WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventing wide hybridization

  1. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  2. Genome-Wide Prediction of the Performance of Three-Way Hybrids in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the grain yield performance of three-way hybrids is challenging. Three-way crosses are relevant for hybrid breeding in barley ( L. and maize ( L. adapted to East Africa. The main goal of our study was to implement and evaluate genome-wide prediction approaches of the performance of three-way hybrids using data of single-cross hybrids for a scenario in which parental lines of the three-way hybrids originate from three genetically distinct subpopulations. We extended the ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RRBLUP and devised a genomic selection model allowing for subpopulation-specific marker effects (GSA-RRBLUP: general and subpopulation-specific additive RRBLUP. Using an empirical barley data set, we showed that applying GSA-RRBLUP tripled the prediction ability of three-way hybrids from 0.095 to 0.308 compared with RRBLUP, modeling one additive effect for all three subpopulations. The experimental findings were further substantiated with computer simulations. Our results emphasize the potential of GSA-RRBLUP to improve genome-wide hybrid prediction of three-way hybrids for scenarios of genetically diverse parental populations. Because of the advantages of the GSA-RRBLUP model in dealing with hybrids from different parental populations, it may also be a promising approach to boost the prediction ability for hybrid breeding programs based on genetically diverse heterotic groups.

  3. Wide prevalence of hybridization in two sympatric grasshopper species may be shaped by their relative abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Katja; Hau, Yvonne; Weyer, Jessica; Hochkirch, Axel

    2015-09-16

    backcrossing. This might explain why genetic diversity increased only in the common species, but not in the rare one. Altogether, the hybridization rate was much higher than expected for a widely sympatric species pair.

  4. De Novo Centromere Formation and Centromeric Sequence Expansion in Wheat and its Wide Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Su, Handong; Shi, Qinghua; Fu, Shulan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiangqi; Hu, Zanmin; Han, Fangpu

    2016-04-01

    Centromeres typically contain tandem repeat sequences, but centromere function does not necessarily depend on these sequences. We identified functional centromeres with significant quantitative changes in the centromeric retrotransposons of wheat (CRW) contents in wheat aneuploids (Triticum aestivum) and the offspring of wheat wide hybrids. The CRW signals were strongly reduced or essentially lost in some wheat ditelosomic lines and in the addition lines from the wide hybrids. The total loss of the CRW sequences but the presence of CENH3 in these lines suggests that the centromeres were formed de novo. In wheat and its wide hybrids, which carry large complex genomes or no sequenced genome, we performed CENH3-ChIP-dot-blot methods alone or in combination with CENH3-ChIP-seq and identified the ectopic genomic sequences present at the new centromeres. In adcdition, the transcription of the identified DNA sequences was remarkably increased at the new centromere, suggesting that the transcription of the corresponding sequences may be associated with de novo centromere formation. Stable alien chromosomes with two and three regions containing CRW sequences induced by centromere breakage were observed in the wheat-Th. elongatum hybrid derivatives, but only one was a functional centromere. In wheat-rye (Secale cereale) hybrids, the rye centromere-specific sequences spread along the chromosome arms and may have caused centromere expansion. Frequent and significant quantitative alterations in the centromere sequence via chromosomal rearrangement have been systematically described in wheat wide hybridizations, which may affect the retention or loss of the alien chromosomes in the hybrids. Thus, the centromere behavior in wide crosses likely has an important impact on the generation of biodiversity, which ultimately has implications for speciation.

  5. De Novo Centromere Formation and Centromeric Sequence Expansion in Wheat and its Wide Hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres typically contain tandem repeat sequences, but centromere function does not necessarily depend on these sequences. We identified functional centromeres with significant quantitative changes in the centromeric retrotransposons of wheat (CRW contents in wheat aneuploids (Triticum aestivum and the offspring of wheat wide hybrids. The CRW signals were strongly reduced or essentially lost in some wheat ditelosomic lines and in the addition lines from the wide hybrids. The total loss of the CRW sequences but the presence of CENH3 in these lines suggests that the centromeres were formed de novo. In wheat and its wide hybrids, which carry large complex genomes or no sequenced genome, we performed CENH3-ChIP-dot-blot methods alone or in combination with CENH3-ChIP-seq and identified the ectopic genomic sequences present at the new centromeres. In adcdition, the transcription of the identified DNA sequences was remarkably increased at the new centromere, suggesting that the transcription of the corresponding sequences may be associated with de novo centromere formation. Stable alien chromosomes with two and three regions containing CRW sequences induced by centromere breakage were observed in the wheat-Th. elongatum hybrid derivatives, but only one was a functional centromere. In wheat-rye (Secale cereale hybrids, the rye centromere-specific sequences spread along the chromosome arms and may have caused centromere expansion. Frequent and significant quantitative alterations in the centromere sequence via chromosomal rearrangement have been systematically described in wheat wide hybridizations, which may affect the retention or loss of the alien chromosomes in the hybrids. Thus, the centromere behavior in wide crosses likely has an important impact on the generation of biodiversity, which ultimately has implications for speciation.

  6. Hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy using a 3D visualization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kita M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mihori Kita, Yuki Mori, Sachiyo Hama Department of Ophthalmology, National Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To introduce a hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy, which we have reported, using a 3D visualization system developed recently. Subjects and methods: We report a single center, retrospective, consecutive surgical case series of 113 eyes that underwent 25 G vitrectomy (rhegmatogenous retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 49 eyes; epiretinal membrane, 18 eyes; proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 17 eyes; vitreous opacity or vitreous hemorrhage, 11 eyes; macular hole, 11 eyes; vitreomacular traction syndrome, 4 eyes; and luxation of intraocular lens, 3 eyes. Results: This system was successfully used to perform hybrid vitrectomy in the difficult cases, such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy using a 3D visualization system appears to be a valuable and promising method for managing various types of vitreoretinal disease. Keywords: 25 G vitrectomy, endoscope, wide-angle viewing system, 3D visualization system, hybrid

  7. New Multiphase Hybrid Boost Converter with Wide Conversion Ratio for PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Monica Pop-Calimanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multiphase hybrid boost converter, with wide conversion ratio as a solution for photovoltaic energy system, is presented in this paper. To ensure that all the phases of the converter operate at the same switching frequency we use interleaving topology. The proposed converter can be used as an interface between the PV system and the DC load/inverter. This multiphase converter has the advantage of reduced value and physical size of the input and output capacitor as well as the effort for the inductors. To validate the operation of the converter we provide the analyses and the simulation results of the converter.

  8. Building and Maintaining an Effective Campus-Wide Coalition for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Moffitt, Lauren; McLeod, Mark; Zesiger, Heather; Ammirati, Rachel; Berg, John P.; McIntosh, Belinda J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing suicide is a commonly shared priority among college administrators, faculty, staff, students, and family members. Coalitions are popular health promotion mechanisms for solving community-wide problems and are valuable in campus-wide suicide prevention efforts. This article provides an example of an effective suicide prevention…

  9. Identification of Genome-Wide Variations among Three Elite Restorer Lines for Hybrid-Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Shiquan; Deng, Qiming; Zheng, Aiping; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Huainian; Wang, Lingxia; Gao, Fengyan; Zou, Ting; Huang, Bin; Cao, Xuemei; Xu, Lizhi; Yu, Chuang; Ai, Peng; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Rice restorer lines play an important role in three-line hybrid rice production. Previous research based on molecular tagging has suggested that the restorer lines used widely today have narrow genetic backgrounds. However, patterns of genetic variation at a genome-wide scale in these restorer lines remain largely unknown. The present study performed re-sequencing and genome-wide variation analysis of three important representative restorer lines, namely, IR24, MH63, and SH527, using the Solexa sequencing technology. With the genomic sequence of the Indica cultivar 9311 as the reference, the following genetic features were identified: 267,383 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 52,847 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels), and 3,286 structural variations (SVs) in the genome of IR24; 288,764 SNPs, 59,658 InDels, and 3,226 SVs in MH63; and 259,862 SNPs, 55,500 InDels, and 3,127 SVs in SH527. Variations between samples were also determined by comparative analysis of authentic collections of SNPs, InDels, and SVs, and were functionally annotated. Furthermore, variations in several important genes were also surveyed by alignment analysis in these lines. Our results suggest that genetic variations among these lines, although far lower than those reported in the landrace population, are greater than expected, indicating a complicated genetic basis for the phenotypic diversity of the restorer lines. Identification of genome-wide variation and pattern analysis among the restorer lines will facilitate future genetic studies and the molecular improvement of hybrid rice. PMID:22383984

  10. Death by sex in an Australian icon: a continent-wide survey reveals extensive hybridization between dingoes and domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Danielle; Wilton, Alan N; Fleming, Peter J S; Berry, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Hybridization between domesticated animals and their wild counterparts can disrupt adaptive gene combinations, reduce genetic diversity, extinguish wild populations and change ecosystem function. The dingo is a free-ranging dog that is an iconic apex predator and distributed throughout most of mainland Australia. Dingoes readily hybridize with domestic dogs, and in many Australian jurisdictions, distinct management strategies are dictated by hybrid status. Yet, the magnitude and spatial extent of domestic dog-dingo hybridization is poorly characterized. To address this, we performed a continent-wide analysis of hybridization throughout Australia based on 24 locus microsatellite DNA genotypes from 3637 free-ranging dogs. Although 46% of all free-ranging dogs were classified as pure dingoes, all regions exhibited some hybridization, and the magnitude varied substantially. The southeast of Australia was highly admixed, with 99% of animals being hybrids or feral domestic dogs, whereas only 13% of the animals from remote central Australia were hybrids. Almost all free-ranging dogs had some dingo ancestry, indicating that domestic dogs could have poor survivorship in nonurban Australian environments. Overall, wild pure dingoes remain the dominant predator over most of Australia, but the speed and extent to which hybridization has occurred in the approximately 220 years since the first introduction of domestic dogs indicate that the process may soon threaten the persistence of pure dingoes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Gametocidal genes of Aegilops: segregation distorters in wheat-Aegilops wide hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjana, M

    2017-08-01

    Aegilops is a genus belonging to the family Poaceace, which have played an indispensible role in the evolution of bread wheat and continues to do so by transferring genes by wide hybridization. Being the secondary gene pool of wheat, gene transfer from Aegilops poses difficulties and segregation distortion is common. Gametocidal genes are the most well characterized class of segregation distorters reported in interspecific crosses of wheat with Aegilops. These "selfish" genetic elements ensure their preferential transmission to progeny at the cost of gametes lacking them without providing any phenotypic benefits to the plant, thereby causing a proportional reduction in fertility. Gametocidal genes (Gc) have been reported in different species of Aegilops belonging to the sections Aegilops (Ae. geniculata and Ae. triuncialis), Cylindropyrum (Ae. caudata and Ae. cylindrica), and Sitopsis (Ae. longissima, Ae. sharonensis, and Ae. speltoides). Gametocidal activity is mostly confined to 2, 3, and 4 homeologous groups of C, S, S 1 , S sh , and M g genomes. Removal of such genes is necessary for successful alien gene introgression and can be achieved by mutagenesis or allosyndetic pairing. However, there are some instances where Gc genes are constructively utilized for development of deletion stocks in wheat, improving genetic variability and chromosome engineering.

