WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventing workplace violence

  1. Dealing with anger and preventing workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Robert N

    2004-01-01

    Human resources managers have reported increased violence (1) stating it can happen anywhere (2). One million workers are assaulted each year (3), and in some years more than 1,000 workers have been killed (4). Almost 25% of workplace violence incidences occur in the health-care industry (5). Women commit nearly one fourth of all threats or attacks (6). Have you ever gotten angry at work? Have you ever had to deal with an angry patient or coworker? Has there been any violence where you work? The key to preventing workplace violence is to deal with anger and recognize and handle suspicious behavior before it turns violent.

  2. Rape aggression defense and workplace violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sarah Steelman

    2012-01-01

    An R.A.D. Basic Physical Defense program for women employees, launched by a health system's corporate security department, has proven to be a popular low cost method of workplace violence prevention, according to the author, one of the program's instructors. The initial investment in equipment and certification is negligible compared to the benefits and potential benefits it brings, she reports.

  3. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Possible Solutions It is recommended that management and employees work together to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ...

  4. A labor perspective of workplace violence prevention. Identifying research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J

    2001-02-01

    During the past decade, labor unions have contributed to efforts to increase awareness of the importance of workplace violence as an occupational hazard. Research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the U.S. Department of Justice have bolstered these efforts. This research revealed that workplace violence is the second leading cause of traumatic-injury death on the job for men, the leading cause of traumatic-injury death on the job for women, and accounts for some 2 million nonfatal injuries each year in the United States. Ten years ago, the debate focused on whether workplace violence is an occupational hazard or strictly a police and criminal justice issue. Labor unions have joined with occupational safety and health professionals in recognizing that workplace violence is a serious occupational hazard that is often predictable and preventable. They have advocated that employers establish multidimensional violence-prevention programs. Although the nature of workplace violence varies from industry to industry, implementation of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Violence Prevention Guidelines for Health Care and Social Service Workers and for Late-Night Retail Establishments is a high priority to unions in the affected industries. Labor wants employers to invest in protecting workers from violence through voluntary programs and state legislation, and it supports the promulgation of a mandatory federal OSHA standard. To that end, intervention research can play a key role in demonstrating effective, technically and economically feasible prevention strategies

  5. Genders at Work: Exploring the Role of Workplace Equality in Preventing Men's Violence Against Women

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Scott; Flood, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the role of workplaces, and men in workplaces in particular, in preventing men's violence against women. The report begins by noting that men's violence against women is a widespread social problem which requires urgent action. It highlights the need for preventative measures oriented to changing the social and structural conditions at the root of this violence, including through settings such as workplaces. Men's violence against women is a workplace issue. As well as be...

  6. Understanding small business engagement in workplace violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.

  7. Barriers to Effective Implementation of Programs for the Prevention of Workplace Violence in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hartley, Daniel; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace violence (WPV) prevention programs are essential, yet challenging to implement in healthcare. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers to implementation of effective violence prevention programs. After reviewing the related literature, the authors describe their research methods and analysis and report the following seven themes as major barriers to effective implementation of workplace violence programs: a lack of action despite reporting; varying perceptions of violence; bullying; profit-driven management models; lack of management accountability; a focus on customer service; and weak social service and law enforcement approaches to mentally ill patients. The authors discuss their findings in light of previous studies and experiences and offer suggestions for decreasing WPV in healthcare settings. They conclude that although many of these challenges to effective implementation of workplace violence programs are both within the program itself and relate to broader industry and societal issues, creative innovations can address these issues and improve WPV prevention programs.

  8. Unreported workplace violence in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, A; Seljak, J

    2014-09-01

    Workplace violence occurs on a frequent basis in nursing. Most violent acts remain unreported. Consequently, we do not know the actual frequency of the occurrence of workplace violence. This requires research of nurses' actions following workplace violence and identification of reasons why most victims do not report violent acts in the appropriate manner. To explore violence in nursing as experienced by nurses in Slovenia. A survey was carried out with a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. The questionnaire Workplace Violence in Nursing was submitted to 3756 nurses, with 692 completing the questionnaire. A total of 61.6% of the nurses surveyed had been exposed to violence in the past year. Most victims were exposed to psychological (60.1%) and economic violence (28.9%). Victims reported acts of violence in formal written form in a range from 6.5% (psychological violence) to 10.9% (physical violence). The largest share of victims who did not report violence and did not speak to anyone about it were victims of sexual violence (17.9%). The main reason for not reporting the violence was the belief that reporting it would not change anything, followed by the fear of losing one's job. Only a small share of the respondents reported violence in written form, the main reason being the victims' belief that reporting it would not change anything. This represents a severe criticism of the system for preventing workplace violence for it reveals the failure of response by leadership structures in healthcare organizations. Professional associations and the education system must prepare nurses for the prevention of violence and appropriate actions in the event of violent acts. Healthcare organizations must ensure the necessary conditions for enabling and encouraging appropriate actions following violent acts according to relevant protocols. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  10. Preventing and managing workplace violence against healthcare workers in Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Gabriele; Pellicani, Vincenza; Mazzotta, Mauro; Vullo, Annamaria

    2018-02-21

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) employed in Emergency Departments (EDs) frequently face with patients becoming violent because of long wait or diseases or under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Globally, workplace violence (WPV) in EDs is a major challenge to safety for HCWs, involving significant consequences to the victims, patients, and healthcare organizations. We reviewed the current literature with the aim to explore the topics focused on and to detect new evidences about approaching the issue of WPV toward HCWs in EDs. A search for articles regarding WPV toward HCWs employed in EDs and published from January 2007 through December 2017 was performed; using predetermined criteria for inclusion, selected articles were reviewed and qualitatively assessed for the aims of the review. We found 60 papers which matched our inclusion criteria; the topics, discussed in order of frequency from highest to lowest, were: "Risk Assessment", "Occurrence Rates", "Risk Management", and "Physical/non Physical Consequences". Dementia, schizophrenia, anxiety, acute stress reaction, suicidal ideation, and alcohol and drug intoxication were found as predictors of physical violence perpetrated by patients against HCWs. A strategic way to the effective management of WPV should prioritize training courses focused on: constructing HCW-patient relationship, improving the workers' communication skills, accurate reporting of each violent incident, and improving the labor context through management commitment and employee involvement in WPV prevention programs. A special effort is required in implementing workplace design effective in minimizing stressful conditions in waiting rooms which turned out to be the most frequent site of assaults.

  11. Workplace violence: a study of Turkish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Serpil; Bozkurt, Veysel; Bayram, Nuran; Yildiz, Selver; Aytac, Mustafa; Akinci, Fusun Sokullu; Bilgel, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to address the experience of workplace violence of Turkish workers from different sectors and to investigate the impact of the exposed violence on their psychological well-being. Data were collected anonymously with printed questionnaires from the volunteer participants and depended on self-reporting. The response rate was 79.0% (1708/2161). The prevalence of workplace violence was found to be 44.8%. The most common type was verbal violence together with mobbing (bullying). Victims of physical violence were mostly males, whereas females were found to be victims of verbal, psychological and sexual violence. Most cases did not result in legal action and the victims remained silent. Psychological well-being of exposed workers in terms of depression, anxiety and stress seemed to deteriorate. Workplace violence remains a silent epidemic in Turkey. Preventive measures against workplace violence and social support for violated workers do not exist.

  12. Characteristics of workplace violence prevention training and violent events among home health and hospice care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladutiu, Catherine J; Casteel, Carri; Nocera, Maryalice; Harrison, Robert; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    In the rapidly growing home health and hospice industry, little is known about workplace violence prevention (WVP) training and violent events. We examined the characteristics of WVP training and estimated violent event rates among 191 home health and hospice care providers from six agencies in California. Training characteristics were identified from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines. Rates were estimated as the number of violent events divided by the total number of home visit hours. Between 2008 and 2009, 66.5% (n = 127) of providers reported receiving WVP training when newly hired or as recurrent training. On average, providers rated the quality of their training as 5.7 (1 = poor to 10 = excellent). Among all providers, there was an overall rate of 17.1 violent events per 1,000 visit-hours. Efforts to increase the number of home health care workers who receive WVP training and to improve training quality are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results.

  14. A test of safety, violence prevention, and civility climate domain-specific relationships with relevant workplace hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazica, Michele W; Spector, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Safety climate, violence prevention climate, and civility climate were independently developed and linked to domain-specific workplace hazards, although all three were designed to promote the physical and psychological safety of workers. To test domain specificity between conceptually related workplace climates and relevant workplace hazards. Data were collected from 368 persons employed in various industries and descriptive statistics were calculated for all study variables. Correlational and relative weights analyses were used to test for domain specificity. The three climate domains were similarly predictive of most workplace hazards, regardless of domain specificity. This study suggests that the three climate domains share a common higher order construct that may predict relevant workplace hazards better than any of the scales alone.

  15. Safety climate and workplace violence prevention in state-run residential addiction treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Jane A; London, M; Chen, Y M; Flannery, K; Watt, M; Geiger-Brown, J; Johnson, J V; McPhaul, K

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between violence prevention safety climate measures and self reported violence toward staff in state-run residential addiction treatment centers. In mid-2006, 409 staff from an Eastern United States state agency that oversees a system of thirteen residential addiction treatment centers (ATCs) completed a self-administered survey as part of a comprehensive risk assessment. The survey was undertaken to identify and measure facility-level risk factors for violence, including staff perceptions of the quality of existing US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program elements, and ultimately to guide violence prevention programming. Key informant interviews and staff focus groups provided researchers with qualitative data with which to understand safety climate and violence prevention efforts within these work settings. The frequency with which staff reported experiencing violent behavior ranged from 37% for "clients raised their voices in a threatening way to you" to 1% for "clients pushed, hit, kicked, or struck you". Findings from the staff survey included the following significant predictors of violence: "client actively resisting program" (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.35, 4.05), "working with clients for whom the history of violence is unknown" (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.18, 3.09) and "management commitment to violence prevention" reported as "never/hardly ever" and "seldom or sometimes" (OR=4.30 and OR=2.31 respectively), while controlling for other covariates. We utilized a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to begin to describe the risk and potential for violence prevention in this setting. The prevalence of staff physical violence within the agency's treatment facilities was lower than would be predicted. Possible explanations include the voluntary nature of treatment programs; strong policies and consequences for resident behavior and ongoing quality improvement efforts. Quantitative data identified low

  16. Factors associated with workplace violence in paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritsas, Stella; Boyle, Malcolm; Coles, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The majority of research that has explored workplace violence has focused on establishing the prevalence of violence in different settings. In general, there is a paucity of research that explores factors that may predict or increase the risk of experiencing violence in the workplace. The aim of this research was to determine predictors of violence for paramedics. A questionnaire was developed that focused on paramedics' experiences with six forms of violence: verbal abuse, property damage/theft, intimidation, physical abuse, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to paramedics throughout rural Victoria and metropolitan South Australia, and completed and returned anonymously. Predictors emerged for verbal abuse, intimidation, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse. Specifically, gender was the only predictor of intimidation, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Paramedic qualifications, how they responded to a call-out, and hours per week in direct patient contact emerged as a predictor of verbal abuse. Certain factors predict or predispose paramedics to workplace violence. The need for workplace violence education and training is imperative for the prevention of violence, as well as for its management.

  17. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  18. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Zhao

    Full Text Available The study's objectives were to: 1 use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV prevention strategies, and 2 to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  19. How to engage small retail businesses in workplace violence prevention: Perspectives from small businesses and influential organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-06-01

    Small retail businesses experience high robbery and violent crime rates leading to injury and death. Workplace violence prevention programs (WVPP) based on Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design reduce this risk, but low small business participation limits their effectiveness. Recent dissemination models of occupational safety and health information recommend collaborating with an intermediary organization to engage small businesses. Qualitative interviews with 70 small business operators and 32 representatives of organizations with small business influence were conducted to identify factors and recommendations for improving dissemination of a WVPP. Both study groups recommended promoting WVPPs through personal contacts but differed on other promotion methods and the type of influential groups to target. Small business operators indicated few connections to formal business networks. Dissemination of WVPPs to small businesses may require models inclusive of influential individuals (e.g., respected business owners) as intermediaries to reach small businesses with few formal connections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  1. [Violence and discrimination in the workplace. The effects on health and setting-related approaches to prevention and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Albert; Drechsel-Schlund, Claudia; Schambortski, Heike; Schablon, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Violence in the workplace is a widespread problem that manifests itself in very different forms. The consequences for victims and companies are equally diverse. Sexual harassment is a special form of violence at the workplace. Violence may come from external perpetrators (attacks on cashiers) or from persons inside a company or establishment (colleagues, patients, people in care). Statutory accident insurance institutions in Germany (UV, "Unfallversicherungsträger") receive approximately 16,000 occupational injury reports per year that resulted from violence and led to extended incapacity to work. The numbers are increasing steadily. Particularly affected by violence are people working in healthcare and social welfare. Both psychological and physical violence can lead to severe disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To avoid violence, technical, organisational, and personal protective measures are needed. The training of de-escalation officers in the areas affected can be helpful. For victims of psychological and physical violence in the workplace, the UV offers special psychotherapeutic support and recommends the training of first-aiders.

  2. GENDER ISSUES IN WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    STAICULESCU Ana Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to the problem of workplace gender violence and the power relationships between males and females in organizational theory. Victimization based on gender is afflicting society as a whole, but is also relevant to the construction of social attitudes at the workplace. Thus, we will present how the context of work relationships can be affected by acts of verbal and physical intimidation engaged by gender inequality and what are the consequences for managers. Moreover, we...

  3. A pilot study of workplace violence towards paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm; Koritsas, Stella; Coles, Jan; Stanley, Janet

    2007-11-01

    International studies have shown that some 60% of paramedics have experienced physical violence in the workplace, and between 21-78% have experienced verbal abuse. To date, there is no Australian literature describing Australian paramedics' experience of workplace violence. To identify the percentage of paramedics who had experienced six different forms of workplace violence. A questionnaire was developed to explore paramedics' experience of workplace violence. Six forms of violence were included: verbal abuse, property damage or theft, intimidation, physical abuse, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. The questionnaire also included a series of demographic questions. The questionnaire was piloted using a reference group and changes made accordingly. The questionnaire was distributed to 500 rural Victorian paramedics and 430 metropolitan South Australian paramedics. Ethics approval was granted for this study. The overall response rate was 28%, with 75% being male and 25% female. The median age of respondents was 40.7 years, range 21-62 years. The median number of years experience as a paramedic was 14.3 years, range 6 months to 39 years. There were 87.5% of paramedics exposed to workplace violence. Verbal abuse was the most prevalent form of workplace violence (82%), with intimidation (55%), physical abuse (38%), sexual harassment (17%), and sexual assault (4%). This study lays the foundation for further studies investigating paramedic experience of workplace violence. This study demonstrates that workplace violence is prevalent for paramedics and highlights the need for prevention and education within the profession.

  4. Workplace violence against adolescent workers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J

    2008-07-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem yet most research on this topic has focused on adults. Despite facing numerous employment conditions that raise their risk for workplace violence, adolescent workers have received inadequate attention. Survey data from 1,171 US students ages 14-17 were analyzed using descriptive statistics to investigate the incidence and perpetrators of physical attacks, verbal threats, and sexual harassment. Nearly one-third of respondents experienced some form of workplace violence: 25% verbally threatened, 10% physically attacked, and 10% sexually harassed. Significant demographic differences were found. The most common perpetrators of physical attacks and verbal threats were customers while sexual harassment most often came from co-workers. Many working adolescents, most with only a few years work experience, have already suffered workplace violence. As youth are likely to be more vulnerable to its effects, developing workplace violence prevention strategies that target adolescent workers should be made a priority. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Midwifery student reactions to workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Boyle, Malcolm J; McKenna, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, incidents against people in their workplaces, is a growing problem in Australia causing untold personal suffering as well as costing Australian businesses in productivity. Midwives have been highlighted as a group particularly at risk, yet in Australia there is little research into workplace violence against midwives and even less into midwifery students. This study aimed to explore Australian midwifery students' responses to workplace violence as well as to gauge the impact of workplace violence on them. Cross-sectional survey design was employed. Second and third year students were invited to participate at the end of a scheduled lecture. Fifty-two female midwifery students who had completed their work placement completed a survey indicating their immediate responses to workplace violence as well as the Impact of Event Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most students notified a co-worker immediately after a workplace violence incident, yet few completed an incident form or received official debriefing. There is a need for the reporting of workplace violence against midwifery students to be made easier to access thereby ensuring they can receive the assistance they require. Midwifery students need to understand the processes and supports in place for managing instances of workplace violence. Clinical placements can impact on midwifery students' future careers. Universities need to prepare students for the possibility of workplace violence and arm them with appropriate strategies for safely dealing with it. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Workplace violence against medical staff in healthcare facilities in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, M; Morris, E; Sobers-Grannum, N

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests increasing workplace violence against healthcare workers in the Caribbean, but the prevalence is largely undocumented. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence reported by medical staff at primary care clinics in Barbados. A study utilizing a modified version of the standard World Health Organization Workplace Violence Questionnaire, designed to assess the incidence, types and features of workplace violence. All nursing and physician staff on duty at the island's eight primary care clinics during the study period were invited to participate. Of the 102 respondents (72% response rate), 63% of nursing and physician staff at the polyclinics in Barbados reported at least one episode of violence in the past year. The majority reported being exposed to verbal abuse (60%) and 19% reported being exposed to bullying. Seven percent of the staff reported incidents of sexual harassment, 3% physical violence and another 3% reported racial harassment. Patients emerged as the main perpetrators of violence (64%). Logistic regression showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence. Females and nurses were more predisposed to experience violent incidents than males and physicians. Over a half of medical staff surveyed reported experiencing some type of violence in the past year, female gender being a significant predictor of abuse. Adequate documentation and implementing clear policies and violence prevention programmes in health institutions are crucial steps towards addressing this issue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Workplace violence: managing a culture of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The cultural acceptance of workplace violence is changing. Management has become more educated on regulatory issues around its tolerance of workplace violence. Events around the country in a variety of settings have aided in raising awareness of this issue. Healthcare professionals are not immune to workplace violence, including those working in the imaging profession. Healthcare workers, historically, have given care despite the demeanor of patients, often putting up with aggressive behavior including sexual harassment and physical assault. Management needs to take all possible measures to ensure employees feel safe at work. It is essential to have well thought out policies and procedures to mitigate workplace violence; keeping in mind that a goal of eliminating workplace violence is unrealistic.

  8. Workplace violence in Alberta and British Columbia hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kathryn L; Duncan, Susan M; Estabrooks, Carole A; Reimer, Marlene A; Giovannetti, Phyllis; Hyndman, Kathryn; Acorn, Sonia

    2003-03-01

    Workplace violence is a significant and widespread public health concern among health care workers, including nurses. With growing awareness of how practice environments influence patient outcomes and the retention of health professionals, it is timely to consider the impact of workplace violence in hospitals. Registered nurses in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada were surveyed on their experiences of violence in the workplace over the last five shifts. Our results suggest that nurses are experiencing many incidences of violence in a given work week, particularly in the emergency, psychiatric, and medical-surgical settings. Most violent acts are perpetrated by patients, but there is also a significant portion of violence and abuse committed by hospital co-workers, particularly emotional abuse and sexual harassment. Our results also indicate that the majority of workplace violence is not reported. We suggest that using the Broken Windows theory might be a useful tool to conceptualize why workplace violence occurs, and that this framework be used to begin to develop new violence prevention policies and strategies.

  9. A pilot study of workplace violence towards paramedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm; Koritsas, Stella; Coles, Jan; Stanley, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Background International studies have shown that some 60% of paramedics have experienced physical violence in the workplace, and between 21–78% have experienced verbal abuse. To date, there is no Australian literature describing Australian paramedics' experience of workplace violence. Objective To identify the percentage of paramedics who had experienced six different forms of workplace violence. Methods A questionnaire was developed to explore paramedics' experience of workplace violence. Six forms of violence were included: verbal abuse, property damage or theft, intimidation, physical abuse, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. The questionnaire also included a series of demographic questions. The questionnaire was piloted using a reference group and changes made accordingly. The questionnaire was distributed to 500 rural Victorian paramedics and 430 metropolitan South Australian paramedics. Ethics approval was granted for this study. Results The overall response rate was 28%, with 75% being male and 25% female. The median age of respondents was 40.7 years, range 21–62 years. The median number of years experience as a paramedic was 14.3 years, range 6 months to 39 years. There were 87.5% of paramedics exposed to workplace violence. Verbal abuse was the most prevalent form of workplace violence (82%), with intimidation (55%), physical abuse (38%), sexual harassment (17%), and sexual assault (4%). Conclusion This study lays the foundation for further studies investigating paramedic experience of workplace violence. This study demonstrates that workplace violence is prevalent for paramedics and highlights the need for prevention and education within the profession. PMID:17954828

  10. Screening for and treating intimate partner violence in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecha, Ann

    2003-07-01

    The WHO has declared that violence is a leading worldwide public health problem with intimate partner violence one of the most common forms of violence against women (2002). Health care providers are frequently among the first to see victims of intimate partner violence and must strive to provide appropriate and effective care to abused women. Violence by intimate partners can be prevented. Occupational health nurses have a unique opportunity to intervene with abused women. Routine screening for intimate partner violence increases the likelihood of violence identification, leading to early intervention that may prevent trauma and injury. Occupational health nurses can foster a caring and confidential workplace where abused women feel safe to disclose the violence in their lives and trust that the nurse will provide treatment. A safe and healthy workplace, where abused women feel comfortable disclosing intimate partner violence and seeking treatment may also protect coworkers from the stress and violence that may potentially affect them. Occupational health nurses need to add screening for and treatment of intimate partner violence to their current health promotion and prevention activities to benefit all employees.

  11. Experience of workplace violence during medical speciality training in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acik, Yasemin; Deveci, S Erhan; Gunes, Gulsen; Gulbayrak, Canan; Dabak, Sennur; Saka, Gunay; Vural, Gulsen; Can, Gunay; Bilgin, Nursel Gamsiz; Dundar, Pinar Erbay; Erguder, Toker; Tokdemir, Mehmet

    2008-08-01

    To determine the type, extent and effects of workplace violence among residents during postgraduate speciality training in various departments of medical schools in Turkey. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven medical schools representing all geographical regions of Turkey. All physicians in speciality training in the selected medical schools were asked to complete a semi-structured 'violence questionnaire' addressing the type (emotional, physical and sexual) and extent of violence experienced, the perpetrators of the violence and the victim's reactions to the experience. A total of 1712 residents out of 2442 completed the questionnaire. In all, 68% indicated they had experienced some form of workplace violence, 67% had experienced verbal violence, 16% had experienced physical violence and 3% had experienced sexual violence. The victims' most prevalent reactions to violence included being deeply disturbed but feeling they had to cope with it for the sake of their career (39%), being distressed (26%) but considering that such events are common in all occupations and discounting it and being confused and bewildered and unsure how to respond (19%). The most frequently named perpetrators of verbal violence were relatives/friends of patients (36%) and academic staff (36%), followed by other residents/senior residents (21%), patients (20%), heads of department (13%) and non-medical hospital staff (6%). Physicians in speciality training in medical schools in Turkey are subject to significant verbal, physical or sexual violence. Precautions to prevent such exposure are urgently needed.

  12. Violence-prevention summit at Virginia Tech tackles bullying, gender-based violence, more

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in schools, aggression in the workplace, violence against women -- all are complex problems. On Nov. 12 and 13, Virginia Tech hosts a gathering to make recommendations about violence prevention.

  13. Workplace violence against nurses in the Gambia: mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisawo, Ebrima J; Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y Arsène; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-04-28

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, perpetrators and factors associated with workplace violence against nurses in public secondary health care facilities from two health regions in the Gambia. Data was collected from 219 nurses using self-administered questionnaire and 35 face-to-face interviews. The data collection was conducted between July and September 2014 in 14 public secondary health care facilities. A sizable majority of respondents (62.1%) reported exposure to violence in the 12 months prior to the survey; exposure to verbal abuse, physical violence, and sexual harassment was 59.8%, 17.2%, and 10% respectively. The perpetrators were mostly patients' escorts/relatives followed by patients themselves. Perceived reasons of workplace violence were mainly attributed to nurse-client disagreement, understaffing, shortage of drugs and supplies, security vacuum, and lack of management attention to workplace violence. Nurses in the Gambia are at a relatively high risk of violent incidents at work. Policies and strategies that are sensitive to local circumstances and needs should be developed for the prevention of workplace violence.

  14. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnapp, Benjamin H; Slovis, Benjamin H; Shah, Anar D; Fant, Abra L; Gisondi, Michael A; Shah, Kaushal H; Lech, Christie A

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. A majority of residents (66%, 78/119) reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119) experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119) had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119) reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe "Occasionally," "Seldom" or "Never" while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.

  15. Workplace violence and drug use in women workers in a Peruvian Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musayón Oblitas, F Y; Caufield, C

    2007-12-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study explored the relationship between workplace violence and drug use in women. It also explored the perception of women workers on the relationship between workplace violence and drug use. The World Health Organization and the United Nations recognize violence against women and have adopted a definition of it. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention reports that violence in the workplace has increased 300% over the last decade. Alcohol misuse, occupation and gender are associated with aggression in the workplace. Estimations of the incidence of non-fatal injuries sustained because of workplace violence and evaluations of the associated risk factors have rarely been documented. 125 women workers between the ages of 18 and 60 years were surveyed in four suburbs of Zapallal, Lima. Of the 125 women, 28.8% experienced violence in the workplace. Of the 36 women who had experienced violence in the workplace, 16 agreed to participate in interviews to explore their perceptions. The data were saturated with the 16 interviews. Of the 125 workers surveyed 17.6% experienced verbal violence, 9.6%% experienced physical violence, and 1.6% were sexually harassed in their workplace. Women who were verbally abused demonstrated eight times greater risk of drug use than those who did not experience this type of violence in their workplace. This paper contributes to an understanding of the relationships among drug abuse, gender and the incidence of violence in the workplace; it documents the perception women have of these relationships; and it supports the development of programmes and strategies related to the prevention of workplace violence and drug consumption by women workers.

  16. Workplace harassment prevention in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lorek, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...

  17. Computer-based training (CBT) intervention reduces workplace violence and harassment for homecare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Anger, W Kent; Laharnar, Naima; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of a workplace violence and harassment prevention and response program with female homecare workers in a consumer driven model of care. Homecare workers were randomized to either; computer based training (CBT only) or computer-based training with homecare worker peer facilitation (CBT + peer). Participants completed measures on confidence, incidents of violence, and harassment, health and work outcomes at baseline, 3, 6 months post-baseline. Homecare workers reported improved confidence to prevent and respond to workplace violence and harassment and a reduction in incidents of workplace violence and harassment in both groups at 6-month follow-up. A decrease in negative health and work outcomes associated with violence and harassment were not reported in the groups. CBT alone or with trained peer facilitation with homecare workers can increase confidence and reduce incidents of workplace violence and harassment in a consumer-driven model of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Adolescent Workers' Experiences of and Training for Workplace Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn R; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent workers may not be aware that violence is a safety concern in the workplace. As part of a larger mixed-methods pilot study, investigators used a self-administered survey and individual interviews with 30 adolescent workers from a chain of food service stores in a Midwestern metropolitan area to explore experiences of workplace violence (WPV) and ways of learning WPV-specific information. Participants reported experiencing verbal and sexual harassment and robberies. Most participants reported awareness of WPV-specific policies and procedures at their workplace; the ways participants reported learning WPV-specific information varied. Findings support the need for occupational safety training to assist adolescent workers prevent and mitigate potential WPV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  20. Exploring workplace violence among home care workers in a consumer-driven home health care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaishi, Lindsay; Moss, Helen; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy; Rose, Linda; Anger, W Kent; Hanson, Ginger C; Christian, Mervyn; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    Nominal research has examined sexual harassment and workplace violence against home care workers within consumer-driven home care models such as those offered in Oregon. This study examined home care workers' experiences of violence while providing care to consumer employers, the patients who hire and manage home care workers. Focus groups and interviews were conducted in Oregon with 83 home care workers, 99 Oregon Department of Human Services (DHS) employees, and 11 consumer employers. Home care workers reported incidents of workplace physical violence (44%), psychological abuse (65%), sexual harassment (41%), and sexual violence (14%). Further, three themes were identified that may increase the risk of workplace violence: (1) real and perceived barriers to reporting violence; (2) tolerance of violence; and (3) limited training to prevent violence. To ensure worker safety while maintaining quality care, safety policies and training for consumer employers, state DHS employees, and home care workers must be developed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillgren Per

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace violence (WPV is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded

  2. Workplace violence against nursing students and nurses: an Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, Nicola; Heponiemi, Tarja

    2011-06-01

    Nurses and nursing students are exposed to workplace violence. To compare the characteristics and effects of violence in nursing students and nurses in order to assess the phenomenon and take preventive action. A retrospective survey was conducted in three Italian university schools of nursing. At the end of a lecture, 346 of 349 students agreed to fill out a questionnaire that included domains on violence, mental health, job stress, and organizational justice. This group was compared with 275 nurses from a general hospital (94.2% participation rate). The prevalence of subjects reporting at least one upsetting episode of physical or verbal violence during their lifetime activity in clinical settings was 43% in nurses and 34% in nursing students. Nurses reported more physical assaults (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-6.18), threats (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.39-5.79), and sexual harassment (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.15-5.54) during the previous 12 months than students. Nurses were mostly assaulted or harassed by patients or their relatives and friends ("external" violence), whereas students often reported verbal and also physical violence on the part of colleagues, staff, and others, including teachers, doctors, and supervisors ("internal" violence). Verbal violence was associated with high levels of psychological problems, as measured by the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, in both students and nurses. Verbal violence was also associated with high job strain, low social support, and low organizational justice, but only among nursing students. Preventive action is urgently needed to control patient-to-worker and worker-to-worker violence in clinical settings. Not only nurses, but also nursing students, would benefit from multilevel programs of violence prevention. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Workplace violence against nursing staff in a Saudi university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorashy, Hanan A Ezzat; Al Moalad, Fawziah Bakheet

    2016-06-01

    Violence against nurses is a major challenge for healthcare administrators. It is gaining more attention because it has a negative impact on nurses, the quality of health care and health organization. Common types of violence include physical harassment, sexual abuse, aggression, mobbing and bullying. Patients, their relatives and co-workers are considered the main perpetrators. To determine the prevalence rate of workplace violence against nursing professionals in a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, most frequent type and perpetrators as well as the contributing factors. This quantitative cross-sectional study adapted a survey questionnaire from the Massachusetts Nurses Association Survey on Workplace Violence/Abuse to collect data from a quota sample of 370 nursing personnel. Almost half of the participants had experienced violence in the professional setting during the 12 months prior to the study. The majority of subjects perceived workplace violence as verbal abuse. Nearly all nursing professionals identified patients as the leading cause. Slightly more than half mentioned understaffing, misunderstandings, long waits for service and lack of staff training and policies for preventing crisis as contributing factors. The prevalence rate is extremely high among nurses in the targeted Saudi university hospital. Saudi health as well as university hospitals' administration and policy makers should adopt and introduce a 'zero tolerance policy', set standards and develop practical measures for preventing the incidence and for controlling the prevalence of violence against nurses. Besides, healthcare organizations, particularly hospitals, can fulfil their obligations to provide both staff and patients with more secure environment. Further research on the topic is needed. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  4. Violence against women: the phenomenon of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, R J Howerton; Mentes, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurses have been the recipients of an alarming increase in workplace violence (WPV). Emergency and psychiatric nurses have been found to be the most vulnerable and yet few solid reporting procedures exist to fully account for a true number of incidents. Further compounding the problem is the lack of a standard definition of violence to guide reporting procedures, interventions, legislation, and research. While there are certain risk factors that not only predispose the nurse and the patient to WPV, research continues to attempt to parse out which risk factors are the key determinants of WPV and also which interventions prove to be significant in reducing WPV. The nursing shortage is expected only to increase; recruitment and retention of qualified staff members may be deterred by WPV. This necessitates focused research on the phenomenon of workplace violence in health care.

  5. Workplace violence and influencing factors among medical professionals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siying; Zhu, Wei; Li, Huangyuan; Lin, Shaowei; Chai, Wenli; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-11-01

    Workplace violence has attracted increasing public attention over the past few decades in China. This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of workplace violence in healthcare settings by various job titles and hospital departments, and to explore the related risk factors among Chinese medical professionals. A total of 2,464 medical professionals in 12 hospitals of two provinces were surveyed by using a stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of the Workplace Violence Scale was used to measure the frequencies of workplace violence, classified as physical assault, emotional abuse, threat of assault, verbal sexual harassment and sexual assault experienced by the subjects over the previous 12 months. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on potentially influencing factors for workplace violence. Multivariate analysis was applied to determine the risk factors for workplace violence. About 50% of study subjects reported at least one type of workplace violence. The rates of experiencing two episodes or more of physical assault, emotional abuse, threat of assault, verbal sexual harassment, and sexual assault were 11%, 26%, 12%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. Identified risk factors for workplace violence included working in the departments of psychiatry, emergency, pediatrics and surgery, male gender, divorce/widowed status, long working hours (≥10 hr/day), and night shift. The study suggested that workplace violence occurs commonly in Chinese healthcare settings. Effective intervention strategies targeting workplace violence should be formulated in terms of major risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Human dignity and professional reputation under threat: Iranian Nurses' experiences of workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Fereshteh; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Dalvandi, Asghar; Rahgozar, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Workplace violence against nurses is a challenging problem in both developed and developing countries. Because the concept of violence bears some cultural load, nurses' understanding is region-specific. This study explores Iranian nurses' perceptions of workplace violence. Using qualitative content analysis, 22 registered nurses underwent unstructured, in-depth interviews. The main themes of threats to human dignity and professional reputation emerged, plus four categories: physical violence, psychological violence, honor insults, and ethnic-religious insults. The term "honor insults," as a unique finding, was used instead of "sexual harassment." These findings may help to redefine workplace violence based on cultural background, design strategies for supporting nurses, and prevent and manage such violence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Schnapp

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. Methods: This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. Results: A majority of residents (66%, 78/119 reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119 experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119 had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119 reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe “Occasionally,” “Seldom” or “Never” while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Conclusion: Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.

  8. Using database reports to reduce workplace violence: Perceptions of hospital stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Judith E; Hamblin, Lydia; Ager, Joel; Aranyos, Deanna; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Luborsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Documented incidents of violence provide the foundation for any workplace violence prevention program. However, no published research to date has examined stakeholders' preferences for workplace violence data reports in healthcare settings. If relevant data are not readily available and effectively summarized and presented, the likelihood is low that they will be utilized by stakeholders in targeted efforts to reduce violence. To discover and describe hospital system stakeholders' perceptions of database-generated workplace violence data reports. Eight hospital system stakeholders representing Human Resources, Security, Occupational Health Services, Quality and Safety, and Labor in a large, metropolitan hospital system. The hospital system utilizes a central database for reporting adverse workplace events, including incidents of violence. A focus group was conducted to identify stakeholders' preferences and specifications for standardized, computerized reports of workplace violence data to be generated by the central database. The discussion was audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, processed as text, and analyzed using stepwise content analysis. Five distinct themes emerged from participant responses: Concerns, Etiology, Customization, Use, and Outcomes. In general, stakeholders wanted data reports to provide ``the big picture,'' i.e., rates of occurrence; reasons for and details regarding incident occurrence; consequences for the individual employee and/or the workplace; and organizational efforts that were employed to deal with the incident. Exploring stakeholder views regarding workplace violence summary reports provided concrete information on the preferred content, format, and use of workplace violence data. Participants desired both epidemiological and incident-specific data in order to better understand and work to prevent the workplace violence occurring in their hospital system.

  9. Workplace violence in emergency medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chatterjee*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Violence against ED health care workers is a real problem with significant implications to the victims, patients, and departments/institutions. ED WPV needs to be addressed urgently by stakeholders through continued research on effective interventions specific to Emergency Medicine. Coordination, cooperation, and active commitment to the development of such interventions are critical.

