years. However, it is necessary to closer the technical-operational knowledge and the human aspects, applying in the organizations' daily work, to make the working environment more safe. The purpose of this study, therefore, is examining the possibility of reducing accidents through the identification and treatment of deviations (unsafe acts and unsafe conditions), cause the whole accident, be it serious or not, begins with a small deviation. It was used as a reference tool, the Behavior audit and it is based on field's observations, applied into a production unit of a large petrochemical industry in northern Brazil, during the years 2006 and 2007. (author)
Congress passed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009 with the aim of reducing tobacco-related illnesses and deaths by curbing tobacco's appeal to and use by children and adolescents. Legislators considered provisions of the FSPTCA restricting tobacco advertising and labeling key to realizing the law's intended health benefits. But a lawsuit now before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit challenges the tobacco marketing restrictions as impermissible restraints on tobacco companies' commercial speech rights under the First Amendment. This article analyzes the constitutionality of each FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restriction in light of U.S. Supreme Court decisions defining the extent of First Amendment protection for commercial speech, prior efforts to restrict tobacco marketing, and the outcomes of legal challenges to some of the prior marketing restrictions. Several of the FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restrictions were drafted with insufficient accommodations for tobacco companies' First Amendment right to convey and consumers' First Amendment right to receive truthful information about lawful tobacco products and are therefore unconstitutional as currently written.
This thesis is focused on an interesting and dynamic form of business, called franchising. For the purpose of explanation of this form of business purely Czech company The PUB Franchising s.r.o. has been selected. This company is the owner of the gastronomic franching concept The PUB Pilsner Unique Bar. This thesis not only illuminates the franchising business as such, but analyzes and proposes a strategy to facilitate the future development of the concept The PUB in the Czech Republic but al...
Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.
Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined
Vanhecke, Thomas E; Barnes, Michael A; Zimmerman, Janet; Shoichet, Sandor
PubMed and HighWire Press are both useful medical literature search engines available for free to anyone on the internet. We measured retrieval accuracy, number of results generated, retrieval speed, features and search tools on HighWire Press and PubMed using the quick search features of each. We found that using HighWire Press resulted in a higher likelihood of retrieving the desired article and higher number of search results than the same search on PubMed. PubMed was faster than HighWire Press in delivering search results regardless of search settings. There are considerable differences in search features between these two search engines.
Vellay, S G P; Latimer, N E Miller; Paillard, G
Text mining has become an integral part of all research in the medical field. Many text analysis software platforms support particular use cases and only those. We show an example of a bibliographic tool that can be used to support virtually any use case in an agile manner. Here we focus on a Pipeline Pilot web-based application that interactively analyzes and reports on PubMed search results. This will be of interest to any scientist to help identify the most relevant papers in a topical area more quickly and to evaluate the results of query refinement. Links with Entrez databases help both the biologist and the chemist alike. We illustrate this application with Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, as a case study.
Arguello Casteleiro, Mercedes; Maseda Fernandez, Diego; Demetriou, George; Read, Warren; Fernandez Prieto, Maria Jesus; Des Diz, Julio; Nenadic, Goran; Keane, John; Stevens, Robert
We investigate the application of distributional semantics models for facilitating unsupervised extraction of biomedical terms from unannotated corpora. Term extraction is used as the first step of an ontology learning process that aims to (semi-)automatic annotation of biomedical concepts and relations from more than 300K PubMed titles and abstracts. We experimented with both traditional distributional semantics methods such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) as well as the neural language models CBOW and Skip-gram from Deep Learning. The evaluation conducted concentrates on sepsis, a major life-threatening condition, and shows that Deep Learning models outperform LSA and LDA with much higher precision.
Full Text Available The execution of scientific workflows is gaining importance as more computing resources are available in the form of grid environments. The Publish/Subscribe paradigm offers well-proven solutions for sustaining distributed scenarios while maintaining the high level of task decoupling required by scientific workflows. In this paper, we propose a new model for supporting scientific workflows that improves the dissemination of control events. The proposed solution is based on the mapping of workflow tasks to the underlying Pub/Sub event layer, and the definition of interfaces and procedures for execution on brokers. In this paper we also analyze the strengths and weaknesses of current solutions that are based on existing message exchange models for scientific workflows. Finally, we explain how our model improves the information dissemination, event filtering, task decoupling and the monitoring of scientific workflows.
Morales, Augusto; Robles, Tomas; Alcarria, Ramon; Cedeño, Edwin
The execution of scientific workflows is gaining importance as more computing resources are available in the form of grid environments. The Publish/Subscribe paradigm offers well-proven solutions for sustaining distributed scenarios while maintaining the high level of task decoupling required by scientific workflows. In this paper, we propose a new model for supporting scientific workflows that improves the dissemination of control events. The proposed solution is based on the mapping of workflow tasks to the underlying Pub/Sub event layer, and the definition of interfaces and procedures for execution on brokers. In this paper we also analyze the strengths and weaknesses of current solutions that are based on existing message exchange models for scientific workflows. Finally, we explain how our model improves the information dissemination, event filtering, task decoupling and the monitoring of scientific workflows.
Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano
Objectives Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. Methods We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one ‘more specific’, one ‘more sensitive’). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. Results The ‘more specific’ filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The ‘more sensitive’ filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the ‘more specific’ filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the ‘more sensitive’ one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the ‘more specific’ filter and 3.3 for the ‘more sensitive’ one. Conclusions The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. PMID:28003291
Oh, Hyo-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Mi; Kim, Chonghyuck; Jeon, Jae-Gyu
Water fluoridation has been cited as one of the top 10 public health achievements of the 20th century. Herein, we analyzed water fluoridation articles related to dental caries published in PubMed between 1950 and 2016 using informetrics and linguistic methods to investigate trends in the studies. To this aim, queries such as "dental caries and (water fluoridation or fluoridated water)," "dental caries and (fluoride or fluoridation)," and "dental caries" were submitted to PubMed to retrieve information about articles on water fluoridation within the area of dental caries and fluoride - their titles, abstracts, publication dates, author affiliations, and publication journals. This article information was then collected by an automatic web crawler and examined through informetrics and linguistic analyses. It was found that the number of articles concerned with water fluoridation and dental caries was 3,381 and declined over time after 1970. The articles were published by 750 journals - most notably, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology and Caries Research. With regard to the geographic distribution of the authors, Europe and North America, especially the USA and UK, accounted for 59.9% of the articles published during the years 1987 to 2015, though there was a sharp increase in the number of authors in Oceania and Asia in recent years. In the titles and abstracts of the articles, "community" and "fluorosis" were mentioned more frequently than the other key terms selected in this study, regardless of the period examined. Our findings may allow one to assess how the research on water fluoridation has evolved over the past several decades. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Li, J; Lu, Z
Search filters have been developed and demonstrated for better information access to the immense and ever-growing body of publications in the biomedical domain. However, to date the number of filters remains quite limited because the current filter development methods require significant human efforts in manual document review and filter term selection. In this regard, we aim to investigate automatic methods for generating search filters. We present an automated method to develop topic-specific filters on the basis of users' search logs in PubMed. Specifically, for a given topic, we first detect its relevant user queries and then include their corresponding clicked articles to serve as the topic-relevant document set accordingly. Next, we statistically identify informative terms that best represent the topic-relevant document set using a background set composed of topic irrelevant articles. Lastly, the selected representative terms are combined with Boolean operators and evaluated on benchmark datasets to derive the final filter with the best performance. We applied our method to develop filters for four clinical topics: nephrology, diabetes, pregnancy, and depression. For the nephrology filter, our method obtained performance comparable to the state of the art (sensitivity of 91.3%, specificity of 98.7%, precision of 94.6%, and accuracy of 97.2%). Similarly, high-performing results (over 90% in all measures) were obtained for the other three search filters. Based on PubMed click-through data, we successfully developed a high-performance method for generating topic-specific search filters that is significantly more efficient than existing manual methods. All data sets (topic-relevant and irrelevant document sets) used in this study and a demonstration system are publicly available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/downloads/CQ_filter/
Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano
Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one 'more specific', one 'more sensitive'). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. The 'more specific' filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The 'more sensitive' filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the 'more specific' filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the 'more sensitive' one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the 'more specific' filter and 3.3 for the 'more sensitive' one. The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Volpato, Enilze S N; Betini, Marluci; El Dib, Regina
A high-quality electronic search is essential in ensuring accuracy and completeness in retrieved records for the conducting of a systematic review. We analysed the available sample of search strategies to identify the best method for searching in Medline through PubMed, considering the use or not of parenthesis, double quotation marks, truncation and use of a simple search or search history. In our cross-sectional study of search strategies, we selected and analysed the available searches performed during evidence-based medicine classes and in systematic reviews conducted in the Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, Brazil. We analysed 120 search strategies. With regard to the use of phrase searches with parenthesis, there was no difference between the results with and without parenthesis and simple searches or search history tools in 100% of the sample analysed (P = 1.0). The number of results retrieved by the searches analysed was smaller using double quotations marks and using truncation compared with the standard strategy (P = 0.04 and P = 0.08, respectively). There is no need to use phrase-searching parenthesis to retrieve studies; however, we recommend the use of double quotation marks when an investigator attempts to retrieve articles in which a term appears to be exactly the same as what was proposed in the search form. Furthermore, we do not recommend the use of truncation in search strategies in the Medline via PubMed. Although the results of simple searches or search history tools were the same, we recommend using the latter.
Ecrepont, Stephane; Cudennec, Christophe; Jaffrezic, Anne; de Lavenne, Alban
Towards hydrochemical PUB - stable vs. heterogeneous NO3 and DOC signatures across hydrographic structure and size Ecrepont, S.1Cudennec, C.1 Jaffrézic, A.1 de Lavenne, A.2 1UMR SAS, Agrocampus Ouest, Rennes, France 2 HBAN, Irstea, Antony, France Intensive agriculture is a major disturbing factor for water quality in Brittany, France. Observations of chemical data from 350 catchments over a 15 year period show that the high variability of hydrochemical dynamics between catchments in relation to geographic characteristics and farming practices, decreases with an increase in the catchment size. A stable signature of nitrate and DOC dynamics does emerge for bigger catchments, and was evidenced statistically. We adapted a modified version of the standard deviation formula to calculate an index on mean inter-annual winter nitrate and dissolved organic carbon concentrations to characterize each catchment. The method was applied to the whole sample of catchments, some of them nested, to investigate variation of our new index across scales and regions. Results show an increasing and non-linear relationship between the criterion and the surface, with threshold effects. The stability of the thresholds across river basins in Brittany, and across seasons and years is explored. This emergence relates to the progressive connection of streams with heterogeneous characteristic chemical signatures into a mixing dominant effect. The better assessment of this relationship opens two major perspectives: i) to define a geomorphology-based PUB (Prediction in Ungauged Basins) approach for hydrochemistry; ii) to identify the most critical sub-catchments for mitigating actions in terms of farming and landscape practices towards water quality recovery.
Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Colomba, Daniela; Ippolito, Calogero; Gargano, Vincenzo; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Licata, Giuseppe
In recent years, there has been a growing interest about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and the use of CAM interventions has become more common among people. For these reasons, health professionals must be able to effectively manage information in this field of knowledge according to an evidence-based point of view. This study assessed the anatomy of the available information about CAMs using PubMed, to give practical instructions to manage information in this field. We also analyzed the anatomy of information according to each alternative medicine branch, narrow and broad search methods, subset filters for indexed-for-Medline and non-indexed citations, and different publication types including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAMs subset (supplied by PubMed search engine) leads to a great number of citations determining an information overload. Our data reveal that it would be more useful to search for the CAM separately, identifying specific items and study design. Moreover, we found the largest number of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses related to herbal medicine and acupuncture, neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for bach and flower remedies, auriculoacupuncture, iridology, and pranotherapy. For the first time, our study gives a comprehensive view of the anatomy of information regarding CAMs and each branch of them. We suggest a methodological approach to face with searching information about this emerging issue from an evidence-based point of view. Finally, our data pointed out some "grey zones" since neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for some CAMs.