  12. Genome-wide methylation analysis identified sexually dimorphic methylated regions in hybrid tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zi Yi; Xia, Jun Hong; Lin, Grace; Wang, Le; Lin, Valerie C. L.; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is an interesting biological phenomenon. Previous studies showed that DNA methylation might play a role in sexual dimorphism. However, the overall picture of the genome-wide methylation landscape in sexually dimorphic species remains unclear. We analyzed the DNA methylation landscape and transcriptome in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) using whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We found 4,757 sexually dimorphic differentially methylated regions (DMRs), with significant clusters of DMRs located on chromosomal regions associated with sex determination. CpG methylation in promoter regions was negatively correlated with the gene expression level. MAPK/ERK pathway was upregulated in male tilapia. We also inferred active cis-regulatory regions (ACRs) in skeletal muscle tissues from WGBS datasets, revealing sexually dimorphic cis-regulatory regions. These results suggest that DNA methylation contribute to sex-specific phenotypes and serve as resources for further investigation to analyze the functions of these regions and their contributions towards sexual dimorphisms. PMID:27782217

  13. Genome-wide oligonucleotide-based array comparative genome hybridization analysis of non-isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Scott; M. Klaassens; A.M. Holder (Ashley); K.P. Lally (Kevin); C.J. Fernandes (Caraciolo); R-J.H. Galjaard (Robert-Jan); D. Tibboel (Dick); J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies); B. Lee (Brendan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractNon-isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH+) is a severe birth defect that is often caused by de novo chromosomal anomalies. In this report, we use genome-wide oligonucleotide-based array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) followed by rapid real-time quantitative PCR analysis

  14. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis reveals distinct amplifications in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Tsz-Kwong; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Lu, Xin-Yan; Jaeweon, Kim; Perlaky, Laszlo; Harris, Charles P; Shah, Shishir; Ladanyi, Marc; Gorlick, Richard; Lau, Ching C

    2004-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone neoplasm of children and young adults. It is characterized by extremely complex karyotypes and high frequency of chromosomal amplifications. Currently, only the histological response (degree of necrosis) to therapy represent gold standard for predicting the outcome in a patient with non-metastatic osteosarcoma at the time of definitive surgery. Patients with lower degree of necrosis have a higher risk of relapse and poor outcome even after chemotherapy and complete resection of the primary tumor. Therefore, a better understanding of the underlying molecular genetic events leading to tumor initiation and progression could result in the identification of potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We used a genome-wide screening method – array based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to identify DNA copy number changes in 48 patients with osteosarcoma. We applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to validate some of amplified clones in this study. Clones showing gains (79%) were more frequent than losses (66%). High-level amplifications and homozygous deletions constitute 28.6% and 3.8% of tumor genome respectively. High-level amplifications were present in 238 clones, of which about 37% of them showed recurrent amplification. Most frequently amplified clones were mapped to 1p36.32 (PRDM16), 6p21.1 (CDC5L, HSPCB, NFKBIE), 8q24, 12q14.3 (IFNG), 16p13 (MGRN1), and 17p11.2 (PMP22 MYCD, SOX1,ELAC27). We validated some of the amplified clones by FISH from 6p12-p21, 8q23-q24, and 17p11.2 amplicons. Homozygous deletions were noted for 32 clones and only 7 clones showed in more than one case. These 7 clones were mapped to 1q25.1 (4 cases), 3p14.1 (4 cases), 13q12.2 (2 cases), 4p15.1 (2 cases), 6q12 (2 cases), 6q12 (2 cases) and 6q16.3 (2 cases). This study clearly demonstrates the utility of array CGH in defining high-resolution DNA copy number changes and refining amplifications. The resolution of array CGH

  15. Prevention and treatment of biofilms by hybrid- and nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Ranjan, Ashish; Asokan, G V; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R; Kastelic, John P

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria growing as adherent biofilms are difficult to treat and frequently develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. To counter biofilms, various approaches, including prevention of bacterial surface adherence, application of device applicators, and assimilation of antimicrobials in targeted drug delivery machinery, have been utilized. These methods are also combined to achieve synergistic bacterial killing. This review discusses various multimodal technologies, presents general concepts, and describes therapies relying on the principles of electrical energy, ultrasound, photodynamics, and targeted drug delivery for prevention and treatment of biofilms.

  16. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...... strategy. The simulation results indicate this strategy can successfully predict and prevent the unexpected relay operation caused by load flow transferring....

  17. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Implementation of a Multicomponent, Community-Wide Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Trisha; Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brittain, Anna; Varanasi, Bala

    2017-03-01

    This article provides an overview and description of implementation activities of the multicomponent, community-wide initiatives of the Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program initiated in 2010 by the Office of Adolescent Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The community-wide initiatives applied the Interactive Systems Framework for dissemination and implementation through training and technical assistance on the key elements of the initiative: implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) interventions; enhancing quality of and access to youth-friendly reproductive health services; educating stakeholders about TPP; working with youth in communities most at risk of teen pregnancy; and mobilizing the community to garner support. Of nearly 12,000 hours of training and technical assistance provided, the majority was for selecting, implementing, and evaluating an evidence-based TPP program. Real-world implementation of a community-wide approach to TPP takes time and effort. This report describes implementation within each of the components and shares lessons learned during planning and implementation phases of the initiative. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementation of Community-Wide Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiatives: Focus on Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Dee, Deborah L; Koumans, Emilia H

    2017-03-01

    Seeking to reduce teen pregnancy and births in communities with rates above the national average, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program, developed a joint funding opportunity through which grantees worked to implement and test an approach involving community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. Once these projects had been in the field for 2.5 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff developed plans for a supplemental issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health to present findings from and lessons learned during implementation of the community-wide initiatives. When the articles included in the supplemental issue are considered together, common themes emerge, particularly those related to initiating, building, and maintaining strong partnerships. Themes seen across articles include the importance of (1) sharing local data with partners to advance initiative implementation, (2) defining partner roles from the beginning of the initiatives, (3) developing teams that include community partners to provide direction to the initiatives, and (4) addressing challenges to maintaining strong partnerships including partner staff turnover and delays in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Community-based efforts to prevent obesity: Australia-wide survey of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Melanie S; Reynolds, Rebecca C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gill, Timothy; King, Lesley; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current community-based obesity prevention projects in Australia and to examine their characteristics, program features (e.g. intervention setting), capacity and approach to obesity prevention. Detailed survey completed by representatives from community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. There was wide variation in funding, capacity and approach to obesity prevention among the 78 participating projects. Median annual funding was Au$94900 (range Au$2500-$4.46 million). The most common intervention settings were schools (39%). Forty per cent of programs focused on a population group of ≥50000 people. A large proportion of respondents felt that they did not have sufficient resources or staff training to achieve project objectives. Community-based projects currently represent a very large investment by both government and non-government sectors for the prevention of obesity. Existing projects are diverse in size and scope, and reach large segments of the population. Further work is needed to identify the full extent of existing community actions and to monitor their reach and future 'scale up' to ensure that future activities aim for effective integration into systems, policies and environments. SO WHAT? Community-based programs make a substantial contribution to the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles in Australia. A risk of the current intervention landscape is that effective approaches may go unrecognised due to lack of effective evaluations or limitations in program

  1. Broadband and wide-angle hybrid antireflection coatings prepared by combining interference multilayers with subwavelength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruynooghe, Stéphane; Schulze, Marcel; Helgert, Michael; Challier, Michel; Tonova, Diana; Sundermann, Michael; Koch, Thomas; Gatto, Alexandre; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    To reduce the intensity of the Fresnel reflections of optical components, subwavelength structures prepared by reactive ion etching of SiO2 thin films were combined as the outermost layer with a multilayer system made of conventional thin-film materials. A hybrid coating was thus realized, with the nanoscaled structured outermost layer expected to further improve the antireflection properties of common interference stacks. The microscopic and optical spectroscopic analysis of the subwavelength structures revealed that pillar-shaped nanostructures formed during etching exhibit low-refractive-index properties and have a depth-dependent refractive index. To take into account the refractive-index gradient in the coating design, the optical properties of the nanostructures were modeled using the effective-medium approximation. The calculated average effective refractive index turned out to be 1.11 at 500-nm wavelength. A hybrid coating was designed to minimize the residual reflectance in the 400-nm to 900-nm spectral range for BK7 glass substrate. Experimental results demonstrated that the hybrid-coating approach yields a low residual reflectance with very good omnidirectional properties, owing to the properties of the nanostructured surface.