  10. Factors influencing workplace violence risk among correctional health workers: insights from an Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Aaron W; Indig, Devon; Hampton, Stephen E; Hegney, Desley G; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the environmental and organisational determinants of workplace violence in correctional health settings. This paper describes the views of health professionals working in these settings on the factors influencing workplace violence risk. All employees of a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia, were invited to complete an online survey. The survey included an open-ended question seeking the views of participants about the factors influencing workplace violence in correctional health settings. Responses to this question were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. Participants identified several factors that they felt reduced the risk of violence in their workplace, including: appropriate workplace health and safety policies and procedures; professionalism among health staff; the presence of prison guards and the quality of security provided; and physical barriers within clinics. Conversely, participants perceived workplace violence risk to be increased by: low health staff-to-patient and correctional officer-to-patient ratios; high workloads; insufficient or underperforming security staff; and poor management of violence, especially horizontal violence. The views of these participants should inform efforts to prevent workplace violence among correctional health professionals.

  11. Incidence, Type, Related Factors, and Effect of Workplace Violence on Mental Health Nurses: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing Xiang; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia A; Morris, Diana L

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence and its impact on mental health nurses have yet to be thoroughly explored in China. This study aims to investigate the incidence, type, related factors, and effects of workplace violence on mental health nurses as well as identifying coping strategies. A researcher - designed workplace violence questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were distributed to nurses at a mental health hospital in Wuhan, China. Most nurses reported a high incidence of workplace violence (94.6%) in the past year ranging from verbal aggression, sexual harassment, to physical attack. The forms of violence significantly correlated with each other (r>0.5, p=0.000). Working on the psychiatric intensive care unit for adult males and being a male nurse placed nurses at significantly higher risk for workplace violence. Providing routine treatment, caring for male patients, and working the night shift increased the risk of sexual harassment. Nurses who believed that workplace violence was preventable experienced a significantly lower incidence of violence. Burnout levels of the mental health nurses were relatively mild, but increased with age, professional title, years of employment and frequency of workplace violence. The incidence of workplace violence among mental health nurses is common, and its frequency is correlated with nurses' level of burnout. Management and clinical nurses should work together on an organization-wide strategy targeting the major identified risk areas to reduce the incidence of workplace violence and minimize its impact on nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of neighborhood-level workplace violence with workers' mental distress problems: a multilevel analysis of Taiwanese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Li-Chung; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Liang, Kuei-Min; Cheng, Yawen

    2015-01-01

    Workplace violence is known to pose mental health risks. However, whether or not workplace violence in a surrounding area might further increase the risk of mental distress in workers has rarely been examined. The study subjects were 9,393 male and 7,716 female employees who participated in a nationwide survey in 2010. Their personal experiences of workplace violence over the past 1 year were ascertained by a standardized questionnaire. Also assessed were their psychosocial work characteristics and mental distress problems. Neighborhood-level workplace violence was computed based on aggregated data at the county level and was categorized into low-, medium-, and high-level categories. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to examine the associations between neighborhood-level workplace violence and individual-level mental distress problems, with adjustment of individual-level experience of workplace violence. The neighborhood-level prevalence of workplace violence ranged from 4.7 to 14.7% in men and from 6.4 to 14.8% in women across 22 counties. As compared with those who live in counties of the lowest tertile of workplace violence, female workers who lived in counties of the highest tertile of workplace violence had a 1.72-fold increased risk for mental distress problems after controlling for individual experience of workplace violence and other psychosocial work characteristics. Neighborhood-level workplace violence was associated with poor mental health in female workers. Preventative strategies targeting workplace violence should pay attention to neighborhood factors and gender-specific effects that might influence societal tolerance of abusive work practices and workers' vulnerability to mental health impacts of workplace violence.

  13. Workplace violence on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Jung-Der; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lin, Yi-Ping

    2007-07-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the workplace violence, including violence situation, victims' feeling, and the prevention strategies, on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. We conducted a face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interview with 13 health care workers suffering from physical violence and/or sexual harassment by patients in 2002. First, the interviews were taped and/or paper-notes recorded, then transcribed, organized, and analyzed. Results found that all of the victims alleged they did not receive enough post-incident support, and more than a half of the victims could not call others for help during the violence. To avoid further attack, most victims offered prevention strategies which were considered valuable for establishing guidelines. However, some victims regarded workplace violence as inevitable and part of the job. The most common situations of workplace violence were during routine ward inspections, especially when the victims were alone. The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In conclusion, we recommended a re-engineering of the organization to a supportive and safe working environment for prevention of workplace violence in the study hospital.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  15. Workplace violence against nurses in Korea and its impact on professional quality of life and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Lee, Haeyoung

    2017-10-01

    To inform countermeasures against nurses' workplace violence by reviewing the experience of violence. Violence is an important issue in medical settings that influences turnover intention of nurses. However, few studies have dealt with the effects of violence experienced by nurses on professional quality of life and turnover intention. A descriptive study using a structured questionnaire and data were analysed using t-test, one-way anova and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Of 358 nurses 95.5% reported that they had experienced workplace violence during the previous 1 year. Findings indicated that turnover intention was positively associated with years worked as a nurse, functional nursing delivery system, exposure types of violence with physical threats, and mild or severe burnout. Nurses experienced diverse workplace violence, which could decrease their professional quality of life and be a factor affecting their turnover intention. Role of leadership in creating a positive work environment is needed. Prevention of workplace violence should focus on at-risk groups to reduce workplace violence. Workplace violence should be communicated regularly and feedback should be given if there is unintentional non-physical violence. In particular it is important to investigate post-violence management in nurses who have experienced violence to reduce secondary trauma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nurses' experiences and understanding of workplace violence in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nurses' experiences and understanding of workplace violence in a trauma and emergency department in South Africa. M Kennedy, H Julie. Abstract. Violence in South African society has reached epidemic levels and has permeated the walls of the workplace. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how ...

  17. Addressing workplace violence among nurses who care for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the social-situational (ie, Job Demands-Resource model) and individual (ie, negative affectivity) factors that might be associated with violence among nurses caring for the elderly (aged care nurses). Workplace violence is recognized as a serious issue among nurses. Effective intervention and prevention require an understanding of antecedent factors. Nurses working in elderly care facilities across an Australian healthcare organization participated in a cross-sectional survey. Job demands were associated with all of the externally sourced types of violence. Low job control was linked with external emotional abuse and physical assault. Outside work support was related to external physical assault and verbal sexual harassment. Finally, high negative affectivity was linked to internal and external emotional abuse and threat of assault. Both the Job Demands-Resource model and negative affectivity were useful in identifying relationships with violence, supporting suggestions that situational and individual factors are associated with violence among nurses who care for the elderly.

  18. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-02-14

    Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV) among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%), then physical assault (22.7%) and sexual harassment (1.1%). The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6%) and their relatives (17.5%), followed by colleagues (7.7%) and supervisors (6.3%). Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  19. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. Methods The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. Results A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%, then physical assault (22.7% and sexual harassment (1.1%. The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6% and their relatives (17.5%, followed by colleagues (7.7% and supervisors (6.3%. Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. Conclusions WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong’s local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  20. Workplace violence against nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Anni; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. A multi-center, cross-sectional study. The seven geographical regions (i.e., northeast, north, central, east, south, northwest, and southwest) of China. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-five nurses. We randomly selected 28 hospitals, located in 14 cities over 13 provinces across the seven geographical regions. We distributed 4125 questionnaires between May 4 and September 23, 2014. The questionnaire included demographic information, the Workplace Violent Incident Questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals, and the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index. Workplace violence was assessed in terms of physical violence, non-physical violence, sexual harassment, and organized healthcare disturbances. We then performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions on the collected data. The response rate was 92.97% (n=3835). Additionally, we obtained valid questionnaires from 3004 individuals. Of these, 25.77% reported experiencing physical violence, 63.65% non-physical violence, 2.76% sexual harassment, and 11.72% organized healthcare disturbances. A logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses who have less experience, work a rotating roster, work in emergency rooms and pediatrics departments, have low empathy levels, and who work in poor nursing environments have greater odds of experiencing violence. Experiences of workplace violence are prevalent among Chinese nurses, and several complex factors are associated with a greater risk of such violence, including nurses' personal characteristics, work settings, and work environments. Our results might help nursing managers understand their employees' work

  1. Risk factors for workplace violence in clinical registered nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors and mental health consequences of physical and psychological violence for clinical nurses working in healthcare settings in Taiwan. Registered nurses working in hospitals in Taiwan report high incidences of workplace violence. However, previous studies rarely report psychological abuse among nursing staff, while the relationships between personal factors and workplace violence remain unclear. This is a cross-sectional study. Participants were invited to complete the Workplace Violence Questionnaire, an instrument designed to assess types of workplace violence (physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing and sexual harassment), the characteristics of perpetrators and victims and victims' reactions to their abuse. A total of 521 nurses completed the questionnaire. Of the participants, 102 (19.6%) indicated that they had experienced physical violence, 268 (51.4%) had experienced verbal abuse, 155 (29.8%) had experienced bullying/mobbing and 67 (12.9%) had experienced sexual harassment. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that age under 30 years (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.34-4.46) and anxiety (odds ratio = 4.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.24-18.12) increased the odds of verbal abuse, while bullying was associated with anxiety (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-6.93). Night work shift increased the odds of experiencing sexual harassment (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-4.16), while physical violence was associated with bachelor's degree (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-6.73). The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder.   Exposure to psychological violence often has a great impact on clinical nurses. For violence prevention, interventions should be sensitive to personal factors. Healthcare institutions should initiate counselling programs to help nurses cope with the stress related to workplace violence.

  2. Workplace Violence and Training Required by New Legislation Among NJ Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Marilyn Lou; Hendricks, Scott; Hartley, Daniel; Blando, James D

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nurses' knowledge of the state of New Jersey (NJ) Violence Prevention in Health Care Facilities Act, workplace violence training, and experience with workplace violence. In 2013, 309 (22.5% response rate) nurses returned a mailed survey. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Ninety percent of respondents were female. When the perpetrator was a patient or a family member, the respondents experienced verbal abuse the most (57.8%), followed by threats (52.3%), and physical assault (38.3%). Respondents who had heard of the regulation (89.6%) received a higher proportion of training than those who had not heard of the regulation (57.9%) (P training components were more likely to feel more secure at work, suggesting that training is an important tool to address workplace violence.

  3. Workplace Violence in the Health Sector in Turkey: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Tevfik; Acikel, Cengizhan; Pinar, Gul; Karabulut, Erdem; Saygun, Meral; Bariskin, Elif; Guidotti, Tee L; Akdur, Recep; Sabuncu, Hilmi; Bodur, Said; Egri, Mucahit; Bakir, Bilal; Acikgoz, Emrah M; Atceken, Ismail; Cengiz, Mustafa

    2015-06-28

    Violence in the workplace is an increasing occupational health concern worldwide. Health care workers are at high risk of assault. To develop, monitor, and manage prevention policies, baseline data should be available. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the current extent of workplace violence nationwide in Turkey. The study population of 12.944 health care workers was a stratified sample of all health care workers (612,639) in the country. A probabilistic sampling was made on the basis of the "multistage stratified random cluster sampling method." This study was conducted by a structured questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The questionnaire items were adapted and translated into Turkish based on questionnaires of International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. The percentage of health care workers who experienced workplace violence in Turkey in the previous 12 months was 44.7%. The types of violence included physical 6.8%, verbal 43.2%, mobbing (bullying) 2.4%, and sexual harassment 1%. Multivariate analysis showed that level of health care system, type of institution, gender, occupation, age, working hours, and shift work were independent risk factors for experiencing workplace violence (p violence among health care workers is a significant problem. The results of the study can serve as the basis for future analytical studies and for development of appropriate prevention efforts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Early Psychological Preventive Intervention For Workplace Violence: A Randomized Controlled Explorative and Comparative Study Between EMDR-Recent Event and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquinio, Cyril; Rotonda, Christine; Houllé, William A; Montel, Sébastien; Rydberg, Jenny Ann; Minary, Laetitia; Dellucci, Hélène; Tarquinio, Pascale; Fayard, Any; Alla, François

    2016-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial study aims to investigate the efficacy of an early psychological intervention called EMDR-RE compared to Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on 60 victims of workplace violence, which were divided into three groups: 'EMDR-RE' (n = 19), 'CISD' (n = 23), and 'delayed EMDR-RE' (n = 18). EMDR-RE and CISD took place 48 hours after the event, whilst third intervention was delayed by an additional 48 hours. Results showed that after 3 months PCLS and SUDS scores were significantly lower with EMDR-RE and delayed EMDR-RE compared to CISD. After 48 hours and 3 months, none of the EMDR-RE-treated victims showed PTSD symptoms.

  5. The impact of training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Nahla Mansour; Al Faouri, Ibrahim; Al-Niarat, Tahany Fareed

    2016-05-01

    Nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence are still inadequately explored, and possess an impact in preventing, and managing the violent incidents and the quality of nursing care. Creating a demand for an effective intervention program to improve nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward workplace violence. To study the impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in a military hospital in Jordan. One group before-after design was employed. A stratified random sample of 100 nurses working in three shifts was recruited. Data were collected earlier and after the preparation program using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. "The Framework Guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector", was adopted in this work. The preparation sessions were for one day each week over five weeks. The post-test assessment was over five weeks using the same questionnaire. A total of 97 nurses completed the survey. The outcomes demonstrated the significant impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes towards workplace violence (t=6. 62, df=96, p=0.000). The prevalence of verbal abuse by patients and visitors was 63.9% and for physical abuse, 7.2% were from patients and 3.1% of visitors. Most violent incidents occurred during day duty and during delivering nursing care (40.2% and 32%, respectively). Major source of emotional support for abused nurses was from the nursing team (88.7%), while the legal support was from nursing management (48.5%). The study highlights a general concern among nursing staff about workplace violence. Confirming that violence prevention education for staff is a necessary step forward to deescalate the problem. A significant effect of the training program was evident in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Domestic Violence and the Workplace: Improving Workers' Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productivity of victims experiencing domestic violence is reduced due to sapping of their energy, undermining their confidence and compromising their health. It is against this background that this study examined the impact of domestic violence in the workplace and workers' welfare and productivity in Nigeria industries.

  7. Female garment workers' experiences of violence in their homes and workplaces in Bangladesh: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira; Rahman, Tabassum; Willan, Samantha; Jewkes, Rachel; Gibbs, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The ways in which women's engagement in paid work shapes their experiences of violence in the home and workplace is widely debated, particularly in Bangladesh, but rarely considered together. We undertook 23 in-depth interviews with female garment workers living in slums in Bangladesh, and nine interviews with key informants (factory managers and supervisors, male workers, and employees from non-governmental organisations). Data came from two studies conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh - the first between August and September 2011 and the second between June and August 2015 - and were analysed using thematic analysis. In both settings, women experienced similar forms of violence, including emotional, physical, sexual, and economic, although from different perpetrators. Despite violence in the home and violence in the workplace typically being considered separately, we identify four overlaps between them. First, violence in both settings is shaped by how patriarchal norms and structures of institutions intersect with institutions economic structures. Second, dominant representations of female garment workers as sex workers or sexually promiscuous enables violence against them. Third, economic violence is used as a way to control and limit women's autonomy. Fourth, women develop strategies to continue working and maximize the benefits of work for themselves. Finally, we suggest how interventions could work to prevent violence in the home and workplace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2010-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  9. Workplace bullying prevention: a critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Workplace Violence and Job Outcomes of Newly Licensed Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyoung Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of workplace violence toward newly licensed nurses and the relationship between workplace violence and job outcomes. An online survey was conducted of newly licensed registered nurses who had obtained their license in 2012 or 2013 in South Korea and had been working for 5-12 months after first being employed. The sample consisted of 312 nurses working in hospitals or clinics. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II was used to measure violence and nurse job outcomes. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between violence and job outcomes. Verbal abuse was most prevalent (59.6%), followed by threats of violence (36.9%), physical violence (27.6%), bullying (25.6%), and sexual harassment (22.4%). Approximately three quarters of the nurses had experienced at least one type of violence. The main perpetrators were patients and nurse colleagues, although the distribution of perpetrators varied depending on the type of violence. Bullying had a significant relationship with all four job outcomes (job satisfaction, burnout, commitment to the workplace, and intent to leave), while verbal abuse was associated with all job outcomes except for intent to leave. Violence perpetrated by nurse colleagues had a significant relationship with all four job outcomes, while violence by physicians had a significant inverse relationship with job satisfaction. Workplace violence is experienced by a high percentage of newly licensed nurses, and is associated with their job outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators on sleep disturbance-data from the 4th Korean working conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Taejun; Ye, Byeongjin; Kim, Jung-Il; Park, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one of six relevant criteria (verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threatening or humiliating behavior, physical violence, bullying/harassment, and sexual harassment) and the group was divided according to whether the perpetrator of violence was a client or colleague. Presence of sleep disturbance was determined based on subjective symptoms felt within the past 12 months by each individual. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the effects on sleep distance according to general, occupational, and psychosocial characteristics, as well as the types of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence. Workplace violence was found as a factor affecting sleep disturbance (OR = 3.773, 95 % CI = 3.058-4.655), and with respect to perpetrators of violence, complaint of sleep disturbance symptoms was higher when the perpetrator was a colleague or boss (OR = 5.688, 95 % CI 4.189-7.723) than a client (OR = 2.992, 95 % CI 2.301-3.890). Workplace violence had an effect on occurrence of sleep disturbance and when the perpetrators of violence was a boss or colleague at work, the risk for symptoms such as sleep disturbance increased, which indicated the need for appropriate intervention from a workplace healthcare perspective, including preventive education of workplace violence among employees.

  12. Workplace Violence Training Programs for Health Care Workers: An Analysis of Program Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbury, Sheila; Hodgson, Michael; Zankowski, Donna; Lipscomb, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Commercial workplace violence (WPV) prevention training programs differ in their approach to violence prevention and the content they present. This study reviews 12 such programs using criteria developed from training topics in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Healthcare and Social Service Workers and a review of the WPV literature. None of the training programs addressed all the review criteria. The most significant gap in content was the lack of attention to facility-specific risk assessment and policies. To fill this gap, health care facilities should supplement purchased training programs with specific training in organizational policies and procedures, emergency action plans, communication, facility risk assessment, and employee post-incident debriefing and monitoring. Critical to success is a dedicated program manager who understands risk assessment, facility clinical operations, and program management and evaluation.

  13. Risk factors of workplace violence at hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Ito, Shinya; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2012-02-01

    Patients and their relatives exposed to mental stress caused by hospitalization or illness might use violence against healthcare staff and interfere with quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to investigate incidences of workplace violence and the attributes of healthcare staff who are at high risk. A questionnaire-based, anonymous, and self-administered cross-sectional survey. Healthcare staff (n = 11,095) of 19 hospitals in Japan. Incidence rates and adjusted odd ratios of workplace violence were calculated to examine the effect of attributes of healthcare staff to workplace violence by using logistic regression analysis. The response rate for survey completion was 79.1% (8711/11,095). Among the respondents, 36.4% experienced workplace violence by patients or their relatives in the past year; 15.9% experienced physical aggression, 29.8% experienced verbal abuse, and 9.9% experienced sexual harassment. Adjusted odds ratios of physical aggression were significantly high in psychiatric wards, critical care centers/intensive care units (ICU)/cardiac care units (CCU), long-term care wards, for nurses, nursing aides/care workers, and for longer working hours. Adjusted odds ratios of verbal abuse were significantly high in psychiatric wards, long-term care wards, outpatient departments, dialysis departments, and for longer years of work experience, and for longer working hours. Adjusted odds ratios of sexual harassment were significantly high in dialysis departments, for nurses, nursing aides/care workers, technicians, therapists and females. The general ward and direct interaction with patients were common risk factors for each type of workplace violence. The mechanisms and the countermeasures for each type of workplace violence at those high-risk areas should be investigated. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  14. Determinants of workplace violence against clinical physicians in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeng-Cheng; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Chen, Peter Y; Chen, Ying-Lin; Lin, Yu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Workplace violence in the health sector is a worldwide concern. Physicians play an essential role in health-care teamwork; thus, understanding how organizational factors influence workplace violence against physicians is critical. A total of 189 physicians from three public hospitals and one private hospital in Northern Taiwan completed a survey, and the response rate was 47.1%. This study was approved by the institutional review board of each participating hospital. The 189 physicians were selected from the Taipei area, Taiwan. The results showed that 41.5% of the respondents had received at least one workplace-related physical or verbal violent threat, and that 9.8% of the respondents had experienced at least one episode of sexual harassment in the 3 months before the survey. Logistic regression analysis revealed that physicians in psychiatry or emergency medicine departments received more violent threats and sexual harassment than physicians in other departments. Furthermore, physicians with a lower workplace safety climate (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.81-0.98) and more job demands (OR=1.15; 95% CI=1.02-1.30) were more likely to receive violent threats. This study found that workplace violence was associated with job demands and the workplace safety climate. Therefore, determining how to develop a workplace safety climate and ensure a safe job environment for physicians is a crucial management policy issue for health-care systems.

  15. Workplace homicides among U.S. women: the role of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Gurka, Kelly K; Konda, Srinivas; Coben, Jeffrey H; Amandus, Harlan E

    2012-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue with serious consequences for the workplace. Workplace homicides occurring to U.S. women over a 6-year period, including those perpetrated by an intimate partner, are described. Workplace homicides among U.S. women from 2003 to 2008 were categorized into type I (criminal intent), type II (customer/client), type III (co-worker), or type IV (personal relations) events using the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Fatality rates were calculated and compared among workplace violence (WPV) types, occupations, and characteristics including location of homicide, type of workplace, time of day, and weapon used. Between 2003 and 2008, 648 women were feloniously killed on the job. The leading cause of workplace homicide for U.S. women was criminal intent, such as robbing a store (n = 212; 39%), followed by homicides perpetrated by a personal relation (n = 181; 33%). The majority of these personal relations were intimate partners (n = 142; 78%). Over half of workplace homicides perpetrated by intimate partners occurred in parking lots and public buildings (n = 91; 51%). A large percentage of homicides occurring to women at work are perpetrated by intimate partners. WPV prevention programs should incorporate strategies to prevent and respond to IPV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Workplace violence against homecare workers and its relationship with workers health outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ginger C; Perrin, Nancy A; Moss, Helen; Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy

    2015-01-17

    Consumer-driven homecare models support aging and disabled individuals to live independently through the services of homecare workers. Although these models have benefits, including autonomy and control over services, little evidence exists about challenges homecare workers may face when providing services, including workplace violence and the negative outcomes associated with workplace violence. This study investigates the prevalence of workplace violence among homecare workers and examines the relationship between these experiences and homecare worker stress, burnout, depression, and sleep. We recruited female homecare workers in Oregon, the first US state to implement a consumer driven homecare model, to complete an on-line or telephone survey with peer interviewers. The survey asked about demographics and included measures to assess workplace violence, fear, stress, burnout, depression and sleep problems. Homecare workers (n = 1,214) reported past-year incidents of verbal aggression (50.3% of respondents), workplace aggression (26.9%), workplace violence (23.6%), sexual harassment (25.7%), and sexual aggression (12.8%). Exposure was associated with greater stress (p workplace aggression buffered homecare workers against negative work and health outcomes. To ensure homecare worker safety and positive health outcomes in the provision of services, it is critical to develop and implement preventive safety training programs with policies and procedures that support homecare workers who experience harassment and violence.

  17. Violence in the workplace in Nursing: consequences overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordignon, Maiara; Monteiro, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    to reflect on the consequences of workplace violence experienced by nursing professionals. this is a reflection paper based on recent publications related to the subject, particularly researches carried out in Brazil and in other countries. exposure to workplace violence has been associated with health problems in nursing professionals, which may be physical damage, emotional manifestations, and psychic disorders. It also affects the employee performance, his or her family and social interactions. this phenomenon is potentially noxious and costly, for it leads to suffering, illness, absence from work, and even death. This reflection calls attention moreover to the importance of a safe and adequate health care work environment.

  18. Prevalence of workplace violence against nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R P W; Law, Y K; Li, K E; Ng, Y C; Cheung, M H; Fung, V K P; Kwok, K T T; Tong, J M K; Yen, P F; Leung, W C

    2006-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and nature of workplace violence against nurses, and how nurses deal with such aggression; and to identify the risk factors related to violence in the hospital environment. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. All nursing staff in the hospital, except nurses who were unable to read Chinese or who did not have patient contact (eg those worked in administrative positions), were invited to complete a questionnaire. Demographic data of the respondents, incidence of and risk factors contributing to workplace violence. A total of 420 nurses returned the completed questionnaire (response rate, 25%). Three hundred and twenty (76%; 95% confidence interval, 72-80%) nurses reported abuse of any kind--verbal abuse, 73%; bullying, 45%; physical abuse, 18%; and sexual harassment, 12%. Most (82%) nurses who experienced verbal abuse tended to confide in friends, family members, or colleagues. Some (42%) ignored the incident. Risk factors for workplace violence included: working in male wards and in certain specialties such as the Accident and Emergency Department, Community Nursing Service, and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department. Workplace violence against nurses is a significant problem in Hong Kong. Further large-scale studies should be conducted to more closely examine the problem.

  19. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Schnapp, Benjamin H.; Slovis, Benjamin H.; Shah, Anar D.; Fant, Abra L.; Gisondi, Michael A.; Shah, Kaushal H.; Lech, Christie A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) iscommon. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with thesevolatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergencymedicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. Methods: This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at mul...

  20. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David S.; Guy, Lydia; Perry, Brad; Sniffen, Chad Keoni; Mixson, Stacy Alamo

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews approaches for developing comprehensive strategies that stop violence before initial perpetration occurs. Using feminist theory and public health perspectives as its foundation, the use of educational sessions, community mobilization, social norms, social marketing, and policy work are all explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Workplace violence directed at nursing staff at a general hospital in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamchuchat, Chalermrat; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Oncheunjit, Suparnee; Yip, Teem Wing; Sangthong, Rassamee

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to document the characteristics of workplace violence directed at nursing staff, an issue which has rarely been studied in a developing country. Two study methods, a survey and a key informant interview, were conducted at a general hospital in southern Thailand. A total of 545 out of 594 questionnaires sent were returned for statistical analysis (response rate=91.7%). The 12-month prevalence of violence experience was 38.9% for verbal abuse, 3.1% for physical abuse, and 0.7% for sexual harassment. Psychological consequences including poor relationships with colleagues and family members were the major concerns. Patients and their relatives were the main perpetrators in verbal and physical abuse while co-workers were the main perpetrators in cases of sexual harassment. Common factors to incidents of violence were psychological setting, illness of the perpetrators, miscommunication, and alcohol use. Logistic regression analysis showed younger age to be a personal risk factor. Working in the out-patient unit, trauma and emergency unit, operating room, or medical or surgical unit increased the odds of violence by 80%. Training related to violence prevention and control was found to be effective and decreased the risk of being a victim of violence by 40%. We recommend providing training to high risk groups as a means of controlling workplace violence directed at nursing staff.

  2. Girls' perceptions of violence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Silverstein, Joni

    2012-01-01

    This research examines girls' perceptions of violence and its prevention. A purposive sample of 32 young women ages 12-18 who were incarcerated, affiliated with the juvenile justice system, or self-identified as living in disadvantaged neighborhoods participated in 1 of 4 focus groups. Recursive, iterative analysis yielded seven themes, including: violence is learned, violence is contagious, violence is unstoppable, violence is necessary to manage stress and conflict, violence is belonging, violence is connected to other crime, and maybe it can be stopped. These themes provide important insights into young women's thoughts on violence and may inform policies and programs as prevention strategies. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  3. Labouring women and violence: Building workplaces free of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will also inform discussions at the international level towards a binding convention against gender violence in the workplace and various communications products, such as policy briefs, op-eds and articles, a documentary film, country studies, and a comprehensive legal paper that will contribute to general ...

  4. ROMANIAN SOCIAL CARE WORKERS' EXPOSURE TO WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana I. ZIGMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in the social care sector is not a problem that appeared overnight. It was and still is a major concern, and its disastrous effects, on both organization and employees have been largely documented in various papers and studies around the world. This study analyses social care workers’ perceptions and experiences with workplace violence, phenomenon which, until a few years ago, has been largely ignored in the Romanian research field, and is still considered to this day a taboo subject in the organizational environment. Even if most employers recognize its general existence they tend to deny or refuse to accept that their institution or company is affected by it. The present paper will provide information concerning problematic issues in studying the phenomenon and will try to provide an image of the social care workers’ perception and attitude towards risk and workplace violence. The research will try to identify differences in experience, exposure and resistance to violence in the workplace based on various variables like sex or job characteristics.

  5. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and associated risk factors for workplace violence against Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Danyang; Zhou, Chenyu; Yang, Libin; Sun, Tao; Hao, Tianjun; Peng, Xiangwen; Gao, Lei; Liu, Wenhui; Mu, Yi; Han, Yuzhen; Fan, Lihua

    2017-06-24

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the characteristics of workplace violence that Chinese nurses at tertiary and county-level hospitals encountered in the 12 months from December 2014 to January 2016, to identify and analyse risk factors for workplace violence, and to establish the basis for future preventive strategies. A cross-sectional study. A total of 44 tertiary hospitals and 90 county-level hospitals in 16 provinces (municipalities or autonomous regions) in China. We used stratified random sampling to collect data from December 2014 to January 2016. We distributed 21 360 questionnaires, and 15 970 participants provided valid data (effective response rate=74.77%). We conducted binary logistic regression analyses on the risk factors for workplace violence among the nurses in our sample and analysed the reasons for aggression. The prevalence of workplace violence was 65.8%; of this, 64.9% was verbal violence, and physical violence and sexual harassment accounted for 11.8% and 3.9%, respectively. Frequent workplace violence occurred primarily in emergency and paediatric departments. Respondents reported that patients' relatives were the main perpetrators in tertiary and county-level hospitals. Logistic regression analysis showed that respondents' age, department, years of experience and direct contact with patients were common risk factors at different levels of hospitals. Workplace violence is frequent in China's tertiary and county-level hospitals; its occurrence is especially frequent in the emergency and paediatric departments. It is necessary to cope with workplace violence by developing effective control strategies at individual, hospital and national levels. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. An Intersectional Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence and Workplace Violence among Women Working in Prostitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PILAR RODRÍGUEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of violence against women (intimate partner violence and workplace violence. The subject of the research is a qualitative sample of 12 autochthonous and migrant women who work in low-paid prostitution in Almería. The study uses an intersectional and multi-level approach, focusing on the perspectives of groups who experience multiple discrimination. The results show that violence has an impact on the identity of women. It also shows that in the different paths of the women in the study, different webs of violence occur, which lead them to distinct understandings of the violence they experience. In addition, we have analyzed how age, education level, and above all, social stigma, are related to the possibility of these women experiencing violence in their work and to their perceptions of that work.

  7. Workplace physical violence among hospital nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Al Khawaldeh, Abdullah Talal

    2014-07-01

    To: (1) examine the incidence, frequency and contributing factors to workplace violence among nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan, and (2) identify the existing policies and the management modalities to tackle workplace violence. Workplace violence is a major problem in healthcare organisations. An understanding of the nature of violence is essential to implementing successful management. A descriptive exploratory research design. The questionnaire that was developed in 2003 by the International Labor Office, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 521 Jordanian physicians and nurses (396 nurses, 125 physicians) who worked in hospitals located in underserved areas. Around 15% of the participants were exposed to physical violence. The factors that contributed to workplace violence were related to absence of policies, inadequate staffing and lack of communication skills. Only 16·9% of participants indicated that there were specific policies available for dealing with physical workplace violence. Strengthening security and providing training were some of the important factors indicated by participants for decreasing violence in the workplace. Workplace violence is a problem in underserved areas that needs attention from administrators. Most participants were very dissatisfied with the way the administrators dealt with the incidents. Instituting firm policies against perpetrators and developing protective violence guidelines to support healthcare staff in managing workplace violence are paramount to tackle the problem of workplace violence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High prevalence of workplace violence among nurses working at public health facilities in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fute, Mathewos; Mengesha, Zelalem Birhanu; Wakgari, Negash; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa

    2015-01-01

    The rising rate of workplace violence in health care facilities has become a major problem for health care providers including nurses. However, evidences are lacking in Ethiopia particularly in the study area. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and associated factors of workplace violence among nurses working at health care facilities in Hawassa City Administration, Southern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 660 randomly selected nurses working at public health facilities in Hawassa City Administration in April 2014. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered using EPI-Info and exported to SPSS for further analysis. Descriptive statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association between different variables and the outcome variable. Odds ratios with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were computed to determine the presence and strength of the association. In this study, the prevalence of workplace violence was 29.9% [95% CI: 26.5, 33.5)] of which physical violence accounted for 36 (18.22%), verbal abuse for 172 (89.58%) and sexual harassment for 25 (13.02%). Female sex [AOR=2.00, 95% CI: (1.28, 2.39)], short work experience [AOR=8.86, 95% CI: (3.47, 22.64)], age group of 22-25 [AOR=4.17, 95% CI: (2.46, 7.08)], age group of (26-35) [AOR=1.9, 95% CI (1.16, 3.1)], work in emergency [(AOR=4.28, 95% CI: (1.39, 4.34)] and work in the Inpatient Department [(AOR=2.11, 95% CI: (1.98, 2.64)] were the factors positively associated with workplace violence. A significant proportion of nurses faced violence while providing care at in public health facilities. Being female, younger age, short work experience, and assignment in emergency and inpatient departments were positively associated with workplace violence. Policy makers and stakeholders should focus on workplace violence prevention strategies.

  9. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  10. Dealing with workplace violence in emergency primary health care: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Tone; Johansen, Ingrid H; Alsaker, Kjersti

    2015-05-01

    Prevention and management of workplace violence among health workers has been described in different health care settings. However, little is known about which phenomena the emergency primary health care (EPC) organization should attend to in their strategies for preventing and managing it. In the current study, we therefore explored how EPC personnel have dealt with threats and violence from visitors or patients, focusing on how organizational factors affected the incidents. A focus group study was performed with a sample of 37 nurses and physicians aged 25-69 years. Eight focus group interviews were conducted, and the participants were invited to talk about their experiences of violence in EPC. Analysis was conducted by systematic text condensation, searching for themes describing the participants' experiences. Four main themes emerged for anticipating or dealing with incidents of threats or violence within the system: (1) minimizing the risk of working alone, (2) being prepared, (3) resolving the mismatch between patient expectations and the service offered, and (4) supportive manager response. Our study shows a potential for development of better organizational strategies for protecting EPC personnel who are at risk from workplace violence.

  11. A Systematic Literature Review: Workplace Violence Against Emergency Medical Services Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Pourshaikhian, Majid; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davood; Barati, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Context In spite of the high prevalence and consequences of much workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel, this phenomenon has been given insufficient attention. A systematic review can aid the development of guidelines to reduce violence. Objectives The research question addressed by this paper is, “What are the characteristics and findings of studies on workplace violence against emergency medical services...

  12. Workplace Violence toward Physicians and Nurses: Prevalence and Correlates in Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Lee, Paul H; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-08-04

    This paper sets out to estimate the prevalence of workplace violence in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of physicians and nurses working in healthcare settings in Macau. Background : Concerted efforts worldwide to reduce workplace violence (WPV) have not yet removed medical-related professionals from the threat of patients', family members', and colleagues' physical and other assaults in Southeast Asia. Methods : The study employs a cross-sectional design to estimate the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of WPV among medical doctors and nurses in Macau. The data collection period spanned from August to December 2014. Multiple logistic regression examines the prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors in doctors and nurses. Results : A total of 107 doctors (14.9%) and 613 nurses (85.1%) participated in the study; 57.2% had suffered WPV in the preceding year. The most common forms of workplace violence were verbal abuse (53.4%), physical assault (16.1%), bullying/harassment (14.2%), sexual harassment (4.6%), and racial harassment (2.6%). Most violence was perpetrated by patients and their relatives, colleagues, and supervisors. Conclusions: WPV remains a significant concern in healthcare settings in Macau. Macau's local health authority should consider putting in place a raft of zero-tolerance policies designed to prevent it.