... Logistics; Pub.L. 95-521, Ethics in Government Act; and DoD Directive 7050.5, Coordination of Remedies for Fraud and Corruption Related to Procurement Activities.'' Purpose(s): Delete entry and replace with... or group of individuals or other entities from DLA procurement and sales.'' Routine uses of records...
... 1974; Computer Matching Program AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and... computer matching program between the Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503) and the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Amendments of 1990...
... 1974; Computer Matching Program AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and... Agreement that establishes a computer matching program between the Department of Homeland Security/U.S... and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503) and the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection...
... 1974; Computer Matching Program AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and... computer matching program between the Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503) and the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Amendments of 1990...
Agoritsas, Thomas; Merglen, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Combescure, Christophe; Garin, Nicolas; Perrier, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas V
Clinicians perform searches in PubMed daily, but retrieving relevant studies is challenging due to the rapid expansion of medical knowledge. Little is known about the performance of search strategies when they are applied to answer specific clinical questions. To compare the performance of 15 PubMed search strategies in retrieving relevant clinical trials on therapeutic interventions. We used Cochrane systematic reviews to identify relevant trials for 30 clinical questions. Search terms were extracted from the abstract using a predefined procedure based on the population, interventions, comparison, outcomes (PICO) framework and combined into queries. We tested 15 search strategies that varied in their query (PIC or PICO), use of PubMed's Clinical Queries therapeutic filters (broad or narrow), search limits, and PubMed links to related articles. We assessed sensitivity (recall) and positive predictive value (precision) of each strategy on the first 2 PubMed pages (40 articles) and on the complete search output. The performance of the search strategies varied widely according to the clinical question. Unfiltered searches and those using the broad filter of Clinical Queries produced large outputs and retrieved few relevant articles within the first 2 pages, resulting in a median sensitivity of only 10%-25%. In contrast, all searches using the narrow filter performed significantly better, with a median sensitivity of about 50% (all P PubMed pages. These results can help clinicians apply effective strategies to answer their questions at the point of care.
Duffy, Steven; de Kock, Shelley; Misso, Kate; Noake, Caro; Ross, Janine; Stirk, Lisa
The research investigated whether conducting a supplementary search of PubMed in addition to the main MEDLINE (Ovid) search for a systematic review is worthwhile and to ascertain whether this PubMed search can be conducted quickly and if it retrieves unique, recently published, and ahead-of-print studies that are subsequently considered for inclusion in the final systematic review. Searches of PubMed were conducted after MEDLINE (Ovid) and MEDLINE In-Process (Ovid) searches had been completed for seven recent reviews. The searches were limited to records not in MEDLINE or MEDLINE In-Process (Ovid). Additional unique records were identified for all of the investigated reviews. Search strategies were adapted quickly to run in PubMed, and reviewer screening of the results was not time consuming. For each of the investigated reviews, studies were ordered for full screening; in six cases, studies retrieved from the supplementary PubMed searches were included in the final systematic review. Supplementary searching of PubMed for studies unavailable elsewhere is worthwhile and improves the currency of the systematic reviews.
... Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008; Conduct in Violation of the Act AGENCY... fairer market place. DATES: We will consider comments we receive by August 23, 2010. ADDRESSES: We invite... Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill) (Pub. L. 110-246), Congress...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act... Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act in certain bank holding company situations. (a) Questions have... Service Corporation Act (Pub. L. 87-856, approved October 23, 1962) in cases involving service...
Boeker, Martin; Vach, Werner; Motschall, Edith
To quantitatively describe (1) differences between search results derived at consecutive time points with the PubMed and OvidSP literature search interfaces over a five day interval, and (2) the migration of citations through different subsets to estimate the timeliness of OvidSP. PubMed-Identifiers (PMIDs) of the following subsets were retrieved from PubMed and OvidSP simultaneously (within 8 h) at 11 days in March and April 2010 including 5 consecutive days: as supplied by publisher, in process, PubMed not MEDLINE, and OLDMEDLINE. Search results were compared for difference and intersection sets. The migration of citations on individual level was determined by comparison of corresponding sets over several days. The "in process" set was stable with about 446,000 - 452,000 citations; a small fraction of up to 3 % of the total subsets were in PubMed only and OvidSP only subsets. About 96 % of the ca. 10,500 citations in the OvidSP only subset migrated within 2 days out of the "in process" subset. The database of OvidSP is updated within a period of two days.
... records of the Military Police Report are maintained in the Centralized Operations Police Suite (COPS... Violence Prevention Act; 28 U.S.C. 534, Uniform Federal Crime Reporting Act of 1988; 42 U.S.C. 5119 et seq... complying with mandatory background checks, i.e., Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (18 U.S.C. 922) and...
Alvaro, Nestor; Miyao, Yusuke; Collier, Nigel
Work on pharmacovigilance systems using texts from PubMed and Twitter typically target at different elements and use different annotation guidelines resulting in a scenario where there is no comparable set of documents from both Twitter and PubMed annotated in the same manner. This study aimed to provide a comparable corpus of texts from PubMed and Twitter that can be used to study drug reports from these two sources of information, allowing researchers in the area of pharmacovigilance using natural language processing (NLP) to perform experiments to better understand the similarities and differences between drug reports in Twitter and PubMed. We produced a corpus comprising 1000 tweets and 1000 PubMed sentences selected using the same strategy and annotated at entity level by the same experts (pharmacists) using the same set of guidelines. The resulting corpus, annotated by two pharmacists, comprises semantically correct annotations for a set of drugs, diseases, and symptoms. This corpus contains the annotations for 3144 entities, 2749 relations, and 5003 attributes. We present a corpus that is unique in its characteristics as this is the first corpus for pharmacovigilance curated from Twitter messages and PubMed sentences using the same data selection and annotation strategies. We believe this corpus will be of particular interest for researchers willing to compare results from pharmacovigilance systems (eg, classifiers and named entity recognition systems) when using data from Twitter and from PubMed. We hope that given the comprehensive set of drug names and the annotated entities and relations, this corpus becomes a standard resource to compare results from different pharmacovigilance studies in the area of NLP. ©Nestor Alvaro, Yusuke Miyao, Nigel Collier. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 03.05.2017.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: We aimed to: (i assess compliance with a new smokefree law in a range of hospitality settings; and (ii to assess the impact of the new law by measuring air quality and making comparisons with air quality in outdoor smoking areas and with international data from hospitality settings. Methods: We included 34 pubs, restaurants and bars, 10 transportation settings, nine other indoor settings, six outdoor smoking areas of bars and restaurants, and six other outdoor settings. These were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. The number of lit cigarettes among occupants at defined time points in each venue was observed and a portable real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure fine particulate levels (PM2.5. Results: No smoking was observed during the data collection periods among over 3785 people present in the indoor venues, nor in any of the transportation settings. The levels of fine particulates were relatively low inside the bars, pubs and restaurants in the urban and rural settings (mean 30-minute level = 16 μg/m3 for 34 venues; range of mean levels for each category: 13 μg/m3 to 22 μg/m3. The results for other smokefree indoor settings (shops, offices etc and for smokefree transportation settings (eg, buses, trains, etc were even lower. However, some "outdoor" smoking areas attached to bars/restaurants had high levels of fine particulates, especially those that were partly enclosed (eg, up to a 30-minute mean value of 182 μg/m3 and a peak of maximum value of 284 μg/m3. The latter are far above WHO guideline levels for 24-hour exposure (ie, 25μg/m3. Conclusion: There was very high compliance with the new national smokefree law and this was also reflected by the relatively good indoor air quality in hospitality settings (compared to the "outdoor" smoking areas and the comparable settings in countries that permit indoor smoking. Nevertheless, adopting enhanced regulations (as used in
Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard; Maher, Anthony; Näthe, Jenny; Jalali, Rafed
We aimed to: (i) assess compliance with a new smokefree law in a range of hospitality settings; and (ii) to assess the impact of the new law by measuring air quality and making comparisons with air quality in outdoor smoking areas and with international data from hospitality settings. We included 34 pubs, restaurants and bars, 10 transportation settings, nine other indoor settings, six outdoor smoking areas of bars and restaurants, and six other outdoor settings. These were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. The number of lit cigarettes among occupants at defined time points in each venue was observed and a portable real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure fine particulate levels (PM2.5). No smoking was observed during the data collection periods among over 3785 people present in the indoor venues, nor in any of the transportation settings. The levels of fine particulates were relatively low inside the bars, pubs and restaurants in the urban and rural settings (mean 30-minute level = 16 microg/m3 for 34 venues; range of mean levels for each category: 13 microg/m3 to 22 microg/m3). The results for other smokefree indoor settings (shops, offices etc) and for smokefree transportation settings (eg, buses, trains, etc) were even lower. However, some "outdoor" smoking areas attached to bars/restaurants had high levels of fine particulates, especially those that were partly enclosed (eg, up to a 30-minute mean value of 182 microg/m3 and a peak of maximum value of 284 microg/m3). The latter are far above WHO guideline levels for 24-hour exposure (ie, 25 microg/m3). There was very high compliance with the new national smokefree law and this was also reflected by the relatively good indoor air quality in hospitality settings (compared to the "outdoor" smoking areas and the comparable settings in countries that permit indoor smoking). Nevertheless, adopting enhanced regulations (as used in various US and Canadian jurisdictions) may be
Senter, Katherine G [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Chaum, Ed [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness and common complication of diabetes. Many diabetic patients take antihypertensive drugs to prevent cardiovascular problems, but these drugs may have unintended consequences on eyesight. Six common classes of antihypertensive drug are angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, alpha blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), -blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics. Analysis of medical history data might indicate which of these drugs provide safe blood pressure control, and a literature review is often used to guide such analyses. Beyond manual reading of relevant publications, we sought to identify quantitative trends in literature from the biomedical database PubMed to compare with quantitative trends in the clinical data. By recording and analyzing PubMed search results, we found wide variation in the prevalence of each antihypertensive drug in DR literature. Drug classes developed more recently such as ACE inhibitors and ARBs were most prevalent. We also identified instances of change-over-time in publication patterns. We then compared these literature trends to a dataset of 500 diabetic patients from the UT Hamilton Eye Institute. Data for each patient included class of antihypertensive drug, presence and severity of DR. Graphical comparison revealed that older drug classes such as diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and -blockers were much more prevalent in the clinical data than in the DR and antihypertensive literature. Finally, quantitative analysis of the dataset revealed that patients taking -blockers were statistically more likely to have DR than patients taking other medications, controlling for presence of hypertension and year of diabetes onset. This finding was concerning given the prevalence of -blockers in the clinical data. We determined that clinical use of -blockers should be minimized in diabetic patients to prevent retinal damage.
... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-05, approved February 17, 2009) (Recovery Act), and implementing guidance... conditioning units and Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) outlets for the Riverdale Senior Apartments... implementing guidance published on April 23, 2009 (74 FR 18449), this notice advises the public that, on...
... Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA), Public Law (Pub. L.) 104-208, September 30, 1996. The E... Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA), Public Law 104-208, dated September 30... system: Storage: Records in this system are stored electronically, on magnetic disc, tape, digital media...
... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act... written statements to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native...
... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166 (h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act... submitted to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200... CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division [[Page 56816
... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room S...: Mrs. Campbell, DFO, Indian and Native American Program, Employment and Training Administration, U.S...
... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166 (h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native American Programs...
... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue... Recommendations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Indian and Native American...
... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act... written statements to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of... Recommendations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native...
... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue... Workgroup Reports; and (10) Council Recommendations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Campbell, DFO...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2011-0090] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA)/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2012-0016] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA)/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2009-0043] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration/Railroad Retirement Board (SSA/RRB))-- Match... INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 Public Law (Pub. L.) 100-503...