  2. Practical Approaches to Evaluating Progress and Outcomes in Community-Wide Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevendale, Heather D; Condron, D Susanne; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brooks, Megan A M; Walrath, Christine

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the key evaluation components for a set of community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. We first describe the performance measures selected to assess progress toward meeting short-term objectives on the reach and quality of implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention interventions and adolescent reproductive health services. Next, we describe an evaluation that will compare teen birth rates in intervention communities relative to synthetic control communities. Synthetic controls are developed via a data-driven technique that constructs control communities by combining information from a pool of communities that are similar to the intervention community. Finally, we share lessons learned thus far in the evaluation of the project, with a focus on those lessons that may be valuable for local communities evaluating efforts to reduce teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Optimizing dentin bond durability: strategies to prevent hydrolytic degradation of the hybrid layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjäderhane, Leo; Nascimento, Fabio D.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Tersariol, Ivarne L.S.; Geraldeli, Saulo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Carrilho, Marcela; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Endogenous dentin collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins, are responsible for the time-related hydrolysis of collagen matrix of the hybrid layers. As the integrity of the collagen matrix is essential for the preservation of long-term dentin bond strength, inhibition or inactivation of endogenous dentin proteases is necessary for durable resin-bonded composite resin restorations. Methods Dentin contains collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins, which are responsible for the hydrolytic degradation of collagen matrix in the bonded interface. Several tentative approaches to prevent enzyme function either directly or indirectly have been proposed in the literature. Results Chlorhexidine, a general inhibitor of both MMPs and cysteine cathepsins, applied before primer/adhesive application is the most tested method. In general, these experiments have shown that enzyme inhibition is a promising scheme to improve hybrid layer preservation and bond strength durability. Other enzyme inhibitors, e.g. enzyme-inhibiting monomers and antimicrobial compounds, may be considered promising alternatives that would allow more simple clinical application than chlorhexidine. Cross-linking collagen and/or dentin organic matrix-bound enzymes could render hybrid layer organic matrix resistant to degradation, and complete removal of water from the hybrid layer with ethanol wet bonding or biomimetic remineralization should eliminate hydrolysis of both collagen and resin components. Significance Identification of the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of hybrid layer collagen and understanding their function has prompted several innovative approaches to retain the hybrid layer integrity and strong dentin bonding. The ultimate goal, prevention of collagen matrix degradation with techniques and commercially available materials that are simple and effective in clinical settings may be achievable in

  5. Hybrid-Biocomposite Material for Corrosion Prevention in Pipeline: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, M. J.; Nik, W. B. Wan [Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu (Malaysia)

    2017-04-15

    One of the most challenging issues in the oil and gas industry is corrosion assessment and management in subsea structures or equipment. At present, almost all steel pipelines are sensitive to corrosion in harsh working environments, particularly in salty water and sulphur ingress media. Nowadays, the most commonly practiced solution for a damaged steel pipe is to entirely remove the pipe, to remove only a localized damaged section and then replace it with a new one, or to cover it with a steel patch through welding, respectively. Numerous literatures have shown that fiber-reinforced polymer-based composites can be effectively used for steel pipe repairs. Considerable research has also been carried out on the repair of corroded and gouged pipes incorporated with hybrid natural fiber-reinforced composite wraps. Currently, further research in the field should focus on enhanced use of the lesser and highly explored hybrid-biocomposite material for the development in corrosion prevention. A hybrid-biocomposite material from renewable resource based derivatives is cost-effective, abundantly available, biodegradable, and an environmentally benign alternative for corrosion prevention. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and to bridge the gap by developing a new hybrid-biocomposite with superhydrophobic surfaces.

  6. Impact of a widely cultivated tree (moringa oleifera) on the health of commercially important hybrid catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamu, K.M.; Ahmed, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Plantations of the tree Moringa oleifera often lead to increase levels of leaf dust in nearby freshwater environments, and there is concern that, this could have a negative impact on catfish, which are important for aquaculture. Therefore, this study, determined the biochemical alterations in serum, liver and kidney of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus ( ) Heterobranchus bidorsalis ( ) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. oleifera leaf dust in a static renewable bioassay system during a medium term exposure period. The fish (mean length, 16.33 cm, mean weight, 9.90 g) were exposed to 0.16, 0.12, 0.08, 0.04 and 0.00 mg/L concentrations of the plant leaf dust in triplicate exposure. After 21-days of exposure period, the fish were sacrificed for the biochemical parameters: glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, g-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Fish exposed to leaf dust showed significant differences (P 0.05), in the liver and kidney, respectively, in the test fish. Other parameters were not significantly different (P>0.05) in their respective tissue-organs. Ipso-facto, the alteration in biochemical parameters of hybrid catfish exposed to M. oleifera leaf dust was concentration dependent with 0.16 mg/L showing the highest negative alterations thus fish exposed to concentrations above 0.16 mg/L for longer durations may suffer impaired health effect. (author)

  7. Hybrid feedforward and feedback controller design for nuclear steam generators over wide range operation using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified model with a lower order is first developed for a nuclear steam generator system and verified against some realistic environments. Based on this simplified model, a hybrid multi-input and multi-out (MIMO) control system, consisting of feedforward control (FFC) and feedback control (FBC), is designed for wide range conditions by using the genetic algorithm (GA) technique. The FFC control, obtained by the GA optimization method, injects an a priori command input into the system to achieve an optimal performance for the designed system, while the GA-based FBC control provides the necessary compensation for any disturbances or uncertainties in a real steam generator. The FBC control is an optimal design of a PI-based control system which would be more acceptable for industrial practices and power plant control system upgrades. The designed hybrid MIMO FFC/FBC control system is first applied to the simplified model and then to a more complicated model with a higher order which is used as a substitute of the real system to test the efficacy of the designed control system. Results from computer simulations show that the designed GA-based hybrid MIMO FFC/FBC control can achieve good responses and robust performances. Hence, it can be considered as a viable alternative to the current control system upgrade

  8. On the origin of the sweet-smelling Parma violet cultivars (Violaceae): wide intraspecific hybridization, sterility, and sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malécot, Valéry; Marcussen, Thomas; Munzinger, Jérôme; Yockteng, Roxana; Henry, Max

    2007-01-01

    Parma violets are reputed for their double, fragrant flowers and have been cultivated for centuries in Europe. However, due to a rather atypical morphology their taxonomic affinity has not been clarified. Authors have proposed an origin from three possible species, Viola alba, V. odorata, or V. suavis, or a hybrid origin. Using both ITS sequence variation and allozyme variation in 14 putative loci, we showed that the Parma violet cultivars have their origin within Viola alba and that they are best included in the Mediterranean subsp. dehnhardtii. There is no trace of interspecific hybridization. However, the cultivars appear to have a single origin in a wide hybrid within V. alba, involving parental plants from the eastern and western Mediterranean region; historical literature sources seem to indicate Turkey and Italy, respectively. The Parma violet cultivars possess high levels of allozyme heterozygosity and to some extent also within-individual ITS sequence variation. Losses of heterozygosity and within-individual ITS sequence variation in some of the cultivars indicate subsequent rare events of sexual reproduction, presumably through cleistogamous seed set. We unambiguously identify the closest wild relative of this group of cultivars, allowing growers to develop new selection procedures, and show a peculiar molecular process associated with human selection.

  9. Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and RNA:DNA hybrid accumulation in Aicardi–Goutières syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yoong Wearn; Sanz, Lionel A; Xu, Xiaoqin; Hartono, Stella R; Chédin, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Aicardi–Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a severe childhood inflammatory disorder that shows clinical and genetic overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). AGS is thought to arise from the accumulation of incompletely metabolized endogenous nucleic acid species owing to mutations in nucleic acid-degrading enzymes TREX1 (AGS1), RNase H2 (AGS2, 3 and 4), and SAMHD1 (AGS5). However, the identity and source of such immunogenic nucleic acid species remain undefined. Using genome-wide approaches, we show that fibroblasts from AGS patients with AGS1-5 mutations are burdened by excessive loads of RNA:DNA hybrids. Using MethylC-seq, we show that AGS fibroblasts display pronounced and global loss of DNA methylation and demonstrate that AGS-specific RNA:DNA hybrids often occur within DNA hypomethylated regions. Altogether, our data suggest that RNA:DNA hybrids may represent a common immunogenic form of nucleic acids in AGS and provide the first evidence of epigenetic perturbations in AGS, furthering the links between AGS and SLE. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08007.001 PMID:26182405

  10. Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and RNA:DNA hybrid accumulation in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yoong Wearn; Sanz, Lionel A; Xu, Xiaoqin; Hartono, Stella R; Chédin, Frédéric

    2015-07-16

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a severe childhood inflammatory disorder that shows clinical and genetic overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). AGS is thought to arise from the accumulation of incompletely metabolized endogenous nucleic acid species owing to mutations in nucleic acid-degrading enzymes TREX1 (AGS1), RNase H2 (AGS2, 3 and 4), and SAMHD1 (AGS5). However, the identity and source of such immunogenic nucleic acid species remain undefined. Using genome-wide approaches, we show that fibroblasts from AGS patients with AGS1-5 mutations are burdened by excessive loads of RNA:DNA hybrids. Using MethylC-seq, we show that AGS fibroblasts display pronounced and global loss of DNA methylation and demonstrate that AGS-specific RNA:DNA hybrids often occur within DNA hypomethylated regions. Altogether, our data suggest that RNA:DNA hybrids may represent a common immunogenic form of nucleic acids in AGS and provide the first evidence of epigenetic perturbations in AGS, furthering the links between AGS and SLE.

  11. Pressure ulcer prevalence and perceptions on prevention: a hospital-wide survey of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alison L; Walia, Gurjot S; Bello, Ricardo; Aquino, Carla S; Sacks, Justin M

    2018-04-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) remain a problem despite numerous prevention initiatives. To understand why, it is necessary to know health professionals' perceptions regarding the importance of prevention, and the usability of current initiatives. We hypothesised that positive perceptions of existing initiatives would not be correlated with low HAPU prevalence, and that health professionals would perceive the initiatives to have a low usability. A two-part, online survey was developed and distributed electronically to nurses, in-training physicians and attending physicians, across all inpatient and perioperative departments of an academic hospital. Part one of the survey was the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Staff Attitude Scale on beliefs regarding PU prevention; part two was additional questions on the usability of existing preventative initiatives. The results of the survey were compared with quarterly HAPU prevalence data by hospital unit. In total, 839 health professionals completed the survey (579 nurses, 131 residents, 119 attending physicians). The mean score for the AHRQ survey was 42.5 (≥40 denoting positive perceptions). There was a moderate correlation between AHRQ scores and prevalence of HAPUs (r=-0.60, p=0.402). For usability, repositioning was felt to be the most effective intervention (mean: 4.54, standard deviation (SD): 0.64), while educational posters were felt to be the least effective (mean: 3.31, SD: 0.99). Respondents generally rated satisfaction much lower, with no single initiative significantly better than the others (range: 3.21-3.79). Perceived effectiveness and satisfaction were all positively correlated. High HAPU prevalence, despite position perceptions, suggests that prevention methods are not as effective as thought, or they are not being used as widely as they should. Further research should take advantage of positive attitudes by prospectively investigating the usability of novel interventions.