  13. Exposure of Iranian emergency medical technicians to workplace violence: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Hassankhani, Hadi; Mills, Jane; Dadashzadeh, Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Iran experience concerning levels of workplace violence, although until now there has been no investigation of this phenomenon. The objectives of the present study were to describe the exposure of Iranian EMTs to workplace violence and to identify the importance of related factors from their viewpoint. In this descriptive, exploratory study, 160 EMTs agreed to participate in a survey that collected data regarding their exposure to the following forms of workplace violence: verbal abuse, physical assault, cultural harassment, sexual harassment and sexual assault. A total of 138 questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 86%. The majority of participants 75% (n = 103) experienced at least one form of workplace violence in the 12 months before completing the questionnaire. The most frequently reported form of workplace violence was verbal abuse (71%), followed by physical assault (38%) and cultural harassment (9%). Violence resulting in serious injuries was reported by only 4% of participants, with no more than 8% of participants experiencing workplace violence that included the use of weapons. The most reported response to workplace violence was to 'invite the offender to calm down'. Participants took this approach because they believed that 'follow up of workplace violence is ineffectual' (34%), considered the workplace violence as a common in their job (30%), and did not know whom to report workplace violence to (13%). Iranian EMTs experience a considerable amount of workplace violence. The present study highlights the recommendation for formal training programmes and clearer protocols about how to manage workplace violence, especially verbal abuse in the Iranian prehospital setting. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  14. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  15. Domestic Violence in the Canadian Workplace: Are Coworkers Aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Wathen, C Nadine; MacQuarrie, Barbara J

    2016-09-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is associated with serious consequences for victims, children, and families, and even national economies. An emerging literature demonstrates that DV also has a negative impact on workers and workplaces. Less is known about the extent to which people are aware of coworkers' experiences of DV. Using data from a pan-Canadian sample of 8,429 men and women, we examine: (1) awareness of coworker DV victimization and perpetration; (2) the warning signs of DV victimization and perpetration recognized by workers; (3) whether DV victims are more likely than nonvictims to recognize DV and its warning signs in the workplace; and (4) the impacts of DV that workers perceive on victims'/perpetrators' ability to work. Nearly 40% of participants believed they had recognized a DV victim and/or perpetrator in the workplace and many reported recognizing more than one warning sign. DV victims were significantly more likely to report recognizing victims and perpetrators in the workplace, and recognized more DV warning signs. Among participants who believed they knew a coworker who had experienced DV, 49.5% thought the DV had affected their coworker's ability to work. For those who knew a coworker perpetrating DV, 37.9% thought their coworker's ability to work was affected by the abusive behavior. Our findings have implications for a coordinated workplace response to DV. Further research is urgently needed to examine how best to address DV in the workplace and improve outcomes for victims, perpetrators, and their coworkers.

  16. Preventing violence against public servants

    OpenAIRE

    Wikman, Sofia; Rickfors, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Preventing violence against public servants From safety science, we have learned that in light of increasing demands and system complexity, we must adapt our approach to safety. We have to include new practices to look for what goes right, focus on frequent events, remain sensitive to the possibility of failure, to be thorough as well as efficient, and to view an investment in safety as an investment in productivity. But most people still think of safety as the absence of accidents and incide...

  17. The relationship between emotional labor status and workplace violence among toll collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Yosub; Rhie, Jeongbae

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to identify the emotional labor and workplace violence status among toll collectors by assessing and comparing the same with that in workers in other service occupation. It also aimed to analyze the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence. Methods This study examined emotional labor and workplace violence status in 264 female toll collectors from August 20 to September 4, 2015. The emotional labor was assessed using the Korean Emotional Labor Sc...

  18. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Constance J; de Vries, Daniel H; d'Arc Kanakuze, Jeanne; Ngendahimana, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research fro...

  19. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia ? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. Methods The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was use...

  20. Workplace violence in long haul trucking: occupational health nursing update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra Gay

    2004-01-01

    Almost 2 million workdays and millions of dollars are lost annually because of non-fatal assaults suffered at the workplace (NIOSH, 1996). Twenty workers, on average, are murdered each week in the United States and an estimated 18,000 workers per week are victims of non-fatal assault (NIOSH, 2001). Violence and stress are two interrelated issues that affect the work force. In-depth studies of these issues have not been conducted with long haul truckers in general, or with women in non-traditional, male dominated fields such as the long haul trucking industry. Epidemiological data related to violence and stress experienced by these under-studied populations are needed to plan effective interventions to reduce occupational risks. Studies employing both qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to articulate risk and protective factors related to violence against workers (Runyan, 2001). Occupational health nurses are qualified to participate in the development and implementation of research and intervention studies to improve worker safety related to violence at the workplace for men and women in both traditional and non-traditional occupational roles.

  1. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. Studying women nurse academics: exposing workplace violence in Australia: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nel

    2003-04-01

    This article is the second in a series on workplace violence in academia. The specific findings on women nurse academics' experiences with violence in Australian universities are revealed. Findings indicate that Australian universities are competitive with wide spread violence. Participants revealed they were not supported nor recognised for their workplace contributions. Violence predominated in schools of nursing rather than the broader university. It is argued these findings need public dissemination to improve workplace environments and eliminate violence. It is noted that the results reported are part of a larger research study on progression and professional development of women nurse academics.

  3. Preventing Sexual Violence and HIV in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598

  4. Engaging men and women as allies: a workplace curriculum module to challenge gender norms about domestic violence, male bullying and workplace violence and encourage ally behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, K C; Yates, Diane; Walcott, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    This post-hoc analysis discusses a replicable workplace behavior change module called Men and Women As Allies, that was designed and implemented by a team of labor, management and community anti-violence educators at a private sector telecommunications employer. A job site-specific educational seminar linked issues of domestic violence to male bullying and workplace violence. It challenged social stereotypes about gender, taught skills to engage ally peer behavior and provided information on how to seek assistance from union, workplace and external community resources.

  5. Interventions for Violence Prevention among Young Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interventions for Violence Prevention among Young Female Hawkers in Motor Parks in South-Western Nigeria: A Review of Effectiveness. ... Findings show that they had greater knowledge of the different types of violence (p < 0.05), were more aware of their vulnerability to violence (99.4% after compared to 82.7% before ...

  6. Preventing Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Rebecca A.

    1992-01-01

    Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)

  7. Factors affecting workplace bullying and lateral violence among clinical nurses in Korea: descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjin; Uhm, Dong Choon; Yoon, Young Joo

    2016-04-01

    Workplace bullying and lateral violence are serious issues affecting the work life of hospital nurses. The purpose of this study was to identify the selected individual and institutional characteristics for workplace bullying and lateral violence using a conceptual framework. A descriptive survey design was used. A convenience sample of 255 nurses in tertiary hospitals, who had a minimum of 6 months clinical experience, completed the survey. Regression analysis was used to determine factors significantly associated with workplace bullying and lateral violence. The Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised and the Lateral Violence scale were used to measure workplace bullying and lateral violence. A negative affect, individualism and working in hospital specialty units predicted workplace bullying. Individualism, a negative affect, affiliated hospital and working hours predicted verbal abuse whereas the place of employment was significantly associated with lateral violence. The results of this study identified factors that are associated with bullying and violence but did not fully support the conceptual framework. The individual characteristic negative affect was significantly associated with most types of workplace bullying and lateral violence bully whereas the place of employment was an important factor in lateral violence. Nurse managers need to be aware that both individual and institutional factors may impact levels of workplace bullying and lateral violence in their hospitals and need to prepare specific strategies to address these multiple factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Addressing the Issue of Domestic Violence at the Workplace: A Review of the Implementation of the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim koodoruth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely acknowledged that the majority of persons affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV are women and girls. The violence females are subject to can occur at each stage of their life with immediate and long-term effects. According to a World Bank publication, The Costs ofViolence, (2009 most estimates on the cost to society of GBV have focused on domestic violence. A study of the Extent, Nature and Costs of Domestice Violence to the Mauritian Economy (2010 reveals that there is a forty-six fold difference between the administrative data provided the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. To scale up the fight against domestic violence the Government of Mauritius has launched the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy (VEARP in 2013 whereby the workplace becomes a platform for primary prevention.This study aims to document the consultations held with stakeholders at the workplace (public and private sector and to make proposals to ensure that the VEARP is institutionalised at the workplace. It has been found that the Human Resource (HR function is not well developed in the mauritian society and among the three main models of prevention of domestic violence at the workplace, the partnerships model is the most appropriate.The organisation of training of trainers on GBV issues and the referrral system set up by the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare will encourage employers to join the fight against domestic violence. To assist the HR department in implementing this workplace initiative, there is an urgent need to set up Employer Assistance Programs (EAP at the workplace. However, there is an urgent need to institutionalise work-family life balance policies, to adopt legislation to cater for violence at the workplace and to amend the Protection of Domestic Violence Act of 2011.

  9. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multimodal Retrospective and Prospective Unit-Level Analysis of Military Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    was presented at the 2014 Military Health Services Research Symposium. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Military workplace violence 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...combat-related stress disorders) and by timely and appropriate intervention including substance abuse and mental health treatment, as well as... Workplace Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Pamela K. Lattimore RECIPIENT: RTI International Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 REPORT DATE

  11. Paramedic student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements - A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Paramedic students are hesitant to formally report exposure to acts of workplace violence as they feel it may jeopardise their chance of getting a job. The objective of this study was to identify the type and number of workplace violence acts experienced by undergraduate paramedic students whilst on an ambulance clinical placement. This was a cross-sectional study using the Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to obtain student exposure to acts of workplace violence which occurred whilst on ambulance clinical placements. The survey response rate was 29.8%. The students' average age was 24.1 years, median age of 23 years, range 18-47 years. There were 32.6% of students who were exposed to at least one act of workplace violence with 56% of these being females. Verbal abuse 18%, and intimidation 17% were the common acts of workplace violence students were exposed to. One female, a nursing/paramedic student, was exposed to sexual harassment on more than one occasion. The findings from this study suggest that paramedic students are exposed to similar rates of workplace violence as full time practising paramedics. Further research is required into workplace violence against students from all professions and what detrimental effect this may have on them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Workplace violence against nurses in the emergency departments of three hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Alyaemni

    for nurses, while improving patient care quality. Security systems and formulation of violence prevention policies and procedures are mandatory measures in emergency departments. In addition, training programs are needed to help support, teach and provide nurses with the knowledge and skills needed to manage violent situations in the workplace. Keywords: Emergency service, Aggression, Hospital, Nurses, Cross-sectional studies

  13. Workplace Violence in Health Care-It's Not "Part of the Job".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina

    2016-08-01

    While health care workers comprise just 13% of the US workforce, they experience 60% of all workplace assaults. This violence is the second leading cause of fatal occupational injury. Women comprise 45% of the US labor force but 80% of health care workers, the highest proportion of females in any industry. The purpose was to describe the prevalence, forms, and consequences of health care workplace violence (WPV). The role and components of prevention programs for avoiding or mitigating violence are discussed, including opportunities for participation by obstetrician-gynecologists. A search of PubMed from 1990 to February 1, 2016, identified relevant manuscripts. Additional studies were found by reviewing the manuscripts' references. Government Web sites were visited for relevant data, publications, and resources. Health care WPV continues to rise despite an overall decrease in US WPV. While workers are most likely to be assaulted by clients or patients, they are most frequently bullied and threatened by coworkers. All incidents are markedly underreported in the absence of physical injury or lost work time. Sequelae include physical and psychological trauma, adverse patient outcomes, and perceived lower quality of care. The human, societal, and economic costs of health care WPV are enormous and unacceptable. Comprehensive prevention, planning, and intervention offer the best means of mitigating risks. As women's health physicians and health care workers, obstetrician-gynecologists should be encouraged to participate in such efforts.

  14. Workplace violence against nurses--prevalence and association with hospital organizational characteristics and health-promotion efforts: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Yao; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chien, Li-Yin; Huang, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of workplace violence and explore the role of hospital organizational characteristics and health promotion efforts in reducing hospital violence among nurses in Taiwan. Cross-sectional survey. One hundred hospitals across Taiwan. The final sample in our study comprised responses from 26,979 nurses. The data were obtained from a nationwide hospital survey, Physical and Mental Health and Safety Needs in Full-Time Health Care Staff, which was developed and conducted by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Taiwan, in 2011. The main dependent variable was whether nurses had experienced violence within the past year. Physical violence, threatened or intimidated personal safety, verbal violence or sexual harassment were all included. Of the 26,979 nurses, 13,392 nurses (49.6%) had experienced at least one episode of any type of violence in the past year; 5150 nurses (19.1%) had been exposed to physical violence, and 12,491 nurses (46.3%) had been exposed to non-physical violence. The prevalence of having experienced any violence varied widely and ranged from the highest (55.5%) in an emergency room or intensive care unit to the lowest (28.3%) among those aged 55-65 years. After adjusting for other characteristics, younger nurses were significantly more likely to be exposed to any violent threat. Nurses working in public hospitals had a significantly higher risk of workplace violence than those working in private hospitals. Significant variations were also observed among work units. Although nurses working in a certified health promoting hospital (HPH) did not have a lower risk of workplace violence, those working in an outstanding HPH had a significantly lower risk of workplace violence. A similar pattern was observed for non-physical violence. Workplace violence is a major challenge to workplace safety for nurses in hospitals. This large scale nurse survey identified individual, work and hospital characteristics associated with workplace violence

  15. Workplace violence in the emergency department in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    ALSHEHRI, WALEED MOHAMMED A.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored workplace violence among emergency department nurses and doctors in public hospitals in Saudi Arabia for the first time. Workplace violence is prevalent among nurses and doctors and it has physical, psychological and emotional impact. There is a lack of safety measures, precautions and management support for victims. Most staff feel vulnerable to violence in the next 12 months of employment. The findings will inform Emergency Department managements and the Ministry of H...

  16. Interactive training improves workplace climate, knowledge, and support towards domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Laharnar, Naima; Anger, W Kent; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-07-01

    As Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) affects the workplace, a supportive workplace climate is important. The study evaluated the effectiveness of an "IPV and the Workplace" training on workplace climate towards IPV. IPV training was provided to 14 intervention counties and 13 control counties (receiving training 6 months delayed). Measures included workplace climate surveys, IPV knowledge test, and workplace observations. (i) Training significantly improved supervisor knowledge on IPV and received positive evaluations, (ii) training improved workplace climate towards IPV significantly which was maintained over time, and (iii) after the training, supervisors provided more IPV information to employees and more IPV postings were available in the workplace. The study provides evidence to support on-site interactive, computer based training as a means for improved workplace safety. IPV and the Workplace training effectively increased knowledge and positively changed workplace climate. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:538-548, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Workplace violence: differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: a cross-sector analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Tuckett, Anthony; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Nurses are at high risk of incurring workplace violence during their working life. This paper reports the findings on a cross-sectional, descriptive, self-report, postal survey in 2007. A stratified random sample of 3000 of the 29 789 members of the Queensland Nurses Union employed in the public, private and aged care sectors resulted in 1192 responses (39.7%). This paper reports the differences: between those nurses who experienced workplace violence and those who did not; across employment sectors. The incidence of workplace violence is highest in public sector nursing. Patients/clients/residents were the major perpetrators of workplace violence and the existence of a workplace policy did not decrease levels of workplace violence. Nurses providing clinical care in the private and aged care sectors experienced more workplace violence than more senior nurses. Although workplace violence was associated with high work stress, teamwork and a supportive workplace mitigated workplace violence. The perception of workplace safety was inversely related to workplace violence. With the exception of public sector nursing, nurses reported an inverse relationship with workplace violence and morale.

  18. Organisational justice protects against the negative effect of workplace violence on teachers' sleep: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of workplace violence with disturbed sleep and the moderating role of organisational justice (ie, the extent to which employees are treated with fairness) in teaching. We identified 4988 teachers participating in the Finnish Public Sector study who reported encountering violence at work. Disturbed sleep was measured in three waves with 2-year intervals: the wave preceding exposure to violence, the wave of exposure and the wave following the exposure. Data on procedural and interactional justice were obtained from the wave of exposure to violence. The associations were examined using repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis with the generalised estimating equations method, adjusting for gender and age. Exposure to violence was associated with an increase in disturbed sleep (RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.52)) that also persisted after the exposure (RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48)). The increase was higher among teachers perceiving the managerial practices as relatively unfair (RR 1.46 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.09) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.42) for interactional and procedural justice, respectively). By contrast, working in high-justice conditions seemed to protect teachers from the negative effect of violence on sleep. Our findings show an increase in sleep disturbances due to exposure to workplace violence in teaching. However, the extent to which teachers are treated with justice moderates this association. Although preventive measures for violence should be prioritised, resources aimed at promoting justice at schools can mitigate sleep problems associated with workplace violence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Behind closed doors: in-home workers' experience of sexual harassment and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, J; Rogers, A G; Kelloway, E K

    2001-07-01

    The authors developed and tested a structural model predicting personal and organizational consequences of workplace violence and sexual harassment for health care professionals who work inside their client's home. The model suggests that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their recurrence in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood (anxiety and anger) and perceptions of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and cognitive difficulties. The results supported the model and showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood. Conceptual implications for understanding sexual harassment and workplace violence, and future research directions, are suggested.

  20. Work-related risk factors for workplace violence among Korean employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Park, Jung Sun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify work-related risk factors for workplace violence in a representative sample of Korean employees. We analyzed the associations between work-related factors and workplace violence in 29,171 employees using data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey. The survey included questions about verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threats and behavior that humiliated the victim, physical violence, bullying/harassment and sexual harassment, and a respondent who answered yes to any of these 6 items was considered a victim of workplace violence. The prevalences of verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention and threats/behavior that humiliated victims in the month preceding the study were 4.8, 1.0 and 1.5%, respectively. The prevalences of physical violence, bullying/harassment and sexual harassment in the year preceding the study were 0.7, 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. Service workers had higher prevalences of overall workplace violence. Non-regular workers (OR=2.38, 95% CI=2.01-2.84), working more than 60 hours per week as opposed to 40-48 hours per week (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.45-2.31) and night shift work (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.54-2.30) were significant risk factors associated with workplace violence. Long working hours, job insecurity and night shift work were associated with a significant increase in workplace violence among Korean employees.

  1. A Comprehensive Approach to Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michaele P.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a comprehensive, youth-violence-prevention program in New York City called The Door--A Center of Alternatives. This holistic program addresses the root causes of youth violence such as alienation and lack of empowerment. The Door provides life-skills training and services related to the consequences of poverty, unemployment, low levels…

  2. Violence Prevention, Access to Justice, and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will identify and analyze economic opportunity policies and practices that aim to support women in Latin America by preventing violence, increasing access to justice, and empowering them economically. Women and inequality in Latin America Women's economic empowerment and the reduction of violence ...

  3. Predictors of workplace violence among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha; Lopez, Vera; Robillard, Alyssa

    2015-05-01

    For sex workers, differences in rates of exposure to workplace violence are likely influenced by a variety of risk factors, including where one works and under what circumstances. Economic stressors, such as housing insecurity, may also increase the likelihood of exposure. Bivariate analyses demonstrate statistically significant associations between workplace violence and selected predictor variables, including age, drug use, exchanging sex for goods, soliciting clients outdoors, and experiencing housing insecurity. Multivariate regression analysis shows that after controlling for each of these variables in one model, only soliciting clients outdoors and housing insecurity emerge as statistically significant predictors for workplace violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. A comprehensive approach to violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M P

    1995-01-01

    Violence by and against youth has reached horrifying proportions. Debate continues about the causes of youth violence and appropriate solutions. This paper discusses a comprehensive holistic approach to violence prevention, as exemplified by the program at The Door--A Center of Alternatives in New York City, an organization that services at-risk youth aged 12 to 21. With a multinodal approach, The Door deals with the identified root causes of violence, such as the alienation and lack of empowerment experienced by many of today's youth, and provides lifeskills training and concrete services related to the consequences of poverty, unemployment, low levels of achievement, and hopelessness.

  5. Intimate partner violence, employment,and the workplace: consequences and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Logan, Tk; Macke, Caroline

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on violence against women and employment. After a brief discussion of the definition and consequences of intimate partner violence, the article reviews the research and related literatures to describe the (a) types of job interference tactics used by abusers, (b) employee-level consequences of partner violence, (c) victimized employee responses to intimate partner violence, (d) organizational-level consequences of partner violence, and (e) employer responses to intimate partner violence. Future research directions and workplace implications are discussed.

  6. A study on workplace violence against health workers in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, G U; Ukegbu, A U; Aguwa, E N; Emma-Ukaegbu, U

    2012-01-01

    Workplace violence is a common phenomenon which cuts across all work settings. Its prevalence is particularly high in the health sector and adversely affected service delivery. However, in Nigeria there are limited data on the magnitude of the problem. In this study, we aim to describe the prevalence of workplace violence against health workers in a tertiary hospital located in Abia state, Nigeria. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, data was collected using self-administered questionnaires distributed to 395 health workers of the clinical services division of the hospital to assess their experience of workplace violence in the preceding year. The response of 303 was returned and analyzed. Most (88.1%) of the respondents had experienced workplace violence with more than half (54.4%) of all violent incidents occurring in the wards. Psychological violence was more prevalent than physical violence. Verbal abuse (85.4%) was the most prevalent while sexual harassment (4.5%) was the least. Approximately one quarter (25.1%) of all the respondents had been physically assaulted in the preceding year. Patients and their relations were the main perpetrators of physical assault and threats. Senior colle agues were the main workplace bullies. The prevalence of workplace violence was high in this hospital.

  7. Workplace violence against resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Madhan; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers particularly doctors are at high risk of being victims of verbal and physical violence perpetrated by patients or their relatives. There is a paucity of studies on work-related violence against doctors in India. We aimed to assess the exposure of workplace violence among doctors, its consequences among those who experienced it and its perceived risk factors. This study was done among doctors working in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire containing items for assessment of workplace violence against doctors, its consequences among those who were assaulted, reporting mechanisms and perceived risk factors. Of the 169 respondents, 104 (61.4%) were men. The mean (SD) age of the study group was 28.6 (4.2) years. Sixty-nine doctors (40.8%) reported being exposed to violence at their workplace in the past 12 months. However, there was no gender-wise difference in the exposure to violence (p=0.86). The point of delivery of emergency services was reported as the most common place for experiencing violence. Verbal abuse was the most common form of violence reported (n=52; 75.4%). Anger, frustration and irritability were the most common symptoms experienced by the doctors who were subjected to violence at the workplace. Only 44.2% of doctors reported the event to the authorities. 'Poor communication skills' was considered to be the most common physician factor responsible for workplace violence against doctors. A large proportion of doctors are victims of violence by their patients or relatives. Violence is being under-reported. There is a need to encourage reporting of violence and prepare healthcare facilities to tackle this emerging issue for the safety of physicians.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Dana W

    One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of workplace violence against nurses' thriving at work, job satisfaction and turnover intention: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Hong; Shi, Yu; Sun, Zhi-Nan; Xie, Feng-Zhe; Wang, Jing-Hui; Zhang, Shu-E; Gou, Tian-Yu; Han, Xuan-Ye; Sun, Tao; Fan, Li-Hua

    2018-02-15

    To investigate the interrelationships between workplace violence, thriving at work and turnover intention among Chinese nurses and to explore the action mechanism among these variables. Workplace violence is a dangerous occupational hazard globally, and it is pervasive in the health service industry. As a corollary, workplace violence may produce many negative outcomes among nursing staff. Consequently, it hinders nurses' professional performance and reduces nursing quality. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. A total of 1,024 nurses from 26 cities in China were recruited from February-May 2016. An anonymous questionnaire was used in this survey. Participants' completed data were collected using a demographics form and a 26-item questionnaire consisting of scales addressing workplace violence, thriving at work, job satisfaction, subjective well-being and turnover intention. To evaluate multivariate relationships, some multiple linear hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Workplace violence significantly negatively influenced nurses' job satisfaction and thriving at work, and significantly positively influenced nurses' turnover intention. Job satisfaction significantly predicted thriving at work and turnover intention. Job satisfaction not only fully mediated the relationship between workplace violence and thriving at work, but also partially mediated the relationship between workplace violence and turnover intention. Subjective well-being moderated the relationship between workplace violence and job satisfaction and the relationship between workplace violence and nurses' turnover intention. Adverse effects of workplace violence were demonstrated in this study. Decreases in job satisfaction were a vital mediating factor. The moderating effect of subjective well-being was helpful in reducing the harm of workplace violence to nurses and in decreasing their turnover intention. Workplace violence and its negative impact on nursing work should not

  10. The effect of psychological violence in the workplace on health: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system approach. ... Objectives: This qualitative study investigated the perceived effect of psychological violence in the workplace on staff members' holistic health at a multi-campus South African Further Education and Training College.

  11. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peihang; Zhang, Xue; Sun, Yihua; Ma, Hongkun; Jiao, Mingli; Xing, Kai; Kang, Zheng; Ning, Ning; Fu, Yapeng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern China, completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 83.3% reported exposure to workplace violence, and 68.9% reported non-physical violence. Gender, education, shift work, anxiety level, and occupation were significantly correlated with physical violence (p < 0.05 for all correlations). Additionally, age, professional title, and occupation were correlated with non-physical violence, which critically affected doctors. Thus, gender, age, profession, anxiety, and shift work were predictive of workplace violence toward healthcare workers. Doctors appeared to experience non-physical workplace violence with particularly higher frequency when compared to nurses and other workers in hospitals. For healthcare workers, interventions aimed at WPV reduction should be enacted according to the types of violence, profession, and other factors underlying the various types of WPV in hospitals. PMID:28106851

  12. Quality of work life and its association with workplace violence of the nurses in emergency departments

    OpenAIRE

    Eslamian, Jalil; Akbarpoor, Ali Akbar; Hoseini, Sayed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses as the major group of health service providers need to have a satisfactory quality of work life in order to give desirable care to the patients. Workplace violence is one of the most important factors that cause decline in the quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the quality of work life of nurses in selected hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and its relationship with workplace violence. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-correlat...

  13. The relationship between emotional labor status and workplace violence among toll collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yosub; Rhie, Jeongbae

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the emotional labor and workplace violence status among toll collectors by assessing and comparing the same with that in workers in other service occupation. It also aimed to analyze the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence. This study examined emotional labor and workplace violence status in 264 female toll collectors from August 20 to September 4, 2015. The emotional labor was assessed using the Korean Emotional Labor Scale (K-ELS), and a questionnaire was used to examine the presence or absence, and type and frequency of workplace violence experienced by the subjects. A linear regression analysis was also performed to analyze the relationship between workplace violence and emotional labor. The scores on "emotional demanding and regulation ( p  emotional disharmony and hurt ( p  emotional labor were significantly high and indicated "at-risk" levels of emotional labor in those who experienced workplace violence, whereas they were "normal" of emotional labor in those who did not. Even after being adjusted in the linear regression analysis, the emotional labor scores for the above 4 sub-categories were still significantly high in those who experienced workplace violence. On comparing the present scores with 13 other service occupations, it was found that toll collectors had the highest level in "emotional disharmony and hurt," "organizational surveillance and monitoring," and "organizational supportive and protective system". This study found that the toll collectors engaged in a high level of emotional labor. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between emotional labor and the experience of workplace violence among the toll collectors.

  14. Workplace Violence and Gender Bias in Unorganized Fisheries of Udupi, India

    OpenAIRE

    P Tripathi; R Tiwari; R Kamath

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study...

  15. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-12-11

      The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was used. The anonymous questionnaire took 10 to 20 minutes to complete. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise the data with a two-tailed t-test used to compare groups. The main form of workplace violence was verbal abuse 18% and intimidation 17%.  There was a statistically significant difference between midwifery and paramedic students for intimidation (t (134) =-3.143, CI: -0.367 to -0.082, p=0.002) and between females and males for sexual harassment (t (134) =2.029, CI: 0.001 to 0.074, p=0.045), all other results were not statistically different. This pilot study is the first of its kind in Australia and internationally to identify exposure rates of workplace violence by undergraduate paramedic students during clinical placements and one of very few to identify midwifery students' exposure rates of workplace violence. The study identified that students were exposed to a range of workplace violence acts from verbal abuse through to sexual harassment. These findings highlight a need for investigation of workplace violence exposure of medical, nursing and allied health students during the clinical phase of their studies.

  16. Nurses exposure to workplace violence in a large teaching hospital in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hakimzadeh, Seyyed Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses’ exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. Methods We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO), the Inter...

  17. Preventing youth violence perpetration among girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Degue, Sarah; Holland, Kristin M; Holt, Melissa K; Matjasko, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    In the last 10 years, several reviews of research on violence among girls have been conducted. This research helps to determine the extent of girls' use of violence however, it has not been translated into effective prevention programs for girls. This article reviews the research on risk and protective factors associated with violence, with particular attention on factors unique to girls or shared between boys and girls. Individual risk factors for youth violence include hyperactivity/inattention/impulsivity, risk taking/sensation seeking, low academic achievement, exposure to stress and victimization, and early puberty. Parent-child relationships/parental monitoring and supervision, parent criminal and antisocial behavior, and family conflicts and instability have been found to be relationship-level risk factors. Peer risk factors include deviant peer affiliation and gang membership. Risk factors at the community level include economic deprivation; community disorganization; the availability of drugs, alcohol, and firearms; and neighborhood crime. This review also includes a description of program effects for girls within the Model and Promising Blueprints for Violence Prevention Initiative programs. Very few evaluations have examined program effectiveness in preventing violence among girls. More evaluation research is needed to determine if evidence-based programs have positive impact on reducing violence and related risk factors among girls.

  18. Sources, incidence and effects of non-physical workplace violence against nurses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah; Hancock, Peter; Gringart, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013-2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31·76 years and the average number of years practising as nurse was 7·38. Twelve per cent of the participants experienced at least one incident of sexual harassment and 52·2% were exposed to verbal abuse. The majority of perpetrators of sexual harassment were medical doctors (50%). Relatives of patients emerged as the most frequent verbal abusers (45·5%). Chi-square test showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence and between workplace violence and intention to quit the nursing profession. The effects of workplace violence ranged from having disturbing memories about the incident to being 'super alert' and vigilant. Establishing the incidence of workplace violence is a necessary step towards addressing the problem. It is concluded that educational programs must be designed for healthcare workers and the general public to foster awareness of the effects of workplace violence. Clear policies must also be instituted to address the problem.

  19. Midwifery student exposure to workplace violence in clinical settings: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Boyle, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Evidence indicates that nurses regularly experience bullying within the workplace which has the potential for health and social effects, as well as worker attrition. Literature suggests that nursing students are exposed to workplace violence during clinical placements including from health professionals and mentors, however little is known about midwifery students. This study sought to examine undergraduate midwifery students' experiences of workplace violence during clinical placements. A cross-sectional approach using a paper-based survey, the Paramedic Workplace Questionnaire, was used to solicit the information. Students were exposed to workplace violence with the main act being intimidation (30%), verbal abuse (17%), physical abuse (3%), and sexual harassment (3%). In more than three-quarters of the incidents the students had some level of apprehension or were frightened as a result of the violence. Students responded to the acts of violence with changes to emotions, self-confidence, and a desire to "give up". This paper demonstrates ways in which midwifery students are vulnerable to potential workplace violence from various sources. Support mechanisms need to be developed to ensure this can be minimised. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-fatal workplace violence workers' compensation claims (1993-1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, L; Webster, B S

    1998-06-01

    More is known about fatal workplace violence than non-fatal workplace violence (NFWV). This study provides descriptive information on the number and cost of NFWV claims filed with a large workers' compensation carrier. NFWV claims from 51 US jurisdictions were selected either by cause codes or by word search from the accident-description narrative. Claims reported in 1993 through 1996 were analyzed to report the frequency, cost, gender, age, industry, and nature of injury. An analysis of a random sample of 600 claims provided information on perpetrator type, cause of events, and injury mechanism. A total of 28,692 NFWV claims were filed during the study period. No cost was incurred for 32.5% of the claims, and 15.5% received payments for lost work. As a percentage of all claims filed by industry, schools had the highest percentage (11.4%) of NFWV claims, and banking had the highest percentage (11.5%) of cost. The majority of claims in the banking random sample group (93%) were due to stress. In the random sample, 90.3% of claims were caused by criminals (51.8%) or by patients, clients, or customers (38.5%). Only 9.7% were caused by an employee (9.2%) or a personal acquaintance of the employee (0.5%). Employers should acknowledge that NFWV incidents occur, recognize that the majority of perpetrators are criminals or clients rather than employees, and develop appropriate prevention and intervention programs.

  1. Preventing interpersonal violence in emergency departments: practical applications of criminology theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Billy

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, rates of violence in the workplace have grown significantly. Such growth has been more prevalent in some fields than others, however. Research shows that rates of violence against healthcare workers are continuously among the highest of any career field. Within the healthcare field, the overwhelming majority of victims of workplace violence are hospital employees, with those working in emergency departments (EDs) experiencing the lion's share of violent victimization. Though this fact is well-known by medical researchers and practitioners, it has received relatively little attention from criminal justice researchers or practitioners. Unfortunately, this oversight has severely limited the use of effective crime prevention techniques in hospital EDs. The goal of this analysis is to utilize techniques of situational crime prevention to develop an effective and easily applicable crime prevention strategy for hospital EDs.

  2. Part of the Job? Workplace Violence in Massachusetts Social Service Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Jennifer R.; Slayter, Elspeth; Flanzbaum, Beth; Butler, Nanci Ginty; Domingo, Beryl; Perlstein, Judith; Trust, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious and surprisingly understudied occupational hazard in social service settings. The authors of this study conducted an anonymous, Internet-based survey of Massachusetts social service agencies to estimate the incidence of physical assault and verbal threat of violence in social service agencies, understand how social…

  3. A Theoretical Framework to Study Variations in Workplace Violence Experienced by Emergency Responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Reemst (Lisa)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEmergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in inter- action with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to

  4. A theoretical framework to study variations in workplace violence experienced by emergency responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Reemst (Lisa)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractEmergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in interaction with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to

  5. Sexual harassment. Violence against women in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, L F

    1993-10-01

    Sexual harassment has been a fixture of the workplace since women first began to work outside the home. Although true epidemiological studies do not exist, large-scale surveys of working women suggest that approximately 1 of every 2 women will be harassed at some point during their academic or working lives. The data indicate that harassment is degrading, frightening, and sometimes physically violent; frequently extends over a considerable period of time; and can result in profound job-related, psychological; and health-related consequences. This article provides a brief review of the prevalence and consequences of sexual harassment and outlines social policy implications for research, legislation, and primary prevention.

  6. Organizational Policies and Programs to Reduce Job Stress and Risk of Workplace Violence Among K-12 Education Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergis, Paul; Zoeckler, Jeanette; Kashem, Zerin; Rivera, Bianca; Alexander, Darryl; Bahruth, Amy

    2018-02-01

    We examine strategies, programs, and policies that educators have developed to reduce work stressors and thus health risks. First, we review twenty-seven empirical studies and review papers on organizational programs and policies in K-12 education published from 1990 to 2015 and find some evidence that mentoring, induction, and Peer Assistance and Review programs can increase support, skill development, decision-making authority, and perhaps job security, for teachers-and thus have the potential to reduce job stressors. Second, we describe efforts to reduce workplace violence in Oregon, especially in special education, including legislation, collective bargaining, research, and public awareness. We conclude that to reduce workplace violence, adequate resources are needed for staffing, training, equipment, injury/assault reporting, and investigation. Third, we discuss collective bargaining initiatives that led to mentoring and Peer Assistance and Review and state legislation on prevention of bullying and harassment of school staff. Finally, we present a research agenda on these issues.

  7. Practitioners' forum: public health and the primary prevention of adolescent violence--the violence prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, H; Hausman, A J; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1989-01-01

    The Violence Prevention Project is a community-based outreach and education project directed toward reducing the negative social and medical outcomes of violence among adolescents. Community agency personnel are trained to work with youth on issues of anger and conflict resolution. A mass media campaign advertises the issue to the broader population. Interventions, such as the Violence Prevention Project, can use the public health strategies to increase awareness of the problem and associated risk factors, provide alternative conflict resolution techniques, and generate a new community ethos around violence. This approach holds great promise in an area in which after-the-fact legislative and punitive interventions have not worked.

  8. [Prevalence of workplace violence in staff of two hospitals in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zu-Hui; Wang, Sheng-Yong; Jing, Chun-Xia

    2003-09-01

    To understand prevalence of workplace violence in hospital and to analyse its relevant causes to lay a basis for maintaining normal working order in hospital. A study was conducted to look into workplace violence situation in health care workers in two large hospitals of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province during October 2001 to October 2002. Workplace violence was defined as any events occurred in hospital staff, who suffered psychological or/and physical violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 678 of 1 043 hospital staff (65%) investigated had such experience during the past year, mainly psychological violence. Medical doctors were more vulnerable than nurses, with prevalence of 70.3% and 67.7% for medical doctors and nurses, respectively. Prevalence was the highest in those aged 30 - 39 years with 11 - 20 years of employment. Man staff were more vulnerable to physical violence than women, with prevalence of 11.7% and 5.3%, respectively. No significant difference in psychological or sexual violence between man and woman staff was found. Frequently, nurses and nurse aides were victims of sexual violence. Usually, troublemakers were patients relatives or patients themselves, accounting for 64.2% and 50.0% of the total events, respectively. Main causes for workplace violence in hospital included unreasonable requirement from patients or their relatives which was not met, or not-so-quick recovery as they desired. Workplace violence occurred in hospital staff was prevalent in Guangzhou, which should be attached more importance. Comprehensive intervention measures should be adopted focusing on law reinforcement and education, to maintain normal working order in hospital.