Simon, Michael; Hausner, Elke; Klaus, Susan F; Dunton, Nancy E
The identification of health services research in databases such as PubMed/Medline is a cumbersome task. This task becomes even more difficult if the field of interest involves the use of diverse methods and data sources, as is the case with nurse staffing research. This type of research investigates the association between nurse staffing parameters and nursing and patient outcomes. A comprehensively developed search strategy may help identify nurse staffing research in PubMed/Medline. A set of relevant references in PubMed/Medline was identified by means of three systematic reviews. This development set was used to detect candidate free-text and MeSH terms. The frequency of these terms was compared to a random sample from PubMed/Medline in order to identify terms specific to nurse staffing research, which were then used to develop a sensitive, precise and balanced search strategy. To determine their precision, the newly developed search strategies were tested against a) the pool of relevant references extracted from the systematic reviews, b) a reference set identified from an electronic journal screening, and c) a sample from PubMed/Medline. Finally, all newly developed strategies were compared to PubMed's Health Services Research Queries (PubMed's HSR Queries). The sensitivities of the newly developed search strategies were almost 100% in all of the three test sets applied; precision ranged from 6.1% to 32.0%. PubMed's HSR queries were less sensitive (83.3% to 88.2%) than the new search strategies. Only minor differences in precision were found (5.0% to 32.0%). As with other literature on health services research, nurse staffing studies are difficult to identify in PubMed/Medline. Depending on the purpose of the search, researchers can choose between high sensitivity and retrieval of a large number of references or high precision, i.e. and an increased risk of missing relevant references, respectively. More standardized terminology (e.g. by consistent use of the
Hon, Kam Lun E.; Luk, David Chi Kong; Leong, Kin Fon; Leung, Alexander K. C.
Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids, and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aureus colonization is a common complication. As there is no immediate cure, many parents seek alternative therapies that claim unproven therapeutic efficacy. We report a girl with long history of treatment noncompliance. After practicing a long period of dietary avoidance and supplementation, the grandparents took her to an alternative medicine practitioner. Following cupping therapy and acupuncture, the child developed blistering and oozing over her back the next day, which rapidly evolved to two large irregular-edge deep ulcers. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics and received multidisciplinary supportive intervention. Using search words of “cupping,” “eczema,” and “atopic dermatitis,” only two reports were found on PubMed. Therapeutic efficacy was claimed but not scientifically documented in these reports. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with serious undesirable sequelae. Physicians should be aware of various alternative treatment modalities and be prepared to offer evidence-based advice to the patients with eczema and their families. PMID:24282650
Kam Lun E. Hon
Full Text Available Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids, and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aureus colonization is a common complication. As there is no immediate cure, many parents seek alternative therapies that claim unproven therapeutic efficacy. We report a girl with long history of treatment noncompliance. After practicing a long period of dietary avoidance and supplementation, the grandparents took her to an alternative medicine practitioner. Following cupping therapy and acupuncture, the child developed blistering and oozing over her back the next day, which rapidly evolved to two large irregular-edge deep ulcers. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics and received multidisciplinary supportive intervention. Using search words of “cupping,” “eczema,” and “atopic dermatitis,” only two reports were found on PubMed. Therapeutic efficacy was claimed but not scientifically documented in these reports. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with serious undesirable sequelae. Physicians should be aware of various alternative treatment modalities and be prepared to offer evidence-based advice to the patients with eczema and their families.
Wang Qian; Xia Guanghui; Ma Xiaohong; Zhao Xinming
Objective: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the developmental rule and feature in low-dose CT examinations and to provide useful references for study in the future. Materials and Methods: The journal articles on PubMed from 2002 to 2011 were processed by Thomson Data Analyzer and five aspects were analysed: time, authors, institutions, journals, countries, and keywords. Results: The number of journal articles in low-dose CT examinations were 6 433, 3165 were from US (49.2%), 112 from China (1.4%); 3664 authors (80.42%) published only one article, the famous authors published more than 4 articles; there were 9 core journals in this area. In the last decade, the number and quality of the journal articles in low -dose CT have been dramatically increased. Conclusion: The interest on the low -dose CT examination has been steadily increasing, and world famous research teams have been established. The research in low-dose CT is a multi-discipline involving medicine, medical physics, and mathematics. Cooperation between multiple scientific domains is needed for the future studies. (authors)
Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Pi, Xingjun; McEntyre, Johanna R
In this study, we present an analysis of data citation practices in full text research articles and their corresponding supplementary data files, made available in the Open Access set of articles from Europe PubMed Central. Our aim is to investigate whether supplementary data files should be considered as a source of information for integrating the literature with biomolecular databases. Using text-mining methods to identify and extract a variety of core biological database accession numbers, we found that the supplemental data files contain many more database citations than the body of the article, and that those citations often take the form of a relatively small number of articles citing large collections of accession numbers in text-based files. Moreover, citation of value-added databases derived from submission databases (such as Pfam, UniProt or Ensembl) is common, demonstrating the reuse of these resources as datasets in themselves. All the database accession numbers extracted from the supplementary data are publicly accessible from http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11771. Our study suggests that supplementary data should be considered when linking articles with data, in curation pipelines, and in information retrieval tasks in order to make full use of the entire research article. These observations highlight the need to improve the management of supplemental data in general, in order to make this information more discoverable and useful.
Zhang, Yuji; Shen, Feichen; Mojarad, Majid Rastegar; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Sijia; Tao, Cui; Yu, Yue; Liu, Hongfang
Recent scientific advances have accumulated a tremendous amount of biomedical knowledge providing novel insights into the relationship between molecular and cellular processes and diseases. Literature mining is one of the commonly used methods to retrieve and extract information from scientific publications for understanding these associations. However, due to large data volume and complicated associations with noises, the interpretability of such association data for semantic knowledge discovery is challenging. In this study, we describe an integrative computational framework aiming to expedite the discovery of latent disease mechanisms by dissecting 146,245 disease-gene associations from over 25 million of PubMed indexed articles. We take advantage of both Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) modeling and network-based analysis for their capabilities of detecting latent associations and reducing noises for large volume data respectively. Our results demonstrate that (1) the LDA-based modeling is able to group similar diseases into disease topics; (2) the disease-specific association networks follow the scale-free network property; (3) certain subnetwork patterns were enriched in the disease-specific association networks; and (4) genes were enriched in topic-specific biological processes. Our approach offers promising opportunities for latent disease-gene knowledge discovery in biomedical research.
Kim, Sun; Kim, Won; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) contains manually curated literature that describes chemical-gene interactions, chemical-disease relationships and gene-disease relationships. Finding articles containing this information is the first and an important step to assist manual curation efficiency. However, the complex nature of named entities and their relationships make it challenging to choose relevant articles. In this article, we introduce a machine learning framework for prioritizing CTD-relevant articles based on our prior system for the protein-protein interaction article classification task in BioCreative III. To address new challenges in the CTD task, we explore a new entity identification method for genes, chemicals and diseases. In addition, latent topics are analyzed and used as a feature type to overcome the small size of the training set. Applied to the BioCreative 2012 Triage dataset, our method achieved 0.8030 mean average precision (MAP) in the official runs, resulting in the top MAP system among participants. Integrated with PubTator, a Web interface for annotating biomedical literature, the proposed system also received a positive review from the CTD curation team.
Kokol, Peter; Vošner, Helena Blažun
The overall aim of the present study was to compare the coverage of existing research funding information for articles indexed in Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases. The numbers of articles with funding information published in 2015 were identified in the three selected databases and compared using bibliometric analysis of a sample of twenty-eight prestigious medical journals. Frequency analysis of the number of articles with funding information showed statistically significant differences between Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases. The largest proportion of articles with funding information was found in Web of Science (29.0%), followed by PubMed (14.6%) and Scopus (7.7%). The results show that coverage of funding information differs significantly among Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases in a sample of the same medical journals. Moreover, we found that, currently, funding data in PubMed is more difficult to obtain and analyze compared with that in the other two databases.
... quality care for older women, and ends the gender discrimination that requires women to pay more for the same insurance coverage ... the Affordable Care Act and 13 million more women will gain coverage by 2016. Maternity Coverage Preventive ... Expanded Insurance Coverage Endnotes Download "rb. ...
Strong Internal Controls at Service Delivery Level Will Help Prevent CETA-Type Fraud and Abuse in Job Training Partnership Act Programs. Report to Senator Sam Nunn, Ranking Minority Member, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
The Government Accounting Office (GAO) conducted an examination of patterns and causes of fraud in Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs to determine how implementation of Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs might be made less vulnerable to exploitation. GAO's investigation found that fraud and abuse in CETA programs…
¿Puede el ejercicio físico moderado durante el embarazo actuar como un factor de prevención de la Diabetes Gestacional? (Can moderate physical exercise during pregnancy act as a factor in preventing Gestational Diabetes?
Yaiza Cordero Rodríguez
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to know the effectiveness of exercise of a moderate program developed during pregnancy in the excessive maternal weight gain and development of Gestational Diabetes (GD. We performed a clinical trial, randomized, unmatched, not masked by mean the collaboration between the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Health Center of Torrelodones (Madrid and the Polytechnic University of Madrid. 55 pregnant women without obstetric contraindications were studied, (age= 32,9±3,9 years, all of them caucasian, 25 in the treatment group and 30 in the control group. A physical exercise program was developed (land/water three times per week during pregnancy. According to our resultats, treatment group showed a lower maternal weight gain than in the control group (12.820±3.682 g and 14.780 g ± 3.427 g respectively, p=0.03. The values in the O'Sullivan test are lower in the treatment group than in the control group (102,9±17,7 gr/dL vs 125,6±30,8 gr/dL respectively, p=0,002. Not diagnosed any cases of GD in the treatment group while the control group 2 cases were diagnosed. The exercise done during the pregnancy reduces maternal weight gain, values of O’Sullivan score and apparently acts as a preventive factor of the GD.ResumenEl presente trabajo pretende conocer la eficacia de un programa de ejercicio f��sico moderado desarrollado durante todo el embarazo en la excesiva ganancia de peso materno y el desarrollo de la Diabetes Gestacional (DG. Se realizó un ensayo clínico, aleatorizado, no apareado, no enmascarado mediante una colaboración entre el Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia del Centro de Salud de Torrelodones y la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. 55 gestantes sin contraindicaciones obstétricas fueron estudiadas, (edad=32,9±3,9 años, todas ellas caucásicas, 25 en el grupo de tratamiento y 30 en el de control. Se desarrolló un programa de ejercicio físico (seco/agua durante todo el embarazo
Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard
The way that PubMed results are displayed can be changed using the Display Settings drop-down menu in the result screen. There are three groups of options: Format, Items per page and Sort by, which allow a good deal of control. The results from several searches can be temporarily stored on the Clipboard. Records of interest can be selected on the results page using check boxes and can then be combined, for example to form a reference list. The Related Citations is a valuable feature of PubMed that can provide a set of similar articles when you have identified a record of interest among the results. You can easily search for RCTs or reviews using the appropriate filters or field tags. If you are interested in clinical articles, rather than basic science or health service research, then the Clinical Queries tool on the PubMed home page can be used to retrieve them.
Preventing recurrence of endometriosis by means of long-acting progestogen therapy (PRE-EMPT): report of an internal pilot, multi-arm, randomised controlled trial incorporating flexible entry design and adaption of design based on feasibility of recruitment.
Middleton, Lee J; Daniels, Jane P; Weckesser, Annalise; Bhattacharya, Siladitya
Endometriosis is associated with the growth of endometrium in ectopic sites mainly within the pelvis. This results in inflammation and scarring, causing pain and impaired quality of life. Endometriotic lesions can be excised or ablated surgically, but the risk of recurrence is high. A Heath Technology Assessment commissioning call in 2011 sought applications for trials aimed at evaluating long-term effectiveness of postoperative, long-acting, reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in preventing recurrence of endometriosis. A survey of gynaecologists indicated that there was no consensus about which LARC (Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA)) or comparator (combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) or no treatment) should be evaluated. Hence, we designed a 'flexible-entry' internal pilot to assess whether a four-arm trial was feasible including a possible design adaption based on pilot findings. In this pilot, women could be randomised to two, three or four treatment options provided that one was a LARC and one was a non-LARC. An assessment of feasibility based on recruitment to these options and a revised substantive trial design was considered by an independent oversight committee. The study ran for 1 year from April 2014 and 77 women were randomised. Only 5 (6%) women accepted randomisation to all groups, with 63 (82%) having a LARC preference and 55 (71%) a non-LARC preference. Four-way and three-way designs were ruled out with a two-way LARC versus COCP design, stratified by prerandomisation choice of LARC and optional subrandomisation to LNG-IUS versus DMPA considered a feasible substantive study. Multi-arm studies are potentially efficient as they can answer multiple questions simultaneously but are difficult to recruit to if there are strong patient or clinician preferences. A flexible approach to randomisation in a pilot phase can be used to assess feasibility of such studies and modify a trial design
Sheets, L; Gavino, A; Callaghan, F; Fontelo, P
Increased usage of MedlinePlus by Spanish-speakers was observed after introduction of MedlinePlus in Spanish. This probably reflects increased usage of MEDLINE and PubMed by those with greater fluency in the language in which it is presented; but this has never been demonstrated in English speakers. Evidence that lack of English fluency deters international healthcare personnel from using PubMed could support the use of multi-language search tools like Babel-MeSH. This study aims to measure the effects of language fluency and other socioeconomic factors on PubMed MEDLINE and MedlinePlus access by international users. We retrospectively reviewed server pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus from various periods of time, and analyzed them against country statistics on language fluency, GDP, literacy rate, Internet usage, medical schools, and physicians per capita, to determine whether they were associated. We found fluency in English to be positively associated with pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus in countries with high literacy rates. Spanish was generally found to be positively associated with pageviews of MedlinePlus en Español. The other parameters also showed varying degrees of association with pageviews. After adjusting for the other factors investigated in this study, language fluency was a consistently significant predictor of the use of PubMed, MedlinePlus English and MedlinePlus en Español. This study may support the need for multi-language search tools and may increase access of health information resources from non-English speaking countries.
Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy; Topham, Philip
Today, there are more than 18 million articles related to biomedical research indexed in MEDLINE, and information derived from them could be used effectively to save the great amount of time and resources spent by government agencies in understanding the scientific landscape, including key opinion leaders and centers of excellence. Associating biomedical articles with organization names could significantly benefit the pharmaceutical marketing industry, health care funding agencies and public health officials and be useful for other scientists in normalizing author names, automatically creating citations, indexing articles and identifying potential resources or collaborators. Large amount of extracted information helps in disambiguating organization names using machine-learning algorithms. We propose NEMO, a system for extracting organization names in the affiliation and normalizing them to a canonical organization name. Our parsing process involves multi-layered rule matching with multiple dictionaries. The system achieves more than 98% f-score in extracting organization names. Our process of normalization that involves clustering based on local sequence alignment metrics and local learning based on finding connected components. A high precision was also observed in normalization. NEMO is the missing link in associating each biomedical paper and its authors to an organization name in its canonical form and the Geopolitical location of the organization. This research could potentially help in analyzing large social networks of organizations for landscaping a particular topic, improving performance of author disambiguation, adding weak links in the co-author network of authors, augmenting NLM's MARS system for correcting errors in OCR output of affiliation field, and automatically indexing the PubMed citations with the normalized organization name and country. Our system is available as a graphical user interface available for download along with this paper.
Boudry, Christophe; Denion, Eric; Mortemousque, Bruno; Mouriaux, Fréderic
The purpose of this study is to provide a report on scientific production during the period 2010-2014 in order to identify the major topics as well as the predominant actors (journals, countries, continents) involved in the field of eye disease. A PubMed search was carried out to extract articles related to eye diseases during the period 2010-2014. Data were downloaded and processed through developed PHP scripts for further analysis. A total of 62,123 articles were retrieved. A total of 3,368 different journals were found, and 19 journals were identified as "core journals" according to Braford's law. English was by far the predominant language. A total of 853,182 MeSH terms were found, representing an average of 13.73 (SD = 4.98) MeSH terms per article. Among these 853,182 MeSH terms, 14,689 different MeSH terms were identified. Vision Disorders, Glaucoma, Diabetic Retinopathy, Macular Degeneration, and Cataract were the most frequent five MeSH terms related to eye diseases. The analysis of the total number of publications showed that Europe and Asia were the most productive continents, and the USA and China the most productive countries. Interestingly, using the mean Five-Year Impact Factor, the two most productive continents were North America and Oceania. After adjustment for population, the overall ranking positions changed in favor of smaller countries (i.e. Iceland, Switzerland, Denmark, and New Zealand), while after adjustment for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the overall ranking positions changed in favor of some developing countries (Malawi, Guatemala, Singapore). Due to the large number of articles included and the numerous parameters analyzed, this study provides a wide view of scientific productivity related to eye diseases during the period 2010-2014 and allows us to better understand this field.
Good, Benjamin M; Nanis, Max; Wu, Chunlei; Su, Andrew I
Identifying concepts and relationships in biomedical text enables knowledge to be applied in computational analyses. Many biological natural language processing (BioNLP) projects attempt to address this challenge, but the state of the art still leaves much room for improvement. Progress in BioNLP research depends on large, annotated corpora for evaluating information extraction systems and training machine learning models. Traditionally, such corpora are created by small numbers of expert annotators often working over extended periods of time. Recent studies have shown that workers on microtask crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) can, in aggregate, generate high-quality annotations of biomedical text. Here, we investigated the use of the AMT in capturing disease mentions in PubMed abstracts. We used the NCBI Disease corpus as a gold standard for refining and benchmarking our crowdsourcing protocol. After several iterations, we arrived at a protocol that reproduced the annotations of the 593 documents in the 'training set' of this gold standard with an overall F measure of 0.872 (precision 0.862, recall 0.883). The output can also be tuned to optimize for precision (max = 0.984 when recall = 0.269) or recall (max = 0.980 when precision = 0.436). Each document was completed by 15 workers, and their annotations were merged based on a simple voting method. In total 145 workers combined to complete all 593 documents in the span of 9 days at a cost of $.066 per abstract per worker. The quality of the annotations, as judged with the F measure, increases with the number of workers assigned to each task; however minimal performance gains were observed beyond 8 workers per task. These results add further evidence that microtask crowdsourcing can be a valuable tool for generating well-annotated corpora in BioNLP. Data produced for this analysis are available at http://figshare.com/articles/Disease_Mention_Annotation_with_Mechanical_Turk/1126402.
Satran, Carmit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Hammond, S Katharine; Baron-Epel, Orna
In 2007 an amendment to the law restricting smoking in pubs and bars (P&Bs) was enacted in Israel. However, a year after the ban only slight decreases in airborne smoke in P&Bs in one city have been reported. We aimed to assess levels of airborne nicotine in Israeli P&Bs and to measure ifself-reported enforcement of the law by local officials was associated with levels of airborne nicotine in P&Bs. Airborne nicotine levels were measured in 72 P&Bs in 29 towns in Israel; this consisted of 90% of eligible towns. In addition, 73 local authority officials were interviewed in 25 of these towns. The officials were asked to assess the local authority's level of enforcement of the law banning smoking in P&Bs. The association of levels of airborne nicotine with the levels of enforcement of the law was calculated. Data were collected during 2009-2010 and analyzed in 2010-2011. Levels of airborne nicotine were comparatively high in P&Bs. No association was detected between levels of nicotine and the P&Bs' characteristics. In the larger towns, levels of airborne nicotine were higher. In 16% of towns the local authority officials reported high levels of law enforcement. Generally, levels of reported enforcement by local authorities were low and did not predict levels of airborne nicotine in the P&Bs. Self-reported local authorities' law enforcement was not associated with levels of airborne nicotine in P&Bs in these towns. There is a need to develop ways to increase law enforcement by the local authorities or other agencies.
Xu, Qinyi; Boggio, Andrea; Ballabeni, Andrea
Studying publication volumes at the country level is key to understanding and improving a country’s research system. PubMed is a public search engine of publications in all life sciences areas. Here, we show how this search engine can be used to assess the outputs of life science-related research by country. We have measured the numbers of publications during different time periods based on the country of affiliation of the first authors. Moreover, we have designed scores, which we have named Attraction Scores, to appraise the relative focus either toward particular types of studies, such as clinical trials or reviews, or toward specific research areas, such as public health and pharmacogenomics, or toward specific topics, for instance embryonic stem cells; we have also investigated a possible use of these Attraction Scores in connection with regulatory policies. We have weighed the statistics against general indicators such as country populations and gross domestic products (GDP). During the 5-year period 2008-2012, the United States was the country with the highest number of publications and Denmark the one with the highest number of publications per capita. Among the 40 countries with the highest GDPs, Israel had the highest publications-to-GDP ratio. Among the 20 countries with the most publications, Japan had the highest Attraction Score for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and Italy the highest proportion of review publications. More than 50% of publications in English were from countries in which English is not the primary language. We show an assorted and extensive collection of rankings and charts that will inform scholars and policymakers in studying and improving the research systems both at the national and international level. PMID:26401263
Mattioli, Stefano; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Ricotta, Lara; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Farioli, Andrea; Zanardi, Francesca; Galletti, Stefania; Colosio, Claudio; Curti, Stefania; Violante, Francesco S
Several optimized search strategies have been developed in Medicine, and more recently in Occupational Medicine. The aim of this study was to identify efficient PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles regarding putative occupational determinants of agricultural workers' diseases. We selected the Medical Subjects Heading (MeSH) term agricultural workers' diseases and six MeSH terms describing farm work (agriculture, agrochemicals NOT pesticides, animal husbandry, pesticides, rural health, rural population) alongside 61 other promising terms. We estimated proportions of articles containing potentially pertinent information regarding occupational etiology to formulate two search strategies (one "more specific," one "more sensitive"). We applied these strategies to retrieve information on the possible occupational etiology among agricultural workers of kidney cancer, knee osteoarthritis, and multiple sclerosis. We evaluated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these pathologies. The "more specific" search string was based on the combination of terms that yielded the highest proportion (40%) of potentially pertinent abstracts. The "more sensitive" string was based on use of broader search fields and additional coverage provided by other search terms under study. Using the "more specific" string, the NNR to find one potentially pertinent article were: 1.1 for kidney cancer; 1.4 for knee osteoarthritis; 1.2 for multiple sclerosis. Using the sensitive strategy, the NNR were 1.4, 3.6, and 6.3, respectively. The proposed strings could help health care professionals explore putative occupational etiology for agricultural workers' diseases (even if not generally thought to be work related). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Valdés S, Gloria; Pérez G, Fernanda; Reyes B, Humberto
During the years 2008 and 2009, 1,191 biomedical articles authored by Chilean investigators working in Chile were indexed in PubMed. To evaluate the potential visibility of those articles, according to scientometric indexes of the journals where they were published. Those journals where the articles had been published were identified and each journals Impact Factor (JIF), 5-year JIF, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), SCImago Quartiles (Q) for 2010 and the Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) for 2008-2009 were identified. Three hundred and twelve articles (26,2%) were dedicated to experimental studies in animals, tissues or cells and they were classified as Biomedicine, while 879 (73,8%) were classified as Clinical Medicine; in both areas the main type of articles were original reports (90% and 73.6%, respectively). Revista Médica de Chile and Revista Chilena de Infectología concentrated the greater number of publications. Articles classified in Biomedicine were published more frequently in English and in journals with higher scientometric indexes than those classified in Clinical Medicine. Biomedical articles dealing with clinical topics, particularly case reports, were published mostly in national journals or in foreign journals with low scientometric indexes. It can be partly attributable to the authors interest in reaching local readers. The evaluation of research productivity should combine several scientometric indexes, selected according to the field of research, the institution's and investigators interests, with a qualitative and multifactorial assessment.
Decree no 90-918 of 11 october 1990 on exercising rights to information on major risks, in implementation of Section 21 of act no 87-565 of 22 july 1987 on the organisation of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and prevention of major risks
This Decree specifies the content and type of information to which persons likely to be exposed to major risks must have access, in accordance with the 1987 Act. These provisions apply in the communes for which a special action plan has been prepared. The information includes a description of the risks and their foreseeable consequences for persons, property and the environment, and a statement on the preventive measures to limit their effects. A summary record of this information is established [fr
... communication cables; facility access authorizations/restrictions; photographs, fingerprints; financial records... Reinvestigating Individuals in Positions of Public Trust; and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act...
Davis, Philip M
Does PubMed Central--a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles--compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers.
Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard
Although the basic PubMed search is often helpful, the results may sometimes be non-specific. For more control over the search process you can use the Advanced Search Builder interface. This allows a targeted search in specific fields, with the convenience of being able to select the intended search field from a list. It also provides a history of your previous searches. The search history is useful to develop a complex search query by combining several previous searches using Boolean operators. For indexing the articles in MEDLINE, the NLM uses a controlled vocabulary system called MeSH. This standardised vocabulary solves the problem of authors, researchers and librarians who may use different terms for the same concept. To be efficient in a PubMed search, you should start by identifying the most appropriate MeSH terms and use them in your search where possible. My NCBI is a personal workspace facility available through PubMed and makes it possible to customise the PubMed interface. It provides various capabilities that can enhance your search performance.
Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy
Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…
Zhao, Di; Weng, Chunhua
In this paper, we propose a novel method that combines PubMed knowledge and Electronic Health Records to develop a weighted Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) model for pancreatic cancer prediction. We selected 20 common risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer and used PubMed knowledge to weigh the risk factors. A keyword-based algorithm was developed to extract and classify PubMed abstracts into three categories that represented positive, negative, or neutral associations between each risk factor and pancreatic cancer. Then we designed a weighted BNI model by adding the normalized weights into a conventional BNI model. We used this model to extract the EHR values for patients with or without pancreatic cancer, which then enabled us to calculate the prior probabilities for the 20 risk factors in the BNI. The software iDiagnosis was designed to use this weighted BNI model for predicting pancreatic cancer. In an evaluation using a case-control dataset, the weighted BNI model significantly outperformed the conventional BNI and two other classifiers (k-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machine). We conclude that the weighted BNI using PubMed knowledge and EHR data shows remarkable accuracy improvement over existing representative methods for pancreatic cancer prediction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Yin; Figler, Bryan; Huang, Hong; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Ju; Cheng, Feng
Identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for the development of safe pharmaceutical drugs and for the optimization of multidrug regimens for complex diseases such as cancer and HIV. There have been about 150,000 publications on DDIs in PubMed, which is a great resource for DDI studies. In this paper, we introduced an automatic computational method for the systematic analysis of the mechanism of DDIs using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms from PubMed literature. MeSH term is a controlled vocabulary thesaurus developed by the National Library of Medicine for indexing and annotating articles. Our method can effectively identify DDI-relevant MeSH terms such as drugs, proteins and phenomena with high accuracy. The connections among these MeSH terms were investigated by using co-occurrence heatmaps and social network analysis. Our approach can be used to visualize relationships of DDI terms, which has the potential to help users better understand DDIs. As the volume of PubMed records increases, our method for automatic analysis of DDIs from the PubMed database will become more accurate.
Guaraldi, Federica; Parasiliti-Caprino, Mirko; Goggi, Riccardo; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Ghigo, Ezio; Giordano, Roberta; Gori, Davide
The exponential growth of scientific literature available through electronic databases (namely PubMed) has increased the chance of finding interesting articles. At the same time, search has become more complicated, time consuming, and at risk of missing important information. Therefore, optimized strategies have to be adopted to maximize searching impact. The aim of this study was to formulate efficient strings to search PubMed for etiologic associations between adrenal disorders (ADs) and other conditions. A comprehensive list of terms identifying endogenous conditions primarily affecting adrenals was compiled. An ad hoc analysis was performed to find the best way to express each term in order to find the highest number of potentially pertinent articles in PubMed. A predefined number of retrieved abstracts were read to assess their association with ADs' etiology. A more sensitive (providing the largest literature coverage) and a more specific (including only those terms retrieving >40 % of potentially pertinent articles) string were formulated. Various researches were performed to assess strings' ability to identify articles of interest in comparison with non-optimized literature searches. We formulated optimized, ready applicable tools for the identification of the literature assessing etiologic associations in the field of ADs using PubMed, and demonstrated the advantages deriving from their application. Detailed description of the methodological process is also provided, so that this work can easily be translated to other fields of practice.
... advance payments under sealed bid contracts. 32.405 Section 32.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Non-Commercial Items 32.405 Applying Pub. L. 85-804 to advance payments under sealed bid contracts. (a... provisions of law relating to contracts, as explained in 50.101-1(a), also include making advance payments...
Vinkers, Christiaan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824755; Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. METHODS: The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and
Full Text Available Identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI is an important topic for the development of safe pharmaceutical drugs and for the optimization of multidrug regimens for complex diseases such as cancer and HIV. There have been about 150,000 publications on DDIs in PubMed, which is a great resource for DDI studies. In this paper, we introduced an automatic computational method for the systematic analysis of the mechanism of DDIs using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings terms from PubMed literature. MeSH term is a controlled vocabulary thesaurus developed by the National Library of Medicine for indexing and annotating articles. Our method can effectively identify DDI-relevant MeSH terms such as drugs, proteins and phenomena with high accuracy. The connections among these MeSH terms were investigated by using co-occurrence heatmaps and social network analysis. Our approach can be used to visualize relationships of DDI terms, which has the potential to help users better understand DDIs. As the volume of PubMed records increases, our method for automatic analysis of DDIs from the PubMed database will become more accurate.
Ma, Yan; Dong, Ming; Zhou, Kehua; Mita, Carol; Liu, Jianping; Wayne, Peter M
Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1995 and 2014 with sufficient information for bibliometric analyses. Rates and patterns of acupuncture publication within the 20 year observational period were estimated, and compared with broader publication rates in biomedicine. Identified eligible publications were further analyzed with respect to study type/design, clinical condition addressed, country of origin, and journal impact factor. A total of 13,320 acupuncture-related publications were identified using our search strategy and eligibility criteria. Regression analyses indicated an exponential growth in publications over the past two decades, with a mean annual growth rate of 10.7%. This compares to a mean annual growth rate of 4.5% in biomedicine. A striking trend was an observed increase in the proportion of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), from 7.4% in 1995 to 20.3% in 2014, exceeding the 4.5% proportional growth of RCTs in biomedicine. Over the 20 year period, pain was consistently the most common focus of acupuncture research (37.9% of publications). Other top rankings with respect to medical focus were arthritis, neoplasms/cancer, pregnancy or labor, mood disorders, stroke, nausea/vomiting, sleep, and paralysis/palsy. Acupuncture research was conducted in 60 countries, with the top 3 contributors being China (47.4%), United States (17.5%), and United Kingdom (8.2%). Retrieved articles were published mostly in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although mentoring is acknowledged as a key to successful and satisfying careers in medicine, formal mentoring programs for medical students are lacking in most countries. Within the framework of planning a mentoring program for medical students at Zurich University, an investigation was carried out into what types of programs exist, what the objectives pursued by such programs are, and what effects are reported. Methods A PubMed literature search was conducted for 2000 - 2008 using the following keywords or their combinations: mentoring, mentoring program, medical student, mentor, mentee, protégé, mentorship. Although a total of 438 publications were identified, only 25 papers met the selection criteria for structured programs and student mentoring surveys. Results The mentoring programs reported in 14 papers aim to provide career counseling, develop professionalism, increase students' interest in research, and support them in their personal growth. There are both one-to-one and group mentorships, established in the first two years of medical school and continuing through graduation. The personal student-faculty relationship is important in that it helps students to feel that they are benefiting from individual advice and encourages them to give more thought to their career choices. Other benefits are an increase in research productivity and improved medical school performance in general. Mentored students also rate their overall well-being as higher. - The 11 surveys address the requirements for being an effective mentor as well as a successful mentee. A mentor should empower and encourage the mentee, be a role model, build a professional network, and assist in the mentee's personal development. A mentee should set agendas, follow through, accept criticism, and be able to assess performance and the benefits derived from the mentoring relationship. Conclusion Mentoring is obviously an important career advancement tool for
Background Although mentoring is acknowledged as a key to successful and satisfying careers in medicine, formal mentoring programs for medical students are lacking in most countries. Within the framework of planning a mentoring program for medical students at Zurich University, an investigation was carried out into what types of programs exist, what the objectives pursued by such programs are, and what effects are reported. Methods A PubMed literature search was conducted for 2000 - 2008 using the following keywords or their combinations: mentoring, mentoring program, medical student, mentor, mentee, protégé, mentorship. Although a total of 438 publications were identified, only 25 papers met the selection criteria for structured programs and student mentoring surveys. Results The mentoring programs reported in 14 papers aim to provide career counseling, develop professionalism, increase students' interest in research, and support them in their personal growth. There are both one-to-one and group mentorships, established in the first two years of medical school and continuing through graduation. The personal student-faculty relationship is important in that it helps students to feel that they are benefiting from individual advice and encourages them to give more thought to their career choices. Other benefits are an increase in research productivity and improved medical school performance in general. Mentored students also rate their overall well-being as higher. - The 11 surveys address the requirements for being an effective mentor as well as a successful mentee. A mentor should empower and encourage the mentee, be a role model, build a professional network, and assist in the mentee's personal development. A mentee should set agendas, follow through, accept criticism, and be able to assess performance and the benefits derived from the mentoring relationship. Conclusion Mentoring is obviously an important career advancement tool for medical students. In Europe
Khoury Muin J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.
Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter
Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is eviden...
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990..., whenever feasible. Pollution prevention approaches should be applied to all pollution-generating activities...
... journal or other industry publication. (b) Years to which applicable. An election made under subsection (c... day for making an election under subsection (c). An election by a taxpayer under subsection (c) shall... Stat. 683; 26 U.S.C. 613 note) [T.D. 6583, 26 FR 12077, Dec. 16, 1961] ...
Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L. 104-109, a Tribe/Consortium has the right to include any provision of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an...
Vinkers, Christiaan H; Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. METHODS: The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and neutral words (25 preselected words in each category), plus 100 randomly selected words were normalised for the total number of abstracts. Subanalyses included pattern quantification of individual wo...
... network expansion and enhancement. Funding is appropriated under the Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148... Intent To Award Affordable Care Act (ACA) Funding, EH09-907 AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... in their FY 2011 applications submitted under funding opportunity EH09-907, ``National Environmental...
... the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503), Office of Management and... safeguards for disclosure of Social Security benefit information to OPM via direct computer link for the... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program Between the Office...
... INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503), amended... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2009-0052] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2012-0067] Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching... Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program... INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law (Pub. L.) 100-503...
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... report of this computer-matching program with the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs... INFORMATION: A. General The Computer-Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, (Pub. L. 100-503), amended... RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice of Computer-Matching Program...
...: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer-matching... INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law (Pub. L.) 100-503... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2012-0021] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended...
... notice of its renewal of an ongoing computer-matching program with the Social Security Administration... computer-matching program with the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate... Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, (Pub. L. 100-503), amended by the Privacy Act of 1974...
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... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2009-0066] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Internal Revenue Service (IRS))--Match 1305 AGENCY: Social Security... INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law (Pub. L.) 100-503...
... Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law (Pub. L.) 100-503), amended the Privacy... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2010-0006] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Department of Veterans Affairs/Veterans Benefits Administration (VA/ VBA...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2009-0077] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Office of Personnel Management (OPM))--Match 1307 AGENCY: Social Security... INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law (Pub. L.) 100-503...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2010-0040] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Railroad Retirement Board (RRB))--Match Number 1006 AGENCY: Social Security...: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L.) 100-503), amended the...
... will file a report of this computer-matching program with the Committee on Homeland Security and... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, (Pub. L. 100-503... RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice of Computer Matching Program...
This Catalog lists and describes the Standard Reference Materials (SRM's), Research Materials (RM's), and General Materials (GM's) currently distributed by the National Bureau of Standards, as well as many of the materials currently in preparation. SRM's are used to calibrate measurement systems and to provide a central basis for uniformity and accuracy of measurement. The unit and quantity, the type, and the certified characterization are listed for each SRM, as well as directions for ordering. The RM's are not certified, but are issued to meet the needs of scientists engaged in materials research. RM's are issued with a 'Report of Investigation', the sole authority of which is the author of the report. The GM's are standardized by some agency other than NBS. NBS acts only as a distribution point and does not participate in the standardization of these materials. Announcements of new and renewal SRM's, RM's and GM's are made in the semi-annual supplements of this Catalog, SRM Price List, and in scientific and trade journals
Nakata, Maho; Shimazaki, Tomomi
Large-scale molecular databases play an essential role in the investigation of various subjects such as the development of organic materials, in silico drug design, and data-driven studies with machine learning. We have developed a large-scale quantum chemistry database based on first-principles methods. Our database currently contains the ground-state electronic structures of 3 million molecules based on density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, and we successively calculated 10 low-lying excited states of over 2 million molecules via time-dependent DFT with the B3LYP functional and the 6-31+G* basis set. To select the molecules calculated in our project, we referred to the PubChem Project, which was used as the source of the molecular structures in short strings using the InChI and SMILES representations. Accordingly, we have named our quantum chemistry database project "PubChemQC" ( http://pubchemqc.riken.jp/ ) and placed it in the public domain. In this paper, we show the fundamental features of the PubChemQC database and discuss the techniques used to construct the data set for large-scale quantum chemistry calculations. We also present a machine learning approach to predict the electronic structure of molecules as an example to demonstrate the suitability of the large-scale quantum chemistry database.