  12. A low power wide-band CMOS PLL frequency synthesizer for portable hybrid GNSS receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Shimao; Yu Yunfeng; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin Ming, E-mail: xiaoshimao@casic.ac.c [Hangzhou Zhongke Microelectronics Co Ltd, Hangzhou 310053 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The design consideration and implementation of a CMOS frequency synthesizer for the portable hybrid global navigation satellite system are presented. The large tuning range is achieved by tuning curve compensation using an improved VCO resonant tank, which reduces the power consumption and obtains better phase noise performance. The circuit is validated by simulations and fabricated in a standard 0.18 {mu}m 1P6M CMOS process. Close-loop phase noise measured is lower than -95 dBc at 200 kHz offset while the measured tuning range is 21.5% from 1.47 to 1.83 GHz. The proposed synthesizer including source coupled logic prescaler consumes 6.2 mA current from 1.8 V supply. The whole silicon required is only 0.53 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Efficacy of a rubber outsole with a hybrid surface pattern for preventing slips on icy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Hsu, Jennifer; Li, Yue; Maki, Brian E

    2015-11-01

    Conventional winter-safety footwear devices, such as crampons, can be effective in preventing slips on icy surfaces but the protruding studs can lead to other problems such as trips. A new hybrid (rough and smooth) rubber outsole was designed to provide high slip resistance without use of protruding studs or asperities. In the present study, we examined the slip resistance of the hybrid rubber outsole on both dry (-10 °C) and wet (0 °C) icy surfaces, in comparison to three conventional strap-on winter anti-slip devices: 1) metal coils ("Yaktrax Walker"), 2) gritted (sandpaper-like) straps ("Rough Grip"), and 3) crampons ("Altagrips-Lite"). Drag tests were performed to measure static (SCOF) and dynamic (DCOF) coefficients of friction, and gait trials were conducted on both level and sloped ice surfaces (16 participants). The drag-test results showed relatively high SCOF (≧0.37) and DCOF (≧0.31) values for the hybrid rubber sole, at both temperatures. The other three footwear types exhibited lower DCOF values (0.06-0.20) when compared with the hybrid rubber sole at 0 °C (p footwear types, when descending a slope at -10 °C (6% of trials vs 0%; p footwear-related differences in slip frequency, distance or velocity. These results indicate that the slip-resistance of the hybrid rubber sole on icy surfaces was comparable to conventional anti-slip footwear devices. Given the likely advantages of the hybrid rubber sole (less susceptibility to tripping, better slip resistance on non-icy surfaces), this type of sole should contribute to a decrease in fall accidents; however, further research is needed to confirm its effectiveness under a wider range of test conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. School outcomes of a community-wide intervention model aimed at preventing problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøbli, John; Sørlie, Mari-Anne

    2008-08-01

    The Early Intervention for Children at Risk for Developing Behavioral Problems (EICR) is a community-wide intervention model preventing and treating problem behavior and promoting social competence in children. The aim of the study was to test whether EICR would result in fewer incidences of problem behavior and improved learning climate in elementary schools in a Norwegian municipality. The municipality was divided in two, each section having equal chance of being assigned to the intervention condition. Participants were principals and school staff. One year after the initiation of EICR, the prevalence of student problem behavior was significantly lower, and student relations were significantly better for schools located in the intervention area than for schools located in the comparison area. The findings support further development, implementation and research on the EICR model.

  15. Principles of Sustainable Prevention: Designing Scale-Up of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support to Promote Durable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Filter, Kevin J.; Bennett, Joanna L.; Ryan, Charlotte; Sugai, George

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), an approach to building protective school cultures and preventing the development of problem behavior through instruction, environmental redesign, and attention to systems-level variables. We define the critical features of SWPBS within a prevention science…

  16. Modeling additive and non-additive effects in a hybrid population using genome-wide genotyping: prediction accuracy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, J-M; Makouanzi, G; Cros, D; Vigneron, Ph

    2016-02-01

    Hybrids are broadly used in plant breeding and accurate estimation of variance components is crucial for optimizing genetic gain. Genome-wide information may be used to explore models designed to assess the extent of additive and non-additive variance and test their prediction accuracy for the genomic selection. Ten linear mixed models, involving pedigree- and marker-based relationship matrices among parents, were developed to estimate additive (A), dominance (D) and epistatic (AA, AD and DD) effects. Five complementary models, involving the gametic phase to estimate marker-based relationships among hybrid progenies, were developed to assess the same effects. The models were compared using tree height and 3303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 1130 cloned individuals obtained via controlled crosses of 13 Eucalyptus urophylla females with 9 Eucalyptus grandis males. Akaike information criterion (AIC), variance ratios, asymptotic correlation matrices of estimates, goodness-of-fit, prediction accuracy and mean square error (MSE) were used for the comparisons. The variance components and variance ratios differed according to the model. Models with a parent marker-based relationship matrix performed better than those that were pedigree-based, that is, an absence of singularities, lower AIC, higher goodness-of-fit and accuracy and smaller MSE. However, AD and DD variances were estimated with high s.es. Using the same criteria, progeny gametic phase-based models performed better in fitting the observations and predicting genetic values. However, DD variance could not be separated from the dominance variance and null estimates were obtained for AA and AD effects. This study highlighted the advantages of progeny models using genome-wide information.

  17. Genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) reveals cis- and trans-effects on gene expression in maize hybrid meristem tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mei; Yang, Sean; Rupe, Mary; Hu, Bin; Bickel, David R; Arthur, Lane; Smith, Oscar

    2008-03-01

    Allelic differences in expression are important genetic factors contributing to quantitative trait variation in various organisms. However, the extent of genome-wide allele-specific expression by different modes of gene regulation has not been well characterized in plants. In this study we developed a new methodology for allele-specific expression analysis by applying Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS), an open ended and sequencing based mRNA profiling technology. This methodology enabled a genome-wide evaluation of cis- and trans-effects on allelic expression in six meristem stages of the maize hybrid. Summarization of data from nearly 400 pairs of MPSS allelic signature tags showed that 60% of the genes in the hybrid meristems exhibited differential allelic expression. Because both alleles are subjected to the same trans-acting factors in the hybrid, the data suggest the abundance of cis-regulatory differences in the genome. Comparing the same allele expressed in the hybrid versus its inbred parents showed that 40% of the genes were differentially expressed, suggesting different trans-acting effects present in different genotypes. Such trans-acting effects may result in gene expression in the hybrid different from allelic additive expression. With this approach we quantified gene expression in the hybrid relative to its inbred parents at the allele-specific level. As compared to measuring total transcript levels, this study provides a new level of understanding of different modes of gene regulation in the hybrid and the molecular basis of heterosis.

  18. Piloting proactive marketing to recruit disadvantaged adults to a community-wide obesity prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John

    2015-03-30

    Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist

  19. Extension of Type 2 Diabetes Genome-Wide Association Scan Results in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allan F.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Saxena, Richa; Pollin, Toni I.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Knowler, William C.; Altshuler, David; Florez, Jose C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Genome-wide association scans (GWASs) have identified novel diabetes-associated genes. We evaluated how these variants impact diabetes incidence, quantitative glycemic traits, and response to preventive interventions in 3,548 subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), which examined the effects of lifestyle intervention, metformin, and troglitazone versus placebo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near diabetes-associated loci, including EXT2, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, IGF2BP2, HHEX, LOC387761, and SLC30A8 in DPP participants and performed Cox regression analyses using genotype, intervention, and their interactions as predictors of diabetes incidence. We evaluated their effect on insulin resistance and secretion at 1 year. RESULTS— None of the selected SNPs were associated with increased diabetes incidence in this population. After adjustments for ethnicity, baseline insulin secretion was lower in subjects with the risk genotype at HHEX rs1111875 (P = 0.01); there were no significant differences in baseline insulin sensitivity. Both at baseline and at 1 year, subjects with the risk genotype at LOC387761 had paradoxically increased insulin secretion; adjustment for self-reported ethnicity abolished these differences. In ethnicity-adjusted analyses, we noted a nominal differential improvement in β-cell function for carriers of the protective genotype at CDKN2A/B after 1 year of troglitazone treatment (P = 0.01) and possibly lifestyle modification (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS— We were unable to replicate the GWAS findings regarding diabetes risk in the DPP. We did observe genotype associations with differences in baseline insulin secretion at the HHEX locus and a possible pharmacogenetic interaction at CDKNA2/B. PMID:18544707

  20. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales

  1. Para-allopatry in hybridizing fire-bellied toads (Bombina bombina and B. variegata): Inference from transcriptome-wide coalescence analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nürnberger, Beate; Fijarczyk, A.; Lohse, K.; Szymura, J. M.; Blaxter, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 8 (2016), s. 1803-1818 ISSN 0014-3820 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ecological speciation * genome-wide coalescence * hybrid zone * introgression * RNA-seq. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.201, year: 2016

  2. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  3. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events based on Improved Impedance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...