  9. Nurses Exposure to Workplace Violence in a Large Teaching Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Teymourzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses’ exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. Methods We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO, the International Health Organization (IHO, the International Council of Nurses (ICN, and the Public Services International (PSI. Finally, in order to analyze the relationships among different variables in the study, T-test and Chi-Square test were used. Results Three hundred and one nurses responded to the questionnaire (a response rate of 73%. Over 70% of the nurses felt worried about workplace violence. The participants reported exposure to verbal abuse (64% CI: 59-70%, bullying-mobbing (29% CI: 24-34% and physical violence (12% CI: 9-16% at least once during the previous year. Relatives of hospital patients were responsible for most of the violence. Nurses working in the emergency department and outpatient clinics were more likely to report having experienced violence. Nurses were unlikely to report violence to hospital managers, and 40% of nurses were unaware of any existing policies within the hospital for reducing violence. Conclusion We observed a considerable level of nurse exposure to workplace violence. The high rate of reported workplace violence demonstrates that the existing safeguards that aim to protect the staff from abusive patients and relatives are inadequate.

  10. Nurses exposure to workplace violence in a large teaching hospital in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hakimzadeh, Seyyed Mostafa

    2014-11-01

    Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses' exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO), the International Health Organization (IHO), the International Council of Nurses (ICN), and the Public Services International (PSI). Finally, in order to analyze the relationships among different variables in the study, T-test and Chi-Square test were used. Three hundred and one nurses responded to the questionnaire (a response rate of 73%). Over 70% of the nurses felt worried about workplace violence. The participants reported exposure to verbal abuse (64% CI: 59-70%), bullying-mobbing (29% CI: 24-34%) and physical violence (12% CI: 9-16%) at least once during the previous year. Relatives of hospital patients were responsible for most of the violence. Nurses working in the emergency department and outpatient clinics were more likely to report having experienced violence. Nurses were unlikely to report violence to hospital managers, and 40% of nurses were unaware of any existing policies within the hospital for reducing violence. We observed a considerable level of nurse exposure to workplace violence. The high rate of reported workplace violence demonstrates that the existing safeguards that aim to protect the staff from abusive patients and relatives are inadequate.

  11. Workplace Violence and Gender Bias in Unorganized Fisheries of Udupi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tripathi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study 171 fishermen and fisherwomen were interviewed to collect information about workplace violence. The overall prevalence of workplace violence reported was 14.6%. This included 2 (8% cases of physical assault, 1 (4% case of sexual harassment of fisherwoman by her colleague and 22 (88% cases of verbal abuse. A significant (p=0.002 association was found between gender and verbal abuse at the workplace. In conclusion, this study highlighted the occurrence of workplace violence among fishery workers in India. There was a gender bias towards females that can be attributed to male dominance in this occupation.

  12. Workplace Violence and Gender Bias in Unorganized Fisheries of Udupi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, P; Tiwari, R; Kamath, R

    2016-07-01

    Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study 171 fishermen and fisherwomen were interviewed to collect information about workplace violence. The overall prevalence of workplace violence reported was 14.6%. This included 2 (8%) cases of physical assault, 1 (4%) case of sexual harassment of fisherwoman by her colleague and 22 (88%) cases of verbal abuse. A significant (p=0.002) association was found between gender and verbal abuse at the workplace. In conclusion, this study highlighted the occurrence of workplace violence among fishery workers in India. There was a gender bias towards females that can be attributed to male dominance in this occupation.

  13. Workplace bullying and violence as risk factors for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Tianwei; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this multicohort study was to examine whether employees exposed to social stressors at work, such as workplace bullying and violence, have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The study included 45,905 men and women (40-65 years of age and free of diabetes...... at baseline) from four studies in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. Workplace bullying and violence were self-reported at baseline. Incident diabetes was ascertained through national health and medication records and death registers. Marginal structural Cox models adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, marital...... status and educational level were used for the analyses. RESULTS: Nine per cent of the population reported being bullied at work and 12% were exposed to workplace violence or threats of violence. Bullied participants had a 1.46 (95% CI 1.23, 1.74) times higher risk of developing diabetes compared...

  14. Prevalence and perpetrators of workplace violence by nursing unit and the relationship between violence and the perceived work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihyun; Cho, Sung-Hyun; Hong, Hyun-Ja

    2015-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and perpetrators of workplace violence against nurses and to examine the relationship of work demands and trust and justice in the workplace with the occurrence of violence. This study employed cross-sectional data from a 2013 nurse survey conducted at a university hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The study sample included 970 female nurses from 47 nursing units, including general, oncology, intensive care units (ICUs), operating rooms, and outpatient departments. The second version of the medium-sized Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) was used to measure work demands (i.e., quantitative demands, work pace, and emotional demands), trust and justice, and violence. Relationships among those variables were examined by conducting multiple logistic regression analyses with multilevel modeling. The 12-month prevalence of verbal abuse (63.8%) was highest, followed by threats of violence (41.6%), physical violence (22.3%), and sexual harassment (19.7%), but bullying had the lowest prevalence (9.7%). Physical violence, threats of violence, and verbal abuse occurred most frequently in ICUs, whereas sexual harassment and bullying were highest in operating rooms. The main perpetrators were patients, followed by physicians and patients' families. Nurses perceiving greater work demands and less trust and justice were more likely to have been exposed to violence. The prevalence and perpetrators of violence varied considerably among nursing units. Greater work demands and less trust and justice were associated with nurses' experiences of violence. Adequate work demands and a trusted and just work environment may reduce violence against nurses. In return, reduction of violence will contribute to creating a better nursing work environment. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. A Live Threat Violence Simulation Exercise for Psychiatric Outpatient Departments: A Valuable Aid to Training in Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2017-10-30

    Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings is a ubiquitous concern. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a live threat violence simulation exercise, designed to reduce the risk of future outpatient clinic violence and minimize the effects of future incidents on staff. The psychiatric outpatient clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital developed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-hour live violence threat simulation exercise as a companion to a 7-hour violence prevention program. The simulation includes an orientation, two threat simulation scenarios, three debriefings, satisfaction surveys, problem identification, action plans, and annual safety and process improvements. The authors have conducted live violence simulation exercises from 2011-2016, and have collected survey data about our annual simulation exercise from 2014-2016. Each year ≥ 52% of participants responded, and each year ≥ 90% of respondents rated the simulation as "very helpful/helpful", ≥ 86% believed themselves to be "much better/better" prepared to deal with violent episodes, and simulation side effects such as worries about past trauma; anxiety; sleep problems; increase in workplace concerns. From 2011-2016, the clinic experienced 4 major violent episodes and 36 episodes of potential violence with no staff injuries and minimal psychological sequelae to one staff member. Violence prevention efforts and the development of close police/staff relationships may have contributed to these fortunate outcomes. Satisfaction surveys suggest that the simulations are very helpful/helpful, with participants feeling much better/ better prepared to manage violence. The exercises led the authors to initiate staff safety related behavioral changes as well as physical space and safety processes improvements. The violence prevention program and simulation exercises have promoted excellent relationships with police and a consistent safety record over six years. This

  16. Nurses’ experiences and understanding of workplace violence in a trauma and emergency department in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Kennedy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence in South African society has reached epidemic levels and has permeated the walls of the workplace. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nurses experience and understand workplace violence perpetrated by patients, and to make recommendations to reduce this type of violence. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to explore the experiences and coping mechanisms of nurses regarding workplace violence. The purposive sample comprised eight nurses working in the Trauma and Emergency Department in the Western Cape, South Africa. Thematic analysis was done of the semi-structured interviews. Four main themes and 10 categories were identified. Nurses are experiencing physical threats, verbal abuse and psychological and imminent violence on a regular basis. They tend to ‘normalise’ abusive patient behaviour because of the perception that workplace abuse ‘comes with the territory’, which resulted in under-reporting. However, perpetrators received compromised care by being avoided, ignored or given only minimal nursing care. Coping mechanisms ranged from using colleagues as sounding boards, helping out with duties, taking a smoke break and using friends and family to get it ‘off their chest’. The tolerance of non-physical violence and the absence of policies to deal with the violence, contribute to under-reporting.

  17. A Systematic Literature Review: Workplace Violence Against Emergency Medical Services Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshaikhian, Majid; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davood; Barati, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In spite of the high prevalence and consequences of much workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel, this phenomenon has been given insufficient attention. A systematic review can aid the development of guidelines to reduce violence. The research question addressed by this paper is, "What are the characteristics and findings of studies on workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel"? A systematic literature review was conducted using online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Magiran) with the help of experienced librarians. Inclusion criteria comprised studies in the English or Persian language and researcher's access to the full text. There was no limit to the entry of the study design. Exclusion criteria included lack of access to the full text of the article, studies published in unreliable journals or conferences, and studies in which the results were shared with other medical or relief groups and there was no possibility of breaking down the results. A "Data extraction form" was designed by the researchers based on the goals of the study that included the title and author(s), study method (type, place of study, sample size, sampling method, and data collection/analysis tool), printing location, information related to the frequency of types of violence, characteristics of victims /perpetrators, and related factors. The papers reviewed utilized a variety of locations and environments, methods, and instrument samplings. The majority of the studies were performed using the quantitative method. No intervention study was found. Most studies focused on the prevalence of violence, and their results indicated that exposure to violence was high. The results are presented in six major themes. Workplace violence and injuries incurred from it are extensive throughout the world. The important causes of violence include the shortage of training programs dealing with violence, lack of violence management protocols, and

  18. Quality of work life and its association with workplace violence of the nurses in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Jalil; Akbarpoor, Ali Akbar; Hoseini, Sayed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Nurses as the major group of health service providers need to have a satisfactory quality of work life in order to give desirable care to the patients. Workplace violence is one of the most important factors that cause decline in the quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the quality of work life of nurses in selected hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and its relationship with workplace violence. This was a descriptive-correlational study. A sample of 186 registered nurses was enrolled in the study using quota sampling method. The research instrument used was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: Demographic information, quality of work life, and workplace violence. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS version 16. The subjects consisted of 26.9% men and 73.1% women, whose mean age was 33.76 (7.13) years. 29.6% were single and 70.4% were married. About 76.9% of the subjects were exposed to verbal violence and 26.9% were exposed to physical violence during past year. Mean score of QNWL was 115.88 (30.98). About 45.7% of the subjects had a low level of quality of work life. There was an inverse correlation between the quality of work and the frequency of exposures to workplace violence. According to the results of this study, it is suggested that the managers and decision makers in health care should plan strategies to reduce violence in the workplace and also develop a program to improve the quality of work life of nurses exposed to workplace violence.

  19. Cost analysis of youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.

  20. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Arc Kanakuze Jeanne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Methods Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Results Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Conclusions Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and

  1. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance J; de Vries, Daniel H; d'Arc Kanakuze, Jeanne; Ngendahimana, Gerard

    2011-07-19

    Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and violence simultaneously should be a priority in workplace violence

  2. Managing nurses through disciplinary power: a Foucauldian analysis of workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Isabelle; Holmes, Dave

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes discipline as a specific technique of power which constitutes, in our view, a form of institutional violence. The need to create and maintain safe and healthy work environments for healthcare professionals is well documented. Foucault's concept of disciplinary power was used to explore institutional violence from a critical perspective. Violence is identified as an important factor in the recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals. Given the shortage of such professionals, there is an urgent need to take a fresh look at their working environments and working conditions. Power, surveillance and disciplinary techniques are used at all levels of hospital management to control and contain both human resources and costs. By associating common workplace practices with institutional violence, employers who have a policy of zero tolerance toward workplace violence will need to re-examine their current ways of operating.

  3. [Analysis of violence against health care workers through medical surveillance at the workplace in a 8-yr period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, Nicola; Heponiemi, Tarja; Bevilacqua, Liliana; Capri, Andrea; Roccia, Katia; Quaranta, Daniela; Ciriello, Stefania; Gabriele, Maddalena; Giudice, Annamaria; Lilli, Marcella; Magnavita, Giulia; Polselli, Giuseppe; Carbone, Antonio; Quintavalle, Giuseppe; Squarcione, Salvatore; Bergamaschi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Physical and moral violence against the workers of a local public health unit is perspectively studied in the period 2005-2011. Data were collected during periodic medical surveillance of all workers exposed to risk and with more than one year of seniority. The prevalence of the phenomenon is constant in the period under review. On average, each year a worker in ten is physically assaulted, and one in five is subjected to verbal abuse. The professional groups most exposed to violence are nurses (OR 2.67 IC95% 1.63-4.39) and doctors (OR 2.44 IC95% 1.34-4.46). The areas at greatest risk are the psychiatric care (OR 25.7, IC95% 11.1-59.6) and emergency and first aid (OR 8.8, CI95% 3.8-20.5). The workplace violence against health workers requires urgent preventive interventions.

  4. Patterns of perceptions of workplace violence in the Portuguese health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Biscaia, André; Fronteira, Inês; Craveiro, Isabel; Antunes, Ana Rita; Conceição, Claudia; Flores, Isabel; Santos, Osvaldo

    2003-11-07

    This article characterizes the problem of violence against health professionals in the workplace (VAHPITWP) in selected settings in Portugal. It addresses the questions of what types of violence are most frequent and who are the most affected health professionals.Three methodological approaches were followed: (i) documentary studies, (ii) a questionnaire-based hospital and health centre (HC) complex case study and (iii) semi-structured interviews with stakeholders.Of the different types of violence, all our study approaches confirm that verbal violence is the most frequent. Discrimination, not infrequent in the hospital, seems to be underestimated by the stakeholders interviewed. Violence seems much more frequent in the HC than in the hospital. In the HC, all types of violence are also most frequently directed against female health workers and, in the hospital, against male workers.These studies allow us to conclude that violence is frequent but underreported.

  5. Patterns of perceptions of workplace violence in the Portuguese health care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craveiro Isabel

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article characterizes the problem of violence against health professionals in the workplace (VAHPITWP in selected settings in Portugal. It addresses the questions of what types of violence are most frequent and who are the most affected health professionals. Three methodological approaches were followed: (i documentary studies, (ii a questionnaire-based hospital and health centre (HC complex case study and (iii semi-structured interviews with stakeholders. Of the different types of violence, all our study approaches confirm that verbal violence is the most frequent. Discrimination, not infrequent in the hospital, seems to be underestimated by the stakeholders interviewed. Violence seems much more frequent in the HC than in the hospital. In the HC, all types of violence are also most frequently directed against female health workers and, in the hospital, against male workers. These studies allow us to conclude that violence is frequent but underreported.

  6. General self-efficacy and the effect of hospital workplace violence on doctors' stress and job satisfaction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongcheng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Faxuan; Yao, Wu

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at exploring associations of general self-efficacy (GSE), workplace violence and doctors' work-related attitudes. In this study a cross-sectional survey design was applied. Questionnaires were administrated to 758 doctors working in 9 hospitals of Zhengzhou, Henan province, China, between June and October 2010. General information on age, gender, and years of working was collected, and the doctors' experience and witnessing workplace violence, job satisfaction, job initiative, occupational stress as well as GSE were measured. General linear regression analysis was performed in association analyses. Both experiencing and witnessing workplace violence were significantly positively correlated with the level of occupational stress but significantly negatively correlated with job satisfaction, job initiative, and GSE. General self-efficacy significantly modified relationships between both experiencing and witnessing workplace violence with occupational stress (β = 0.49 for experiencing violence; β = 0.43 for witnessing violence; p workplace violence with job initiative (p > 0.05). The levels of occupational stress declined significantly with the increase of GSE, while job satisfaction increased significantly along with its increase. The effects of GSE on occupational stress and job satisfaction weakened as the frequency of violence increased. The findings suggest that GSE can modify effects of workplace violence on health care workers' stress and job satisfaction. Enhancing GSE in combination with stress reduction may lead to facilitating health care workers' recovery from workplace violence, and thereby improving their work-related attitudes.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of workplace violence of health care workers in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Kung, Shou-Mei; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-01-01

    Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an important concern in occupational health. This study determined the prevalence of workplace violence and its risk factors for employees at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. A questionnaire developed by ILO/ICN/WHO/PSI was first translated and validated. It was then used to survey the prevalence of workplace violence in the last 12 months experienced by all nursing aides, nurses, and clerks at the hospital. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to discover the determinants of violence. A total of 222 out of 231 surveyed workers completed a valid questionnaire. The one-year prevalence rates of physical violence (PV), verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 35.1, 50.9, 15.8, 9.5, and 4.5%, respectively. The prevalence of PV at this hospital was higher than that reported by other countries for the health sector. A high anxiety level was associated with the occurrence of PV. These results need to be corroborated by future investigation. A training program may be required for high risk groups to reduce workplace violence.

  8. Domestic Violence in the Canadian Workplace: Are Coworkers Aware?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C.D. MacGregor

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings have implications for a coordinated workplace response to DV. Further research is urgently needed to examine how best to address DV in the workplace and improve outcomes for victims, perpetrators, and their coworkers.

  9. Childhood Violence Prevention Education Using Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Leonard; Beckerman, Adela

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project that incorporated interactive technology to teach violence prevention knowledge and skills to second grade students. The educational video games presented lessons consisting of animated characters in a story, accompanied by a number of exercises. The research issue was whether students would develop an appreciation…

  10. Calling for a comprehensive approach: Violence prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the intersection between early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early ...

  11. Workplace Violence and Job Performance among Community Healthcare Workers in China: The Mediator Role of Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Quan; Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Le-Xin; Zhang, Sheng-Chao; Jing, Meng-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Luo, Jia-Li; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the impact of workplace violence on job performance and quality of life of community healthcare workers in China, especially the relationship of these three variables. Methods: From December 2013 to April 2014, a total of 1404 healthcare workers were recruited by using the random cluster sampling method from Community Health Centers in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The workplace violence scale, the job performance scale and the quality of life scale (SF-36) were self-administered. The structural equation model constructed by Amos 17.0 was employed to assess the relationship among these variables. Results: Our study found that 51.64% of the respondents had an experience of workplace violence. It was found that both job performance and quality of life had a negative correlation with workplace violence. A positive association was identified between job performance and quality of life. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = −0.243) of workplace violence on job performance consisted of a direct effect (β = −0.113) and an indirect effect (β = −0.130), which was mediated by quality of life. Conclusions: Workplace violence among community healthcare workers is prevalent in China. The workplace violence had negative effects on the job performance and quality of life of CHCs’ workers. The study suggests that improvement in the quality of life may lead to an effective reduction of the damages in job performance caused by workplace violence. PMID:26610538

  12. Prevention guardianship in family violence processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Narváez, Marianella

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the importance of protection orders issued in domestic violence processes, in relation to Law 30364. In addition, she points out its difference with interim orders, that protection orders offer preventive protection to the victims of domestic violence. She concludes that protection orders must been interpreted according to certain principles and its validity must continue through a non-contentious process.  En este artículo, la autora describe la impor...

  13. Promoting Prevention Through the Affordable Care Act: Workplace Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Millard, Francois; Wildenhaus, Kevin; DeSantis, Charles; Novelli, William

    2012-01-01

    Public health in the United States can be improved by building workplace “cultures of health” that support healthy lifestyles. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which includes the Prevention and Public Health Fund, will support a new focus on prevention and wellness, offering opportunities to strengthen the public’s health through workplace wellness initiatives. This article describes the opportunity the ACA provides to improve worker wellness. PMID:23237245

  14. Violence prevention: reaching adolescents with the message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J B; Barone, J E; Stewart, J; Hogan, R J; Sarnelle, J A; Blackwood, M M

    1999-12-01

    To identify an effective medium for communicating with adolescents in a large-scale, cost-effective violence prevention program. A set of youth violence prevention programs was established at The Stamford Hospital, a level II trauma center. The traveling version of the program was presented to middle school students in four parts: 1) a rap music video created by our violence prevention staff, 2) a facilitated discussion about dealing with anger, 3) a video of a trauma resuscitation in our emergency department, and 4) a commercial video of a teenage boy paralyzed after a gunshot wound. A written questionnaire with a five-point rating scale (1 to 5) was used to survey the audience 1 month after the program. The survey assessed the respondents' recall of each part of the program and the perceptions of the value of each part in identifying the problem of violence and reducing violent behavior. Of 99 respondents, the highest ratings for retention, problem identification, and impact were given to the commercial video (combined average category ranking of 11.394) and the rap music video (11.182). The trauma resuscitation video and the discussion of anger were ranked as being less effective (10.253 and 9.383, respectively). The audience seemed to comprehend the main point of the program and ranked the program, as a whole, higher than any of the parts when measured by success at problem identification and impact. Effective communication with adolescents is possible through many avenues. Children of the video age respond well to visual material. A violence prevention program should incorporate effective multimedia presentations. A variety of methods in combination proves to be most effective.

  15. Prevention of Substance Abuse in the Workplace: Review of Research on the Delivery of Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Royer; Schlenger, William

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the chief reasons for engaging in substance abuse prevention in the workplace; outlines the foundations of workplace prevention services; and reviews recent research on workplace substance abuse prevention, including the major preventive interventions aimed at the workplace environment and the individual worker.…

  16. Employee assistance programs: a workplace resource to address intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Austin, Whitney; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2010-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with significant impact on the workplace. Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are a confidential benefit to assist employees and their families with a variety of problems that may negatively affect their job performance. The purpose of this systematic review is to study the extant literature to identify articles that have explored the role of EAPs in addressing IPV. We searched Medline, PsychINFO, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for English-language papers that have explored how EAPs can address IPV. Articles published through 2008 were included. Our review yielded nine articles, mostly from EAP-centered journals. Nearly all of the studies were published before the year 2000 and primarily describe the need for EAPs to be more engaged in preventing violence against women. Most of the studies were commentaries, often using case reports to support recommendations on how EAPs could address IPV. Results from the two intervention studies revealed close connections between EAP clients being treated for alcoholism and IPV perpetration and the effectiveness of a standardized tool to identify EAP clients experiencing IPV. Research in this area is in its infancy, and more studies are needed to inform the formulation of evidence-based policies and programs that guide the role of EAPs in addressing IPV. The lack of research on how EAPs address IPV is alarming, as many employers state that they often refer employees affected by IPV to the EAP for assistance.

  17. Relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators on sleep disturbance-data from the 4th Korean working conditions survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taejun; Ye, Byeongjin; Kim, Jung-Il; Park, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. Methods The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one...

  18. Workplace managed care: collaboration for substance abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, D M

    2000-05-01

    This article describes the history, purpose, and overall methodology of the Workplace Managed Care (WMC) study sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). This study was initiated to discern best practices for workplaces and managed care organizations integrating their substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs, strategies, and activities for employees and their families. CSAP funded nine WMC grants to study their retrospective and prospective data. Results of the WMC study suggested the addition of substance abuse prevention material to existing workplace health promotion offerings that resulted in improved substance abuse attitudes without jeopardizing existing health promotion programs. Stress management programming was successful at improving substance abuse attitudes indirectly. This study provides a platform for multidisciplinary research in workplace and managed care settings.

  19. Violence Prevention in United States Society of Jesus Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Thomas Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the…

  20. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, funded jointly by the German Development Bank and the City of Cape Town in South Africa, is a prime example of an evidence-based intervention for violence prevention that was designed to address all urban violence determining factors. The VPUU ...

  1. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban Upgrading for Violence Prevention in South Africa: Does it Work? The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, funded jointly by the German Development Bank and the City of Cape Town in South Africa, is a prime ... Extrants. Articles. Using psychology to reduce violence in South Africa ...

  2. Prevention of substance use disorders in the community and workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malick, Reshma

    2018-02-01

    Prevention in the community and at the workplace is a vital component in substance use disorder treatment and management. Mobilizing the community, creating awareness that addiction to substances is a disease, that it is treatable and that treatment is available are all essential. A cost-effective prevention and treatment approach plays a major role in creating drug free communities. Workplace prevention policies to prevent and manage substance use disorders leads to safer work environments, better motivated teams of workers and a productive workforce.

  3. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  4. Hospital staff responses to workplace violence in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Wang, Jung-Der

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 222 nurses, nursing assistants, and clerks at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan on responses to workplace violence, treatment of violent patients, and reporting behavior. Staff reported 78 incidents of physical violence (PV), 113 of verbal abuse (VA), 35 of bullying/ mobbing (BM), 21 of sexual harassment (SH), and 10 of racial harassment (RH) over the course of one year. Among affected staff, only 31% of those experiencing PV and consequences, especially for BM, and shame for SH. Reliable systems for responding to and reporting patient violence should be developed.

  5. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  6. Working Women Making It Work: Intimate Partner Violence, Employment, and Workplace Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer; Macke, Caroline; Logan, TK

    2007-01-01

    Partner violence may have significant consequences on women's employment, yet limited information is available about how women cope on the job with perpetrators' tactics and the consequences of her coping methods on employment status. This article investigates whether there is an association between workplace disclosure of victimization and…

  7. Workplace violence and the changing nature of work in Europe: trends and risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den; Taris, T.; Houtman, I.; Smulders, P.; Kompier, M.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence rates of third party workplace violence in Europe have increased, but little is known about the causes thereof. It has been suggested that the growth of the service sector and the intensification of work could be responsible for the increase. This study aimed to identify trends in the

  8. Preventing absenteeism at the workplace in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, C.V. van; Gründemann, R.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper, presented at the ninth European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology, Helsinki, Finland, 12-15 May 1999, gives the results of a study to document the processes and mechanisms of workplace initiatives to reduce absenteeism related with ill health, by identifying the methods used

  9. Prevention Interventions of Alcohol Problems in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Genevieve M.; Bennett, Joel B.

    2011-01-01

    The workplace offers advantages as a setting for interventions that result in primary prevention of alcohol abuse. Such programs have the potential to reach broad audiences and populations that would otherwise not receive prevention programs and, thereby, benefit both the employee and employer. Researchers have implemented and evaluated a variety of workplace alcohol problem prevention efforts in recent years, including programs focused on health promotion, social health promotion, brief interventions, and changing the work environment. Although some studies reported significant reductions in alcohol use outcomes, additional research with a stronger and integrated methodological approach is needed. The field of workplace alcohol prevention also might benefit from a guiding framework, such as the one proposed in this article. PMID:22330216

  10. [Workplace violence in Latin America: A review of the scientific evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Gómez-Rubio, Constanza; Mauro, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Workplace Violence has acquired social relevance given the evidence regarding there its health consequences. Has identified various effects such as mood disorders and sleep disorders, hostility, isolation, insecurity, among others. To describe and analyze scientific evidence published on workplace violence in studies in Latin American countries between 2009 and 2014. A descriptive and quantitative study. A search was made on the basis of Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost) Academic Source Premier, PSICODOC, Scielo.org, JSTOR and SCOPUS. And indexed empirical studies were considered. We worked with 46 selected articles. The studies showed a higher amount of psychological violence at work, with a potential risk in women and health professionals. Also, the analysis categories were the most reported behaviors that express violence, health implications and facilitators. The literature on the study of workplace violence in Latin America is recent. Items are descriptive, interpretative studies with insufficient or analytical nature. Health personnel, particularly women, have conditions of vulnerability, with relevance with regard to sexual harassment, wage inequality and bullying.

  11. Advancing prevention research on child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence: emerging strategies and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B

    2004-03-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves.

  12. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory. Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%. One hundred and six (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%. While most (85.2% respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  13. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2016-08-10

    Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers' worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents' suggested measures for controlling violence included "widening channels on medical dispute solutions," "improving doctor-patient communication," and "advocating for respect for medical workers via the media." Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers' worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  14. Digitally Enhanced Violence Prevention in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Muggah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is one of the world’s most digitally connected regions, and also its most violent. Some governments and civil societies are evolving innovative and dynamic approaches to address the challenges of violence by taking advantage of expanding connectivity. New information and communication technologies (ICTs are being mobilized to strengthen the voice and capabilities of citizens and institutions to promote safety and security. Public and private actors are designing and applying innovative digital platforms and analytical tools to map insecurity online and off. This article reviews the emerging character and shape of 'digitally enhanced violence prevention' in Latin America, drawing primarily on the cases of Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. It presents insights on the wider outcomes and drawbacks of these activities, and sets out some lessons learned and recommendations for future action.

  15. Workplace Violence and Abuse Against Nurses in Hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Shoghi, MSN

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings showed a noticeable trend of a rising number of assaults against nurses. The findings of this study may help hospital staff and nurses to avoid, reduce and control violence and abuse.

  16. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  17. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  18. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    families , but also to advance the clinical science in this field of study and better understand how we might prevent violence among our service members...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM

  19. Understanding, preventing urban violence in Kinshasa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-05

    Nov 5, 2015 ... Using psychology to reduce violence in South Africa. How can a public health approach to reducing violence in South Africa be improved? View moreUsing psychology to reduce violence in South Africa ...

  20. Reclaiming Gender and Power in Sexual Violence Prevention in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.

  1. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Silvestri, Monica; Artoni, Cecilia; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the "Violent Incident Form" to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%), followed by nursing assistants (18%) and physicians (12%). The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV ( P =0.005, P =0.004, multiple logistic regression). The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%), emergency department (71%), and in geriatric wards (57%). The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way ( P =0.034, chi-squared test). Verbal violence (51%) was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49%) was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were "calling for help during the attack" and "physical injuries suffered in violent attack" ( P =0.02, P =0.03, multiple logistic regression). This study suggests that violence is a significant phenomenon and that all health workers, especially nurses, are at risk of suffering aggressive assaults. WPV presented specific characteristics related to the health care settings, where the aggression occurred. Prevention programs

  2. Workplace violence against women nurses working in two public sector hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafree, Sara Rizvi

    Cultural and structural forces help sustain workplace violence (WPV) against feminized professions like nursing in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and patterns of workplace violence (WPV) against women nurses (more than 95% of entire nursing population) in two hospitals of Pakistan. A standardized international survey developed by the World Health Organization was used to collect cross-sectional data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and multivariate regression were used for data analysis. A total of 309 nurse respondents were sampled from two public sector tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Findings show that 73.1% of nurses reported experiencing some sort of violence in the last 12 months; with 53.4% suffering from physical violence, 57.3% from verbal violence, and 26.9% from sexual violence. The main perpetrators were reported to be male coworkers, patients, and attendants. Higher risk for WPV includes single status, non-Punjabi provincial belonging, Islamic faith, staff and student nurse designations, temporary government contract, and working additional hours in the evening and night. The primary response to violence included not doing anything and remaining silent. It was also reported that nurse victims experienced moderate levels of emotional grievances after facing violence. The results of this study suggest that public sector hospitals in the region need to improve their policy for the protection and monitoring of WPV against female nurses. Reporting and counseling bodies need to be installed to encourage both complaints and the seeking of medical attention after victimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri P

    2016-09-01

    attack” (P=0.02, P=0.03, multiple logistic regression.Conclusion: This study suggests that violence is a significant phenomenon and that all health workers, especially nurses, are at risk of suffering aggressive assaults. WPV presented specific characteristics related to the health care settings, where the aggression occurred. Prevention programs tailored to the different care needs are necessary to promote professional awareness for violence risk. Keywords: workplace violence, health professionals, nurses, physicians, patient, general hospital, aggression

  4. The relationship between intention to leave the hospital and coping methods of emergency nurses after workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2018-04-01

    To identify the relationship between emergency nurses' intention to leave the hospital and their coping methods following workplace violence. Emergency departments report a high prevalence of workplace violence, with nurses being at particular risk of violence from patients and patients' relatives. Violence negatively influences nurses' personal and professional lives and increases their turnover. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive survey study. Participants were nurses (n = 214) with over one year of experience of working in an emergency department. We measured workplace violence, coping after workplace violence experiences and job satisfaction using scales validated through a preliminary survey. Questionnaires were distributed to all nurses who signed informed consent forms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationships between nurses' intention to leave the hospital and their coping methods after workplace violence. Verbal abuse was the most frequent violence experience and more often originated from patients' relatives than from patients. Of the nurses who experienced violence, 61.0% considered leaving the hospital. As for coping, nurses who employed problem-focused coping most frequently sought to identify the problems that cause violence, while nurses who employed emotion-focused coping primarily attempted to endure the situation. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that female sex, emotion-focused coping and job satisfaction were significantly related to emergency nurses' intention to leave. Emotion-focused coping seems to have a stronger effect on intention to leave after experiencing violence than does job satisfaction. Nurse managers should begin providing emergency nurses with useful information to guide their management of violence experiences. Nurse managers should also encourage nurses to report violent experiences to the administrative department rather than resorting to emotion-focused coping

  5. Workplace Violence among Domestic Workers in Urban Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... domestic workers, most of them girls from poor family backgrounds. Child domestic workers in Nairobi face many workplace social hazards that include injury, verbal harassment and sexual abuse. Based on these findings, the study makes appropriate policy recommendations. Eastern African Social Sciences Review Vol.

  6. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. Methods The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was used. The anonymous questionnaire took 10 to 20 minutes to complete. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise the data with a two-tailed t-test used to compare groups. Results The main form of workplace violence was verbal abuse 18% and intimidation 17%. There was a statistically significant difference between midwifery and paramedic students for intimidation (t(134)=-3.143, CI: -0.367 to -0.082, p=0.002) and between females and males for sexual harassment (t(134)=2.029, CI: 0.001 to 0.074, p=0.045), all other results were not statistically different. Conclusions This pilot study is the first of its kind in Australia and internationally to identify exposure rates of workplace violence by undergraduate paramedic students during clinical placements and one of very few to identify midwifery students’ exposure rates of workplace violence. The study identified that students were exposed to a range of workplace violence acts from verbal abuse through to sexual harassment. These findings highlight a need for investigation of workplace violence exposure of medical, nursing and allied health students during the clinical phase of their studies. PMID:27941182

  7. The effects of workplace respect and violence on nurses’ job satisfaction in Ghana: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah

    2018-01-01

    Background Studies have established the negative effects of workplace disrespect and violence on the personal and professional well-being of nurses. In spite of this, only a few have directly investigated the effects of these issues on nurses’ job satisfaction. In Africa, research on nurses’ job satisfaction continues to focus largely on economic factors. The aim of this paper was, therefore, to investigate the impact of the non-economic factors of workplace violence and respect on the job sa...

  8. Secondary traumatic stress among domestic violence advocates: workplace risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Suzanne M; Goodman, Lisa A

    2009-11-01

    This study identified workplace factors associated with secondary traumatic stress (STS) in a sample of 148 domestic violence advocates working in diverse settings. Findings indicate that coworker support and quality clinical supervision are critical to emotional well-being and that an environment in which there is shared power-that is, respect for diversity, mutuality, and consensual decision making-provides better protection for advocates than more traditional, hierarchical organizational models. Furthermore, shared power emerged as the only workplace variable to significantly predict STS above and beyond individual factors. The discussion includes implications for practice and policy as well as directions for future research.

  9. Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher R.; Butchart, Alexander; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Krug, Etienne G.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Interpersonal violence affects millions of people worldwide, often has lifelong consequences, and is gaining recognition as an important global public health problem. There has been no assessment of measures countries are taking to address it. This report aims to assess such measures and provide a baseline against which to track future progress. Methods In each country, with help from a government-appointed National Data Coordinator, representatives from six to ten sectors completed a questionnaire before convening in a consensus meeting to decide on final country data; 133 of 194 (69%) WHO Member States participated. The questionnaire covered data, plans, prevention measures, and victim services. Data were collected between November 2012 and June 2014, and analyzed between June and October 2014. Global and country-level homicides for 2000–2012 were also calculated for all 194 Members. Results Worldwide, 475,000 people were homicide victims in 2012 and homicide rates declined by 16% from 2000 to 2012. Data on fatal and, in particular, non-fatal forms of violence are lacking in many countries. Each of the 18 types of surveyed prevention programs was reported to be implemented in a third of the 133 participating countries; each law was reported to exist in 80% of countries, but fully enforced in just 57%; and each victim service was reported to be in place in just more than half of the countries. Conclusions Although many countries have begun to tackle violence, serious gaps remain, and public health researchers have a critical role to play in addressing them. PMID:26689979

  10. [Workplace violence in the healthcare sector: the experience of State health employees in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Iracema Viterbo; Aquino, Estela M L; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported violence suffered by healthcare workers, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 679 State health employees through face-to-face interviews and a questionnaire. Of the respondents, 25.9% (95%CI: 22.6%-29.2%) reported having suffered at least one form of violence, with verbal aggression as the most frequent (19.4%). Women aged 25-39 suffered 80% more violence than older women (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.0). Female physicians were the most frequently affected group (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.2-12.5). Among men, a nearly fourfold increase in healthcare workplace violence was associated with age 25 to 39 years (OR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.9-16.4) and nurse assistants or nurse technicians (PR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.1-13.2). This study can help raise awareness concerning healthcare workplace violence and support policies for health workers' care, with repercussions on quality of care for health services users.