Schuers, Matthieu; Joulakian, Mher; Kerdelhué, Gaetan; Segas, Léa; Grosjean, Julien; Darmoni, Stéfan J; Griffon, Nicolas
MEDLINE is the most widely used medical bibliographic database in the world. Most of its citations are in English and this can be an obstacle for some researchers to access the information the database contains. We created a multilingual query builder to facilitate access to the PubMed subset using a language other than English. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of this multilingual query builder on the quality of PubMed queries for non-native English speaking physicians and medical researchers. A randomised controlled study was conducted among French speaking general practice residents. We designed a multi-lingual query builder to facilitate information retrieval, based on available MeSH translations and providing users with both an interface and a controlled vocabulary in their own language. Participating residents were randomly allocated either the French or the English version of the query builder. They were asked to translate 12 short medical questions into MeSH queries. The main outcome was the quality of the query. Two librarians blind to the arm independently evaluated each query, using a modified published classification that differentiated eight types of errors. Twenty residents used the French version of the query builder and 22 used the English version. 492 queries were analysed. There were significantly more perfect queries in the French group vs. the English group (respectively 37.9% vs. 17.9%; p PubMed queries in particular for researchers whose first language is not English.
Durão, Solange; Kredo, Tamara; Volmink, Jimmy
To develop, assess, and maximize the sensitivity of a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed using relative recall. We developed a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed. We then constructed a gold standard reference set to validate the identified trials using the relative recall method. Relative recall was calculated by dividing the number of references from the gold standard our search strategy identified by the total number of references in the gold standard. Our gold standard comprised 298 trials, derived from 16 included systematic reviews. The initial search strategy identified 242 of 298 references, with a relative recall of 81.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 76.3%, 85.5%]. We analyzed titles and abstracts of the 56 missed references for possible additional terms. We then modified the search strategy accordingly. The relative recall of the final search strategy was 88.6% (95% CI: 84.4%, 91.9%). We developed a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed with a high relative recall (sensitivity). This could be useful for establishing a nutrition trials register to support the conduct of future research, including systematic reviews. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This 1984 Act on Nuclear Activities (1984:3) replaces the 1956 Atomic Energy Act as well as the 1977 Act on special permits to charge nuclear reactors with nuclear fuel and the 1980 Act on Public Insight into the Safety Work at Nuclear Power Plants. Like the 1956 Act, the 1984 Act in a safety legislation, which is based on a system of licensing conditions and supervision. According to the fundamental provisions of the 1984 Act, nuclear activities should be conducted in such a way as to meet safety requirements and fulfil the obligations that follow from Sweden's international agreements for the purpose of preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (NEA) [fr
Wahl, Michael J.
Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions
The purpose of this Act is to provide the basis for an environmental policy in Portugal. Section 25 of the Act deals with radioactive substances. It provides that any contamination likely to be caused by these substances should be controlled with a view to preventing its effects on the health and welfare of the population and specifies the methods for such control [fr
Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. S.1214 to Establish Standards for the Placement of Indian Children in Foster or Adoptive Homes, to Prevent the Breakup of Indian Families, and for Other Purposes. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs and Public Lands of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session (February 9 and March 9, 1978).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.
Testimonies were heard by the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs and Public Lands in reference to the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, which establishes standards for the placement of Indian children in foster or adoptive homes to prevent the breakup of Indian families. Representatives from the following organizations testified: Administration for…
Ljusic, Dragana; Ravanic, Dragan; Filipovic Danic, Snezana; Soldatovic, Ivan; Cvetkovic, Jovana; Stojanovic Tasic, Mirjana
Suicide remains a significant public health problem worldwide. This study is aimed at analyzing and presenting contemporary methods in suicide prevention in the world as well as at identifying specific risk groups and risk factors in order to explain their importance. in suicide prevention. The literature search covered electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. In order to select the relevant articles, the authors searched for the combination of key-words which included the following medical subject heading terms (suicide or suicide ideation or attempted) and (prevention or risk factors) and (man or elders or mental disorders). Data analysis covered meta-analyses, systematic reviews and original scientific papers with different characteristics of suicide preventions, risk factors and risk groups. Worldwide evidence-based interventions for suicide prevention are divided in universal, selective and indicated interventions. Restricted approach to various methods of committing suicide as well as pharmacotherapy contributes to a lower suicide rate. Suicide risk factors can be categorized as proximal and distal. The following groups are at highest risk of committing suicide: males. older persons and persons with registered psychiatric disorders. There is a lot of evidence that suicide is preventable. It is known that only 28 coun tries in the world have national suicide prevention strategies and Serbia is not one of them.
Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.
BACKGROUND: UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources,
Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.
BACKGROUND: The use of PubMed to answer daily medical care questions is limited because it is challenging to retrieve a small set of relevant articles and time is restricted. Knowing what aspects of queries are likely to retrieve relevant articles can increase the effectiveness of PubMed searches.
An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).
Vanderlip, Erik R; Williams, Nancy A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Katon, Wayne
People with serious mental illness often receive inadequate primary and preventive care services. Federal healthcare reform endorses team-based care that provides high quality primary and preventive care to at risk populations. Assertive community treatment (ACT) teams offer a proven, standardized treatment approach effective in improving mental health outcomes for the seriously mentally ill. Much is known about the effectiveness of ACT teams in improving mental health outcomes, but the degree to which medical care needs are addressed is not established. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which ACT teams address the physical health of the population they serve. ACT team leaders were invited to complete an anonymous, web-based survey to explore attitudes and activities involving the primary care needs of their clients. Information was collected regarding the use of health screening tools, physical health assessments, provision of medical care and collaboration with primary care systems. Data was analyzed from 127 team leaders across the country, of which 55 completed the entire survey. Nearly every ACT team leader believed ACT teams have a role in identifying and managing the medical co-morbidities of their clientele. ACT teams report participation in many primary care activities. ACT teams are providing a substantial amount of primary and preventive services to their population. The survey suggests standardization of physical health identification, management or referral processes within ACT teams may result in improved quality of medical care. ACT teams are in a unique position to improve physical health care by virtue of having medically trained staff and frequent, close contact with their clients.
The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Eisinger, Daniel; Tsatsaronis, George; Bundschus, Markus; Wieneke, Ulrich; Schroeder, Michael
Document search on PubMed, the pre-eminent database for biomedical literature, relies on the annotation of its documents with relevant terms from the Medical Subject Headings ontology (MeSH) for improving recall through query expansion. Patent documents are another important information source, though they are considerably less accessible. One option to expand patent search beyond pure keywords is the inclusion of classification information: Since every patent is assigned at least one class code, it should be possible for these assignments to be automatically used in a similar way as the MeSH annotations in PubMed. In order to develop a system for this task, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the properties of both classification systems. This report describes our comparative analysis of MeSH and the main patent classification system, the International Patent Classification (IPC). We investigate the hierarchical structures as well as the properties of the terms/classes respectively, and we compare the assignment of IPC codes to patents with the annotation of PubMed documents with MeSH terms.Our analysis shows a strong structural similarity of the hierarchies, but significant differences of terms and annotations. The low number of IPC class assignments and the lack of occurrences of class labels in patent texts imply that current patent search is severely limited. To overcome these limits, we evaluate a method for the automated assignment of additional classes to patent documents, and we propose a system for guided patent search based on the use of class co-occurrence information and external resources.
Song, Michael M; Simonsen, Cheryl K; Wilson, Joanna D; Jenkins, Marjorie R
An effective literature search strategy is critical to achieving the aims of Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH): to understand sex and gender differences through research and to effectively incorporate the new knowledge into the clinical decision making process to benefit both male and female patients. The goal of this project was to develop and validate an SGSH literature search tool that is readily and freely available to clinical researchers and practitioners. PubMed, a freely available search engine for the Medline database, was selected as the platform to build the SGSH literature search tool. Combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms, text words, and title words were evaluated for optimal specificity and sensitivity. The search tool was then validated against reference bases compiled for two disease states, diabetes and stroke. Key sex and gender terms and limits were bundled to create a search tool to facilitate PubMed SGSH literature searches. During validation, the search tool retrieved 50 of 94 (53.2%) stroke and 62 of 95 (65.3%) diabetes reference articles selected for validation. A general keyword search of stroke or diabetes combined with sex difference retrieved 33 of 94 (35.1%) stroke and 22 of 95 (23.2%) diabetes reference base articles, with lower sensitivity and specificity for SGSH content. The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center SGSH PubMed Search Tool provides higher sensitivity and specificity to sex and gender specific health literature. The tool will facilitate research, clinical decision-making, and guideline development relevant to SGSH.
Li, Xiuxia; Wang, Rong; Shi, Xiue; Chen, Zehao; Pan, Yuanqing; Li, Xusheng; Yang, Kehu
Acupuncture analgesia has been evaluated by a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, a systematic summary of reporting quality of RCTs in this specific field is lacking. To examine the reporting characteristics and risk of bias of RCTs of acupuncture analgesia indexed in the PubMed database. A PubMed search of RCTs of acupuncture analgesia was conducted through November 2015. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the risk of bias of each trial. 206 articles were identified across 59 journals (impact factor 0.4-20), of which 56% of articles and 86% of journals were Science Citation Index (SCI)-indexed. Nearly half of the articles were published in China. The next most represented countries of origin were the UK (22%) and USA (21%). Of the included trials, postoperative pain was the most prevalent phenotype, and manual acupuncture was the most frequently applied type of stimulation (46%). A total of 12% of articles reported on analgesic mechanisms. The most frequently used acupuncture points were LI4, ST36, PC6, SP6 and Shenmen . The overwhelming majority of trials were considered to be at high risk of bias (84%). Furthermore, 79% of trials enrolled PubMed journals generally exhibited poor reporting of methodological and treatment details. Future studies should provide more information regarding clinical trial registration, blinding of participants (including sham procedures where applicable) and outcome assessors, as well as the training and qualification of acupuncturists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Mehta, Ravindra L; Parikh, Chirag R; Garg, Amit X
We frequently fail to identify articles relevant to the subject of acute kidney injury (AKI) when searching the large bibliographic databases such as PubMed, Ovid Medline or Embase. To address this issue, we used computer automation to create information search filters to better identify articles relevant to AKI in these databases. We first manually reviewed a sample of 22 992 full-text articles and used prespecified criteria to determine whether each article contained AKI content or not. In the development phase (two-thirds of the sample), we developed and tested the performance of >1.3-million unique filters. Filters with high sensitivity and high specificity for the identification of AKI articles were then retested in the validation phase (remaining third of the sample). We succeeded in developing and validating high-performance AKI search filters for each bibliographic database with sensitivities and specificities in excess of 90%. Filters optimized for sensitivity reached at least 97.2% sensitivity, and filters optimized for specificity reached at least 99.5% specificity. The filters were complex; for example one PubMed filter included >140 terms used in combination, including 'acute kidney injury', 'tubular necrosis', 'azotemia' and 'ischemic injury'. In proof-of-concept searches, physicians found more articles relevant to topics in AKI with the use of the filters. PubMed, Ovid Medline and Embase can be filtered for articles relevant to AKI in a reliable manner. These high-performance information filters are now available online and can be used to better identify AKI content in large bibliographic databases.