  4. Rapid fixation of non-native alleles revealed by genome-wide SNP analysis of hybrid tiger salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer H Bradley

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid zones represent valuable opportunities to observe evolution in systems that are unusually dynamic and where the potential for the origin of novelty and rapid adaptation co-occur with the potential for dysfunction. Recently initiated hybrid zones are particularly exciting evolutionary experiments because ongoing natural selection on novel genetic combinations can be studied in ecological time. Moreover, when hybrid zones involve native and introduced species, complex genetic patterns present important challenges for conservation policy. To assess variation of admixture dynamics, we scored a large panel of markers in five wild hybrid populations formed when Barred Tiger Salamanders were introduced into the range of California Tiger Salamanders. Results At three of 64 markers, introduced alleles have largely displaced native alleles within the hybrid populations. Another marker (GNAT1 showed consistent heterozygote deficits in the wild, and this marker was associated with embryonic mortality in laboratory F2's. Other deviations from equilibrium expectations were idiosyncratic among breeding ponds, consistent with highly stochastic demographic effects. Conclusion While most markers retain native and introduced alleles in expected proportions, strong selection appears to be eliminating native alleles at a smaller set of loci. Such rapid fixation of alleles is detectable only in recently formed hybrid zones, though it might be representative of dynamics that frequently occur in nature. These results underscore the variable and mosaic nature of hybrid genomes and illustrate the potency of recombination and selection in promoting variable, and often unpredictable genetic outcomes. Introgression of a few, strongly selected introduced alleles should not necessarily affect the conservation status of California Tiger Salamanders, but suggests that genetically pure populations of this endangered species will be difficult to

  5. Rapid fixation of non-native alleles revealed by genome-wide SNP analysis of hybrid tiger salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Johnson, Jarrett R; Kump, D Kevin; Shaffer, H Bradley; Smith, Jeramiah J; Voss, S Randal

    2009-07-24

    Hybrid zones represent valuable opportunities to observe evolution in systems that are unusually dynamic and where the potential for the origin of novelty and rapid adaptation co-occur with the potential for dysfunction. Recently initiated hybrid zones are particularly exciting evolutionary experiments because ongoing natural selection on novel genetic combinations can be studied in ecological time. Moreover, when hybrid zones involve native and introduced species, complex genetic patterns present important challenges for conservation policy. To assess variation of admixture dynamics, we scored a large panel of markers in five wild hybrid populations formed when Barred Tiger Salamanders were introduced into the range of California Tiger Salamanders. At three of 64 markers, introduced alleles have largely displaced native alleles within the hybrid populations. Another marker (GNAT1) showed consistent heterozygote deficits in the wild, and this marker was associated with embryonic mortality in laboratory F2's. Other deviations from equilibrium expectations were idiosyncratic among breeding ponds, consistent with highly stochastic demographic effects. While most markers retain native and introduced alleles in expected proportions, strong selection appears to be eliminating native alleles at a smaller set of loci. Such rapid fixation of alleles is detectable only in recently formed hybrid zones, though it might be representative of dynamics that frequently occur in nature. These results underscore the variable and mosaic nature of hybrid genomes and illustrate the potency of recombination and selection in promoting variable, and often unpredictable genetic outcomes. Introgression of a few, strongly selected introduced alleles should not necessarily affect the conservation status of California Tiger Salamanders, but suggests that genetically pure populations of this endangered species will be difficult to maintain.

  6. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  7. Why We Need Evidence-Based, Community-Wide Approaches for Prevention of Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Wanda D; Warner, Lee; Kappeler, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    Teen pregnancy and childbearing have declined over the past two decades to historic lows. The most recent declines have occurred during a time of coordinated national efforts focused on teen pregnancy. This article highlights a federal partnership to reduce teen pregnancy through the implementation of innovative, evidence-based approaches in affected communities, with a focus on reaching African-American and Latino/Hispanic youth. This initiative has the potential to transform the design and implementation of future teen pregnancy prevention efforts and provide a model that can be replicated in communities across the nation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of allele frequency change in sunflower crop-wild hybrid populations evolving under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization is known to occur between cultivated and wild populations of numerous plant species. This represents a major mechanism by which a wild population’s genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics could be altered. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assess...

  9. Study of Antibacterial Efficacy of Hybrid Chitosan-Silver Nanoparticles for Prevention of Specific Biofilm and Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs deposited alternatively layer by layer (LBL on chitosan polymer in the form of a thin film over a quartz plate and stainless steel strip has been studied. An eight-bilayer chitosan/silver (Cs/Ag8 hybrid was prepared having a known concentration of silver. Techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were carried out to understand and elucidate the physical nature of the film. Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli, were used as a test sample in saline solution for antibacterial studies. The growth inhibition at different intervals of contact time and, more importantly, the antibacterial properties of the hybrid film on repeated cycling in saline solution have been demonstrated. AFM studies are carried out for the first time on the microbe to know the morphological changes affected by the hybrid film. The hybrid films on aging (3 months are found to be as bioactive as before. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated good biocompatibility. The hybrid can be a promising bioactive material for the prevention of biofilms specific to E. coli and in purification of water for safe drinking.

  10. A hybrid Constraint Programming/Mixed Integer Programming framework for the preventive signaling maintenance crew scheduling problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pour, Shahrzad M.; Drake, John H.; Ejlertsen, Lena Secher

    2017-01-01

    A railway signaling system is a complex and interdependent system which should ensure the safe operation of trains. We introduce and address a mixed integer optimisation model for the preventive signal maintenance crew scheduling problem in the Danish railway system. The problem contains many...... practical constraints, such as temporal dependencies between crew schedules, the splitting of tasks across multiple days, crew competency requirements and several other managerial constraints. We propose a novel hybrid framework using Constraint Programming (CP) to generate initial feasible solutions...

  11. Stakeholder Education for Community-Wide Health Initiatives: A Focus on Teen Pregnancy Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Cara; Suellentrop, Katherine; Griesse, Rebecca; House, Lawrence Duane; Brittain, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Teen pregnancies and births continue to decline due in part to implementation of evidence-based interventions and clinical strategies. While local stakeholder education is also thought to be critical to this success, little is known about what types of strategies work best to engage stakeholders. With the goal of identifying and describing evidence-based or best practice strategies for stakeholder education in community-based public health initiatives, we conducted a systematic literature review of strategies used for effective stakeholder education. Over 400 articles were initially retrieved; 59 articles met inclusion criteria. Strategies were grouped into four steps that communities can use to support stakeholder education efforts: identify stakeholder needs and resources, develop a plan, develop tailored and compelling messaging, and use implementation strategies. These strategies lay a framework for high-quality stakeholder education. In future research, it is important to prioritize evaluating specific activities taken to raise awareness, educate, and engage a community in community-wide public health efforts.

  12. N-Doped Hybrid Graphene and Boron Nitride Armchair Nanoribbons As Nonmagnetic Semiconductors with Widely Tunable Electronic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Razieh; Kashi, Eslam; Vazirib, Raheleh

    2018-03-01

    The electronic and chemical properties of N-doped hybrid graphene and boron nitride armchair nanoribbons (N-doped a-GBNNRs) in comparison with graphene armchair nanoribbon (pristine a-GNR) and hybrid graphene and boron nitride armchair nanoribbon (C-3BN) are investigated using the density functional theory method. The results show that all the mentioned nanoribbons are nonmagnetic direct semiconductors and all the graphitic N-doped a-GBNNRs are n-type semiconductors while the rest are p-type semiconductors. The N-doped graphitic 2 and N-doped graphitic 3 structures have the lowest work function and the highest number of valence electrons (Lowdin charges) which confirms that they are effective for use in electronic device applications.

  13. High power and widely tunable Si hybrid external-cavity laser for power efficient Si photonics WDM links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hyoung; Shubin, Ivan; Yao, Jin; Bickford, Justin; Luo, Ying; Lin, Shiyun; Djordjevic, Stevan S; Thacker, Hiren D; Cunningham, John E; Raj, Kannan; Zheng, Xuezhe; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2014-04-07

    A highly efficient silicon (Si) hybrid external cavity laser with a wavelength tunable ring reflector is fabricated on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible Si-on-insulator (SOI) platform and experimental results with high output power are demonstrated. A III-V semiconductor gain chip is edge-coupled into a SOI cavity chip through a SiN(x) spot size converter and Si grating couplers are incorporated to enable wafer-scale characterization. The laser output power reaches 20 mW and the highest wall-plug efficiency of 7.8% is measured at 17.3 mW in un-cooled condition. The laser wavelength tuning ranges are 8 nm for the single ring reflector cavity and 35 nm for the vernier ring reflector cavity, respectively. The Si hybrid laser is a promising light source for energy-efficient Si CMOS photonic links.

  14. Combined Confocal and Wide-Field High-Resolution Cytometry of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization-Stained Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozubek, Michal; Kozubek, Stanislav; Lukášová, Emilie; Bártová, Eva; Skalníková, M.; Matula, Pa.; Matula, Pe.; Jirsová, Pavla; Cafourková, Alena; Koutná, Irena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2001), s. 1-12 ISSN 0196-4763 R&D Projects: GA MŠk VS97031; GA ČR GA202/99/P008; GA AV ČR IBS5004010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : high-resolution cytometry * fluorescence in situ hybridization * interphase nuclei Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.220, year: 2001

  15. Diarylpyrimidine-dihydrobenzyloxopyrimidine hybrids: new, wide-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents active at (sub)-nanomolar level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotili, Dante; Tarantino, Domenico; Artico, Marino; Nawrozkij, Maxim B; Gonzalez-Ortega, Emmanuel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Samuele, Alberta; Esté, José A; Maga, Giovanni; Mai, Antonello

    2011-04-28

    Here, we describe a novel small series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that combine peculiar structural features of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) and dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidines (DABOs). These DAPY-DABO hybrids (1-4) showed a characteristic SAR profile and a nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity at both enzymatic and cellular level. In particular, the two compounds 4d and 2d, with a (sub)nanomolar activity against wild-type and clinically relevant HIV-1 mutant strains, were selected as lead compounds for next optimization studies.

  16. Preventing Tax arbitrage via Hybrid Mismatches: BEPS Action 2 and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzniacki, Blazej; Turina, Alessandro; Dubut, Thomas; Mazz, Addy; Quiñones, Natalia; Schoueri, Luís Eduardo; West, Craig; Pistone, Pasquale; Zimmer, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) under Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Action 2 indicated that tax arbitrage via hybrid mismatch arrangements "result in a substantial erosion of the taxable bases of the countries concerned" and "have an overall negative impact on competition, efficiency, transparency and fairness." The relevant action allowing for neutralising the effects of hybrid mismatch arrangements is therefore needed and justified. To ...

  17. Linkage of cDNA expression profiles of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons to a genome-wide in situ hybridization database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Horst H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are involved in control of emotion, motivation and motor behavior. The loss of one of the subpopulations, substantia nigra pars compacta, is the pathological hallmark of one of the most prominent neurological disorders, Parkinson's disease. Several groups have looked at the molecular identity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and have suggested the gene expression profile of these neurons. Here, after determining the efficiency of each screen, we provide a linked database of the genes, expressed in this neuronal population, by combining and comparing the results of six previous studies and verification of expression of each gene in dopaminergic neurons, using the collection of in situ hybridization in the Allen Brain Atlas.