  11. Workplace violence and abuse against nurses in hospitals in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi, Mahnaz; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Shirazi, Fateme; Heidari, Shiva; Salemi, Sedighe; Mirzabeigi, Ghazanfar

    2008-09-01

    The rising rate of violence and abuse in health care centers has become a major problem for nurses. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence of assaults during nurses' careers in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Self-report questionnaires were filled out by 1,317 nurses. Verbal abuse was experienced by 87.4% of the population during a 6-month period, and physical violence by 27.6% during the same period of time. No physical harm was reported in 66.4% of cases. Only 35.9% cases of verbal abuse and 49.9% cases of physical violence were actually reported. The majority of cases reported that abuse was followed by either inaction or by actions which failed to satisfy the victim. According to the findings, men were exposed to more abuse than women, and the risk of experiencing abuse was higher in nurses with more job experience or who worked more hours. Also, nurses who are responsible for first aid were subjected to more abuse than those in other positions. The findings showed a noticeable trend of a rising number of assaults against nurses. The findings of this study may help hospital staff and nurses to avoid, reduce and control violence and abuse.

  12. Labouring women and violence: Building workplaces free of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A recent study on the working and living conditions of garment workers in Cambodia reported high levels of discrimination, harassment, and sexual abuse in the factories and another recent report reveals ... Plusieurs études ont révélé des niveaux anormalement élevés de violence contre les femmes en milieu de travail.

  13. [Violence prevention in childhood and adolescence--a brief overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.

  14. Preventing Drug Abuse in the Workplace. Drug Abuse Prevention Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicary, Judith R.; Resnik, Henry

    This monograph is designed to help employers, employees, managers, and union officials develop effective workplace policies and programs to prevent drug and alcohol abuse and other health problems. The text of the monograph: (1) presents information regarding the costs of drug and alcohol use in the workplace, and evidence of potential…

  15. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.

  16. International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention (ISVIP) hosted the International Conference on “Children and Injuries” in Cape Town, South Africa from 31 August to 3 September 2008. ISVIP's mission is to establish global commitment to violence and injury prevention through advocacy and public policy action, ...

  17. Preventing Gender-based Violence in Senegal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Preventing Gender-based Violence in Senegal. Laws to protect women in Senegal against violence seem to have little effect in punishing the perpetrators, let alone in preventing the crimes. Senegal's constitution guarantees equality between women and men. The country has signed on to international agreements that ...

  18. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  19. Workplace physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Fatma Nur Baran; Karaşahin, Emine Füsun; Dikmen, Asiye Uğraş; Avci, Emine; Ozkan, Seçil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of and risk factors for physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses in a university hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Gazi University Medical Faculty Hospital. A questionnaire form recommended by the WHO and the International Labor Organization was administered through face-to-face interviews to determine the violence experienced in the past 12 months by nurses. The prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing was 13.9%, 41.8%, and 17.1%, respectively. Working more than 40 h per week increased the risk of physical violence by 1.86 times. The majority of nurses who experienced verbal violence and mobbing were significantly more willing to change their work, their institution, and their profession if given the opportunity. Fewer than one-fourth of the victims indicated they reported any incident. We knew that the prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing were high among nurses and that incidents were underreported, and the study corroborated this information. What this study adds to the topic is that long working hours increased the prevalence of physical violence and was defined as an important contributory factor.

  20. Sources, incidence and effects of non?physical workplace violence against nurses in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah; Hancock, Peter; Gringart, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. Methods A cross?sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013?2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. Results The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31?76?years and the average number of years practising as nurse ...

  1. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  2. Aggression-preventive supervisor behavior: Implications for workplace climate and employee outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Caughlin, David E

    2017-01-01

    Workplace aggression remains a serious and costly issue for organizations; thus, it is imperative to understand ways to reduce workplace aggression. To address this need, we used 2 independent samples with varied study designs, one at the employee level and the other at both employee and unit levels, to examine the role of aggression-preventive supervisor behavior (APSB) in aggression-prevention processes. In Sample 1 (237 nurses), we used structural equation modeling to examine the role of individual observations of APSB. First, we found that individual employees' observations of APSB positively related to their individual violence-prevention climate (VPC) perceptions. Further, VPC perceptions mediated the relations between APSB and employees' exposure to coworker aggression, job attitudes, and physical symptoms. In Sample 2 (337 nurses), we used multilevel regression analysis to examine the positive role of APSB in managing the aggression process. First, we established further support for many of the findings in Sample 1. In addition, we found that shared unit-level VPC mediated the relations of unit-level APSB with employees' exposure to aggression from coworkers, their physical symptoms, and turnover intention. Finally, evidence from Sample 2 supported favorable, direct relations of individual- or unit-level APSB with employees' aggression-prevention compliance and turnover intention. Implications for studying context-specific leadership behavior and designing aggression-prevention interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey’s emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Setting Country of Turkey. Participants Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians’ personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians’ opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. Results A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Conclusions Our results indicated that ED physicians’ experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. PMID:28663323

  4. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey's emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-06-29

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Cross-sectional survey study. Country of Turkey. Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians' personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians' opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Our results indicated that ED physicians' experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Occupational ...

  6. Association among components of resilience and workplace violence-related depression among emergency department nurses in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fen; Chen, Yao-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chang, Shu-Chen; Ma, Shu-Ching

    2016-09-01

    This correlation study examined the relationship among recently workplace violence, depressive tendency, social support, and resilience of victimised nurses, and we also tried to identify protective factors and potential targets for preventive interventions for these nurses. Workplace violence in hospitals negatively affects occupational health and safety of medical professionals, especially for emergency department nurses. A cross-sectional, correlation research design was applied. Hierarchical regression was used to examine data which were collected from June 2013 to December 2013 from emergency departments in Taiwan. One hundred and eighty nurses were recruited from two hospitals. Structured interviews and questionnaires were applied to collect data, including the Social Support Scale, the Resilience Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression. A total of 159 (88·33%) nurses had suffered from physical or verbal violence by patients or their family. Resilience and peer support were significantly higher in the group without depressive tendency. Components of resilience of personal strength, social competence, structure style and religious beliefs were significant factors which accounted for 46·0% of variance in depressive tendency. Three of the five components of resilience: personal strength, social competence and structured style were found to have profounder effects against depressive tendency than peer support. Hospital managers should establish a safer working environment for emergency department nurses and reinforce their resilience against depression when they encounter workplace violence. This study showed that three of the five components of resilience: personal strength, social competence and structured style are protective factors against depressive tendency in victimised nurses. Improving these three components with coping and problem-solving skills by healthcare manager would be effective measures for enhancing their resilience in

  7. Workplace violence in a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective review of incident management records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Aaron W; Indig, Devon; Hampton, Stephen E; Hegney, Desley G; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2012-08-09

    Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71%) was more common than physical abuse (29%). The most (44%) incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse) occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50%) incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90%) of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as 'high risk' work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93%) of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46%) or low (52%) Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury - there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%). Few (6%) victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more common than physical abuse. The most incidents of workplace

  8. Workplace violence in a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective review of incident management records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashmore Aaron W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. Methods The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. Results During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71% was more common than physical abuse (29%. The most (44% incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50% incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90% of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as ‘high risk’ work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93% of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46% or low (52% Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury – there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%. Few (6% victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Conclusions Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more

  9. Workplace violence in a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective review of incident management records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. Methods The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. Results During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71%) was more common than physical abuse (29%). The most (44%) incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse) occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50%) incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90%) of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as ‘high risk’ work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93%) of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46%) or low (52%) Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury – there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%). Few (6%) victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Conclusions Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more common than physical

  10. Frequency and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric nurses and its impact on their quality of life in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiao-Ying; An, Feng-Rong; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Qi, Yun-Ke; Ungvari, Gabor S; Newhouse, Robin; Yu, Doris S F; Lai, Kelly Y C; Yu, Liu-Yang; Ding, Yan-Ming; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Wu, Ping-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Jiaolong; Chiu, Helen F K

    2013-12-15

    This study examined the frequency of violence on nurses in Chinese psychiatric hospitals and explored its risk factors and impact on nurses' quality of life (QOL). A survey was conducted with 387 frontline psychiatric nurses in China. Information about experience of workplace violence in the past 6 months, type of workplace violence, and demographic characteristics was collected by a questionnaire. Altogether 319 (82.4%) of 387 nurses reported having experienced at least one type of violent event in the past 6 months. The prevalence of sexual assault, physical and verbal harassment was 18.6%, 61.5% and 78.6%, respectively. Compared to those with no exposure to violence, nurses who were exposed to violence had lower QOL in both the physical and mental domains. Significant predictors of violence against nurses are male sex, receiving college level or higher education and working on rotating duty were independently associated with high risk of violence. Workplace violence against psychiatric nurses commonly occurs in China. Considering the deleterious effects of violence, comprehensive strategies from the perspective of nursing education and training, organizational policy, patient care and staff support are recommended to promote occupational safety in psychiatric settings in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender Differences in Workplace Disclosure and Supports for Domestic Violence: Results of a Pan-Canadian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Wathen, C Nadine; Olszowy, Laura P; Saxton, Michael D; MacQuarrie, Barbara J

    2016-12-01

    Although domestic violence is increasingly identified as a workplace issue, little is known about workplace supports and the role of gender in workplace disclosure experiences. Using a subset of 2,831 people who experienced domestic violence, we examined (a) who discloses at work and to whom, and reasons for not disclosing; (b) helpfulness of disclosure recipients, including types of supports received; and (c) overall outcomes of disclosing, including negative consequences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. More than 40% of participants disclosed domestic violence at work, usually to coworkers or supervisors. They received various supports which were generally seen as helpful. Although not common, negative consequences of disclosure were reported. Men were less likely to disclose, but few other gender differences emerged. Implications for improving workplace supports are discussed.

  12. Study on factors inducing workplace violence in Chinese hospitals based on the broken window theory: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenyu; Mou, Huitong; Xu, Wen; Li, Zhe; Liu, Xin; Shi, Lei; Peng, Boshi; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Lei; Fan, Lihua

    2017-07-28

    To explore the potential components of hospital workplace violence (HWPV) from the perspectives of hospital administrators and patients, and put forward corresponding strategies for its prevention and control. Using convenience sampling methods, 116 hospitals in 14 provinces of China were surveyed using a self-designed questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was used. Hospital administrators and patients from 116 hospitals in 14 provinces of China. First, hospital administrators point of workplace factors included six factors, with the following weighting coefficients: hospital administrator factors (29.40%), patient-related factors (20.08%), hospital environmental factors (19.45%), policy and institutional factors (11.92%), social psychological factors (10.26%), objective events factors (8.89%). Second, patients from the hospital workplace predisposing factors included three common factors. The weight coefficients of these were hospital-related factors (60.27%), social and governmental factors (23.64%) and patient-related factors (16.09%). A wide range of factors according to hospital administrators, patients and in the hospital environment play important roles in HWPV. From the perspectives of hospital administrators, communication skills and attitude to the service are important factors for inducing HWPV. From the perspective of patients, the characteristics of staff personalities and medical cognition are more important inducing factors. As far as social factors are concerned, economic compensation of medical malpractice is an important inducing factor for HWPV. In terms of environmental factors, management of Chinese medical hospitals, medical procedures and the layout of departments are all potential factors for the occurrence of violence. Corresponding defects were exposed in the health legal system and the supervision system for influencing public opinion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017

  13. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  14. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Thakore, Rachel V.; Apfeld, Jordan C.; Johnson, Ronald K.; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A. Alex; Sethi, Manish K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Methods: Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussi...

  15. Incidence and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence on Nursing Staffs Caring for Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Jane Chiu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duration of employment, and high level of anxiety of staff seemed to be the determinants of violence. Pre-placement education should focus on these staff to reduce workplace violence.

  16. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on nursing staffs caring for chronic psychiatric patients in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Sun, Yu-Hua; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2009-11-01

    This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duration of employment, and high level of anxiety of staff seemed to be the determinants of violence. Pre-placement education should focus on these staff to reduce workplace violence.

  17. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  18. Violence Prevention Strategies of Inner-City Student Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovholt, Thomas; Cognetta, Phillip; Ye, Gretchen; King, Lolita

    1997-01-01

    Reports on violence prevention in an inner-city middle school. Interviews of students, deemed by peers and teachers as good at managing conflict, revealed eight themes. For example, student experts inoculated themselves in attitude to avoid violence; de-escalated situations when provoked; and believed the cost of fighting exceeds the reward. (RJM)

  19. Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.

    2018-01-01

    Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.

  20. Measures and programs for preventing violence in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries across the world schools are no longer a safe place for both students and school staff. Violence in school is an issue scarcely studied in Serbia and there are few articles in domestic professional literature. At national and local level there are not developed strategies nor programs for preventing violence among students in our schools. There are no data about planned, systematic and organized prevention of violence in the practice of our schools. The data obtained by investigations indicate that it is necessary to apply adequate programs for preventing violence among students in our schools, despite the finding that violence in school is not that much conspicuous and serious problem like in other countries (USA Israel, Japan, Austria, Germany. On the basis of relevant literature review the present paper high­lights some very popular and less notorious measures and prevention programs applied in various countries. The aim of the paper is to transmit basic and essential pieces of information so as to gain insight into diverse existing approaches to prevention of violent behavior in school hopefully to encourage our schools to pay more attention to preventing violence in school as soon as possible before it is too late.

  1. Studying women nurse academics: exposing workplace violence in Australia: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nel

    2003-04-01

    This article is the first in a two part series on research investigating the lived experiences of women nurse academics in Australia. This is part of a larger research study involving participants from Australia, New Zealand, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this research was to investigate the participants' professional experiences and progression within their respective school of nursing and university. This article focuses on the literature on workplace violence and research methodology. The importance of storytelling and the relationship between emotional safety and sensitive disclosures is also addressed.

  2. School-based secondary prevention programmes for preventing violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, J; DiGuiseppi, C; Gough, D; Taylor, R; Logan, S

    2006-07-19

    Early aggressive behaviour is a risk factor for later violence and criminal behaviour. Despite over 20 years of violence prevention interventions being delivered in the school setting, questions remain regarding the effectiveness of different interventions for children exhibiting aggressive behaviour. To examine the effect of school based violence prevention programmes for children identified as aggressive or at risk of being aggressive. We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Injuries Group specialised register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, other specialised databases and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and organisations to identify any further studies. We included trials meeting the following criteria; 1) participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups; 2) outcome data were collected concurrently; 3) participants comprised children in mandatory education identified as exhibiting, or at risk of, aggressive behaviour; 4) interventions designed to reduce aggression, violence, bullying, conflict or anger; 5) school based interventions; 6) outcomes included aggressive behaviour, school and agency responses to acts of aggression, or violent injuries. Data were collected on design, participants, interventions, outcomes and indicators of study quality. Results of any intervention to no intervention were compared immediately post-intervention and at 12 months using meta-analysis where appropriate. Of 56 trials identified, none reported data on violent injuries. Aggressive behaviour was significantly reduced in intervention groups compared to no intervention groups immediately post intervention in 34 trials with data, (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) = -0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.56 to -0.26). This effect was maintained in the seven studies reporting 12 month follow-up (SMD = -0.40, (95% CI -0.73 to -0.06)). School or agency disciplinary actions in response to aggressive behaviour were reduced in intervention groups for nine trials

  3. A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety ... theoretical and research investigations of the benchmark injury prevention and containment interventions

  4. Multi-College Bystander Intervention Evaluation for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (preduce violence at the community level and meet Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment and the Elusive Pursuit of Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Marvin S; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W

    2017-02-01

    Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal. Relevant publications were identified for review in PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, personal communications, and relevant Internet searches of advocacy and policy-related publications. Most research on OPC has focussed on outcomes such as community functioning and hospital recidivism and not on interpersonal violence. As a result, research on violence towards others has been limited but suggests that low-level acts of interpersonal violence such as minor, noninjurious altercations without weapon use and arrests can be reduced by OPC, but there is no evidence that OPC can reduce major acts of violence resulting in injury or weapon use. The impact of OPC on major violence, including mass shootings, is difficult to assess because of their low base rates. Effective implementation of OPC, when combined with intensive community services and applied for an adequate duration to take effect, can improve treatment adherence and related outcomes, but its promise as an effective means to reduce serious acts of violence is unknown.

  6. Effect of Education on Prevention of Domestic Violence against Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Noughani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Family violence, specifically domestic violence, has been identified by the medical community as a serious, no remitting epidemic with adverse health consequences. World Health Organization(WHO has stated that violence against women is a priority issue in the fields of health and human rights. A quasi experimental study were conducted in different faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences to determine the effect of teaching on prevention of domestic violence against female employees. "nMethods: Forty four women working in various faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004 were selected. A designed questionnaire was given to the participants to identify kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence. Then an educational booklet was given to subjects. This booklet contained information about kinds, causes  and consequences of domestic violence and how to manage them. To compare the impact of teaching, the same questionnaires were distributed among the subjects after six months. The questionnaire was specifically tested for content validity. "nResults:The results indicated that the incidence rate of domestic violence pre test and post test education was 5.17%. "nConclusion: Our study showed that education had no effect on domestic violence. Solving problems relating to domestic violence due to cardinal roots in short time seems to be impossible and impracticable.

  7. "…they think we are conversing, so we don't care about them…" Examining the causes of workplace violence against nurses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger project aimed at exploring the workplace experiences of nurses working in public general hospitals in Ghana. The current paper explores the causes of workplace violence against nurses in Ghana. Twenty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with professional nurses working in five regions of Ghana. They were selected through purposive and participant-to-participant snowball sampling techniques. Data was analysed through thematic analyses. The findings of the study suggest that nurses are not (always) passive recipients of violence. Workplace violence can be instigated by either of the parties to the nurse-patient/relative interaction. Nurses' accounts of the causes of violence suggest that violence could be instrumental or reactive. The study further suggests that the causes of violence may differ depending on which party instigated the violence. The main causes of violence identified include ineffective communication, long waiting times and perceived unresponsiveness, and enforcement of visiting hours. It is concluded that workplace violence could be reduced through the provision of adequate information to patients and their relatives. Nurses could also be trained in effective communication and interpersonal skills; and on how to identify and avoid potentially violent situations. It is also imperative that policies and measures aimed at addressing workplace violence are instituted to address the problem. Mass education may also be carried out to sensitise the general public on the adverse effects of violence against nurses.

  8. Workplace bullying and violence as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a multicohort study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianwei; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Lange, Theis; Starkopf, Liis; Westerlund, Hugo; Madsen, Ida E H; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Hansen, Åse M; Kivimäki, Mika; Rod, Naja H

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this multicohort study was to examine whether employees exposed to social stressors at work, such as workplace bullying and violence, have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The study included 45,905 men and women (40-65 years of age and free of diabetes at baseline) from four studies in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. Workplace bullying and violence were self-reported at baseline. Incident diabetes was ascertained through national health and medication records and death registers. Marginal structural Cox models adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, marital status and educational level were used for the analyses. Nine per cent of the population reported being bullied at work and 12% were exposed to workplace violence or threats of violence. Bullied participants had a 1.46 (95% CI 1.23, 1.74) times higher risk of developing diabetes compared with non-bullied participants. Exposure to violence or threats of violence was also associated with a higher risk of diabetes (HR 1.26 [95% CI 1.02, 1.56]). The risk estimates attenuated slightly when taking BMI into account, especially for bullying. The results were similar for men and women, and were consistent across cohorts. We found a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes among employees exposed to bullying or violence in the workplace. Further research is needed to determine whether policies to reduce bullying and violence at work may reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in working populations. Research on the mechanisms is also highly warranted.

  9. Implementing a Workplace Violence Simulation for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Angel Johann Solorzano

    2017-10-01

    Workplace violence (WPV) is an undesired phenomenon affecting nurses and nursing students. Nursing simulations allow students to learn and practice skills in a controlled setting. The development of the pilot study, "Mental Health Nursing Simulation on Workplace Violence," is presented. A simulated scenario using a standardized patient (SP) behaving as an agitated psychiatric patient was developed for undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The simulation aimed to enhance students' knowledge about WPV, increase their confidence and ability to recognize signs of aggression, practice evidence-based interventions to de-escalate agitated patients, and evaluate the simulation. Surveys and the Mental Health Nursing Clinical Confidence Scale were used to measure the aims yielding qualitative and quantitative data. An increase in students' confidence and knowledge was obtained post-simulation. Students rated the simulation as useful. The use of a SP created an experiential learning environment for participants. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(10), 39-44.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. The relationship between workplace violence, perceptions of safety, and Professional Quality of Life among emergency department staff members in a Level 1 Trauma Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Darcy; Henry, Melissa

    2018-02-02

    Emergency department staff members are frequently exposed to workplace violence which may have physical, psychological, and workforce related consequences. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between exposure to workplace violence, tolerance to violence, expectations of violence, perceptions of workplace safety, and Professional Quality of Life (compassion satisfaction - CS, burnout - BO, secondary traumatic stress - STS) among emergency department staff members. A cross-sectional design was used to survey all emergency department staff members from a suburban Level 1 Trauma Centre in the western United States. All three dimensions of Professional Quality of Life were associated with exposure to non-physical patient violence including: general threats (CS p = .012, BO p = .001, STS p = .035), name calling (CS p = .041, BO p = .021, STS p = .018), and threats of lawsuit (CS p = .001, BO p = .001, STS p = .02). Tolerance to violence was associated with BO (p = .004) and CS (p = .001); perception of safety was associated with BO (p = .018). Exposure to non-physical workplace violence can significantly impact staff members' compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Greater attention should be paid to the effect of non-physical workplace violence. Additionally, addressing tolerance to violence and perceptions of safety in the workplace may impact Professional Quality of Life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parents' Expectations of High Schools in Firearm Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H

    2017-12-01

    Firearm violence remains a significant problem in the US (with 2787 adolescents killed in 2015). However, the research on school firearm violence prevention practices and policies is scant. Parents are major stakeholders in relation to firearm violence by youths and school safety in general. The purpose of this study was to examine what parents thought schools should be doing to reduce the risk of firearm violence in schools. A valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 600 parents who had at least one child enrolled in a public secondary school (response rate = 47%). Parents perceived inadequate parental monitoring/rearing practices (73%), peer harassment and/or bullying (58%), inadequate mental health care services for youth (54%), and easy access to guns (51%) as major causes of firearm violence in schools. The school policies perceived to be most effective in reducing firearm violence were installing an alert system in schools (70%), working with law enforcement to design an emergency response plan (70%), creating a comprehensive security plan (68%), requiring criminal background checks for all school personnel prior to hiring (67%), and implementing an anonymous system for students to report peer concerns regarding potential violence (67%). Parents seem to have a limited grasp of potentially effective interventions to reduce firearm violence.

  12. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  13. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.

  14. Incidence and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence on Nursing Staffs Caring for Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Sun, Yu-Hua; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2009-01-01

    This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duratio...

  15. Rethinking the bystander role in school violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueve, Ann; Dash, Kimberly; O'Donnell, Lydia; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wilson-Simmons, Renée; Slaby, Ronald G; Link, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    Public concerns about school shootings and safety draw attention to the role bystanders can play in preventing school violence. Although school violence prevention plans are often required, there is little guidance about whether these should address the roles of bystanders and what actions bystanders should take in different circumstances, from more common instances of bullying and fighting to rare, but potentially lethal, threats and use of weapons. Literature pertaining to bystanders is reviewed and applied to the school setting. The definition of bystander is expanded, including parents, teachers, and other school staff as well as youths and those who have information about potential violence as well as those who witness its occurrence. Barriers preventing bystanders from taking positive actions are discussed. The authors call on health promotion researchers and practitioners to work with school communities to identify norms, attitudes, and outcome expectancies that shape bystander behaviors to inform prevention efforts.

  16. Workplace violence: an overview of patterns of risk and the emotional/stress consequences on targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Claire; Chappell, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    Violence at work (VAW) is a frequent precursor to mental ill health, and to a lesser degree physical injury, among those exposed to this occupational hazard. In this paper an overview is provided of the nature and prevalence of such violence, of the risk factors involved, and of the impact upon victims. The paper examines the definition of VAW which includes both physical and psychological violence. Attention is given to the influential involvement of the UN affiliated International Labour Organisation in setting benchmarks for defining, preventing and responding to VAW. Evidence about the incidence and severity of VAW on a global basis is examined. It is noted that the reliability of information about VAW is quite variable, especially in non-industrialised countries. The available evidence indicates that psychological aggression is widespread across all sectors of employment and physical violence, although far less common, remains a significant problem. Risks of becoming a victim of VAW vary according to numbers of factors including job category, the nature of the work being performed, gender, age and experience. The paper also focuses on research regarding the effects upon persons experiencing or witnessing VAW. This research indicates that the health related consequences of psychological violence can be as severe as those from physical violence. The paper concludes that VAW is a major occupational health and safety hazard in all nations, regardless of their state of development. A reduction or elimination of this violence, and the health problems it creates, requires concerted and integrated strategies, together with rigorous evaluation of preventive measures.

  17. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  18. Workplace violence against emergency versus non-emergency nurses in Mansoura university hospitals, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Abd-El-Raouf, Samar E; Abd-Elmouty, Samia Mahmoud; El-Sayed, Rabab El-Sayed Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Workplace violence (WPV) against nurses is a common but neglected problem in Egypt. The objectives are to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of different types of violence against nurses working in the emergency hospital compared with those working in non-emergency clinics, circumstances of violence, type of perpetrators, and victims' response. This cross-sectional comparative study was carried out at Mansoura University Hospitals, Egypt, during January 2013. The data were collected through the adapted version of a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Office/International Council of Nurses/World Health Organization/Public Services International on WPV in the health sector. All types of WPV are common among nurses. Precipitating factors for violent incidents identified by respondents are emergency specialty, having work shift, and younger age. Violent incidents result in work dissatisfaction and consequently impair work productivity. Nurses working in emergency hospital experienced a higher level of different types of WPV. There is an urgent need to formulate and implement a policy for dealing with violent events. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. An evaluation of an aggression management training program to cope with workplace violence in the healthcare sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Oostrom (Janneke); H. van Mierlo (Heleen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWorkplace violence is a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers, generating a need for effective intervention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aggression management training program. The evaluation design was based on the internal

  20. Preventing violence while reducing poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most participants are women. When their economic power increases, their partners may feel threatened or undermined. Bruce argues that providing gender training to participants who are at risk of domestic violence and increasing the number of men benefiting from the program are ways to mitigate this risk. Read David ...

  1. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gas and water utility employees, phone and cable TV installers, and letter carriers; retail workers; and taxi ... visit OSHA’s website. This is one in a series of informational fact sheets highlighting OSHA programs, policies, ...

  2. The physician's unique role in preventing violence: a neglected opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umhau John C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Episodes of explosive rage and violence comprise a symptom complex which can have a devastating effect on a person's life. In the community this behavior is seen as workplace violence, domestic abuse and road rage, while in the clinical setting, this behavior is rarely mentioned by patients, despite evidence that it can signify an important biological disorder that may afflict more than three percent of the population. Discussion Patients are often reluctant to seek help for episodic attacks of rage, especially attacks which are accompanied by physical violence. Although, in the past, clinicians have had few treatment options to offer, recent neuroscience advances have created new possibilities to understand and help patients with this neglected problem. No formal medical guidelines for treating violence exist; however, many patients can be helped by diagnosis, referral and treatment. Treatment can include pharmaceuticals and nutrients, as well as referral for anger management or behavioral therapy. Summary The astute clinician has an opportunity to positively impact an important problem through the diagnosis and treatment of patients with symptoms of intermittent explosive disorder.

  3. Violence prevention in middle schools: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, P; Parcel, G S; McAlister, A; Frankowski, R

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of a violence prevention curriculum and of trained peer leaders on self-reported aggressive behaviors, knowledge about violence and conflict-resolution skills, self-efficacy, and attitudes among 223 6th graders. The effect of two intervention groups (violence prevention curriculum taught by the teacher with or without the assistance of trained peer leaders) and one control group were compared. Ten 6th grade classes (four control and six intervention classes) of four middle schools participated in the study. Students were evaluated before and shortly after the implementation of the curriculum, as well as 3 months later. The intervention reduced self-reported aggressive behaviors among boys, but this reduction was significant only in two of the six intervention classes. Both interventions had an overall significant effect on increasing knowledge about violence and skills to reduce violence. After the intervention, students also developed a more negative attitude toward responding violently when provoked. Attitude change was stronger among students from the teacher plus peer leader group. No intervention effect was observed on self-efficacy nor on attitudes toward skills to reduce violence. Changes were not maintained over time. Results emphasize the need for continuous and comprehensive interventions, follow-up evaluations, and careful selection of peer leaders. Aggressive behaviors, not knowledge alone, should be used as the main dependent variable.

  4. Violence Against Women at the Workplace in Honduraa, Benin, Moldova, Indonesia: a survey by CNV Internationaal, University of Amsterdam/AIAS, WageIndicator Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; van Klaveren, M.; Zerain, A.; Osse, P.; Ceccon, D.; Pralitasari, N.; Flores, A.; Sèna Alinsato, A.; Popescu, A.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    The research focussed on violence against women at the workplace in four countries: Honduras, Indonesia, Moldova, and Benin. Each country report starts with an overview concerning the female workforce in that country, followed by a description of the legal framework concerning violence at work. It then tries to provide an overview of the institutional responses to violence at work. Although data on the incidence of violence against women at work are mostly quite scarce, the research tries to ...

  5. Gaps in Workplace Education For Prevention of Occupational Skin Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya; Arrandale, Victoria H; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn

    2018-02-13

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease. Evidence suggests that education and training are effective prevention strategies. In spite of these known prevention strategies, workers continue to develop OCD. Little is reported regarding the actual training experience of workers. To examine the training experience of workers with contact dermatitis to identify areas for improvement. Participants were workers being assessed for contact dermatitis in an occupational health clinic. The anonymous survey collected demographics, workplace characteristics, and education and prevention practices. Approximately 80% reported general occupational health and safety training; however, only 49% reported skin-specific training (SST). For workers reporting SST, most received information regarding exposure avoidance, hand washing, and glove use. This content was reported as helpful by at least 50%. Workers who did not receive SST indicated the most important content would be warning signs of skin problems, how to avoid exposure and skin care while using gloves. While the study was anonymous and used self-reported of training experience, the study suggests there are gaps in skin protection training. Addressing these gaps may lead to improved prevention and reduction in OCD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  6. Young Adults in the Workplace: A Multisite Initiative of Substance Use Prevention Programs. RTI Press Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W., Ed.; Galvin, Deborah M., Ed.; Cluff, Laurie A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Although higher rates of substance use among young adults aged 16 to 24 are well-established (OAS, 2010), existing workplace substance use prevention and early intervention programs primarily target older workers. These data suggest that workplaces need substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs that are proven to be efficacious…

  7. [Communication skills and their influence on prevention strategies in workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, A; Sanna, S; Dimitri, L; Di Geronimo, M

    2010-01-01

    Communication is a process which enables groups and individuals to increase their control over determining health factors acting on people's lifestyles to promote health. Good communication is fundamental to the health sector in a globalized world, since it may influence national and local policies, health promotion campaigns and correct operational practices. Our study analyses four significant incidents related to instances of bad communication and covers questions which have produced rather incoherent results provoking unjustified alarm. It is therefore necessary to prescribe a way of approaching these issues which will firstly lead to a more careful analysis of the risk involved and therefore to make known correct public information. It is necessary to improve the skills of experts in prevention, to promote educational initiatives at school, universities and in workplaces always focussing more on interdisciplinarity and developing new ways of approaching problems concerning health and safety.

  8. A gender-based incidence study of workplace violence in psychiatric and forensic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Scalora, Mario J; Bader, Shannon M; Bornstein, Brian H

    2007-01-01

    Limited data exist analyzing the role of gender in workplace violence in health care settings. This study examined whether different types of threatening incidents with patients (physical, verbal, sexual, or posturing) were salient to male versus female staff across psychiatric settings (inpatient forensic, inpatient acute/chronic psychiatric, and outpatient psychiatric). Results indicated that although women disproportionately experienced sexualized threats, they were not more likely to report such incidents as salient and threatening. The study also assessed the extent to which situational variables contributed to staff's feelings of threat. Results showed that rapport with the patient, quality of relationships with coworkers, and presence of coworkers in the area were not significantly related to how threatened staff felt in a recent threatening incident. Findings are discussed within the context of staff training and organizational benefits.

  9. Preventing Domestic Violence in Alberta: A Cost Savings Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Wells

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will undergo some form of interpersonal violence from an ex-partner or ex-spouse. Besides the devastating toll that domestic violence has on victims and their families, the ongoing cost to Albertans is significant. In the past five years alone it is estimated that over $600 million will have been spent on the provision of a few basic health and non health supports and that the majority of this cost ($521 million is coming out of the pockets of Albertans in the form of tax dollars directed at the provision of services. Fortunately, investment in quality prevention and intervention initiatives can be very cost effective, returning as much as $20 for every dollar invested. Recent research on preventative programming in the context of domestic violence shows promising results in reducing incidents of self-reported domestic violence. The economic analysis of this preventative programming suggests that the benefits of providing the various types of programming outweighed the costs by as much as 6:1. The potential cost savings for the Alberta context are significant; the implementation of these preventative programs has been estimated to be approximately $9.6 million while generating net cost-benefits of over $54 million. Domestic violence is a persistent blight, and continues to have a significant impact on individuals and families in Alberta, but potent tools exist to fight it. This brief paper offers a cogent summary of its costs, and the benefits that could be

  10. Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J; Griffin, Kenneth W; Nichols, Tracy Diaz

    2006-12-01

    Violence is an important public health problem among adolescents in the United States. Substance use and violence tend to co-occur among adolescents and appear to have similar etiologies. The present study examined the extent to which a comprehensive prevention approach targeting an array of individual-level risk and protective factors and previously found effective in preventing tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is capable of decreasing violence and delinquency. Schools (N=41) were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Participants in the 20 intervention schools received the Life Skills Training prevention program including material focusing on violence and the media, anger management, and conflict resolution skills. Survey data were collected from 4,858 sixth grade students prior to the intervention and three months later after the intervention. Findings showed significant reductions in violence and delinquency for intervention participants relative to controls. Stronger prevention effects were found for students who received at least half of the preventive intervention. These effects include less verbal and physical aggression, fighting, and delinquency. The results of this study indicate that a school-based prevention approach previously found to prevent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use can also prevent violence and delinquency.

  11. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  12. Alcohol and violence: connections, evidence and possibilities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert Nash

    2004-05-01

    This article reviews a number of theoretical and substantive arguments and models concerning the link between alcohol and violent crime which have appeared in the research literature in the past decade. These arguments and models form a firm foundation for the expectation that alcohol plays a causal role in violent crime, and that interventions designed to reduce or eliminate this link between alcohol and violence have the potential to become effective violence prevention policies. Four studies on the relationship between alcohol and violence are summarized, including one in which a natural alcohol policy experiment is evaluated. Taken together, these studies provide substantial empirical evidence that alcohol policy can be an effective crime prevention tool.