Lee, Paul H; Tse, Andy C Y
There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries. We reviewed and analyzed all RCTs published in December 2014 with journals indexed in PubMed. The 2014 Impact Factors for the journals were used as proxies for their quality. Of the 451 analyzed papers, 58.1% reported an a priori sample size calculation. Nearly all papers provided the level of significance (97.7%) and desired power (96.6%), and most of the papers reported the minimum clinically important effect size (73.3%). The median (inter-quartile range) of the percentage difference of the reported and calculated sample size calculation was 0.0% (IQR -4.6%;3.0%). The accuracy of the reported sample size was better for studies published in journals that endorsed the CONSORT statement and journals with an impact factor. A total of 98 papers had provided targeted sample size on trial registries and about two-third of these papers (n=62) reported sample size calculation, but only 25 (40.3%) had no discrepancy with the reported number in the trial registries. The reporting of the sample size calculation in RCTs published in PubMed-indexed journals and trial registries were poor. The CONSORT statement should be more widely endorsed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chan, Lawrence Wc; Liu, Ying; Chan, Tao; Law, Helen Kw; Wong, S C Cesar; Yeung, Andy Ph; Lo, K F; Yeung, S W; Kwok, K Y; Chan, William Yl; Lau, Thomas Yh; Shyu, Chi-Ren
Similarity-based retrieval of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) from large clinical information systems provides physicians the evidence support in making diagnoses or referring examinations for the suspected cases. Clinical Terms in EHRs represent high-level conceptual information and the similarity measure established based on these terms reflects the chance of inter-patient disease co-occurrence. The assumption that clinical terms are equally relevant to a disease is unrealistic, reducing the prediction accuracy. Here we propose a term weighting approach supported by PubMed search engine to address this issue. We collected and studied 112 abdominal computed tomography imaging examination reports from four hospitals in Hong Kong. Clinical terms, which are the image findings related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), were extracted from the reports. Through two systematic PubMed search methods, the generic and specific term weightings were established by estimating the conditional probabilities of clinical terms given HCC. Each report was characterized by an ontological feature vector and there were totally 6216 vector pairs. We optimized the modified direction cosine (mDC) with respect to a regularization constant embedded into the feature vector. Equal, generic and specific term weighting approaches were applied to measure the similarity of each pair and their performances for predicting inter-patient co-occurrence of HCC diagnoses were compared by using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. The Areas under the curves (AUROCs) of similarity scores based on equal, generic and specific term weighting approaches were 0.735, 0.728 and 0.743 respectively (p PubMed. Our findings suggest that the optimized similarity measure with specific term weighting to EHRs can improve significantly the accuracy for predicting the inter-patient co-occurrence of diagnosis when compared with equal and generic term weighting approaches.
Työn tarkoituksena oli laatia uusi omavalvontasuunnitelma Pub Nattarin Yläbaariin. Omavalvonta on ollut lakisääteistä vuodesta 1995 lähtien, jolloin Suomen liityttyä Euroopan unioniin elintarvikehygieniadirektiivin määräys omavalvonnasta sisällytettiin lainsäädäntöön. Laki edellyttää, että omavalvontasuunnitelma tulee löytyä kirjallisena omavalvontasuunnitelmana, jossa elinkeinonharjoittaja on selvittänyt tuotteidensa käsittelyyn liittyvät riskikohdat ja sen, miten ne saadaan mahdollisimman p...
Iansavichus, Arthur V; Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Levin, Adeera; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Tu, Karen; Nesrallah, Gihad E; Nash, Danielle M; Garg, Amit X
Finding relevant articles in large bibliographic databases such as PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and EMBASE to inform care and future research is challenging. Articles relevant to chronic kidney disease (CKD) are particularly difficult to find because they are often published under different terminology and are found across a wide range of journal types. We used computer automation within a diagnostic test assessment framework to develop and validate information search filters to identify CKD articles in large bibliographic databases. 22,992 full-text articles in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, or EMBASE. 1,374,148 unique search filters. We established the reference standard of article relevance to CKD by manual review of all full-text articles using prespecified criteria to determine whether each article contained CKD content or not. We then assessed filter performance by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for the retrieval of CKD articles. Filters with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of CKD articles in the development phase (two-thirds of the sample) were then retested in the validation phase (remaining one-third of the sample). We developed and validated high-performance CKD search filters for each bibliographic database. Filters optimized for sensitivity reached at least 99% sensitivity, and filters optimized for specificity reached at least 97% specificity. The filters were complex; for example, one PubMed filter included more than 89 terms used in combination, including "chronic kidney disease," "renal insufficiency," and "renal fibrosis." In proof-of-concept searches, physicians found more articles relevant to the topic of CKD with the use of these filters. As knowledge of the pathogenesis of CKD grows and definitions change, these filters will need to be updated to incorporate new terminology used to index relevant articles. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and EMBASE can be filtered reliably for articles relevant to CKD. These
... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...
... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... Royds, Turtle Rock, and Bratina Island to collect soil samples and take permafrost measurements. These... 121-Cape Royds, and ASPA 124-Cape Crozier to collect soils and associated terrestrial invertebrates...
... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... Evans to collect ground control points with highly precise GPS equipment. Their activity will include hiking within each area to readily-identify boulders, peaks, etc., gathering precise GPS coordinates of...
... Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce... to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200.... Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native American Programs, Employment and Training...
... Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166 (h)(4) of the... Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200... least two business days before the meeting. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell...
... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Pub. L. 110-181), which created the Special... custody, use, and preservation of the department's records, papers, and property. To facilitate SIGAR's... any information they post, as with any other information passing through or stored on SIGAR equipment...
... and electronic media. Retrievability: By taxpayer name and Taxpayer Identification Number, social...) is conducting a pilot project funded by the Partnership Fund for Program Integrity Innovation (Partnership Fund). The Partnership Fund was established by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L...
...; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA)/Office of Personnel Management (OPM.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law (Pub... computer matching involving the Federal government could be performed and adding certain protections for...
In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)
Krieger, Mary M; Richter, Randy R; Austin, Tricia M
The research sought to determine (1) how use of the PubMed free full-text (FFT) limit affects citation retrieval and (2) how use of the FFT limit impacts the types of articles and levels of evidence retrieved. Four clinical questions based on a research agenda for physical therapy were searched in PubMed both with and without the use of the FFT limit. Retrieved citations were examined for relevancy to each question. Abstracts of relevant citations were reviewed to determine the types of articles and levels of evidence. Descriptive analysis was used to compare the total number of citations, number of relevant citations, types of articles, and levels of evidence both with and without the use of the FFT limit. Across all 4 questions, the FFT limit reduced the number of citations to 11.1% of the total number of citations retrieved without the FFT limit. Additionally, high-quality evidence such as systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were missed when the FFT limit was used. Health sciences librarians play a key role in educating users about the potential impact the FFT limit has on the number of citations, types of articles, and levels of evidence retrieved.
Capuzzi, Stephen J; Thornton, Thomas E; Liu, Kammy; Baker, Nancy; Lam, Wai In; O'Banion, Colin P; Muratov, Eugene N; Pozefsky, Diane; Tropsha, Alexander
Elucidation of the mechanistic relationships between drugs, their targets, and diseases is at the core of modern drug discovery research. Thousands of studies relevant to the drug-target-disease (DTD) triangle have been published and annotated in the Medline/PubMed database. Mining this database affords rapid identification of all published studies that confirm connections between vertices of this triangle or enable new inferences of such connections. To this end, we describe the development of Chemotext, a publicly available Web server that mines the entire compendium of published literature in PubMed annotated by Medline Subject Heading (MeSH) terms. The goal of Chemotext is to identify all known DTD relationships and infer missing links between vertices of the DTD triangle. As a proof-of-concept, we show that Chemotext could be instrumental in generating new drug repurposing hypotheses or annotating clinical outcomes pathways for known drugs. The Chemotext Web server is freely available at http://chemotext.mml.unc.edu .
Roberto, Anna; Radrezza, Silvia; Mosconi, Paola
In recent years the question of the lack of transparency in clinical research has been debated by clinicians, researchers, citizens and their representatives, authors and publishers. This is particularly important for infrequent cancers such as ovarian cancer, where treatment still gives disappointing results in the majority of cases. Our aim was to assess the availability to the public of results in ClinicalTrials.gov, and the frequency of non-publication of results in ClinicalTrials.gov and in PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar. We collected all trials on ovarian cancer identified as "completed status" in the ClinicalTrials.gov registry on 17 January 2017. We checked the availability of the results in ClinicalTrials.gov and systematically identified published manuscripts on results. Out of 2725 trials on ovarian cancer identified, 752 were classified as "completed status". In those closed between 2008 and 2015, excluding phase I, the frequency of results in ClinicalTrials.gov was 35%. Of the 752 completed studies the frequency of published results in PubMed, Embase or Google Scholar ranged from 57.9% to 69.7% in the last years. These findings show a lack of transparency and credibility of research. Citizens or patients' representatives, with the medical community, should continuously support initiatives to improve the publication and dissemination of clinical study results.
Full Text Available Abstract Background PubMed is the main access to medical literature on the Internet. In order to enhance the performance of its information retrieval tools, primarily non-indexed citations, the authors propose a method: expanding users' queries using Unified Medical Language System' (UMLS synonyms i.e. all the terms gathered under one unique Concept Unique Identifier. Methods This method was evaluated using queries constructed to emphasize the differences between this new method and the current PubMed automatic term mapping. Four experts assessed citation relevance. Results Using UMLS, we were able to retrieve new citations in 45.5% of queries, which implies a small increase in recall. The new strategy led to a heterogeneous 23.7% mean increase in non-indexed citation retrieved. Of these, 82% have been published less than 4 months earlier. The overall mean precision was 48.4% but differed according to the evaluators, ranging from 36.7% to 88.1% (Inter rater agreement was poor: kappa = 0.34. Conclusions This study highlights the need for specific search tools for each type of user and use-cases. The proposed strategy may be useful to retrieve recent scientific advancement.
Kim, Sun; Yeganova, Lana; Wilbur, W John
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH(®)) is a controlled vocabulary for indexing and searching biomedical literature. MeSH terms and subheadings are organized in a hierarchical structure and are used to indicate the topics of an article. Biologists can use either MeSH terms as queries or the MeSH interface provided in PubMed(®) for searching PubMed abstracts. However, these are rarely used, and there is no convenient way to link standardized MeSH terms to user queries. Here, we introduce a web interface which allows users to enter queries to find MeSH terms closely related to the queries. Our method relies on co-occurrence of text words and MeSH terms to find keywords that are related to each MeSH term. A query is then matched with the keywords for MeSH terms, and candidate MeSH terms are ranked based on their relatedness to the query. The experimental results show that our method achieves the best performance among several term extraction approaches in terms of topic coherence. Moreover, the interface can be effectively used to find full names of abbreviations and to disambiguate user queries. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/MESHABLE/ CONTACT: email@example.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Gudbergsson, Sævar Berg; Dahl, Alv A; Loge, Jon Håvard; Thorsen, Lene; Oldervoll, Line M; Grov, Ellen K
This focused review examines randomized controlled studies included by the term "cancer rehabilitation" in PubMed. The research questions concern the type of interventions performed and their methodological quality. Using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms: neoplasm AND rehabilitation, all articles with randomized controlled studies that included adult cancer patients, written in English, were extracted from PubMed. Papers covering physical exercise, psychiatric/psychological treatment or social support only were excluded as they had been reviewed recently. Abstracts and papers were assessed by 3 pairs of reviewers, and descriptive information was extracted systematically. Methodological quality was rated on a 10-item index scale, and the cut-off for acceptable quality was set at ≥ 8. A total of 132 (19%) of the 683 identified papers met the eligibility criteria and were assessed in detail. The papers were grouped into 5 thematic categories: 44 physical; 15 art and expressive; 47 psycho-educative; 21 emotionally supportive; and 5 others. Good quality of design was observed in 32 studies, 18 of them uni-dimensional and 14 multi-dimensional. Published randomized controlled studies on cancer rehabilitation are heterogeneous in terms of content and samples, and are mostly characterized by suboptimal design quality. Future studies should be more specific and well-designed with sufficient statistical strength.
Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Irani, Shirin; Mortaz-Hedjri, Soroush; Shakiba, Behnam
The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three search methods in the retrieval of relevant clinical trials from PubMed to answer specific clinical questions. Included studies of a sample of 100 Cochrane reviews which recorded in PubMed were considered as the reference standard. The search queries were formulated based on the systematic review titles. Precision, recall and number of retrieved records for limiting the results to clinical trial publication type, and using sensitive and specific clinical queries filters were compared. The number of keywords, presence of specific names of intervention and syndrome in the search keywords were used in a model to predict the recalls and precisions. The Clinical queries-sensitive search strategy retrieved the largest number of records (33) and had the highest recall (41.6%) and lowest precision (4.8%). The presence of specific intervention name was the only significant predictor of all recalls and precisions (P = 0.016). The recall and precision of combination of simple clinical search queries and methodological search filters to find clinical trials in various subjects were considerably low. The limit field strategy yielded in higher precision and fewer retrieved records and approximately similar recall, compared with the clinical queries-sensitive strategy. Presence of specific intervention name in the search keywords increased both recall and precision. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... type 2 diabetes DPRP Application Form........ 120 1 1 prevention programs. DPRP Evaluation Data... mechanism for recognizing organizations that deliver effective, community-based type 2 diabetes prevention...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
... comments should be received within 30 days of this notice. Proposed Project Workplace Violence Prevention... prevention programs. However, little is understood about how effective these laws are in reducing violence... facility compliance with the New Jersey Violence Prevention in Health Care Facilities Act, (2) to evaluate...
Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki
Full Text Available Abstract The prevention of Alzheimer's disease is a growing public health concern amidst an ageing population. Meanwhile, there is no effective or curative treatment available where prevention could greatly reduce health costs. This review was based on reports of potential preventive factors, including modifiable lifestyle factors, as well as preventive pharmacological strategies. Although the present review was not systematic, the reports selected from PubMed using "Alzheimer's disease" and "prevention" as key-words, allow us to affirm that pursuing a healthy lifestyle; physical, cognitive, leisure activities; good social engagement; a high consumption of fish, low consumption of dietary fat and moderate consumption of wine, and control of vascular risk factors appear to be potential factors for delaying dementia.
Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor); Fleck, Jr., Vincent J. (Inventor)
A brake system is provided that applies braking forces on surfaces in both the translational and rotational directions using a single acting self-contained actuator that travels with the translational mechanism. The brake engages a mechanical lock and creates a frictional force on the translational structure preventing translation while simultaneously creating a frictional torque that prevents rotation of the vertical support. The system may include serrations on the braking surfaces to provide increased braking forces.
Figueiredo, A; Gomes, G; Campos, A
Objectives: Literature review of classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, complications, treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI) in pregnancy. Data Sources and Review Methods: Bibliographic research in Medline, through PubMed and Medscape, of systematic reviews, observational studies, clinical guidelines, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials published between January 1992 and December 2010. Results: Asymp...
Full Text Available ... Therapeutics Lab Developing New Treatments The CF Foundation offers a number of resources for learning about clinical ... her father: Demonstrate and discuss common ACT therapies Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life ...
Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...
Williams, Shirley Ann; Terras, Melissa; Warwick, Claire
Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper's title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that researchers are starting to use knowledge
Background Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. Objective This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Methods Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper’s title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. Results As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that
This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr
Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Xia, Jingbo; Roeder, Christophe; Hunter, Lawrence E.
There is currently a crisis in science related to highly publicized failures to reproduce large numbers of published studies. The current work proposes, by way of case studies, a methodology for moving the study of reproducibility in computational work to a full stage beyond that of earlier work. Specifically, it presents a case study in attempting to reproduce the reports of two R libraries for doing text mining of the PubMed/MEDLINE repository of scientific publications. The main findings are that a rational paradigm for reproduction of natural language processing papers can be established; the advertised functionality was difficult, but not impossible, to reproduce; and reproducibility studies can produce additional insights into the functioning of the published system. Additionally, the work on reproducibility lead to the production of novel user-centered documentation that has been accessed 260 times since its publication—an average of once a day per library. PMID:29568821
The staff audit showed that the district assem- bly was understaffed as key positions such as. Deputy District Coordination Director (DCD),. Assistant Planning .... determine the fiscal performance of the assem- bly during the period under consideration. Like many other DAs in the country, Internally Gen- erated Revenue ...
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Lee, Choon Shil
The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.
Guaraldi, Federica; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Mattioli, Stefano; Ghigo, Ezio; Gori, Davide
Biomedical literature has enormously grown in the last decades and become broadly available through online databases. Ad-hoc search methods, created on the basis of research field and goals, are required to enhance the quality of searching. Aim of this study was to formulate efficient, evidence-based PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles assessing etiologic associations between a condition of interest and hypothalamic-pituitary disorders (HPD). Based on expert knowledge, 17 MeSH (Medical Subjects Headings) and 79 free terms related to HPD were identified to search PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportion of articles containing pertinent information and formulated two strings (one more specific, one more sensitive) for the detection of articles focusing on the etiology of HPD, that were then applied to retrieve articles identifying possible etiologic associations between HPD and three diseases (malaria, LHON and celiac disease) considered not associated to HPD, and define the number of abstracts needed to read (NNR) to find one potentially pertinent article. We propose two strings: one sensitive string derived from the combination of articles providing the largest literature coverage in the field and one specific including combined terms retrieving ≥40% of potentially pertinent articles. NNR were 2.1 and 1.6 for malaria, 3.36 and 2.29 for celiac disease, 2.8 and 2.2 for LHON, respectively. For the first time, two reliable, readily applicable strings are proposed for the retrieval of medical literature assessing putative etiologic associations between HPD and other medical conditions of interest.
Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.
UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.
Hoogendam, Arjen; Stalenhoef, Anton FH; Robbé, Pieter F de Vries; Overbeke, A John PM
Background The use of PubMed to answer daily medical care questions is limited because it is challenging to retrieve a small set of relevant articles and time is restricted. Knowing what aspects of queries are likely to retrieve relevant articles can increase the effectiveness of PubMed searches. The objectives of our study were to identify queries that are likely to retrieve relevant articles by relating PubMed search techniques and tools to the number of articles retrieved and the selection of articles for further reading. Methods This was a prospective observational study of queries regarding patient-related problems sent to PubMed by residents and internists in internal medicine working in an Academic Medical Centre. We analyzed queries, search results, query tools (Mesh, Limits, wildcards, operators), selection of abstract and full-text for further reading, using a portal that mimics PubMed. Results PubMed was used to solve 1121 patient-related problems, resulting in 3205 distinct queries. Abstracts were viewed in 999 (31%) of these queries, and in 126 (39%) of 321 queries using query tools. The average term count per query was 2.5. Abstracts were selected in more than 40% of queries using four or five terms, increasing to 63% if the use of four or five terms yielded 2–161 articles. Conclusion Queries sent to PubMed by physicians at our hospital during daily medical care contain fewer than three terms. Queries using four to five terms, retrieving less than 161 article titles, are most likely to result in abstract viewing. PubMed search tools are used infrequently by our population and are less effective than the use of four or five terms. Methods to facilitate the formulation of precise queries, using more relevant terms, should be the focus of education and research. PMID:18816391
Full Text Available Despite a large body of research in global health (almost 9000 articles published in PubMed until 2012, the term “global health” is not included in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH of the NLM – its controlled vocabulary thesaurus which NLM uses to index articles in MEDL INE. There are only 6 journals currently covered by PubMed which specialize in global health, including Journal of Global Health.
Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...
Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…
Accidental release prevention programs under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) are related to and build on activities under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.
...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), the Department of Education (Department) publishes this notice proposing to revise the system of records notice for the Investigative Files of the Inspector General (18-10-01), 68 FR 38154 (June 26, 2003). The Department proposes to amend this system of records notice by: (1) Adding a new routine use to allow reporting on the activities of the Inspector General regarding American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds to the Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board (RATB) as established by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5); (2) adding a new routine use to allow for disclosure of information in connection with response and remedial efforts in the event of a data breach in accordance with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requirements in M-07-16 (May 22, 2007); (3) revising routine uses ``(12) Disclosure to the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency'' and ``(13) Disclosure for Qualitative Assessment Reviews'' to allow reporting on the activities of the Inspector General to the Council of Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (formerly the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency) as established by the Inspector General Reform Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-409); (4) revising the routine use ``(4) Disclosure to Public and Private Sources in Connection with the Higher Education Act of 1965, as Amended (HEA)'' to allow the disclosure of information to an educational institution or a school that is or was a party to an agreement with the Secretary of Education pursuant to the HEA; and (5) updating the system location addresses. This system of records provides essential support for investigative activities of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) relating to the Department's programs and operations, enabling the OIG to secure and maintain the necessary information and to coordinate with other law enforcement agencies as appropriate.
Full Text Available ... history of stroke. Dr. Galen Henderson, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital: "Strokes are preventable, they ... University of Maryland Medical Center University of Maryland School of Medicine Know Stroke: Know the Signs. Act ...
Consentino, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João; Matos, Luís Carlos; Machado, Jorge Pereira
Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be understood as a system of sensations and findings designed to establish the functional vegetative state of the body. This state may be treated by several therapeutic methods such as acupuncture, Chinese pharmacotherapy, dietetics, Tuina , and Qigong . Nowadays, as a result of several evidence-based reported beneficial effects over specific pathological conditions, there is an increasing tendency to integrate some of these practices in Western medicine. The main goal of this study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of TCM scientific production between 1982 and 2016 indexed in PubMed, by analyzing several parameters including time and location distribution, publication quality, experimental design, and treatment methods. Methods: The methodology was based on the quantitative inventory of published scientific research indexed in PubMed medical subject headings (MeSH), sorted within the broad term “Traditional Chinese Medicine” and integrating the following criteria as limit filters: “Species: Humans”, “Article Type: Clinical Trial”. In addition, the articles’ triage was ruled by temporal limitations set between 1945 and 2016. Results: The overall analysis of data allowed observation of an average annual growth of approximately 33%, with a productive peak of 122 articles in 2007. The scientific production was distributed in 27 countries, led by China (76.1%), followed by the United States of America (3.0%) and South Korea (2.1%). A significant amount of references were published in Chinese journals: more than 50%; however, these journals had a low impact factor. The most cited treatments in the keywords section of the articles were phytotherapy (55%) and acupuncture (40%). Conclusion: The increasing demand for TCM seems to be due to factors such as lower side effects and greater efficacy in some patients not responding well to conventional therapy. As a result, a considerable amount of TCM science
This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr
Wermter, Stefan; Löchel, Matthias
In this paper we describe a new approach for learning dialog act processing. In this approach we integrate a symbolic semantic segmentation parser with a learning dialog act network. In order to support the unforeseeable errors and variations of spoken language we have concentrated on robust data-driven learning. This approach already compares favorably with the statistical average plausibility method, produces a segmentation and dialog act assignment for all utterances in a robust manner,...
Mathiesen, Anne Sofie Mølbak; Nørgaard, Kamilla; Andersen, Marie Frederikke Bruun; Møller, Klaus Meyer; Ehlers, Lars Holger
Pressure ulcers are a major problem in Danish healthcare with a prevalence of 13-43% among hospitalized patients. The associated costs to the Danish Health Care Sector are estimated to be €174.5 million annually. In 2010, The Danish Society for Patient Safety introduced the Pressure Ulcer Bundle (PUB) in order to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by a minimum of 50% in five hospitals. The PUB consists of evidence-based preventive initiatives implemented by ward staff using the Model for Improvement. To investigate the cost-effectiveness of labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers in the Danish Health Care Sector, comparing the PUB with standard care. A decision analytic model was constructed to assess the costs and consequences of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers during an average hospital admission in Denmark. The model inputs were based on a systematic review of clinical efficacy data combined with local cost and effectiveness data from the Thy-Mors Hospital, Denmark. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was conducted to assess the uncertainty. Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by implementing labour-intensive effects according to the PUB was cost-saving and resulted in an improved effect compared to standard care. The incremental cost of the PUB was -€38.62. The incremental effects were a reduction of 9.3% prevented pressure ulcers and 0.47% prevented deaths. The PSAs confirmed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)'s dominance for both prevented pressure ulcers and saved lives with the PUB. This study shows that labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers on hospital wards can be cost-effective and lead to savings in total costs of hospital and social care. The data included in the study regarding costs and effects of the PUB in Denmark were based on preliminary findings from a pilot study at Thy-Mors Hospital and literature.