  18. From genome-wide association studies to Mendelian randomization: Novel opportunities for understanding cardiovascular disease causality, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2018-02-19

    The Mendelian randomization approach is an epidemiologic study design incorporating genetic information into traditional epidemiologic studies to infer causality of biomarkers, risk factors, or lifestyle factors on disease risk. Mendelian randomization studies often draw on novel information generated in genome-wide association studies on causal associations between genetic variants and a risk factor or lifestyle factor. Such information can then be used in a largely unconfounded study design free of reverse causation to understand if and how risk factors and lifestyle factors cause cardiovascular disease. If causation is demonstrated, an opportunity for prevention of disease is identified; importantly however, before prevention or treatment can be implemented, randomized intervention trials altering risk factor levels or improving deleterious lifestyle factors needs to document reductions in cardiovascular disease in a safe and side-effect sparse manner. Documentation of causality can also inform on potential drug targets, more likely to be successful than prior approaches often relying on animal or cell studies mainly.The present review summarizes the history and background of Mendelian randomization, the study design, assumptions for using the design, and the most common caveats, followed by a discussion on advantages and disadvantages of different types of Mendelian randomization studies using one or more samples and different levels of information on study participants. The review also provides an overview of results on many of the risk factors and lifestyle factors for cardiovascular disease examined to date using the Mendelian randomization study design.

  19. A wide area Bipolar Cascade Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode for a Hybrid Range-Intensity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Reginald J.

    Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) will require high-speed, real-time three dimensional (3-D) image processing to navigate treacherous terrain in order to complete their assigned mission without a human in the loop. LIDAR scanners of the 3-D variety, provide the necessary area coverage for 3-D image processing, but lack the speed to deliver the collected data for real-time processing. A novel Hybrid Range-Intensity System (HRIS) has been proposed for imaging large swaths of area very rapidly. This system is comprised of two infrared cameras, an illumination source, a control and coordination system to position the cameras, and signal processing algorithms to extract the contour image of the scene. This dissertation focused on the development of an illuminator for the HRIS. This illuminator enables faster image rendering and reduces the potential of errors in return signal data, that could be generated from extremely rough terrain. Four major achievements resulted from this work, which advance the field of 3-D image acquisition. The first is that the TJ is an effective current spreading layer for LEDs with mesa width up to 140 mum and current densities of ˜ 1 x 106A/cm2. The TJ allows fabrication of an efficient illuminator, with required geometry for the HRIS to operate as a real-time 3-D imaging system. Secondly, a design for a Bipolar Cascade-Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode (BC-RCLED) has been accomplished, that will illuminate the FOV of the hybrid-ranged intensity system with a single sweep of the beam. This device is capable of producing ˜ 330 mW of output power. Additionally, from this work, key parameters for HRIS design were identified. Using a collection optic with a 15 cm diameter, an HRIS mounting height of 1.5 m, and a detector integration time of 330 msec, a SNR of 20 dB was achieved. Lastly, we demonstrated that the BC-RCLED designed for the HRIS can deliver sufficient energy to produce the required SNR. Also, through parametric analysis, we

  20. Modeling protective anti-tumor immunity via preventative cancer vaccines using a hybrid agent-based and delay differential equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter S; Lee, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    A next generation approach to cancer envisions developing preventative vaccinations to stimulate a person's immune cells, particularly cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), to eliminate incipient tumors before clinical detection. The purpose of our study is to quantitatively assess whether such an approach would be feasible, and if so, how many anti-cancer CTLs would have to be primed against tumor antigen to provide significant protection. To understand the relevant dynamics, we develop a two-compartment model of tumor-immune interactions at the tumor site and the draining lymph node. We model interactions at the tumor site using an agent-based model (ABM) and dynamics in the lymph node using a system of delay differential equations (DDEs). We combine the models into a hybrid ABM-DDE system and investigate dynamics over a wide range of parameters, including cell proliferation rates, tumor antigenicity, CTL recruitment times, and initial memory CTL populations. Our results indicate that an anti-cancer memory CTL pool of 3% or less can successfully eradicate a tumor population over a wide range of model parameters, implying that a vaccination approach is feasible. In addition, sensitivity analysis of our model reveals conditions that will result in rapid tumor destruction, oscillation, and polynomial rather than exponential decline in the tumor population due to tumor geometry.

  1. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  2. A Genome Wide Comparison to Identify Markers to Differentiate the Sex of Larval Stages of Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma bovis and their Respective Hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Kincaid-Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For scientists working on gonochoric organisms, determining sex can be crucial for many biological questions and experimental studies, such as crossbreeding, but it can also be a challenging task, particularly when no sexual dimorphism is visible or cannot be directly observed. In metazoan parasites of the genus Schistosoma responsible for schistosomiasis, sex is genetically determined in the zygote with a female heterogametic ZW/ZZ system. Adult flukes have a pronounced sexual dimorphism, whereas the sexes of the larval stages are morphologically indistinguishable but can be distinguished uniquely by using molecular methods. Therefore, reliable methods are needed to identify the sex of larvae individuals. Here, we present an endpoint PCR-based assay using female-specific sequences identified using a genome-wide comparative analysis between males and females. This work allowed us to identify sex-markers for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis but also the hybrid between both species that has recently emerged in Corsica (France. Five molecular sex-markers were identified and are female-specific in S. haematobium and the hybrid parasite, whereas three of them are also female-specific in S. bovis. These molecular markers will be useful to conduct studies, such as experimental crosses on these disease-causing blood flukes, which are still largely neglected but no longer restricted to tropical areas.

  3. Hybrid forum or network? The social and political construction of an international 'technical consultation': male circumcision and HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giami, Alain; Perrey, Christophe; Mendonça, André Luiz de Oliveira; de Camargo, Kenneth Rochel

    2015-01-01

    The technical consultation in Montreux, organised by World Health Organization and UNAIDS in 2007, recommended male circumcision as a method for preventing HIV transmission. This consultation came out of a long process of releasing reports and holding international and regional conferences, a process steered by an informal network. This network's relations with other parties is analysed along with its way of working and the exchanges during the technical consultation that led up to the formal adoption of a recommendation. Conducted in relation to the concepts of a 'hybrid forum' and 'network', this article shows that the decision was based on the formation and consolidation of a network of persons. They were active in all phases of this process, ranging from studies of the recommendation's efficacy, feasibility and acceptability to its adoption and implementation. In this sense, this consultation cannot be described as the constitution of a 'hybrid forum', which is characterised by its openness to a debate as well as a plurality of issues formulated by the actors and of resources used by them. On the contrary, little room was allowed for contradictory discussions, as if the decision had already been made before the Montreux consultation.

  4. The high Andes, gene flow and a stable hybrid zone shape the genetic structure of a wide-ranging South American parrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer H Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Andes (here up to 6,900 m may constitute a formidable barrier to dispersal. In addition, this region was affected by cycles of intercalating arid/moist periods during the Upper/Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These factors may have been crucial in driving the phylogeographic structure of the vertebrate fauna of the region. Here we test these hypotheses in the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves, Psittaciformes across its wide distributional range in Chile and Argentina. Results Our data show a Chilean origin for this species, with a single migration event across the Andes during the Upper/Late Pleistocene, which gave rise to all extant Argentinean mitochondrial lineages. Analyses suggest a complex population structure for burrowing parrots in Argentina, which includes a hybrid zone that has remained stable for several thousand years. Within this zone, introgression by expanding haplotypes has resulted in the evolution of an intermediate phenotype. Multivariate regressions show that present day climatic variables have a strong influence on the distribution of genetic heterogeneity, accounting for almost half of the variation in the data. Conclusions Here we show how huge barriers like the Andes and the regional environmental conditions imposed constraints on the ability of a parrot species to colonise new habitats, affecting the way in which populations diverged and thus, genetic structure. When contact between divergent populations was re-established, a stable hybrid zone was formed, functioning as a channel for genetic exchange between populations.

  5. Promoting Positive Peer Relationships among Youths: A Study Examining the Effects of a Class-Wide Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, James Allen, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has revealed deleterious psychosocial consequences for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Programs aimed at preventing bullying have largely revealed limited positive outcomes. Efforts that have been associated with positive results have drawn from the social-ecological model, focusing on the constellation of individual…

  6. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support and Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Implications for Prevention, Identification and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Jones, Stacey E. L.; Horner, Robert H.; Sugai, George

    2010-01-01

    Special education continues to document the poor within and post-school outcomes among children and youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (EBD). While the poor outcomes are due to a myriad of causes, three issues routinely emerge as problematic in the field. First, the need for early intervention and prevention has been well documented, and…

  7. Risk Prevention of Spreading Emerging Infectious Diseases Using a HybridCrowdsensing Paradigm, Optical Sensors, and Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry

    2018-04-10

    The risk of spreading diseases within (ad-hoc)crowds and the need to pervasively screen asymptomatic individuals to protect the population against emerging infectious diseases, request permanentcrowd surveillance., particularly in high-risk regions. Thecase of Ebola epidemic in West Africa in recent years has shown the need for pervasive screening. The trend today in diseases surveillance is consisting of epidemiological data collection about emerging infectious diseases using social media, wearable sensors systems, or mobile applications and data analysis. This approach presents various limitations. This paper proposes a novel approach for diseases monitoring and risk prevention of spreading infectious diseases. The proposed approach, aiming at overcoming the limitation of existing disease surveillance approaches, combines the hybrid crowdsensing paradigm with sensing individuals' bio-signals using optical sensors for monitoring any risks of spreading emerging infectious diseases in any (ad-hoc) crowds. A proof-of-concept has been performed using a drone armed with a cat s60 smartphone featuring a Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) camera. According to the results of the conducted experiment, the concept has the potential to improve the conventional epidemiological data collection. The measurement is reliable, and the recorded data are valid. The measurement error rates are about 8%.