  13. Interventions for prevention of bullying in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Patricia A; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George; Begley, Cecily M; Luyben, Ans G

    2017-01-30

    Bullying has been identified as one of the leading workplace stressors, with adverse consequences for the individual employee, groups of employees, and whole organisations. Employees who have been bullied have lower levels of job satisfaction, higher levels of anxiety and depression, and are more likely to leave their place of work. Organisations face increased risk of skill depletion and absenteeism, leading to loss of profit, potential legal fees, and tribunal cases. It is unclear to what extent these risks can be addressed through interventions to prevent bullying. To explore the effectiveness of workplace interventions to prevent bullying in the workplace. We searched: the Cochrane Work Group Trials Register (August 2014); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, issue 1); PUBMED (1946 to January 2016); EMBASE (1980 to January 2016); PsycINFO (1967 to January 2016); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL Plus; 1937 to January 2016); International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS; 1951 to January 2016); Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA; 1987 to January 2016); ABI Global (earliest record to January 2016); Business Source Premier (BSP; earliest record to January 2016); OpenGrey (previously known as OpenSIGLE-System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe; 1980 to December 2014); and reference lists of articles. Randomised and cluster-randomised controlled trials of employee-directed interventions, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies of interventions of any type, aimed at preventing bullying in the workplace, targeted at an individual employee, a group of employees, or an organisation. Three authors independently screened and selected studies. We extracted data from included studies on victimisation, perpetration, and absenteeism associated with workplace bullying. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used the

  14. Nurses and workplace violence: nurses' experiences of verbal and physical abuse at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Angela D

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes nurses' experiences of violence and abuse in the workplace and the ways in which those experiences influence their abilities to care for patients. The original purpose of the research from which these findings derive was to explore nurses' work with abused women. The qualitative study utilizing a Social Constructivism approach was conducted in two countries: Canada and the United Kingdom. Forty-nine nurses from four clinical areas were interviewed, both in focus groups and individually, about factors influencing their care of abused women. In the course of the original study, the degree of verbal abuse and physical violence that nurses routinely encounter in their work became apparent. It also became clear that abuse against nurses is an important issue that has a significant impact on nurses' abilities to offer effective care. Findings indicated that nurses experience significant threat, frequently in the context of their work, at the hands of patients and their relatives; that verbal abuse is an almost daily occurrence; and that support from other healthcare professionals or from administration in addressing the issue, while improving somewhat, is inadequate. This work has implications not only for nurses' health and safety but also, in the broader sense, for the profession's ability to attract and retain nurses within the healthcare system.

  15. Networks for prevention of violence: from utopia to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie Njaine

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the experience of networks for the protection of people exposed to situations of violence or prevention networks. It is based on the concept created by Castells, who defines the information age. This study is part of the investigation "Successful experiences in the prevention of violence", carried out by the Latin-American Center for Studies on Violence Jorge Careli/ENSP-IFF/Fiocruz, in cooperation with the Secretariat for Health Survey of the Ministry of Health. The article analyzes the possibilities and limitations in the construction of networks for the prevention of violence, seeking to understand the sense of actions and movements carried out in networks. The method we used is a case study of two network initiatives in the Southern region of the country. In terms of results, in face of the difficulties of working in networks, we found it to be necessary: to break with sectorial and vertical actions; to promote constant communication and interchange of information; to permanently train the professionals and persons involved in the network, incorporating them into the protective and preventive actions; and to promote the participation of wide social sectors. In conclusion, one can affirm that the construction of a protection network involves complex steps, looking to the same problem with new eyes and a new vision for planting solutions.

  16. Building consensus on youth violence prevention and citizen ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's efforts in negotiation and coalition building contributed to a high-level dialogue that engaged high-level officials and reaffirmed their commitment to preventing violence particularly among youth in Central America. At a meeting held at the Earth University in Costa Rica´s Limon Province in early February, Luis Fallas, ...

  17. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Ki Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.

  18. Prevention of violence against women and girls: lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michau, Lori; Horn, Jessica; Bank, Amy; Dutt, Mallika; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-04-25

    This Series paper describes programming to prevent violence against women and girls, and emphasises the importance of systematic, sustained programming across the social ecology (ie, the delicate equilibrium of interacting social, institutional, cultural, and political contexts of people's lives) to transform gender-power inequalities. Effective prevention policy and programming is founded on five core principles: first, analysis and actions to prevent violence across the social ecology (individual, interpersonal, community, and societal); second, intervention designs based on an intersectional gender-power analysis; third, theory-informed models developed on the basis of evidence; fourth, sustained investment in multisector interventions; and finally, aspirational programming that promotes personal and collective thought, and enables activism on women's and girls' rights to violence-free lives. Prevention programming of the future will depend on all of us having a vision of, and a commitment to, gender equality to make violence-free lives for women and girls a reality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual Violence Prevention: The Role of Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Moynihan, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly…

  20. A 'best buy' for violence prevention: Evaluating parenting skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective parenting programmes are central to successful violence prevention efforts. Although parenting programmes are available in South Africa, few are evidence-based. This lack of evaluation makes it impossible to know whether programmes are helpful or harmful and whether they use resources efficiently. This article ...

  1. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

    2013-01-01

    School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.

  2. Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…

  3. Sexual Violence Prevention in Indiana: Toward Safer, Healthier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Katie; Heiman, Julia R.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    For roughly three decades, policymakers have sought to reduce sexual violence by reliance on a criminal justice approach in which sexually violent acts are dealt with after they occur. Recognizing that prevention efforts could be more valuable, as they work to stop the problem before it begins, researchers have begun to implement a primary…

  4. [Changing the focus: an exploratory study of drug use and workplace violence among women of popular classes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal; Caufield, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate factors related to the use of illicit and licit drugs and workplace violence in a group of women from popular classes in the city of Rio de Janeiro. We used a descriptive and analytic quantitative approach was used, as well as a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews with women who suffered or were suffering workplace violence, using the collective subject discourse analysis methodology. The results showed sociodemographic and work situations that can be considered as possible risk factors for drug consumption and workplace violence. The qualitative analysis shows how this group perceives the phenomena of drug use and workplace violence, expanding the comprehension about these issues and providing conceptual and methodological elements for additional studies on this subject.

  5. Teachers' Responsibilities in Preventing School Violence: A Case Study in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuzer, Yasemin; Gundogdu, Rezzan

    2012-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that teachers play an important role in preventing or reducing violence in schools. The objectives of this study were: (a) to identify teachers' responsibilities in terms of preventing violence among school children and (b) to solicit teachers' views as what they have been doing in preventing violence. Sample for the…

  6. 77 FR 14378 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...) and characteristics (e.g., self-esteem, relationship skills) can moderate the impacts of past and... Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive Services/Grants to States AGENCY... Act (FVPSA) to States (including Territories and Insular Areas). The purpose of these grants is to: (1...

  7. 77 FR 14393 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants to State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... relatives, involvement in after-school activities) and characteristics (e.g., self-esteem, relationship... Prevention and Services/Grants to State Domestic Violence Coalitions AGENCY: Family and Youth Services Bureau... and coordinate with States, tribes, localities, cities, and the private sector to be involved in State...

  8. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  9. The prospective effects of workplace violence on physicians’ job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the buffering effect of job control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care professionals, including physicians, are at high risk of encountering workplace violence. At the same time physician turnover is an increasing problem that threatens the functioning of the health care sector worldwide. The present study examined the prospective associations of work-related physical violence and bullying with physicians’ turnover intentions and job satisfaction. In addition, we tested whether job control would modify these associations. Methods The present study was a 4-year longitudinal survey study, with data gathered in 2006 and 2010.The present sample included 1515 (61% women) Finnish physicians aged 25–63 years at baseline. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while adjusting for gender, age, baseline levels, specialisation status, and employment sector. Results The results of covariance analyses showed that physical violence led to increased physician turnover intentions and that both bullying and physical violence led to reduced physician job satisfaction even after adjustments. We also found that opportunities for job control were able to alleviate the increase in turnover intentions resulting from bullying. Conclusions Our results suggest that workplace violence is an extensive problem in the health care sector and may lead to increased turnover and job dissatisfaction. Thus, health care organisations should approach this problem through different means, for example, by giving health care employees more opportunities to control their own work. PMID:24438449

  10. The prospective effects of workplace violence on physicians' job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the buffering effect of job control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-01-17

    Health care professionals, including physicians, are at high risk of encountering workplace violence. At the same time physician turnover is an increasing problem that threatens the functioning of the health care sector worldwide. The present study examined the prospective associations of work-related physical violence and bullying with physicians' turnover intentions and job satisfaction. In addition, we tested whether job control would modify these associations. The present study was a 4-year longitudinal survey study, with data gathered in 2006 and 2010.The present sample included 1515 (61% women) Finnish physicians aged 25-63 years at baseline. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while adjusting for gender, age, baseline levels, specialisation status, and employment sector. The results of covariance analyses showed that physical violence led to increased physician turnover intentions and that both bullying and physical violence led to reduced physician job satisfaction even after adjustments. We also found that opportunities for job control were able to alleviate the increase in turnover intentions resulting from bullying. Our results suggest that workplace violence is an extensive problem in the health care sector and may lead to increased turnover and job dissatisfaction. Thus, health care organisations should approach this problem through different means, for example, by giving health care employees more opportunities to control their own work.

  11. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-01-01

    While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence...

  12. An evaluation of an aggression management training program to cope with workplace violence in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostrom, Janneke K; van Mierlo, Heleen

    2008-08-01

    Workplace violence is a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers, generating a need for effective intervention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aggression management training program. The evaluation design was based on the internal referencing strategy, an unobtrusive and applicable evaluation method that rules out some major threats to internal validity without the need for a control group. On three occasions, training participants completed a questionnaire containing experimental and control variables. As hypothesized, there was a significant improvement in the experimental variables that was larger than the non-significant change in the control variable. We conclude that aggression management training may be an effective instrument in the fight against workplace violence. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  13. New Technology and the Prevention of Violence and Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs, particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens and when it is integrated into existing civil society initiatives.1 However, new technologies are not a panacea for preventing and reducing violence and conflict. In fact, failure to consider the possible knock-on effects of applying a specific technology can lead to fatal outcomes in violent settings. In addition, employing new technologies for conflict prevention can produce very different results depending on the context in which they are applied and whether or not those using the technology take that context into account. This is particularly true in light of the dramatic changes underway in the landscapes of violence and conflict on a global level. As such, instead of focusing on supply-driven technical fixes, those undertaking prevention initiatives should let the context inform what kind of technology is needed and what kind of approach will work best.

  14. Comparison of two violence prevention curricula for middle school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Treiber, F; Getts, A; McCloud, K; Linder, C W; Woods, E R

    1996-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the Violence Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents to the Conflict Resolution: A Curriculum for Youth Providers among middle school students. A sample (N = 225) of adolescents (males = 48%) representing 20% of the student population in two middle schools were administered a pretest questionnaire. Of these students, 89% were African-American, 10% were white, and 1% were Native-American and lived in public housing (40%) or in neighborhoods adjacent to public housing (60%). Each school was randomly assigned to one of the curricula. Each curriculum was administered during 10 50-min sessions held twice a week over 5 weeks. One week later, 209 students who completed the 10 sessions were tested with the same questionnaire. The data were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Students who received either curriculum reported significant decreases in their self-reported use of violence in hypothetical conflict situations, frequency of use of violence in the previous 30 days, and frequency of physical fights in the previous 30 days. The conflict resolution curriculum was more effective in reducing the frequency of fights resulting in an injury requiring medical treatment in the previous 30 days. Both curricula were successful in reducing three indicators of violence. However, the conflict resolution approach was more successful in reducing the frequency of more severe physical fights requiring medical treatment. The latter finding is of particular importance, because that physical fighting is the form of violence behavior in which young adolescents most often engage.

  15. The effects of workplace respect and violence on nurses' job satisfaction in Ghana: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah

    2018-01-15

    Studies have established the negative effects of workplace disrespect and violence on the personal and professional well-being of nurses. In spite of this, only a few have directly investigated the effects of these issues on nurses' job satisfaction. In Africa, research on nurses' job satisfaction continues to focus largely on economic factors. The aim of this paper was, therefore, to investigate the impact of the non-economic factors of workplace violence and respect on the job satisfaction levels of nurses in Ghana. The study employed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. It involved 592 qualified practising nurses working in public hospitals in Ghana. Data were collected between September 2013 and April 2014. The results showed that, overall, nurses were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with their jobs (M = 3.19, SD = .54). More than half (52.7%) of the participants had been abused verbally, and 12% had been sexually harassed in the 12 months prior to the study. The majority of nurses, however, believed they were respected at the workplace (M = 3.77, SD = .70, Mode = 4). Multiple regression analyses showed that verbal abuse and perceived respect were statistically significant predictors of nurses' job satisfaction. Nurses who experienced verbal abuse and low level of respect were more likely to report low job satisfaction scores. It is concluded that non-financial strategies such as safe work environments which are devoid of workplace violence may enhance nurses' job satisfaction levels. A policy of "zero tolerance" for violence and low tolerance for disrespect could be put in place to protect nurses and healthcare professionals in general.

  16. Violence Against Women at the Workplace in Honduraa, Benin, Moldova, Indonesia: a survey by CNV Internationaal, University of Amsterdam/AIAS, WageIndicator Foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; van Klaveren, M.; Zerain, A.; Osse, P.; Ceccon, D.; Pralitasari, N.; Flores, A.; Sèna Alinsato, A.; Popescu, A.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    The research focussed on violence against women at the workplace in four countries: Honduras, Indonesia, Moldova, and Benin. Each country report starts with an overview concerning the female workforce in that country, followed by a description of the legal framework concerning violence at work. It

  17. The missing link: using emotional intelligence to reduce workplace stress and workplace violence in our nursing and other health care professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Because of our poor emotionally intelligent responses and interactions, many nurses and other health care staff have become scarred emotionally from abusive, demoralizing, or hostile acts inflicted on one another. Rude, disruptive behavior among health care professionals can pose a serious threat to patient safety and the overall quality of care. The expectation of regulating bodies is that health care professionals focus on effects disruptive behavior has on a culture of safety for both patients and staff. Relatively recent research in training and development, and behavior change, specifically on emotional intelligence, suggests that it is possible to improve the emotional competence of adults. I posit it is possible to increase emotional competence to reduce health workplace stress and workplace violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual Violence on Campus: Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/ 2016/ 05/ sexual- assault- prevention- on- u- s- college- campuses- a- national- scan/ n Not Alone www. notalone. gov n CDC’s Report to the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual ... ...

  19. [Epidemiologic surveillance for the prevention and control urban violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R

    1999-01-01

    Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.

  20. Research calls for preventive approach to gender-based violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Their research looked at the root causes and impacts of violence against women and also assessed the effectiveness of existing strategies to prevent and combat gender-based violence. Their work has identified key strategies to strengthen civil society and public organizations engaged in preventing violence against ...

  1. 76 FR 6307 - National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month reflects our Nation's... one in four teens report being the victim of verbal, physical, emotional, or sexual violence. Abusive...

  2. Getting behind closed doors : Reflections on legislation to prevent domestic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, R.; Lünnemann, K.

    2008-01-01

    The call for preventive interventions to curb domestic violence is becoming stronger. The barring order has been launched as an innovative approach to preventing domestic violence. It allows the police to temporarily bar the perpetrator of domestic violence from entering his or her home, as a way to

  3. Sexual violence against women: prevalence, consequences, societal factors, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, I L

    1991-01-01

    Sexual assault of women in the United States may have a prevalence rate of 25% or more. Moreover, the majority of survivors of sexual assault know their assailants. Consequences of assault may be severe and long-term, including fear and anxiety, depression, suicide attempts, difficulties with daily functioning and interpersonal relationships, sexual dysfunction, and a whole range of somatic complaints. Recent evidence implicates societal factors, such as acceptance of rape myths, rigid sex role stereotyping beliefs, and acceptance of violence as a legitimate means for obtaining compliance in interpersonal relationships, in the etiology of sexual violence against women. I present a model for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of rape. Primary prevention represents a program of anticipatory guidance in a developmental framework. Secondary prevention entails identification of and early intervention in dysfunctional families. Tertiary prevention consists of the appropriate treatment of the survivor of sexual assault to prevent or minimize subsequent physical and psychological problems. This preventive framework may be incorporated into the practice of clinical preventive medicine and primary care.

  4. Preventing violence by intimate partners in adolescence: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Nunes Guedes De Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension.

  5. Use of an audit in violence prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Elizabeth Hite; Meyer, Aleta; McClain, Natalie

    2005-05-01

    Auditing is an effective tool for articulating the trustworthiness and credibility of qualitative research. However, little information exists on how to conduct an audit. In this article, the authors illustrate their use of an audit team to explore the methods and preliminary findings of a study aimed at identifying the relevant and challenging problems experienced by urban teenagers. This study was the first in a series of studies to improve the ecological validity of violence prevention programs for high-risk urban teenagers, titled Identifying Essential Skills for Violence Prevention. The five phases of this audit were engaging the auditor, becoming familiar with the study, discussing methods and determining strengths and limitations, articulating audit findings, and planning subsequent research. Positioning the audit before producing final results allows researchers to address many study limitations, uncover potential sources of bias in the thematic structure, and systematically plan subsequent steps in an emerging design.

  6. Evaluation of a Workplace Disability Prevention Intervention in Canada: Examining Differing Perceptions of Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Maiwald, Karin; de Rijk, Angelique; Guzman, Jaime; Schonstein, Eva; Yassi, Annalee

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Workplace disability prevention is important, but stakeholders can differ in their appreciation of such interventions. We present a responsive evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in a Canadian healthcare organization. Three groups of stakeholders were included: designers of the intervention, deliverers, and workers. The aim was to examine the appreciation of this intervention by analyzing the discrepancies with respect to what these various stakeholders s...

  7. Workplace violence and the meaning of work in healthcare workers: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Josianne; Guay, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence (WPV) has been associated with turnover intentions and reduced job satisfaction, yet the mechanisms behind such associations are still nebulous. Studying the way people make sense of their work in the context of WPV could lead to a better understanding of its consequences. The objective of this exploratory study is to identify key features of meaning of work (MOW) in a group of healthcare workers and explain how these features can change following an act of WPV. Researchers recruited 15 healthcare workers (11 women - 4 men) who had previously been the victim of a serious physical or sexual assault by a patient. A phenomenological approach was used. Two main themes were identified: MOW and relationships with others and MOW and relationship with the self. WPV might have the potential to trigger negative changes in the way some workers perceive their colleagues, their patients and their organisation. It can also interfere with their sense of self-accomplishment; all workers however, were still able to find positive meaning in 'contribution' and 'autonomy'. WPV has the potential to change certain aspects of MOW that could help explain why WPV is associated with lowered job satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and higher turnover. Also, finding meaning through contribution and autonomy can be a form of resilience.

  8. THE EARLY VIOLENCE PREVENTION: REVISION OF PROGRAMS AND INTERVENTION MODALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.

  9. Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Howard, Louise M; Medley, Nancy

    2014-11-12

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major public health concern. This preventable risk factor threatens both the mother and baby. Routine perinatal care visits offer opportunities for healthcare professionals to screen and refer abused women for effective interventions. It is, however, not clear which interventions best serve mothers during pregnancy and postpartum to ensure their safety. To examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014), scanned bibliographies of published studies and corresponded with investigators. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-randomised controlled trials (e.g. where there was alternate allocation) investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included 10 trials with a total of 3417 women randomised. Seven of these trials, recruiting 2629 women, contributed data to the review. However, results for all outcomes were based on single studies. There was limited evidence for the primary outcomes of reduction of episodes of violence (physical, sexual, and/or psychological) and prevention of violence during and up to one year after pregnancy (as defined by the authors of trials). In one study, women who received the intervention reported fewer episodes of partner violence during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.88, 306 women, moderate quality). Groups did not differ for Conflict Tactics Score - the mean partner abuse scores in the first three months postpartum (mean difference (MD) 4.20 higher, 95% CI -10.74 to 19.14, one study, 46 women, very low quality). The Current

  10. Educational program for the prevention and management of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders

  11. A multidisciplinary youth violence-prevention initiative: impact on attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David C; Cornwell, Edward E; Sutton, Erica R H; Yonas, Michael A; Allen, Fred

    2005-11-01

    In a previous report, enhanced resource commitment at a Level I trauma center was associated with improved outcomes for most major categories of injured patients, except those with gunshot wounds, which disproportionately affected the young (ages 15 to 24 years). We hypothesized that a primary violence-prevention initiative geared toward changing attitudes about interpersonal conflict among at-risk youths can be effective. Between May 2002 and November 2003, 97 youths (mean age 12.6 years) were recruited from one of two Police Athletic League centers in the catchment area of our Level I trauma center. Participant attitudes about interpersonal conflicts were surveyed with six previously validated scales before and after a hospital tour with a video and slide presentation graphically depicting the results of gun violence. Mean differences in scores between pre- and postintervention surveys were assessed. Of the 97 participants, 48 (49.4%) completed the intervention program with both the pre- and postintervention tests, with a mean of 25.8 days between tests. There was a statistically significant reduction in the Beliefs Supporting Aggression scale (mean -0.38 U; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.54; p < 0.01), and a trend toward reduced Likelihood of Violence (mean -0.17 U; 95% CI, 0.01 to -0.34; p = 0.06). A multidisciplinary violence-prevention outreach program can produce short-term improvement in beliefs supporting aggression among at-risk youth. Longterm impact of this attitude change needs to be examined in future studies.

  12. Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Multisite Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Workplace suicide prevention: a systematic review of published and unpublished activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Kathryn; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Lamotagne, Anthony D

    2015-03-01

    There are a number of published studies on workplace suicide prevention activities, and an even larger number of activities that are not reported on in academic literature. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic assessment of workplace suicide prevention activities, including short-term training activities, as well as suicide prevention strategies designed for occupational groups at risk of suicide. The search was based on Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Guidelines. The databases used for the searches were the Cochrane Trials Library and PubMed. A range of suicide prevention websites were also searched to ascertain the information on unpublished workplace suicide prevention activities. Key characteristics of retrieved studies were extracted and explained, including whether activities were short-term training programmes or developed specifically for occupations at risk of suicide. There were 13 interventions relevant for the review after exclusions. There were a few examples of prevention activities developed for at-risk occupations (e.g. police, army, air force and the construction industry) as well as a number of general awareness programmes that could be applied across different settings. Very few workplace suicide prevention initiatives had been evaluated. Results from those that had been evaluated suggest that prevention initiatives had beneficial effects. Suicide prevention has the potential to be integrated into existing workplace mental health activities. There is a need for further studies to develop, implement and evaluate workplace suicide prevention programmes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Workplace violence in a tertiary care Israeli hospital - a systematic analysis of the types of violence, the perpetrators and hospital departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran-Tikva, Sigal; Zelker, Revital; Stern, Zvi; Chinitz, David

    2017-08-23

    physicians and nurses. These findings suggest that uniform definitions of a range of different violent behaviors and assessments of their prevalence are important to creating an improved discourse about hospital violence in both research and operational settings. The study findings could assist policy makers in the Israeli healthcare system in implementing interventions on a national level and can promote leaders' commitment to violence prevention and management. This is an important contribution, as executive commitment is necessary and critical for the necessary organizational changes to occur.

  15. Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

  16. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero Toler...

  17. Safe Start: How Early Experiences Can Help Reduce Violence. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Theresa

    Noting that many communities have overlooked a promising approach to reducing violence in the United States, this report examines early risk factors for violence and discusses the potential of prevention and intervention programs for children ages birth to 5 years. The report defines violence and discusses the importance of early experiences in…

  18. Preventing and responding to gambling-related harm and crime in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binde Per

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Problem gambling, even if it occurs in leisure time, can cause harm in the workplace. Problem gamblers are preoccupied with gambling and often suffer from psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms caused by their excessive gambling. This may lead to inefficiency at work and absenteeism. Severe gambling problems typically lead to a constant need for money, which may result in theft of money or goods from the workplace and in embezzlement. This paper outlines measures to prevent and respond to gambling-related harm and crime in the workplace.

  19. Schools Must Include Faculty and Staff in Sexual Violence Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…

  20. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  1. Prevention of sexual harassment in the workplace and educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Beth A

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to working to ensure that workplaces and educational settings in which pediatricians spend time are free of sexual harassment. The purpose of this statement is to heighten awareness and sensitivity to this important issue, recognizing that institutions, clinics, and office-based practices may have existing policies.

  2. Is monitoring implementation the key to preventing repeated workplace corruption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Plibersek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey results published in 2009 by the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC of New South Wales reported that most public sector organisations in its jurisdiction have established integrity policies and procedures – or ‘organisational integrity systems’ (ICAC 2009. Despite this, many of the public inquiries conducted by the ICAC that find corrupt conduct often also find a failure to implement or enforce existing anti-corruption mechanisms in agencies. More recently an ICAC inquiry reported that similar patterns of repeated corrupt conduct had been pervasive in one government agency since the early 1990s despite being prohibited by organisational policy (ICAC 2008. These findings are also consistent with the anecdotal experience of integrity practitioners that public sector agencies are experiencing repeated workplace corruption despite the presence of apparently adequate organisational integrity systems. When workplace corruption is exposed, it may be professionally investigated and reforms to address the problems proposed and attempted, yet the same or similar workplace corruption reoccurs. As Barber suggests, ensuring successful delivery requires a “long grind” of “steady, persistent implementation” and “gentle pressure, relentlessly applied” (Barber 2008:112 and 119. This paper examines cases of low-level non-compliance in a municipal waste collection services and a state owned railway to identify some of the factors that could be contributing to reoccurring workplace corruption. The analysis suggests that a major factor in repeated workplace corruption is the failure to monitor and implement reforms recommended by investigations and existing organisational integrity systems.

  3. Prevention That Works! A Guide for Developing School-Based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Cynthia R.

    This book helps educators produce assessments of their schools' drug and violence prevention programs. It contains over 30 separate resources that can be adapted to specific evaluations (e.g., sample youth and adult participant feedback sheets, sample classroom observation sheets and teacher implementation logs, sample en-route participant…

  4. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  5. The mediation as an apt tool for the prevention of crime as result of gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez; Marileydis Pino Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important ...

  6. Mental Health Nurse’s Exposure to Workplace Violence Leads to Job Stress, Which Leads to Reduced Professional Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Itzhaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Professional quality of life (ProQOL reflects how individuals feel about their work as helpers. Psychiatric ward nurses cope with significant psychological and physical challenges, including exposure to verbal and physical violence. This study was based on two aspects of ProQOL, the positive compassion satisfaction, and the negative compassion fatigue, with the aim of investigating the relation of ProQOL to job stress and violence exposure at a large mental health center. Data were collected from 114 mental health nurses (49/63 M/F who completed a self-administered questionnaire examining violence exposure, ProQOL, and job stress. The results showed that during the last year, almost all nurses (88.6% experienced verbal violence, and more than half (56.1% experienced physical violence. Only 2.6% experienced no violence. ProQOL was not associated with violence exposure but was reduced by work stress and by previous exposure to violence; nurses who perceived their work as more stressful had lower satisfaction from their work. In conclusion, although most mental health nurses are exposed to physical and verbal violence, their ProQOL is more related to job stress than to workplace violence (WPV. Hospital managements should conduct work stress reduction intervention programs and promote strategizes to reduce WPV. Further exploration of (a factors affecting ProQOL and (b the effect of violence coping workshops on ProQOL is warranted.

  7. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family violence...

  8. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family violence...

  9. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  10. Needs and preferences for the prevention of intimate partner violence among Hispanics: a community's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, R M; Cummings, A M; Becerra, M; Fernandez, M C; Mesa, I

    2013-08-01

    Research suggest that Hispanics in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by the consequences of intimate partner violence. Nevertheless, few intimate partner violence prevention interventions have been developed to address the unique needs and preferences of this population. The Partnership for Domestic Violence Prevention is a community-based participatory research project that assessed the needs and preferences for prevention programs for Hispanics in Miami-Dade County. Nine focus groups with domestic violence service providers, victims and general community members were conducted (N = 76). Four major themes emerged from the focus groups. These included immigrants and teens as the highest priority groups to target in prevention efforts, culture as a double-edged sword, the system that helps and hurts the victim, and the need for wide-scale prevention programs that would reach Hispanics systematically. The results from this study have important implications for the development of intimate violence prevention interventions targeting Hispanics in the U.S.

  11. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence and strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. The Leadership Program’s (TLP universal Violence Prevention Project (VPP meets this call with a conflict resolution model for students in urban schools. The curriculum is based on a conceptual framework derived from prevention science and positive youth development delivered through the vehicle of the arts. Utilizing an engaging hybrid prevention program, this high quality 12 session model melds fidelity and adaptation to yield effective evaluation outcomes.

  12. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.

  13. Workplace Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Allison; Moran, Margaret; O’Brien, Matthew; Ackermann, Ronald; Kullgren, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This study aims to summarize the recent peer-reviewed literature on workplace interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including studies that translate the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) curriculum to workplace settings (n = 10) and those that use different intervention approaches to achieve the specific objective of T2DM prevention among employees (n = 3). Recent findings Weight reduction was achieved through workplace interventions to prevent T2DM, though such interventions varied substantially in their effectiveness. The greatest weight loss was reported among intensive lifestyle interventions (i.e., at least 4 months in duration) that implemented the structured DPP curriculum (n = 3). Weight reduction was minimal among less intensive interventions, including those that substantially modified the DPP curriculum (n = 2) and those that used non-DPP intervention approaches to prevent T2DM (n = 3). Most studies (n = 12) reported increased levels of physical activity following the intervention. Summary Implementation of the DPP in workplaces may be an effective strategy to prevent T2DM among employees. PMID:28150162

  14. Determinants of violence against health workers in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Isabel; Fronteira, Inês; Candeias, Anabela

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the determinants of workplace violence against health workers identified in two cross-sectional analytical studies. The prevalence of victims of the several types and of any-type of workplace violence was estimated in each study, as well as the relative frequency of the associated characteristics. Each dependent variable was also analyzed, in relation to the dichotomized independent variables using a stepwise logistic regression strategy. The Ministry of Health has adopted strategies, which include guidelines on what to do to prevent and correct violence against health workers and a workplace violence observatory. Workplace violence has societal, organizational and individual determinants that can be prevented and monitored.

  15. Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2017-05-11

    Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.

  16. Understanding and Preventing Acts of Aggression and Violence in School-Age Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for preventing aggression and violence in children and youth, including understanding and applying appropriate interventions for escalating levels of aggression and violence, classroom preventative and planning measures, and systemwide policies and procedures. A student crisis plan sheet is provided as a tool for…

  17. Conceptualizing the Engaging Bystander Approach to Sexual Violence Prevention on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…

  18. Performing Gender: A Discourse Analysis of Theatre-Based Sexual Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.

    2006-01-01

    Among the numerous approaches that are employed to prevent sexual violence, the performance of scenarios has become one of the "promising practices" in U.S. postsecondary education. This article describes findings from a pilot study to analyze scripts used for theatre-based sexual violence prevention programs. Employing the method of…

  19. Doorways III: Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…

  20. Women and the Violent Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Sharon Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Globally workplace violence is a pressing concern. It is an ever increasing problem and thus an extensive field to research. Despite an increase in interest, there are specific areas of workplace violence that remain relatively unexplored, and this is further compounded because workplace violence is not clearly defined and neither is it readily understood (Dolan 2000, Webster et al 2007). Women’s experiences of workplace violence have been overlooked, primarily because women exist within a...

  1. Building relationships and resilience in the prevention of youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, R M; Hopson, T; Haskins, M; Powell, K E

    1996-01-01

    Self Enhancement, Inc., is a grassroots, community-service organization working in the most disadvantaged high-risk community in Portland, Oregon. Its violence-prevention program targets middle-school and high-school students by providing classroom and community activities to these young people. These activities are designed to enhance protective factors and build resilience in youths to enable them to attain healthy and productive lives and to resist the threats of gangs, violence, and drugs. RMC Research Corporation works in partnership with Self Enhancement, Inc., to conduct research and evaluation on the effectiveness of its programs. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program works primarily at the individual student and interpersonal relationship levels. Resilience Theory and its culturally specific Relationship Model drive the formulation of specific strategies and activities. Program staff mentor each student through his or her preadolescent and adolescent years, promoting positive, prosocial norms and expectations for behavior through their peer group activities. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program consists of three major components: classroom, exposure, and proactive education. Classroom education focuses on anger management, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Exposure education consists of quarterly field trips to agencies and organizations in the Portland area that deal with the causes and consequences of violence in the community. Proactive education includes newsletters, student-run assemblies and conferences, and radio/ television public service announcements that communicate antiviolence messages. The evaluation plan is a longitudinal matched comparison group designed to assess the outcomes of the violence-prevention program. Key outcomes are protective factors, health-risk behaviors, and academic measures. Standardized assessment instruments (the Individual Protective Factors Index and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were administered to all

  2. Through a public health lens. Preventing violence against women: an update from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffunder, Corinne M; Noonan, Rita K; Cox, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been a key contributor to the growing public health effort to prevent violence. Although CDC and its partners are proud of their many successes, much work remains to be done. Violence continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide for people aged 15-44. Moreover, although many forms of violence garner national concern and resources, much more violence occurs in private domains and receives less attention. These hidden health hazards silently drain our nation's human, economic, and health resources. In this paper, we highlight the current efforts of the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP), housed within CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), to use a public health approach to the prevention of one key hidden health hazard: violence against women (VAW). Building from a recently developed strategic plan and a research agenda, we explain how four core public health principles--emphasizing primary prevention, advancing the science of prevention, translating science into effective programs, and building on the efforts of others--drive current programmatic activities in VAW prevention. Several current programs and projects are described. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future prevention work by deepening our vision of leadership, expanding our partnerships, pursuing comprehensive approaches, and using evidence-based strategies.

  3. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  4. DoD Needs a Comprehensive Approach to Address Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-15

    hate incidents or crimes, • domestic violence, and • road rage. The DoD community is not immune to the most extreme acts of violence, as shown in...Department of the Army personnel to report any incident of known or suspected espionage, international terrorism, sabotage, subversion , theft or diversion

  5. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian...

  6. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...

  7. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements for...

  8. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection...

  9. Evaluation of an Education and Training Program to Prevent and Manage Patients' Violence in a Mental Health Setting: A Pretest-Posttest Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stéphane; Goncalves, Jane; Boyer, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence can lead to serious consequences for victims, organizations, and society. Most workplace violence prevention programs aim to train staff to better recognize and safely manage at-risk situations. The Omega education and training program was developed in Canada in 1999, and has since been used to teach healthcare and mental health workers the skills needed to effectively intervene in situations of aggression. The present study was designed to assess the impact of Omega on employee psychological distress, confidence in coping, and perceived exposure to violence. This program was offered to 105 employees in a psychiatric hospital in Montreal, Canada. Eighty-nine of them accepted to participate. Questionnaires were completed before the training, after a short period of time (M = 109 days) and at follow-up (M = 441 days). Repeated-measures ANOVAs and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated. Results demonstrated statistically significant improvements in short-term and follow-up posttest scores of psychological distress, confidence in coping, and in levels of exposure to violence. This study is one of very few to demonstrate the positive impact of this training program. Further research is needed to understand how to improve the effectiveness of the program, especially among participants resistant to change.