  8. Prevention of demoralization in prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction: the role of cultural receptors II - genesis of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this article is to show that bicultural hybridization for the prevention of demoralization is anchored on the discovery of certain thematic areas (cultural receptors) in which social roles or cultural mandates are missing, unclear, ambiguous or congruent. The specific setting is the history of Goa, a former Portuguese territory on the western coast of India. Both published and unpublished sources of information were studied. Education, occupation and income, the three dimensions of social class, were less dominant than other aspects of the Hindu caste system, such as birth into a group viewed as a caste, observance of marriage circles, regulations of kinship and inheritance, and identification with a location. These other aspects were preserved as much as possible. The result was the conversion of the caste system into a system more akin to social class. Other examples of cultural receptors were found. A key step in the adaptation to acculturative stress is the discovery of cultural receptors in both cultures and the development of meaningful interconnections among those receptors. Psychotherapy attempts the restoration of morale. To be effective, therapists should consider the hierarchical organization of symbols and sentiments in the patient's culture.

  9. [Preventing cardiovascular diseases through a screening modelling applicable to wide population groups: results from the first phase of the project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Antonio; Cinquetti, Sandro; Moro, Alessandro; Siddu, Andrea; Trimarchi, Antonino; Penon, Maria Gabriella; Pavan, Pierpaolo; Camillotto, Raffaella; Rossetto, Luca; Volpe, Valter; Zevrain, Simone; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    evaluate, through active call, lifestyles of an asymptomatic population in order to identify hyperglycaemic subjects and/or high-blood pressure sufferers to dispatch to their GP to perform suitable checking, and subjects to invite to a cardiovascular disease prevention programme because of their lifestyles. between January 2009 and July 2012, all healthy residents in the Local Health Authority of Este (ULSS 17 Este) aged 45-59 years were invited to join a cardiovascular disease prevention programme. all participants were evaluated through an administered lifestyle questionnaire. Parameters such as blood pressure (BP), glycaemia, waist circumference and body mass index were collected and recorded. Participants also received counseling, informational materials on lifestyle and were invited to individual or group health promotion initiatives in relation to personal risk factors. among the invited, 55.5% (3,922/7,071) adhered. Women (58.8%) responded significantly better than men (51.9%) (p diseases.

  10. Comprehensive sector-wide strategies to prevent and control obesity: what are the potential health and broader societal benefits? A case study from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, James; Hector, Debra J; St George, Alexis; Pedisic, Zeljko; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Mitchell, Jo; Bellew, Bill

    2015-09-30

    Several countries have recently established multistakeholder strategies to prevent or control overweight and obesity; however, studies have not yet been done on their effectiveness and likely impact. This study's objectives were to (i) explore sector-wide benefits and impacts likely to accrue from implementing an obesity prevention strategy in the Australian state of New South Wales; (ii) discuss the wider implications of the findings for research and practice; and (iii) strengthen the case for sustained implementation of a comprehensive, intersectoral approach. A case study approach, including evidence reviews and illustrative epidemiological models, was used to show potential benefits from meeting selected targets and objectives specified in the strategy. For adults, improved health outcomes potentially include reductions in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, various cancers, osteoarthritis, infant mortality and healthcare costs. Potential benefits beyond the health sector involve disability payments, absenteeism, worker productivity, workplace injuries and insurance claims. For children and adolescents, improved health outcomes potentially include metabolic risk factors, dental health, prehypertension/hypertension, cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression, rates of mortality in hospitalised children, bullying and otitis media. Sector-wide health, social and economic benefits from successful implementation of multisector obesity prevention strategies are likely to be substantial if specified targets are achieved. Epidemiological modelling described in this paper for selected examples provides illustrative rather than comprehensive evidence for potential benefits. Process evaluation of the extent of implementation of these multisectoral strategies, together with the accumulated data on intervention effectiveness, will determine their potential population health benefit. Quantifying the health and social benefits that are likely to

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  12. Coverage of the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Three Widely Circulated United States Newspapers: Implications for Preparedness and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey H Basch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Widespread media attention about Ebola influences public aware-ness and interest, yet there is limited research on what aspects of Ebola have and have not been communicated through the media. Methods:We examined the nature and extent of coverage about Ebola in the three most widely circulated United States (U.S. daily newspapers. Between September 17, 2014 and October 17, 2014, 301 articles about Ebola in The New York Times, USA Today, and The Wall Street Journal were identified and cod-ed. Results:The most common topic was coverage of cases in the United States (39%, followed by the outbreak in Africa (33.6%. Conclusion:This is the first study to describe coverage of the Ebola epidemic in widely circulated U.S. newspapers. A substantial portion of the American public is concerned about being infected with Ebola virus disease (EVD. In this study, a large emphasis was placed on death tolls and the cases in the United States. Much more can be done to educate readers about relevant aspects of the Ebola epidemic, including how Ebola is and is not transmitted.

  13. Coverage of the ebola virus disease epidemic in three widely circulated United States newspapers: implications for preparedness and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Basch, Charles E; Redlener, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Widespread media attention about Ebola influences public awareness and interest, yet there is limited research on what aspects of Ebola have and have not been communicated through the media. We examined the nature and extent of coverage about Ebola in the three most widely circulated United States (U.S.) daily newspapers. Between September 17, 2014 and October 17, 2014, 301 articles about Ebola in The New York Times, USA Today, and The Wall Street Journal were identified and coded. The most common topic was coverage of cases in the United States (39%), followed by the outbreak in Africa (33.6%). This is the first study to describe coverage of the Ebola epidemic in widely circulated U.S. newspapers. A substantial portion of the American public is concerned about being infected with Ebola virus disease (EVD). In this study, a large emphasis was placed on death tolls and the cases in the United States. Much more can be done to educate readers about relevant aspects of the Ebola epidemic, including how Ebola is and is not transmitted.

  14. Dentin bonding performance and ability of four MMA-based adhesive resins to prevent demineralization along the hybrid layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurrohman, Hamid; Nikaido, Toru; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Waidyasekera, Kanchana; Kitayama, Shuzo; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the tensile bond durability and ability of four MMA-based adhesive resins to prevent demineralization along the hybrid layer when exposed to a demineralizing solution. A PMMA rod was bonded to human dentin using one of four MMA-based adhesive systems: Super-Bond C&B (SB), SBP-40TX (SBP, experimental), M-Bond (MB), and M-Bond II (MB II). Bonded specimens were sectioned into 0.9 mm x 0.9 mm beams and subjected to microtensile bond strength (µTBS) testing after water storage at 37°C for 24 h or 10,000 thermal cycles. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's t-test. Fracture mode analysis of the bonding interface was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and statistically analysed using the chi-square test. To disclose the demineralization inhibition potential through formation of an acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ), the bonded interface was exposed to a demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) for 90 min, and then 5% NaOCl for 20 min. After argon-ion etching, the interfacial ultrastructure was observed using an SEM. µTBS values without thermocycling were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among 4 adhesive resins. After thermocycling, a significant decrease in µTBS was found in MB and MB II (p 0.05). Failure modes were significantly different (p MMA-based adhesive resins. The ABRZ formation was only observed in the self-etching systems.

  15. Implementing Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy-Prevention Interventions in a Community-Wide Initiative: Building Capacity and Reaching Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, L Duane; Tevendale, Heather D; Martinez-Garcia, Genevieve

    2017-03-01

    To describe efforts to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) within multicomponent, community-wide initiatives to reduce teen pregnancy. During 2011-2014, we collected information about the capacity (i.e., knowledge, confidence, training, and experience) of state and community-based organizations to support implementation of the following: EBIs, number and characteristics of youth served by EBIs, type of EBIs implemented, EBI settings, hours of training, and technical assistance provided. State and community-based organizations reported these data annually; however, training and technical assistance was reported monthly. We used aggregated data from these annual and monthly reports to describe the implementation of EBIs in the community-wide initiative project. From baseline in 2011-2014, state and community-based organizations increased their capacities to support program partners in delivering EBIs. They provided 5,015 hours of technical assistance and training on topics, including ensuring adequate capacity, process and outcome evaluation, program planning, and continuous quality improvement. Program partners increased the number of youth reached by an EBI in targeted communities by 349%, from 4,304 in the first year of implementation in 2012 to 19,344 in 2014. Most youth in 2014 received sexuality education programs (59%), whereas smaller percentages received abstinence-based, youth development, and clinic-based programs. Most youth were reached through schools (72%) and community-based organizations (16%), and smaller numbers were reached in other settings (e.g., faith-based organizations, health centers). Building and monitoring the capacity of program partners to deliver EBIs through technical assistance and training is important. In addition, partnering with schools leads to reaching more youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward a genome-wide approach for detecting hybrids: informative SNPs to detect introgression between domestic cats and European wildcats (Felis silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Randi, E; Mattucci, F; Kurushima, J D; Lyons, L A; Alves, P C

    2015-09-01

    Endemic gene pools have been severely endangered by human-mediated hybridization, which is posing new challenges in the conservation of several vertebrate species. The endangered European wildcat is an example of this problem, as several natural populations are suffering introgression of genes from the domestic cat. The implementation of molecular methods for detecting hybridization is crucial for supporting appropriate conservation programs on the wildcat. In this study, genetic variation at 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was analyzed in 139 domestic cats, 130 putative European wildcats and 5 captive-bred hybrids (N=274). These SNPs were variable both in wild (HE=0.107) and domestic cats (HE=0.340). Although we did not find any SNP that was private in any population, 22 SNPs were monomorphic in wildcats and pairwise FCT values revealed marked differences between domestic and wildcats, with the most divergent 35 loci providing an average FCT>0.74. The power of all the loci to accurately identify admixture events and discriminate the different hybrid categories was evaluated. Results from simulated and real genotypes show that the 158 SNPs provide successful estimates of admixture, with 100% hybrid individuals (two to three generations in the past) being correctly identified in STRUCTURE and over 92% using the NEWHYBRIDS' algorithm. None of the unclassified cats were wrongly allocated to another hybrid class. Thirty-five SNPs, showing the highest FCT values, provided the most parsimonious panel for robust inferences of parental and first generations of admixed ancestries. This approach may be used to further reconstruct the evolution of wildcat populations and, hopefully, to develop sound conservation guidelines for its legal protection in Europe.