  10. Evaluation of an Education and Training Program to Prevent and Manage Patients’ Violence in a Mental Health Setting: A Pretest-Posttest Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stéphane; Goncalves, Jane; Boyer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence can lead to serious consequences for victims, organizations, and society. Most workplace violence prevention programs aim to train staff to better recognize and safely manage at-risk situations. The Omega education and training program was developed in Canada in 1999, and has since been used to teach healthcare and mental health workers the skills needed to effectively intervene in situations of aggression. The present study was designed to assess the impact of Omega on employee psychological distress, confidence in coping, and perceived exposure to violence. This program was offered to 105 employees in a psychiatric hospital in Montreal, Canada. Eighty-nine of them accepted to participate. Questionnaires were completed before the training, after a short period of time (M = 109 days) and at follow-up (M = 441 days). Repeated-measures ANOVAs and Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated. Results demonstrated statistically significant improvements in short-term and follow-up posttest scores of psychological distress, confidence in coping, and in levels of exposure to violence. This study is one of very few to demonstrate the positive impact of this training program. Further research is needed to understand how to improve the effectiveness of the program, especially among participants resistant to change. PMID:27490582

  11. Evaluation of the expect respect support group program: A violence prevention strategy for youth exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Holland, Kristin M; Cortina, Kai; Ball, Barbara; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we assess the effects of the Expect Respect Support Groups (ERSG) on frequency of teen dating violence (TDV) and general youth violence. ERSG is a school-based violence prevention program for youth who have been exposed to violence in their home, school, or community. Boys and girls (N=1,678, M age =14.3, S.D.=1.7, Range=11-17) from 36 schools in Texas participated in this accelerated longitudinal (7-year trajectory) study beginning in 2011. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted using three waves of data from three cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents. Among boys, the number of ERSG sessions attended related to incremental declines in psychological TDV perpetration and victimization, physical TDV victimization, sexual TDV perpetration and victimization, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression. Girls attending ERSG demonstrated reductions in reactive and proactive aggression. The present findings suggest ERSG may be an effective cross-cutting strategy to reduce TDV and other forms of violence among high-risk boys and possibly girls. This information provides valuable understanding of TDV and youth violence in high-risk populations and may be useful in tailoring future prevention efforts to different groups of teens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk and Protective Factors for Family Violence among Low-Income Fathers: Implications for Violence Prevention and Fatherhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura; Hammock, Amy Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence. Toward these aims, this study explored factors associated with fathers' self-reported approval of family violence. Understanding the prevalence of risk and protective factors in this population and factors associated with fathers' potential for family violence is important in developing programs to address responsible fatherhood and healthy relationships. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  13. [Preventing addictive practices in the workplace thanks to occupational health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dano, Corinne

    2017-06-01

    The workplace can be concerned by all types and all levels of addictive practices: consumption of alcohol or psychoactive substances, work addiction, internet addiction and technology addiction. Addictions can be related to multiple factors, both within and outside the workplace. With the employer, responsible for occupational health and safety, the multidisciplinary team of the inter-company occupational health service must today implement a collective and global prevention policy with regard to addictions, in addition to the traditional follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of Youth Violence: A Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aradhana Bela; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    The causes of youth violence are multifactorial and include biological, individual, familial, social, and economic factors. The influence of parents, family members, and important adults can shape the beliefs of the child toward violence in a significant manner. However, the influence of school and the neighborhood also have an important role in attitudes and behaviors of children toward violence. The complexity of factors related to violence requires a comprehensive public health approach. This article focuses on evidence-based models of intervention to reduce violence while emphasizing collective impact as a guiding principle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Questionnaire for the evaluation of drug preventive intervention programmes at the workplace (FEBSI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, S; Mann, K; Croissant, B

    2009-03-01

    At present, only a few studies have assessed the efficacy of intervention programmes that focus on drug prevention at the workplace, and there is only little information available with respect to the development and evaluation of suitable instruments for the evaluation of such prevention programs. Questionnaire procedures, nevertheless, seem to be basically suitable. We developed and evaluated the questionnaire for the evaluation of drug preventive intervention programs at the workplace (FEBSI) to provide a suitable instrument to assess the effectiveness of programmes that focus on drug prevention at the workplace. We assessed and analysed data for the evaluation of this questionnaire in the context of a prevention programme in two large industrial companies. We found a three-factor solution with satisfying reliability scores for each factor. The extracted factors of the questionnaire reflect the following areas: consequences of substance use at work, compliance with employment agreements, and knowledge and behaviour. Programme participants could be reliably distinguished from non-participants by using the FEBSI. So far, the questionnaire seems to be a suitable and reliable instrument for the evaluation of drug prevention programmes.

  16. Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha; Rahm, Gullbritt

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Macroeconomics and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter considers macroeconomic aspects of violence. It moves beyond the usual focus on war to argue\\ud the economic importance of all forms and aspects of armed and unarmed violence. Violence refers to acts of self-harm,\\ud interpersonal violence, and collective violence. Self-harm includes suicide; interpersonal violence includes organized\\ud criminal violence as well as domestic and workplace violence. Collective violence generally denotes political entities that are in, or at risk of...

  18. Training Needs Assessment to Design Empowerment Programs for Preventing Domestic Violence Against Iranian Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kianfard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.

  19. Prevention, health and safety program in companies provide a more successful and healthier workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Lovisa

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the importance of injury prevention in the workplace and the status of this issue in Iceland. Using a theoretical approach, this article examines workers' psychological and physical health, as it is affect by work. The article seeks to answer the question, "What methods are appropriate when health and safety management is of primary importance in the workplace?" Finally, the article will explain the condition of these matters in Iceland, and will also discuss how one measurement strategy, called "Workplace Analysis", uses performance indicators to demonstrate the effectiveness of health and safety consultations. This tool has been developed by Solarpexus. It is important to analyze the work environment, set goals, and measure results.

  20. Managing workplace stress in community pharmacy organisations:Lessons from a review of the wider stress management and prevention literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Sally; Johnson, Sheena; Hassell, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplace stress in community pharmacy is increasing internationally due, in part, to pharmacists’ expanding roles and escalating workloads. Whilst the business case for preventing and managing workplace stress by employers is strong, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of organisational stress management interventions in community pharmacy settings.Aim To identify and synthesise existing evidence for the effectiveness of organisational solutions to workplace stress from...

  1. Putting Research into Practice in School Violence Prevention and Intervention: How Is School Counseling Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…

  2. Prevention of violence in prison - The role of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Jörg; Stöver, Heino; Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2015-08-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies violence prevention as a public health priority. In custodial settings, where violence is problematic, administrators and custodial officials are usually tasked with the duty of addressing this complicated issue-leaving health care professionals largely out of a discussion and problem-solving process that should ideally be multidisciplinary in approach. Health care professionals who care for prisoners are in a unique position to help identify and prevent violence, given their knowledge about health and violence, and because of the impartial position they must sustain in the prison environment in upholding professional ethics. Thus, health care professionals working in prisons should be charged with leading violence prevention efforts in custodial settings. In addition to screening for violence and detecting violent events upon prison admission, health care professionals in prison must work towards uniform in-house procedures for longitudinal and systemized medical recording/documentation of violence. These efforts will benefit the future planning, implementation, and evaluation of focused strategies for violence prevention in prisoner populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. How do ex-offenders in the CWP contribute to violence prevention in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Research shows that ex-offenders enrolled in South Africa's Community Work Programme (CWP) contribute to violence prevention because job opportunities and reintegration have minimized their chances of relapsing into a life of crime. The investigation by the Centre for the Study of Violence and ...

  4. How social inclusion is preventing violence and crime in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-26

    Nov 26, 2015 ... ​IDRC-supported researchers are learning how a public-sector employment program in South Africa is helping to prevent crime and violence in urban areas by fostering social inclusion. The investigation by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) focuses on the Community Work ...

  5. 28 CFR 501.3 - Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terrorism. 501.3 Section 501.3 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION SCOPE OF RULES § 501.3 Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism. (a) Upon... violence or terrorism. The authority of the Director under this paragraph may not be delegated below the...

  6. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  7. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a... public health perspective is imperative. Significant strides can be made by assessing the causes of gun...

  8. Integrating Early Child Development and Violence Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2018-01-01

    Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…

  9. 77 FR 5377 - National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of...--spanning impaired development to physical harm--pose a threat to the health and well-being of teens across... victims of dating violence and empowering teens with the tools to cultivate healthy, respectful...

  10. Using Action Planning to Build Organizational Capacity for the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    The DELTA PREP Project aims to reduce risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). It engaged leadership and staff from 19 statewide domestic violence coalitions in building capacity to prevent IPV before it occurs (rather than solely responding to IPV). This article describes the process and outcomes associated with action planning to create…

  11. Reconstructing Masculinity in the Locker Room: The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jackson

    1995-01-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project seeks to reduce violence against women by inspiring male athletes and other models of traditional masculinity to challenge norms that equate strength in men with dominance over women and to use their influence for positive behavior change. (SK)

  12. Building a Peaceful Society: Origins, Prevention, and Reconciliation after Genocide and Other Group Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century was a century of genocide and other great violence between groups within societies. Already at the beginning of the 21st century, there have been mass killings, civil wars, violent conflict, and terrorism. This article summarizes influences that tend to lead to intense group violence. It then considers prevention, stressing early…

  13. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  14. Achieving public health impact in youth violence prevention through community-research partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M

    2010-01-01

    Violence is a leading cause of death and disability for U.S. youth. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) is committed to developing communities' capacity to engage in evidence-based youth violence (YV) prevention. We discuss the characteristics of communities that exert influence on the development and epidemiology of YV, and discuss opportunities for how community-research partnerships can enhance efforts to prevent violence in communities. The needs for YV prevention are unique; the nature and phenomenology of violence are community specific. Communities also vary widely in infrastructure and systems to support coordinated, evidence-based YV prevention strategies. These conditions highlight the need for community-research partnerships to enhance community capacity, employ local resources, and engage community members in the research process. DVP is committed to working towards creating communities in which youth are safe from violence. Approaches to YV prevention that emphasize community-research partnerships to build capacity and implement evidence-based prevention strategies can provide a supportive context for achieving that goal.

  15. The mediation as an apt tool for the prevention of crime as result of gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important the intervention of criminology.

  16. Culturally tailored diabetes prevention in the workplace: focus group interviews with Hispanic employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Steinhardt, Mary A; Guevara, Henry; Moore, Claire; Brown, Adama; Winter, Mary A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose was to conduct focus groups with Hispanic employees to obtain input into adaptation of previous DSME interventions for use as a workplace diabetes prevention program. From a list of interested Hispanic employees who attended a local health fair (n = 68), 36 were randomly selected to participate in focus groups held during supper mealtime breaks. An experienced bilingual moderator directed the sessions, using interview guidelines developed by the research team. Participants' ages ranged from 22 to 65 years (mean = 50.4, n = 36, SD = 10.7), 7 males and 29 females attended, and 53% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Employees expressed a keen interest in diabetes classes and recommended a focus on preparing healthier Hispanic foods. Primary barriers to promoting healthier lifestyles were work schedules; many employees worked 2 part-time or full-time jobs. Administrators and direct supervisors of the employees were highly supportive of a workplace diabetes prevention program. The consistent message was that a workplace program would be the ideal solution for Hispanic employees to learn about diabetes and healthy behaviors, given their busy schedules, family responsibilities, and limited resources. If found to be effective, such a workplace program would be generalizable to other service employees who have disproportionate diabetes rates. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. What do we know about preventing school violence? A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Soraya; Lawrence, Cayleigh; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-03-01

    Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2015; in English; considered school-based interventions for children and measured violence as an outcome. Many systematic reviews were found, thus we completed a systematic review of systematic reviews. Only systematic reviews on interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) and peer aggression were found. These reviews were generally of moderate quality. Research on both types of violence was largely completed in North America. Only a handful of programmes demonstrate promise in preventing IPV. Cognitive behavioral, social-emotional and peer mentoring/mediation programmes showed promise in reducing the levels of perpetration of peer aggression. Further research needs to determine the long-term effects of interventions, potential moderators and mediators of program effects, program effects across different contexts and key intervention components.

  18. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  19. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  20. [Efficiency of an alcohol addiction prevention program at the workplace: results of an empirical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennenbach, M; Gass, B; Reinecker, H; Soyka, M

    2009-03-01

    Following an anonymous survey on health und substance use problems in 2004, a prevention program for workers at a Bavarian rehabilitation clinic was initiated. Its efficiency was evaluated by a follow-up study in 2007. The initial analysis had indicated a high rate of substance abuse. Young female employees had been identified as one of the risk groups for alcohol consumption and professional discontent. Based on these findings, a special prevention program was established. The follow-up study revealed some improvements with respect to health und substance abuse, including a significant reduction in average alcohol consumption. These findings indicate that prevention programs at the workplace are both possible and effective.

  1. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Ashley; Tonsing, Susanne; Seedat, Mohamed; Jacobs, Roxanne; Ratele, Kopano; McClure, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence. PMID:26228996

  2. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley van Niekerk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective: This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design: This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results: The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions: There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence.

  3. Paramedic self-reported exposure to violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace: a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Blair L; Jensen, Jan L; Tavares, Walter; Drennan, Ian R; Saleem, Humaira; Dainty, Katie N; Munro, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Studies from Australia, Sweden, the United States, and elsewhere have found that paramedics experience violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace. The objective of this study was to describe and explore violence experienced by paramedics in the ground ambulance setting, including types of violence experienced, by whom the violence was perpetrated, actions taken by paramedics, and effects of these episodes. A cross-sectional study utilizing a mixed-methods paper survey was provided to a convenience sample of rural, suburban, and urban-based ground ambulance paramedics in two Canadian provinces. Paramedics were asked to describe episodes of verbal assault, intimidation, physical assault, sexual harassment, and sexual assault they were exposed to during the past 12 months. Qualitative questions inquired about the impact of these experiences. Response selections were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis, and qualitative data was analyzed using descriptive content analysis. A total of 1,884 paramedics were invited to participate and 1,676 responded (89.0%). Most participants (75%) reported experiencing violence in the past 12 months. The most common form of violence reported was verbal assault (67%), followed by intimidation (41%), physical assault (26%), sexual harassment (14%), and sexual assault (3%). Patients were identified as the most common perpetrators of violence. Serious sequellae were qualitatively reported. The majority of Canadian paramedics surveyed experience violence in the workplace, which can lead to serious personal and professional sequellae. Strategies should be devised and studied to reduce violent events toward paramedics and to mitigate the impact such events have on the wellbeing of paramedics.

  4. [Violence prevention in secondary schools: the Faustlos-curriculum for middle school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Schools and kindergartens are particularly suitable for the implementation of violence prevention programs. Many German schools and kindergartens have securely established the violence prevention curriculum Faustlos. The Faustlos programs for kindergartens and elementary schools are now complemented with the version for middle schools. As the kindergarten- and elementary school versions the middle school program too focuses on the theoretically profound, age group-tailored promotion of empathy, impulse control and anger management. These dimensions are subdivided into the five themes "understanding the problem" "training for empathy"; "anger management", "problem solving" and "applying skills" and taught stepwise, highly structured and based on several video sequences in 31 lessons. US-American evaluation studies proof the effectiveness and the violence prevention potential of the program. With the curriculum for middle schools a comprehensive Faustlos program package is now made available to sustainably promote core violence prevention competences of children and adolescents on a developmentally appropriate level and with a consistent didactic approach.

  5. Unaccompanied Children Migrating from Central America: Public Health Implications for Violence Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Ports, Katie A; Hipp, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Unaccompanied children (UC) migrating to the USA from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras are an underserved population at high risk for health, academic, and social problems. These children experience trauma, violence, and other risk factors that are shared among several types of interpersonal violence. The trauma and violence experienced by many unaccompanied children, and the subsequent implications for their healthy development into adulthood, indicate the critical need for a public health approach to prevention and intervention. This paper provides an overview of the violence experienced by unaccompanied children along their migration journey, the implications of violence and trauma for the health and well-being of the children across their lifespan, prevention and intervention approaches for UC resettled in the USA, and suggestions for adapted interventions to best address the unique needs of this vulnerable population.

  6. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse.

  7. Violence Towards Health Care Staff: Risk Factors, Aftereffects, Evaluation and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Annagur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in violence against physicians and healthcare staff in the health-care environment in recent years. The risk of violence remains stronger in people working in health institutions than the ones working in other businesses. Results of previous studies in this issue consistently confirmed the fact that violence in health care business is quite higher in frequency than the violence reported in other business environments. However it has also been reported that only attacks resulting in serious injuries have been considered as incidents of violence and other violence attempts are inclined not to be reported to legal authorities resulting in a much lower official rates. Not only patients but also the relatives of patients have been reported to expose violence against healthcare workers. Verbal violence were found to be more common than physical violence. Violence incidents happen most commonly in the emergency room settings, and psychiatric clinic settings. Health care staff exposed to violence usually suffer from anxiety and restlessness as psychological after-effects. Health care workers are not sufficiently trained about how to cope with acute and chronic effects of violent behavior. This issue should be handled within the framework of medical faculty and related schools’ curriculum. All health care staff including physicians should get sufficient education to take immediate actions on such incidents. Unfortunately in Turkey, there is no specific legal regulation related to violence towards health employees. The verbal attacks, injuries, assault and murder of health workers are subject to general legal provisions. Both rapid changes in health care services, facilities and shortcomings in legal regulations cause gaps in violence prevention and employing safety issues in hospitals and related health care facilities. Training employees and hospital managers, and considering the creation and application of present and

  8. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    OpenAIRE

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary preventio...

  9. Homicidal violence during foreign military missions - prevention and legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G T Okulate

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The study involved Nigerian soldiers engaged in peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Yugoslavia. Using case illustrations, the study sought to describe patterns of homicidal violence among soldiers from the same country or soldiers from allied forces, and to suggest possible reasons for the attacks. Design and setting. Nigeria was actively involved in peacekeeping missions in Liberia between 1990 and 1996. During this period, intentional homicidal attacks occurred among the Nigerian military personnel. Post- homicidal interviews conducted among the perpetrators were combined with evidence obtained at military courts to produce the case studies. Subjects. Six Nigerian military personnel who attacked other Nigerians or soldiers from allied forces, with homicidal intent. Results. Possible predisposing and precipitating factors for these attacks were highlighted. The possibility of recognising these factors before embarking on overseas missions was discussed, so that preventive measures could be instituted as far as possible. Finally, medico-legal implications of homicide in the military were discussed. Conclusions. A certain degree of pre-combat selection is essential to exclude soldiers with definite severe psychopathology. A clearly defined length of duty in the mission areas and adequate communication with home could reduce maladjustment. Health personnel deployed to mission areas should be very conversant with mental health issues so that early recognition of psychological maladjustment is possible.

  10. The Importance of Challenging Hegemonic Masculinity in Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharrón-del Río, María R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that efforts to eradicate school violence should include an understanding of the complex social, cultural, and historical contexts in which violence is perpetrated. Specifically, we assert that the production and perpetuation of hegemonic/dominant masculinity plays a pivotal role in various forms of aggression and violence…

  11. Prioritizing the School Environment in School Violence Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between characteristics of the school environment and the likelihood of school violence. However, little is known about the relative importance of various characteristics of the school environment or their differential impact on multiple violence outcomes. Methods: Primarily…

  12. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  13. Evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in Canada: examining differing perceptions of stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Karin; de Rijk, Angelique; Guzman, Jaime; Schonstein, Eva; Yassi, Annalee

    2011-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Workplace disability prevention is important, but stakeholders can differ in their appreciation of such interventions. We present a responsive evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in a Canadian healthcare organization. Three groups of stakeholders were included: designers of the intervention, deliverers, and workers. The aim was to examine the appreciation of this intervention by analyzing the discrepancies with respect to what these various stakeholders see as the causes of work disability, what the intervention should aim at to address this problem, and to what extent the intervention works in practice. METHODS A qualitative research method was used, including data-triangulation: (a) documentary materials; (b) semi-structured interviews with the deliverers and workers (n = 14); (c) participatory observations of group meetings (n = 6); (d) member-checking meetings (n = 3); (e) focus-group meetings (n = 2). A grounded theory approach, including some ethnographic methodology, was used for the data-analysis. RESULTS Stakeholders' perceptions of causes for work disability differ, as do preferred strategies for prevention. Designers proposed work-directed measures to change the workplace and work organizations, and individual-directed measures to change workers' behaviour. Deliverers targeted individual-directed measures, however, workers were mostly seeking work-directed measures. To assess how the intervention was working, designers sought a wide range of outcome measures. Deliverers focused on measurable outcomes targeted at reducing work time-loss. Workers perceived that this intervention offered short-term benefits yet fell short in ensuring sustainable return-to-work. CONCLUSION This study provides understanding of where discrepancies between stakeholders' perceptions about interventions come from. Our findings have implications for workplace disability prevention intervention development, implementation and evaluation

  14. Workplace interventions to prevent work disability in workers on sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vilsteren, Myrthe; van Oostrom, Sandra H; de Vet, Henrica C W; Franche, Renée-Louise; Boot, Cécile R L; Anema, Johannes R

    2015-10-05

    Work disability has serious consequences for individuals as well as society. It is possible to facilitate resumption of work by reducing barriers to return to work (RTW) and promoting collaboration with key stakeholders. This review was first published in 2009 and has now been updated to include studies published up to February 2015. To determine the effectiveness of workplace interventions in preventing work disability among sick-listed workers, when compared to usual care or clinical interventions. We searched the Cochrane Work Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases on 2 February 2015. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of workplace interventions that aimed to improve RTW for disabled workers. We only included studies where RTW or conversely sickness absence was reported as a continuous outcome. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias of the studies. We performed meta-analysis where possible, and we assessed the quality of evidence according to GRADE criteria. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 14 RCTs with 1897 workers. Eight studies included workers with musculoskeletal disorders, five workers with mental health problems, and one workers with cancer. We judged six studies to have low risk of bias for the outcome sickness absence.Workplace interventions significantly improved time until first RTW compared to usual care, moderate-quality evidence (hazard ratio (HR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 2.01). Workplace interventions did not considerably reduce time to lasting RTW compared to usual care, very low-quality evidence (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.57). The effect on cumulative duration of sickness absence showed a mean difference of -33.33 (95% CI -49.54 to -17.12), favouring the workplace intervention, high-quality evidence. One study assessed recurrences of sick leave, and favoured

  15. Evaluation of a peaceful conflict resolution and violence prevention curriculum for sixth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, R H; Barkin, S; Krowchuk, D P

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate a Social Cognitive Theory-based violence prevention curriculum among sixth-grade students. The evaluation was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design. Students were pretested 2 weeks before the intervention started and were posttested 2 weeks after it ended. The study was conducted in four middle schools serving children and adolescents living in or around public housing in a southeastern city. The participants included all sixth-grade students who were predominantly African-American (88.7%), 41% lived in public housing, and 80% lived in homes with an employed head of household. The intervention schools had 292 students, and the control schools 412 students. The Peaceful Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Curriculum is a 13-module skills-building curriculum based on Social Cognitive Theory. It taught identification of situations that could result in violence; avoidance, confrontation, problem-solving, and communication skills; conflict resolution skills; the conflict cycle; the dynamics of a fight; and how to express anger without fighting. The primary outcome variable was a five-item scale assessing the frequency of fighting and weapon carrying behaviors (alpha =.72) and a scale measuring intentions to use violence in 11 hypothetical situations (alpha = .81). Levels of exposure to violence and victimization (alpha = .82) and depression (alpha = .86) were also assessed. The data were analyzed with general linear modeling with repeated measures. At pretest, the intervention and control groups did not differ in gender, age, depression, exposure to violence, or any other demographic variable. A group x time interaction effect (p = .029) was found in the use of violence scale. From pretest to posttest there was a decrease in the use of violence by students in the intervention group and an increase in the use of violence in the control group. Most of the changes were accounted for by changes in the frequencies of

  16. Preventing violence and reinforcing human security: a rights-based framework for top-down and bottom-up action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaerulf, Finn; Barahona, Rodrigo

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the violence reduction potential in the intersection between health, criminal justice, and development. It emphasizes public health, rule of law, and equality-driven socioeconomic development as principal concerns in preventing violence. In parts of Latin America, violence has become a serious public health and security problem. Prior studies have explored the risk factors associated with violence as well as experiences in its prevention. These studies and existing approaches to violence prevention provide evidence on where to direct attention and build prevention efforts. This article argues for integrated community-driven and national interventions to create cooperative national- local linkages and embed international human rights law at the national and local levels. Nations struggling with violence should be encouraged to apply an integrated framework to prevent violence and reinforce human security.

  17. Causes and prevention of violence toward emergency personnel by patients and their relatives in a province in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, Fatma; Sucu, Gülten; Karazeybek, Ebru

    2009-03-23

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This research was conducted to determine the opinions of the emergency department's personnel about the causes and prevention of violence directed at them by patients and their relatives. METHODS: This research was conducted between 3 February and 15 June, 2006, in Antalya, a province in southern Turkey, with a total of 216 emergency department personnel who work in the emergency departments of three hospitals. A questionnaire developed by researchers was used to collect data for the purpose of determining what kind of violence is directed at emergency personnel by patients and their relatives and the personnel's socio-demographic characteristics and opinions. Pearson's chi and Fisher's exact test were used in the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Almost all (94.4%) of the participating emergency personnel had been exposed to verbal violence and 59.7% to physical violence. Only 24.5% of those exposed to violence reported the violence. The majority of the personnel (72.5%) thought that individuals' personality tendencies are the primary cause of violence. Their primary recommendation for preventing violence was to increase security measures. Statistically significant differences were found between emergency personnel's place of work and physical violence, between gender and physical violence, and between level of education and reporting violence. CONCLUSION: On the basis of the research results, it is recommended that emergency personnel be trained on the subject of violence, a documentation system be developed for recording and reporting violence, and corrections be made to prevent violence based on the personnel's opinions.

  18. PROFILE VICTIMS OF NOTIFIED IN CORE AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION TO HEALTH PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliete Tasca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aiming to identify the profile of the victims reported in the core of violence prevention and health promotion, in a city in the extreme south of Santa Catarina. Research of quali-quantitative methodological approach, descriptive-exploratory documentary and field. The survey was conducted from the analysis of notifications from SINAN-information system of reportable diseases-from 2010 to October 2012 and realization of interview with the nurse program participant. In the data analysis phase, the information were quantified through Microsoft Office Excel and presented by means of quantitative analysis. Organized analysis and interpretation of qualitative data from the categorization of data. In relation to the types of violence, 40.92 was characterised with physical violence; 16.47 auto injury caused; 13.07 neglect and abandonment; 10.29 disability or mental disorder; 6.71; moral psychological violence; 6.07 violence with a firearm; 3.24 sexual violence; 1.81 violence related to work; 1.02 torture; 0.26 legal intervention; 0.07 sexual O perfil das vítimas da violência exploitation; 0.07 trafficking human beings. The violence is considered a public health problem of multiple dimensions requiring increasingly in-depth studies and public policies involving beyond theme of violence, security, education and culture for peace.

  19. Profile victims of notified in Core and Violence Prevention to Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliete Tasca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aiming to identify the profile of the victims reported in the core of violence prevention and health promotion, in a city in the extreme south of Santa Catarina. Research of quali-quantitative methodological approach, descriptive-exploratory documentary and field. The survey was conducted from the analysis of notifications from SINAN-information system of reportable diseases-from 2010 to October 2012 and realization of interview with the nurse program participant. In the data analysis phase, the information were quantified through Microsoft Office Excel and presented by means of quantitative analysis. Organized analysis and interpretation of qualitative data from the categorization of data. In relation to the types of violence, 40.92 was characterised with physical violence; 16.47 auto injury caused; 13.07 neglect and abandonment; 10.29 disability or mental disorder; 6.71; moral psychological violence; 6.07 violence with a firearm; 3.24 sexual violence; 1.81 violence related to work; 1.02 torture; 0.26 legal intervention; 0.07 sexual exploitation; 0.07 trafficking human beings. The violence is considered a public health problem of multiple dimensions requiring increasingly in-depth studies and public policies involving beyond theme of violence, security, education and culture for peace.

  20. Workplace violence, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health in Chinese doctors: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Gao, Lei; Li, Fujun; Shi, Yu; Xie, Fengzhe; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Shue; Liu, Wenhui; Duan, Xiaojian; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Li; Fan, Lihua

    2017-12-07

    Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress. A cross-sectional online survey study. The survey was conducted among 1740 doctors in tertiary hospitals, 733 in secondary hospital and 139 in primary hospital across 30 provinces of China. A total of 3016 participants were invited. Ultimately, 2617 doctors completed valid questionnaires. The effective response rate was 86.8%. The results demonstrated that the prevalence rate of exposure to verbal abuse was the highest (76.2%), made difficulties (58.3%), smear reputation (40.8%), mobbing behaviour (40.2%), intimidation behaviour (27.6%), physical violence (24.1%) and sexual harassment (7.8%). Exposure to WPV significantly affected the psychological stress, sleep quality and self-reported health of doctors. Moreover, psychological stress partially mediated the relationship between work-related violence and health damage. In China, most doctors have encountered various WPV from patients and their relatives. The prevalence of three new types of WPV have been investigated in our study, which have been rarely mentioned in past research. A safer work environment for Chinese healthcare workers needs to be provided to minimise health threats, which is a top priority for both government and society. © Article author(s) (or

  1. Analysing workplace violence towards health care staff in public hospitals using alternative ordered response models: the case of north-eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ali Kemal; Oktay, Erkan; Çebi, Kübranur

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this article is to determine key factors that may have a significant effect on the verbal abuse, emotional abuse and physical assault of health care workers in north-eastern Turkey. A self-administered survey was completed by 450 health care workers in three well-established hospitals in Erzurum, Turkey. Because of the discrete and ordered nature of the dependent variable of the survey, the data were analysed using four distinctive ordered response models. Results revealed that several key variables were found to be a significant determinant of workplace violence, such as the type of health institution, occupational position, weekly working hours, weekly shift hours, number of daily patient contacts, age group of the respondents, experience in the health sector, training against workplace violence and current policies of the hospitals and the Turkish Ministry of Health.

  2. Policy statement--Role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Youth violence continues to be a serious threat to the health of children and adolescents in the United States. It is crucial that pediatricians clearly define their role and develop the appropriate skills to address this threat effectively. From a clinical perspective, pediatricians should become familiar with Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure, the American Academy of Pediatrics' primary care violence prevention protocol. Using this material, practices can incorporate preventive education, screening for risk, and linkages to community-based counseling and treatment resources. As advocates, pediatricians may bring newly developed information regarding key risk factors such as exposure to firearms, teen dating violence, and bullying to the attention of local and national policy makers. This policy statement refines the developing role of pediatricians in youth violence prevention and emphasizes the importance of this issue in the strategic agenda of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Building a peaceful society: origins, prevention, and reconciliation after genocide and other group violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Ervin

    2013-10-01

    The 20th century was a century of genocide and other great violence between groups within societies. Already at the beginning of the 21st century, there have been mass killings, civil wars, violent conflict, and terrorism. This article summarizes influences that tend to lead to intense group violence. It then considers prevention, stressing early prevention--and reconciliation as an aspect of prevention--and focusing on central principles and practices. The principles include developing positive orientations to previously devalued groups; healing from past victimization and promoting altruism born of suffering; moderating respect for authority; creating constructive ideologies; promoting understanding of the origins of violence, its impact, and avenues to prevention; promoting truth, justice, and a shared history; and raising inclusively caring, morally courageous children. Practices related to all of these are also discussed. The article stresses the role of progressive change, that is, of psychological, behavioral, and social evolution, in both extreme violence and positive relations between groups; the role of passive bystanders in the unfolding of violence; and the role of active bystandership in the prevention of violence, in the promotion of reconciliation, and in the development of harmonious societies. It emphasizes psychological processes but notes the importance of creating societal institutions. The author cites findings from both laboratory research and case studies, reviews interventions and their evaluation in Rwanda, and points to the need for further research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Monitoring the multi-faceted problem of youth violence: the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y

    2012-10-01

    Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.

  5. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: PREVENTION TOOLS AND RESOURCES. YOUTH’S EXPERIENCES, BASED ON THE BOOK “I STOPPED THE SCHOOL VIOLENCE. YOU CAN DO THE SAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Juknienė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School violence can be prevented. Research shows that prevention efforts by teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and even students can reduce violence and improve the overall school environment. Prevention efforts should ultimately reduce risk factors and promote protective factors at these multiple levels of influence. This article reviews the experience preventing school violence, based on the school psychologists practical and theoretical findings. School SMURTO PREVENCIJOS GALIMYBĖS MOKYKLOJE. JAUNIMO PATIRTYS KNYGOJE 103 „AŠ ĮVEIKIAU, NEBIJOK KOVOTI“ Violence: Prevention tools and resources were reviewed in this article. Based on the real school experience, it was described Olweus, Selezian and other violence prevention, educational programs. Based on the book “I stopped the school violence. You can do the same” were reviewed youths real experiences reducing the risk for violence. Were reviewed implications for crisis intervention and given recommendations for brief treatment practices, how to stop the violence in the school settings, strengthening young people’s abilities effectively solve difficulties.

  6. A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003).

  7. Optimizing violence prevention programs: an examination of program effectiveness among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C; Chauveron, Lisa M; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F

    2014-07-01

    While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session curriculum-based universal violence prevention program that promotes healthy conflict resolution skills among urban adolescents. Using a review of program record data and a multisite quasi-experimental study design, we examined the effectiveness of a New York City-based violence prevention program entitled the Violence Prevention project (VPP) optimized to meet school needs. We analyzed survey data from 1112 9th- and 10th-grade students in 13 New York City public high schools across 4 consecutive school years. Both participants and nonparticipants were surveyed. Review of program record data indicated that the program was implemented with acceptable fidelity to the core component structure, and that participant responsiveness to the model was high. Multilevel modeling indicated that VPP participation was protective for academic self-concept and promoted conflict resolution skills. Findings indicate that semester-long violence prevention programs optimized to meet the needs of a typical high school can be effective at promoting healthy conflict resolution skills in urban adolescents. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  8. Prevention of violence against women and girls: what does the evidence say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsberg, Mary; Arango, Diana J; Morton, Matthew; Gennari, Floriza; Kiplesund, Sveinung; Contreras, Manuel; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-04-18

    In this Series paper, we review evidence for interventions to reduce the prevalence and incidence of violence against women and girls. Our reviewed studies cover a broad range of intervention models, and many forms of violence--ie, intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, female genital mutilation, and child marriage. Evidence is highly skewed towards that from studies from high-income countries, with these evaluations mainly focusing on responses to violence. This evidence suggests that women-centred, advocacy, and home-visitation programmes can reduce a woman's risk of further victimisation, with less conclusive evidence for the preventive effect of programmes for perpetrators. In low-income and middle-income countries, there is a greater research focus on violence prevention, with promising evidence on the effect of group training for women and men, community mobilisation interventions, and combined livelihood and training interventions for women. Despite shortcomings in the evidence base, several studies show large effects in programmatic timeframes. Across different forms of violence, effective programmes are commonly participatory, engage multiple stakeholders, support critical discussion about gender relationships and the acceptability of violence, and support greater communication and shared decision making among family members, as well as non-violent behaviour. Further investment in intervention design and assessment is needed to address evidence gaps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of and Interventions for Dating and Sexual Violence in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse) and sexual violence are prevalent from the middle school years throughout adolescence, peak in young adulthood, and are associated with multiple poor physical and mental health consequences. By offering universal education and brief anticipatory guidance with all adolescent patients about healthy and unhealthy relationships and sexual consent, health care providers can help promote healthy adolescent sexual relationships, ensure youth know about available resources and supports for relationship abuse and sexual violence (including how to help a friend), and facilitate connections to victim service advocates, both for prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Violence related to health work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  11. VIOLENCE RELATED TO HEALTH WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  12. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry off...

  13. Preventing the Pain” When Working with Family and Sexual Violence in Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Jan; Dartnall, Elizabeth; Astbury, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Primary care professionals (PCPs) are increasingly being expected to identify and respond to family and sexual violence as the chronic nature and severity of the long-term health impacts are increasingly recognized. This discussion paper reports the authors' expert opinion from their experiences running international workshops to prevent trauma among those who work and research sexual violence. It describes the burnout and secondary traumatic stress literature which provides the evidence supp...

  14. Play for Peace as a Violence Prevention Model: Achieving "Voluntad y Convivencia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael; Gough, Sarah; Armas, Andres; Dolcino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Violence prevention is a key focus for many intervention programs, yet little is known about how or why certain programs are able to successfully produce effective prevention efforts. The purpose of this study was to identify the essential elements of the Play for Peace (PFP) program, how it creates change in participants, and how it is…

  15. Violence Prevention and School Climate Reform. School Climate Brief, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a positive school climate is an essential part of violence prevention. Many factors influence the association between school climate and behavioral outcomes. Positive school climate alone cannot prevent all variables that may contribute to the expression of aggression. Nevertheless, positive school climates influence…

  16. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  17. Annotated Bibliography of Alcohol, Other Drug, and Violence Prevention Resources, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, Lance, Ed.; Akinola, Olayinka, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention has developed this annotated bibliography to provide those interested in prevention at colleges and universities--and in surrounding communities--with a ready reference of current, important, and available information resources.…

  18. Evaluation of a gender-based violence prevention program for student athletes in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.

  19. Effectiveness of workplace diabetes prevention programs: A systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Zuñiga, Julie A; Lewis, Kimberly A

    2018-01-05

    The primary purpose is to review diabetes workplace interventions and the degree to which they improve diabetes-related outcomes in employees diagnosed with or at risk for T2DM. Three electronic databases and ancestry searches were used to identify peer reviewed articles published in English from 2000 to June 2017. The number of participants represented by the 22 selected studies, excluding one large outlier, was 4243. On average, the samples were 57% female and ethnically diverse. Interventions-healthy eating behaviors, physical activity, and/or monitoring and self-managing diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors-were delivered in group sessions of fewer than 20 employees. Programs involved 1-h weekly sessions held during lunch hour or at other times during the workday for 12 to 24 weeks. Study outcomes, commonly measured at 6 and/or 12 months, were consistently positive. The literature search uncovered beginning evidence that workplace interventions hold promise for preventing diabetes and/or its complications. More rigorous, creatively designed, workplace studies, are needed for employees at high-risk for developing diabetes. Implications include the need for employer education about the benefits of employer support for such programs and attention to motivational strategies so employees will take full advantage of programs that are offered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The economic burden of intimate partner violence in ecuador: setting the agenda for future research and violence prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador. Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S.) currency rate. Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events. The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV prevention.

  1. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that ‘primary prevention’ is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations’ unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. PMID:26333283

  2. Training on prevention of violence against women in the medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the knowledge and skills of final-year medical students in managing victims of violence against women (VAW), and to describe the extent to which VAW is included in the undergraduate curriculum of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. Method. A mixed-method study design was used that ...

  3. Social Disorganisation, Social Capital and Violence Prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the relationship between crime and social disintegration in South Africa. The article also reviews some of the international evidence that links violent crime to social cohesion, social capital and inequality, and argues that we cannot effectively combat crime and violence in South Africa without addressing ...

  4. Preventing Youth Violence and Aggression and Promoting Safety in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Sean; And Others

    Increased violence in schools, represented by possession of weapons, sexual or racial harassment, bullying, verbal intimidation, gang or cult activity, arson, or corporal punishment of students, for example, is a growing concern among students, educators, and communities. Since educators alone cannot ensure safety in schools, collaboration among…

  5. Violence in Brazilian schools: Analysis of the effect of the #Tamojunto prevention program for bullying and physical violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmões, Júlia D S P; Sañudo, Adriana; Valente, Juliana Y; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-02-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 6637 7th- and 8th-grade students in 72 public schools in 6 Brazilian cities to evaluate the effects of the European drug prevention program Unplugged, called #Tamojunto in Brazil. This article evaluates the effects of #Tamojunto on the prevention of bullying and physical violence. Baseline data were collected from both intervention and control groups prior to program implementation. Follow-up data collection was performed 9 and 21 months later. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes in the reporting of receiving or practicing bullying and physical violence over time. The program was found to reduce the likelihood of receiving bullying, particularly in the stratum of girls aged 13-15 years at the 9-month follow-up time point. The effect was not sustained at 21 months. There was no significant effect for practicing bullying and for receiving or practicing physical violence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Violence and injuries in South Africa: prioritising an agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Mohamed; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Jewkes, Rachel; Suffla, Shahnaaz; Ratele, Kopano

    2009-09-19

    Violence and injuries are the second leading cause of death and lost disability-adjusted life years in South Africa. The overall injury death rate of 157.8 per 100,000 population is nearly twice the global average, and the rate of homicide of women by intimate partners is six times the global average. With a focus on homicide, and violence against women and children, we review the magnitude, contexts of occurrence, and patterns of violence, and refer to traffic-related and other unintentional injuries. The social dynamics that support violence are widespread poverty, unemployment, and income inequality; patriarchal notions of masculinity that valourise toughness, risk-taking, and defence of honour; exposure to abuse in childhood and weak parenting; access to firearms; widespread alcohol misuse; and weaknesses in the mechanisms of law enforcement. Although there have been advances in development of services for victims of violence, innovation from non-governmental organisations, and evidence from research, there has been a conspicuous absence of government stewardship and leadership. Successful prevention of violence and injury is contingent on identification by the government of violence as a strategic priority and development of an intersectoral plan based on empirically driven programmes and policies.

  7. Preventing the development of depression at work: a systematic review and meta-analysis of universal interventions in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a major public health problem among working-age adults. The workplace is potentially an important location for interventions aimed at preventing the development of depression, but to date, the mental health impact of universal interventions in the workplace has been unclear. Method A systematic search was conducted in relevant databases to identify randomized controlled trials of workplace interventions aimed at universal prevention of depression. The quality of studies was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. A meta-analysis was performed using results from studies of adequate methodological quality, with pooled effect size estimates obtained from a random effects model. Results Nine workplace-based randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified. The majority of the included studies utilized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques. The overall standardized mean difference (SMD) between the intervention and control groups was 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.24, P = 0.0002), indicating a small positive effect. A separate analysis using only CBT-based interventions yielded a significant SMD of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.22, P = 0.01). Conclusions There is good quality evidence that universally delivered workplace mental health interventions can reduce the level of depression symptoms among workers. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of CBT-based programs than other interventions. Evidence-based workplace interventions should be a key component of efforts to prevent the development of depression among adults. PMID:24886246

  8. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  9. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  10. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aník Gevers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  11. Gender differences in socioemotional factors during adolescence and effects of a violence prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Maganto, Carmen; Pérez, José Ignacio; Sansinenea, Eneko

    2009-05-01

    The study had two aims: 1) to analyze the existence of gender differences in socioemotional developmental factors, and 2) to apply a program of education for peace and prevention of violence to determine whether the pretest-posttest change in socioemotional developmental factors differs as a function of gender. The sample comprised 285 adolescents, aged 15-16 years, including 162 experimental subjects and 123 control subjects. An experimental design of repeated pre-posttest measures with a control group was used, and four assessment instruments were administered. Analyses of variance confirmed significantly higher scores in the female adolescents in cognitions of rejection of violence, prosocial cognitions, cooperative conflict solving, positive strategies for coping with violence, and positive social behaviors. Male adolescents obtained significantly higher scores in cognitions of acceptance of violence, aggressive conflict solving, aggressive strategies for coping with violence, and negative social behaviors. The pre-post change in most of the factors of socioemotional development assessed was similar in both sexes. Results suggest the need to reflect on and modify the type of childrearing and socialization patterns that are promoted in males so that they will favor the development of skills oriented toward warm interpersonal relations, nonaggressive communication, positive social behaviors, internal control of anger, empathy, etc. Results also suggest including supplementary modules for males when designing interventions to prevent violence.

  12. The impact of culturally relevant violence prevention models on school-age youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Laxley W; Johnson, Dana L; Srivastava, Rameshwar P

    2005-09-01

    The Family and Community Violence Prevention (FCVP) Program was established in 1994 to address the escalation of youth violence among ethnic minorities. This federally funded program adapted the public health model and organized Family Life Centers throughout the country to serve youth who were considered to be at risk for violence and other abusive behaviors. The purpose of this three-year study, 1999-2002, was to determine the effectiveness of the FCVP Program's six-component curriculum in reducing violence among participants. Results from posttest scores of 2,315 youth showed girls 12 and over to be most at risk for deviant behaviors; the program was most effective with boys under age 12. Academic performance and bonding to school were protective factors whereas exposure to violence was a risk factor for all four ethnic groups studied--African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Native Hawaiians. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Cultural anthropologists, public health specialists, and school officials should know that prevention programs can be designed to reflect the unique, culturally appropriate norms of specific ethnic minority groups, even as these programs address shared risk factors. The authors discuss the promising strategy of enhancing academic performance and school bonding to serve as protective factors against school violence, but they also describe age, gender, and cultural differences that must be addressed in future research.

  13. The Italian National Health Service expenditure on workplace prevention and safety (2006-2013): a national-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, C; Riccò, M; Odone, A

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) stated that countries' health policies should give high priority to primary prevention of occupational health hazards. Scant data are available on health expenditure on workplace prevention and safety services and on its impact on occupational health outcomes in Italy and in other European countries. objective of the present study was to systematically retrieve, analyse and critically appraise the available national-level data on public health expenditure on workplace prevention and safety services as well as to correlate them with occupational health outcomes. National-level data on total public health expenditure on prevention services, its share spent on workplace prevention and safety services as well as on number of workers receiving appropriate health surveillance were derived from the national public health expenditure monitoring system over a 8-year study period (2006-2013). An analytic approach was adopted to explore the association between health expenditure and occupational health services supply. The Italian National Health Service spends almost € 5 billion per year on preventive care, of which 13.3% are spent on workplace prevention and safety programmes (€ 645 million, € 10.6 per capita). There is wide heterogeneity between Italian regions. Our findings are useful for health systems and policies analysis, national and international comparisons as well as for health policy makers to plan, implement and monitor occupational health prevention programmes.

  14. An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-03-13

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Data Needs for Emerging Research Issues in Bully and Violence Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Espelage

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available School violence and bullying are two public health concerns with consequences for youth in and out of school, for families, students, and community members. In this article, a social-ecological framework is briefly described as a way to understand bullying and school violence; then the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES longitudinal and cross-sectional data sets are described in detail. Data that assess bullying and/or school violence are described, and recommendations for additional items are proposed. In general, a longitudinal, multisite, multi-informant study is needed to address definitional and etiological issues related to school violence and bullying so that prevention efforts can be developed, implemented, and evaluated that incorporate multiple levels of the ecology, including peers, schools, communities, and neighborhoods.

  16. The need for changes in administrative law from the aspect of prevention of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author points out some practical consequences of non-coherence of penal system such as: incomplete legal protection of domestic violence victims and inefficiency of prevention measures regarding domestic violence. Therefore author advocates for changes of administrative law of the Republic of Serbia. Those changes will, on one hand, clarify conception, place and function of misdemeanor in the penal system and, on the other hand improve protection of domestic violence victims. This second goal could be achieved through new misdemeanor offences (applicable to cases of domestic violence and broader, to people living in the same household, and new protective orders, which could be imposed individually or as supplementary to existing penalties. The content of protection orders should be a warning to a perpetrator or supervision of his behaviour.

  17. [Online Health Services for the Prevention of Stress-associated Psychological Impairments at the Workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hofe, I; Latza, U; Lönnfors, S; Muckelbauer, R

    2017-03-01

    Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of online health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. Methods: The databases EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO were systematically searched for English, French and German references. Included were RCTs that examined the influence of online health services on stress-associated impairment in adult employees at the workplace. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist was used for quality appraisal. Results: Out of 5 632 identified references, 13 RCTs were included in this study. The intervention approaches included movement and relaxation exercises, imparting of knowledge, cognitive-behavioral/social-behavioral interventions, risk communication, health coaching, mindfulness training, and career identity training. In 4 RCTs among mainly white collar employees, the interventions led to improvements in stress-associated outcomes (2 RCTs of high, one of medium and one of low quality level). 9 further RCTs (5 of them of a medium and 4 of a low quality level) did not show a beneficial intervention effect. Conclusion: There are effective health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. A final conclusion on the kind of intervention that is effective cannot be drawn due to the limited number of RCTs using various intervention approaches. Interventions of at least 12 weeks and a combination of multiple approaches were more often effective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Sexual assault in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2011-01-01

    Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Social cohesion and peace education: Alternatives for preventing child-youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhina Cabezas Valencia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of the current situation of the phenomenon of childyouth violence in El Salvador. It describes some of the measures, both governmental and those deriving from international cooperation, that have been implemented to date, in order to seek a solution to the problem. The authors also explore more deeply the new trends in preventing the phenomenon. In this sense, the article is aimed at the prevention of violence through twospecific mechanisms: peace education and social cohesion. As the authors demonstrate, both mechanisms are potentially adaptable to the reality of El Salvador.

  20. School violence, role of the school nurse in prevention: position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) advance safe school environments by promoting the prevention and reduction of school violence. School nurses collaborate with school personnel, health care providers, parents, and community members to identify and implement evidence-based educational programs promoting violence prevention. The curriculum used should improve students' communication, behavior management, and conflict resolution skills. School nurses assess and refer at-risk students in need of evaluation and treatment for symptoms of aggression and victimization.

  1. The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2014-12-01

    In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.

  2. Commentary on Foubert, Godin, & Tatum (2010): The Evolution of Sexual Violence Prevention and the Urgency for Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…

  3. Linking Academics and Social Learning: Perceptions of School Staff to a Violence Prevention Program at an Alternative School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie; Burstyn, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examines how school staff conceptualize their work with alternative school adolescents after undergoing at least 1 year of a whole school violence prevention program. Results highlight the importance of linking social learning and academics in violence prevention strategies and of sustaining collaborative efforts that connect conflict resolution…

  4. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors.

  5. Life Story Board: A Tool in the Prevention of Domestic Violence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Rob; Mignone, Javier; Diffey, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of domestic violence in Aboriginal communities points to the need to explore new ways of understanding how this violence occurs in its context and to seek new and creative ways of preventing the perpetuation of this vicious cycle. The Life Story Board (LSB) is a game board with sets of cards, markers, and a notation system with which to construct a visual representation of someone’s life experience at personal, family, and community levels. Initially invented as an interview tool in an expressive art program for war-affected children, the LSB has broader potential for use by those working with youth, adults, and families in a variety of contexts, and as a tool for program evaluation and applied research. This article describes LSB methods and how they may apply in the context of Canadian First Nations, Inuit, and Métis community efforts to respond to, understand, and prevent domestic violence. PMID:22299007

  6. Life Story Board: A Tool in the Prevention of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Rob; Mignone, Javier; Diffey, Linda

    2010-09-10

    The high rate of domestic violence in Aboriginal communities points to the need to explore new ways of understanding how this violence occurs in its context and to seek new and creative ways of preventing the perpetuation of this vicious cycle. The Life Story Board (LSB) is a game board with sets of cards, markers, and a notation system with which to construct a visual representation of someone's life experience at personal, family, and community levels. Initially invented as an interview tool in an expressive art program for war-affected children, the LSB has broader potential for use by those working with youth, adults, and families in a variety of contexts, and as a tool for program evaluation and applied research. This article describes LSB methods and how they may apply in the context of Canadian First Nations, Inuit, and Métis community efforts to respond to, understand, and prevent domestic violence.

  7. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    stereotypes for the individual pupil. Moreover, further attention could have been given to surrounding powerful discourses and media representations that may be at odds with the messages of the programme. The present study illustrates that the growing field of public health can be supported through an “all......Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...

  8. Preventing lethal violence in schools: the case for entry-based weapons screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R; Lapsley, Peter M; Hoffman, Allan M; Guignard, John C

    2002-04-01

    Violence-related behavior in schools has declined in recent years, but the perception of risk remains high. Disturbingly high percentages of students and teachers report staying home out of fear, and many students bring weapons to school for protection. Current proposals for preventing school violence include punishing the violence-prone, expulsion for weapon carriers, and creating a culture of nonviolence through various behavioral methods like conflict resolution. None of these proposals address the issue of lethal violence and hence personal safety. The risk of lethal violence in schools (related mainly to firearms) could be substantially reduced by creating an effective barrier between firearms and people. This could be achieved by using entry-based weapons detection systems similar to those now used in airports and courts. Decreasing the risk and fear of violence by converting schools into weapons-free zones would also be expected to increase attendance and improve scholastic performance. Randomized, controlled studies should be undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of entry-based weapons detection systems for achieving these outcomes.

  9. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. School Violence, Role of the School Nurse in Prevention. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blout, JoAnn D.; Rose, Kathleen C.; Suessmann, Mary; Coleman, Kara; Selekman, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) advance safe school environments by promoting the prevention and reduction of school violence. School nurses collaborate with school personnel, healthcare providers, parents, and community members to identify and implement evidence-based educational programs. The…

  11. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  12. Bystander Education: Bringing a Broader Community Perspective to Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Plante, Elizabethe G.; Moynihan, Mary M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research documents the problem of sexual violence across communities, often finding its causes to be embedded in community and cultural norms, thus demonstrating the need for community-focused solutions. In this article we synthesize research from community psychology on community change and prevention with more individually focused studies…

  13. Counseling with Heart: A Relationship Violence Prevention Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Bayne, Hannah B.; Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Smith Myers, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Relationship violence is a salient concern on college campuses today, and psychoeducational groups may be an appropriate prevention format. This article describes a study measuring the impact of college student participation in the HEART (Help End Abusive Relationships Today) program, a series of group sessions designed to increase knowledge and…

  14. Experience of Violence and Cruelty Prevention among Performers of Educational Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya S. Shalaginova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of violence prevention in contemporary educational environment, describes the work with performers of educational process (teachers, schoolchildren, parents, administration, aimed at tolerance, empathy, habits of structural interaction and behavior in conflict situations, acceptance set forming

  15. National Strategy for Violence Prevention in the Austrian Public School System: Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, Christiane; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a quick succession of several spectacular events in schools, and the ensuing public discussion on the high rates of bullying in Austria, a national strategy for violence prevention in schools and preschools has been developed. In formulating the strategy, a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local…

  16. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Characteristics Associated with Violence and Safety in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark R.; Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Methods: Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and…

  17. Educational and Skills-Based Interventions to Prevent Relationship Violence in Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellmeth, Gracia; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and other databases for randomized, cluster-randomized, and quasi-randomized…

  18. Evaluation of Interventions to Prevent Gender-Based Violence among Young Female Apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.; Ajuwon, Ademola J.; Osungbade, Kayode O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This intervention project targeted one vulnerable group, female apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria, to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple interventions aimed at preventing violence against women (VAW). Design/methodology/approach: A baseline survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews with 350 young women recruited from…

  19. Review of the CDC’s “Choose Respect” Dating Violence Prevention Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Hertzog

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of resources developed for the Center for Disease Control’s national “Choose Respect” initiative targeting youth ages 11-14 is provided. The initiative’s goal is to prevent teen dating violence by promoting healthy relationship development. Resources include a community action kit, downloadable video, television and radio advertisements as well as educational posters.

  20. 78 FR 8349 - National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This year, it is estimated that 1 in 10 teens will be hurt intentionally by someone... leave scars that last a lifetime. Teens who suffer abuse at the hands of a partner are more likely to...

  1. School Counseling Prevention and Intervention for Child Witnesses of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Juleen K.; Saponara, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) often suffer a range of physical, behavioral, emotional, and familial consequences (Holt, Buckley, & Whelan, 2008). School counselors may be in a key position to implement prevention programs around this issue, identify children who have witnessed IPV, and to engage in intervention efforts.…

  2. Engaging Intercollegiate Athletes in Preventing and Intervening in Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…

  3. Prevencion de la violencia en las escuelas (School Violence Prevention). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dean

    Tactics to deal with growing violence in schools have usually relied on removal of the offender by suspension or placement outside of the mainstream classroom. However, educators and psychologists are considering the prevention of violent behavior as both a more humane and cost-effective response to the problem. The relationship between school…

  4. A Review of Family-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence among Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Toro, Rosa I.

    2010-01-01

    At present, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of family-based intervention programs to prevent violence or related behavior problems with Latino youth and families. Although progress has been made, a number of important issues remain. In this article, the authors review several of the more prominent interventions for Latino…

  5. Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…

  6. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  7. Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

    The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people…

  8. The effects of prevention of crime and violence policy in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramírez-de-Garay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two issues that are key to Mexico’s violence and crime prevention policy. The first part reviews how the prevention policy has been shaped over the past 10 years. In the second, the effects of Mexico’s Programa Nacional de Prevención del Delito (PRONAPRED, National Crime Prevention Programme is analysed using Propensity Score Matching. Using data at the municipal level and taking the homicide and gun-related injuries rates as output variables, we found that PRONAPRED only significantly affects the homicide rate; however, that effect is the opposite of what is expected. The results of this research show that, in order to achieve the intended results, violence and crime prevention policies in Mexico require significant changes.

  9. Prevention of MSDs and psychological stress at computer-equipped workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Reinhold

    2014-12-01

    season. As muscle strain is often coming from the static posture, it may be influenced also by the psycho-emotional stress at workplace. The questionnaires, objective methods and environmental measurements are useful to plan prevention and early rehabilitation before the disability appears.

  10. The Economic Burden of Intimate Partner Violence in Ecuador: Setting the Agenda for Future Research and Violence Prevention Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Corso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador.Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S. currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events.Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV

  11. A 3-Component Approach Incorporating Focus Groups in Strategic Planning for Sexual Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.

  12. [Substance abuse prevention in the workplace: theoretical knowledge and expertise after interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, S; Klein, O; Mann, K; Croissant, B

    2008-02-01

    Although several companies are requesting interventions for substance abuse prevention at the workplace and a wide variety of interventions is successfully introduced into practice, empirical studies investigating the efficacy of such interventions are rare. In the present study 100 executive managers of a German chemical company, who had participated in an intervention to prevent substance consumption at the workplace one year before, were applied a questionnaire to assess effects of the intervention. Data from 22 managers, who had so far not received such an intervention, were collected to serve as a control condition. The intervention itself was designed as a theory oriented half a day course and was conducted in groups of 10 to 12 executive managers of the company. By comparing participants and non-participants, we found significant differences with respect to the knowledge how to deal with substance-related problems of staff members. For example, participants reported more frequently to know the company agreement about addiction. Further, participants reported less frequently to wait until such problems were solved anyway. However, we found no evidence for transfer of theoretical knowledge into practice. For example, we detected no significant group differences with respect to the number of appraisal interviews conducted because of substance-related problems. Taken together, the results of our study indicate, that the implementation of a company agreement about addiction and its introduction into practice based on theoretical courses is not sufficient to produce considerable effects. As an alternative, based on previous experiences we propose a series of workshops with role-plays and feedback to establish expertise in interviewing techniques with substance-related problems.

  13. Preventing violence against children in schools: Contributions from the Be Safe program in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Steven; Zwart, Christine; Chahal, Inem; Lane, David; Cummings, Harry

    2018-02-01

    Violence against children is a global public health issue with serious social, economic, physical, and emotional impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based program aimed to prevent and respond to physical, sexual, and psychological violence against children in Sri Lanka from the perspective of parents. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used. A total of 835 parents of children who participated in the program were surveyed across seven districts in Sri Lanka. Dose-response analyses were conducted to assess for correlations between program exposure and perceived prevention of violence against children. Low to moderate correlations were found between exposure to the program and perceived child safety in schools, school policies, and in the community. The findings provide preliminary evidence of program effectiveness; however, more efforts are needed to validate and sustain outcomes. Implications for future violence prevention programming, along with the use of dose-response evaluations, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Four barriers and a set of values that prevent violence among cannabis growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersvik, Eirik

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis markets are often described as less violent than other drug markets. Domestic cannabis cultivation markets seem to be especially non-violent. However, few studies have investigated why this might be. Two and half years of ethnographic fieldwork among indoor cannabis growers and interviews and conversations with 52 growers in Norway. This study identified four barriers and a set of values that prevent violence among growers. (1) Violence attracts increased attention from police and enemies, which inhibits 'business as usual' and reduces profits. (2) Careful attention to profits makes growers calculate and prepare for financial losses. (3) The prospect of covering debt by producing more cannabis makes it possible to choose non-violent sanctions. (4) Tight social ties and friendships prevent violence when conflicts erupt. However, the cannabis culture of the actors and the transactions stands out as the main reason why these four barriers are more important in cannabis markets than in other drug markets. This paper discusses how policymakers can benefit from the market changes that follow 'import substitution' to construct policies that prevent violence and facilitate peaceful drug markets and drug cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  16. Prevention and rehabilitation in Swedish public sector workplaces: Effects on co-workers' and leaders' health and psychosocial working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig; Romild, Ulla; Landstad, Bodil J

    2015-01-01

    Leaders and co-workers in Swedish public sector organizations are exposed to demanding psychosocial working conditions; more knowledge about workplace-based interventions in this sector of working life is needed. To compare co-workers' and leaders' self-ratings of health and psychosocial working conditions, and investigate how prevention and rehabilitation in Swedish public sector workplaces affects these ratings. The longitudinal panel data consisted of 311 individuals (20 leaders, 291 co-workers) at 19 workplaces. Based on questionnaire data, statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U-Test, pair-wise Spearman correlations, a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA and Friedman's test. Results indicate differences in how the leaders and the co-workers judge their health and psychosocial working conditions. Leaders report work content that is more varied and interesting as well as more possibilities for personal development through work, yet they also report more tiredness, concern over managing their work situation and time pressure at work. Comparisons of mean values for used indicators show some improvements after one year, but also several non-significant or negative time trends two years after the interventions were initiated. The study provides some support for experienced differences between co-workers' and leaders' health and psychosocial working conditions in public sector workplaces, indicating the importance of different workplace-oriented prevention and rehabilitation interventions for these two categories of employees.

  17. Prevention of violence against women: challenges in the articulation of an intersetorial network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Krieger Grossi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objective of highlighting the importance of sectoriality action in the prevention of violence against women through the articulation of different social actors concerned and committed to the reduction of the violence against women rates, and consequently with a more fair and equal society. These challenges in the articulation of the network of protection services for women in domestic violence are illustrated by the managers of the social welfare policies, coordinators of women´s policies and professionals that work in Reference Centers for Women, Reference Centers of Social Welfare (CRAS and Specialized Reference Center of Social Welfare (CREAS in municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  18. Epidemiologic Evidence to Guide the Understanding and Prevention of Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Cerdá, Magdalena; Wintemute, Garen J; Cook, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Gunfire from assaults, suicides, and unintentional shootings exacts an enormous burden on public health globally. The epidemiologic reviews in this special issue enhance our understanding of various forms of gun violence, inform interventions, and help chart directions for future research. The available science, however, is limited to answer many important questions necessary for mounting successful efforts to reduce gun violence. Certain data are lacking, and there are numerous analytical challenges to deriving unbiased estimates of policy impacts. Significant investments in research over the long term are warranted to answer questions central to successful prevention of gun violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Predicting intentions versus predicting behaviors: domestic violence prevention from a theory of reasoned action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.

  20. [Men caretakers of life: Training in gender-sensitive masculinities for the prevention of violence towards women in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Sosa, Gladys Rocío; Gaviria, Silvia L; Geldres-García, Denis A; Vargas-Romero, Rosamarina

    2015-01-01

    The training strategies targeted at men so as to reflect on the cultural patterns of patriarchy are an alternative in the promotion of human rights, the prevention of violence towards women and the mainstreaming of gender equality in public policies. With a socio-critical pedagogical approach, we conducted a Training Certification Program in gender equality and gender-sensitive masculinities, for a group of 76 male civil servants and civic leaders in the Colombian city of Medellin, for the purpose of questioning their gender socialization in the patriarchal model, directed towards the development and execution of social, educational or communications projects. The projects proposed by the participants criticize the andro-centric, sexist and discriminatory discourses regarding women that circulate in a manner predominant in their academic, workplace and family ambits, with a gender political commitment and respect for diversity. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Framing public policy and prevention of chronic violence in American youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A

    2008-10-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors.

  2. Aggression in the workplace: a study of horizontal violence utilising Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem of bullying within nursing. A Heideggerian methodology was used to illuminate the phenomenon of bullying and answer the question, "How does it feel to be bullied?. Two nurses were interviewed in a "judgemental" sample. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed thematically. Results were then integrated into an "exhaustive" statement in an attempt to identify the fundamental structure of the phenomenon under investigation. The results highlight the way in which nurses experienced and felt about bullying behaviour, which was fundamental to the structure of nursing itself. Despite the terrible repercussions, physical and psychological, victims remained unaware that they were being bullied until it was pointed out to them by another. The guilt feelings that seem to be inherent in nursing appeared to become magnified when nurses were being bullied, resulting in self-blame and a lack of self-esteem. Nurses were afraid to speak out and this extended into their home lives where feelings of shame and inadequacy prevented them from seeking support. The size of the study was small and therefore cannot be claimed as being representative. The paper highlights the very real problem of bullying in nursing, which has resonance with the historical concept of nurses as an oppressed group. This has implications for the design of nurse education in the future. The paper extends the understanding of the lived experience of being bullied and acts in a conscience-raising manner, without which there can be no solution.

  3. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Characteristics Associated With Violence and Safety in Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark R; Simon, Thomas R; Basile, Kathleen C; Carter, Sherry P; Carter, Stanley L

    2018-04-01

    This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and violence were assessed. Evaluators used the CPTED School Assessment (CSA) to quantify how well the physical elements of each school correspond to ideal CPTED principles. Generalized linear mixed models were used to adjust for school- and student-level characteristics. Higher CSA scores were generally associated with higher perceptions of safety and lower levels of violence perpetration and perceived risk in unadjusted models. Higher CSA scores were also associated with lower odds of missing school because of safety concerns in most adjusted models, with significant adjusted odds ratios (AORs) ranging from 0.32 to 0.63. CSA scores for parking and bus loading areas also remained associated with higher perceived safety (AORs = 1.28 and 1.32, respectively) and lower perceived risk (AORs = 0.73 and 0.66, respectively) in adjusted models. The CSA is useful for assessing school environments that are associated with violence-related behaviors and perceptions. The CSA might help guide school environmental modifications to reduce violence. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  4. Emerging aspects of psychosocial risks: violence and harassment at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, R; Campanini, P; Fichera, G P; Punzi, S; Cassitto, M G

    2006-01-01

    In the last twenty years, psychosocial risks have become crucial in Occupational Health. Particularly, there is an increasing interest about psychological and physical violence at the workplaces. Psychological violence (mobbing or workplace bullying) is described as a situation in which the person has been the victim of negative acts directed to the person and work, with offences, discriminations and isolation. Physical violence at work, still underestimated in many parts of the world, is becoming a topical subject both for its frequency and its pathogenic potential and consist of violence among workers (internal violence) and between workers and external persons (external violence). Examples of external violence are bank robberies, which are prevalent in many European countries, particulary in Italy. The costs of psychological and physical workplace violence are very high at all levels; individual, for the implication of violence for health and quality of life as well as organizational, for the increase of absenteeism, turnover and health care demands and claims. The Medical Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment (CDL) of the "Clinica de Lavoro Luigi Devoto" was set up in 1996 with a day-hospital service for the diagnosis, rehabilitation and prevention of work related psychological diseases. From its opening, about 5000 patients have been examined.

  5. School Violence Prevention: Climate and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Diane Diaz

    2010-01-01

    The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After…

  6. Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

  7. Scientific foundation of in-service training for prevention of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the compatibility of the continuous in-service teacher training for prevention of peer violence and modern scientific knowledge in this area. The first part of the paper summarizes the results of 12 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effectiveness of the studies of antibullying programs published since 2000. which relate to the effects of uni-modal and multi-modal programs, and the efficacy of interventions used in anti-bullying programs. The second part of the paper analyses the approved programs of in-service teacher training, in which priority is given to the prevention of violence, abuse and negligence. We analyzed 39 programs of continuous in-service teacher training, and focused on the empirical bases of the programs (researches which confirm the effectiveness of a program and the contents of the training (the level of preventive activity, modality, field, and interventions. The results of the analysis of the programs of continuous in-service training for peer violence prevention are discussed in the context of modern scientific knowledge of effectiveness of anti-bullying programs and of professional development of teachers and counsellors.

  8. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under...

  9. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act...

  10. [Results of a comprehensive workplace program for the prevention and treatment of smoking addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerín, I; Crucelaegui, A; Más, A; Villalba, J A; Guillén, D; Gracia, A

    2005-04-01

    To assess a comprehensive smoking prevention and treatment program in an electrical appliances company with 1600 employees. The program included smoking restrictions with the designation of smoking areas and the offer of smoking cessation treatment for the smokers affected. Study variables were age, sex, nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test), carbon monoxide in expired air, adherence to therapy, and smoking abstinence at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months (end of treatment), and 6 months. Successful smoking abstinence was defined as continuous abstinence from the beginning of treatment. Smoking prevalence was 34.8% and 19.5% of smokers requested treatment (77.4% men and 22.6% women). Mean (SD) age was 41.3 (10.3) years. Mean score of nicotine dependence was 5.3 (2.6) and the mean quantity of carbon monoxide in expired air was 35.6 (23.7) ppm. Adherence to therapy was good in 80% of patients. Rate of abstinence was 57.5% at 6 months, signifying a 4% reduction in prevalence. Workplace smoking cessation programs reduce prevalence and facilitate the establishment of smoking restrictions at the worksite. Companies are convenient settings for the implementation of programs aimed at smoking prevention and treatment.

  11. "Children at risk": development, implementation, and effectiveness of a school-based violence intervention and prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L; Smith, Donald J

    2009-01-01

    Violence impacts the lives of children on a daily basis. In their communities, they witness drive-by shootings, drug deals, and violence in their schools while many endure abuse, neglect, and violent behavior in their homes. Because the traumatizing impact of such exposure disrupts a child's ability to concentrate and learn, the Dallas Independent School District (ISD) sought content expertise to develop a training vehicle for school district professionals. The program aimed to raise the awareness of educators to problems related to domestic violence and the myriad of circumstances at home and in the community that lead to exposure to violence. Approximately 15,000 faculty and staff of Dallas ISD were educated in the identification, intervention, and prevention of exposure to violence. Referrals and inquiries related to abuse have increased (approximately 70%) while the city of Dallas has witnessed a drop in the number of domestic violence and child abuse offenses.

  12. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. Establishing LA VIDA: a community-based partnership to prevent intimate violence against Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, B J; Guzman, R; Santiago, A; Villalobos, G; Israel, B A

    1999-12-01

    LA VIDA--the Southwest Detroit Partnership to Prevent Intimate Violence Against Latina Women--evolved in response to community concern about the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the lack of culturally competent preventive and support services for Latino women and men in southwest Detroit. Since 1997, diverse organizations have mobilized as a community-academic partnership to ensure the availability, accessibility, and utilization of IPV services. This article describes and analyzes the evolution of LA VIDA within a community-based participatory research framework using a case study approach that draws on multiple data sources including group and individual interviews and field notes. The challenges and lessons learned in addressing a complex multifaceted problem such as IPV in an ethnic minority community are highlighted in an examination of the process of mobilizing diverse organizations, conducting community diagnosis and needs assessment activities, establishing goals and objectives within a social ecological framework, and integrating evaluation during the development phase.

  14. U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Natakie

    2016-01-01

    In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…

  15. School District Officials' and City Stakeholders' Perceptions Regarding School Violence and Ways to Prevent School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rita Mabon; Maldonado, Nancy; Howe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Violence is a problem that affects the family structure, schools, and communities. Although some violence takes place behind closed doors, the effects are devastating to society and the community. The overwhelming results are seen with the increase of visits to abuse shelters and emergency rooms. Domestic violence in households tends to continue…

  16. “Emergency contraception” and prevention of pregnancy after sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bilokapić, Šimun

    2010-01-01

    Tragic incident of sexual violence and its dramatic conse- quences oblige the whole social community, and above all doctors and medical staff, to respecting, sympathy and care for the entire welfare of the injured person. For decades the issue of prevention of pregnancy after rape has been giving rise to medical and moral attention in the treatment of the victim, raising the questions Is such a practice justified and are the modern means, methods and procedures, kno...

  17. To Treat or to Prevent?: Reducing the Population Burden of Violence-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorder in urban areas. However, the most effective allocation of resources into prevention and treatment to reduce this problem is unknown. We contrasted the impact of two interventions on violence-related PTSD: (1) a population-level intervention intended to prevent violence (i.e., hot-spot policing), and (2) an individual-level intervention intended to shorten PTSD duration (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy-CBT). We used agent-based modeling to simulate violence and PTSD in New York City under four scenarios: (1) no intervention, (2) targeted policing to hot spots of violence, (3) increased access to CBT for people who suffered from violence-related PTSD, and (4) a combination of the two interventions. Combined prevention and treatment produced the largest decrease in violence-related PTSD prevalence: hot-spot policing plus a 50% increase in CBT for 5 years reduced the annual prevalence of violence-related PTSD from 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 3.5%, 3.6%) to 3.4% (3.3%, 3.5%). It would have been necessary to implement hot-spot policing or to increase CBT by 200% for 10 years for either intervention to achieve the same reduction in isolation. This study provides an empirically informed demonstration that investment in combined strategies that target social determinants of mental illness and provide evidence-based treatment to those affected by psychiatric disorders can produce larger reductions in the population burden from violence-related PTSD than either preventive or treatment interventions alone. However, neither hot-spot policing nor CBT, alone or combined, will produce large shifts in the population prevalence of violence-related PTSD.

  18. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  19. Effects of an Emotional Intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, 4 assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (one year after the conclusion of the intervention. The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1 emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, emotional repair; (2 assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3 internal control of anger; and (4 the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  20. Policing the epidemic: High burden of workplace violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Katherine A; Akello, Monica; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Simo, Annick; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa experience a high burden of HIV with a paucity of data on violence and links to HIV risk among sex workers, and even less within conflict-affected environments. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda (n = 400). Logistic regression was used to determine the specific association between policing and recent physical/sexual violence from clients. A total of 196 (49.0%) sex workers experienced physical/sexual violence by a client. From those who experienced client violence the most common forms included physical assault (58.7%), rape (38.3%), and gang rape (15.8%) Police harassment was very common, a total of 149 (37.3%) reported rushing negotiations with clients because of police presence, a practice that was significantly associated with increased odds of client violence (adjusted odds ratio: 1.61, 95% confidence intervals: 1.03-2.52). Inconsistent condom use with clients, servicing clients in a bar, and working for a manager/pimp were also independently associated with recent client violence. Structural and community-led responses, including decriminalisation, and engagement with police and policy stakeholders, remain critical to addressing violence, both a human rights and public health imperative.