  17. EU protected area network did not prevent a country wide population decline in a threatened grassland bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João P; Correia, Ricardo; Alonso, Hany; Martins, Ricardo C; D'Amico, Marcello; Delgado, Ana; Sampaio, Hugo; Godinho, Carlos; Moreira, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of the Protected Area networks on the conservation status of target species. Here, we assess the effectiveness of the Portuguese Natura 2000 (the European Union network of protected areas) in maintaining a species included in the Annex I of the Bird Directive, namely the population of a priority farmland bird, the little bustard Tetrax tetrax . We measured the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 by comparing population trends across time (2003-2006 and 2016) in 51 areas, 21 of which within 12 Special Protection Areas (SPA) that were mostly designated for farmland bird conservation and another 30 areas without EU protection. Overall, the national population is estimated to have declined 49% over the last 10-14 years. This loss was found to be proportionally larger outside SPA (64% decline) compared to losses within SPA (25% decline). However, the absolute male density decline was significantly larger within SPA . In spite of holding higher population densities and having prevented habitat loss, we conclude that Natura 2000 was not effective in buffering against the overall bustard population decline. Results show that the mere designation of SPA in farmland is not enough to secure species populations and has to be combined with agricultural policies and investment to maintain not only habitat availability but also habitat quality.

  18. EU protected area network did not prevent a country wide population decline in a threatened grassland bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of the Protected Area networks on the conservation status of target species. Here, we assess the effectiveness of the Portuguese Natura 2000 (the European Union network of protected areas in maintaining a species included in the Annex I of the Bird Directive, namely the population of a priority farmland bird, the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. Methods We measured the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 by comparing population trends across time (2003–2006 and 2016 in 51 areas, 21 of which within 12 Special Protection Areas (SPA that were mostly designated for farmland bird conservation and another 30 areas without EU protection. Results Overall, the national population is estimated to have declined 49% over the last 10–14 years. This loss was found to be proportionally larger outside SPA (64% decline compared to losses within SPA (25% decline. However, the absolute male density decline was significantly larger within SPA . Discussion In spite of holding higher population densities and having prevented habitat loss, we conclude that Natura 2000 was not effective in buffering against the overall bustard population decline. Results show that the mere designation of SPA in farmland is not enough to secure species populations and has to be combined with agricultural policies and investment to maintain not only habitat availability but also habitat quality.

  19. Hot Idea or Hot Air: A Systematic Review of Evidence for Two Widely Marketed Youth Suicide Prevention Programs and Recommendations for Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; LeBlanc, John C

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicide is highly related to mental disorders. While communities and schools are marketed to with a plethora of suicide prevention programs, they often lack the capacity to choose evidence-based programs. We conducted a systematic review of two youth suicide prevention programs to help determine if the quality of evidence available justifies their wide spread dissemination. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration SPECTR database, SocIndex, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, ERIC, Social Work Abstracts, Research Library, and Web of Science, for relevant studies. We included studies/systematic reviews/meta-analysis that evaluated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and/or safety of Signs of Suicide (SOS) and Yellow Ribbon (YR) suicide prevention programs that target adolescents. We applied the Office of Justice Program What Works Repository (OJP-R) to evaluate the quality of the included studies as effective, effective with reservation, promising, inconclusive evidence, insufficient evidence, and ineffective. Two SOS studies were ranked as "inconclusive evidence" based on the OJP-R. One SOS study was ranked as having "insufficient evidence" on OJP-R. The YR study was ranked as "ineffective" using OJP-R. We only included studies in peer-reviewed journals in English and therefore may have missed reports in grey literature or non-English publications. We cannot recommend that schools and communities implement either the SOS or YR suicide prevention programs. Purchasers of these programs should be aware that there is no evidence that their use prevents suicide. Academics and organizations should not overstate the positive impacts of suicide prevention interventions when the evidence is lacking.

  20. A wide bandwidth fractional-N synthesizer for LTE with phase noise cancellation using a hybrid-ΔΣ-DAC and charge re-timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, D.; Lu, Ping; Andreani, Pietro; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 1MHz bandwidth, ΔΣ fractional-N PLL as the frequency synthesizer for LTE. A noise cancellation path composed of a novel hybrid ΔΣ DAC with 9 output bits is incorporated into the PLL in order to cancel the out-of-band phase noise caused by the quantization error. Further, a

  1. Genome-wide architecture of reproductive isolation in a naturally occurring hybrid zone between Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, V.; Wang, L.; Luzynski, K.; Dufková, Petra; Mrkvicová Vyskočilová, Martina; Nachman, M. W.; Munclinger, P.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav; Tucker, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2012), s. 3032-3047 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : genomics * proteomics * hybridization * mammals * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.275, year: 2012

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  3. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  4. A genome-wide screen for ethylene-induced ethylene response factors (ERFs) in hybrid aspen stem identifies ERF genes that modify stem growth and wood properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahala, Jorma; Felten, Judith; Love, Jonathan; Gorzsás, András; Gerber, Lorenz; Lamminmäki, Airi; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Sundberg, Björn

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are a large family of transcription factors that mediate responses to ethylene. Ethylene affects many aspects of wood development and is involved in tension wood formation. Thus ERFs could be key players connecting ethylene action to wood development. We identified 170 gene models encoding ERFs in the Populus trichocarpa genome. The transcriptional responses of ERF genes to ethylene treatments were determined in stem tissues of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) by qPCR. Selected ethylene-responsive ERFs were overexpressed in wood-forming tissues and characterized for growth and wood chemotypes by FT-IR. Fifty ERFs in Populus showed more than five-fold increased transcript accumulation in response to ethylene treatments. Twenty-six ERFs were selected for further analyses. A majority of these were induced during tension wood formation. Overexpression of ERFs 18, 21, 30, 85 and 139 in wood-forming tissues of hybrid aspen modified the wood chemotype. Moreover, overexpression of ERF139 caused a dwarf-phenotype with altered wood development, and overexpression of ERF18, 34 and 35 slightly increased stem diameter. We identified ethylene-induced ERFs that respond to tension wood formation, and modify wood formation when overexpressed. This provides support for their role in ethylene-mediated regulation of wood development. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. A mixed methods protocol for developing and testing implementation strategies for evidence-based obesity prevention in childcare: a cluster randomized hybrid type III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren; Johnson, Susan L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Curran, Geoffrey M

    2017-07-18

    Despite the potential to reach at-risk children in childcare, there is a significant gap between current practices and evidence-based obesity prevention in this setting. There are few investigations of the impact of implementation strategies on the uptake of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for obesity prevention and nutrition promotion. This study protocol describes a three-phase approach to developing and testing implementation strategies to support uptake of EBPs for obesity prevention practices in childcare (i.e., key components of the WISE intervention). Informed by the i-PARIHS framework, we will use a stakeholder-driven evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) process to apply information gathered in qualitative interviews on barriers and facilitators to practice to inform the design of implementation strategies. Then, a Hybrid Type III cluster randomized trial will compare a basic implementation strategy (i.e., intervention as usual) with an enhanced implementation strategy informed by stakeholders. All Head Start centers (N = 12) within one agency in an urban area in a southern state in the USA will be randomized to receive the basic or enhanced implementation with approximately 20 classrooms per group (40 educators, 400 children per group). The educators involved in the study, the data collectors, and the biostastician will be blinded to the study condition. The basic and enhanced implementation strategies will be compared on outcomes specified by the RE-AIM model (e.g., Reach to families, Effectiveness of impact on child diet and health indicators, Adoption commitment of agency, Implementation fidelity and acceptability, and Maintenance after 6 months). Principles of formative evaluation will be used throughout the hybrid trial. This study will test a stakeholder-driven approach to improve implementation, fidelity, and maintenance of EBPs for obesity prevention in childcare. Further, this study provides an example of a systematic process to develop

  6. Hybrid Lyot coronagraph for wide-field infrared survey telescope-astrophysics focused telescope assets: occulter fabrication and high contrast narrowband testbed demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byoung-Joon; Gordon, Brian; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andy; Moody, Dwight; Muller, Richard; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Trauger, John; Wilson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Lyot coronagraph (HLC) is one of the two operating modes of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument. It produces starlight suppression over the full 360-deg annular region and thus is particularly suitable to improve the discovery space around WFIRST-AFTA targets. Since being selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in December 2013, the coronagraph technology is being matured to technology readiness level 5 by September 2016. We present the progress of HLC key component fabrication and testbed demonstrations with the WFIRST-AFTA pupil. For the first time, a circular HLC occulter mask consisting of metal and dielectric layers is fabricated and characterized. Wavefront control using two deformable mirrors is successfully demonstrated in a vacuum testbed with narrowband light (associated analysis.

  7. A genome-wide survey of hybrid incompatibility factors by the introgression of marked segments of Drosophila mauritiana chromosomes into Drosophila simulans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    True, J.R.; Laurie, C.C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Weir, B.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In hybrids between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana, males are sterile and females are fertile, in compliance with HALDANE`s rule. The genetic basis of this phenomenon was investigated by introgression of segments of the mauritiana genome into a simulans background. A total of 87 positions throughout the mauritiana genome were marked with P-element insertions and replicate introgressions were made by repeated backcrossing to simulans for 15 generations. The fraction of hemizygous X chromosomal introgressions that are male sterile is {approximately}50% greater than the fraction of homozygous autosomal segments. This result suggests that male sterility factors have evolved at a higher rate on the X, but chromosomal differences in segment length cannot be ruled out. The fraction of homozygous autosomal introgressions that are male sterile is several times greater than the fraction that are either female sterile or inviable. This observation strongly indicates that male sterility factors have evolved more rapidly than either female sterility or inviability factors. These results, combined with previous work on these and other species, suggest that HALDANE`s rule has at least two causes: recessivity of incompatibility factors and differential accumulation of sterility factors affecting males and females. 50 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Widely Controllable Syngas Production by a Dye-Sensitized TiO2Hybrid System with ReIand CoIIICatalysts under Visible-Light Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Su; Won, Dong-Il; Jung, Won-Jo; Son, Ho-Jin; Pac, Chyongjin; Kang, Sang Ook

    2017-01-19

    Visible-light irradiation of a ternary hybrid catalyst prepared by grafting a dye, an H 2 evolving Co III catalyst and a CO-producing Re I catalyst on TiO 2 have been found to produce both H 2 and CO (syngas) in CO 2 -saturated N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)/water solution containing a 0.1 m sacrificial electron donor. The H 2 /CO ratios are effectively controlled by changing either the water content of the solvent or the molar ratio of the Re I and Co III catalysts ranging from 1:2 to 15:1. The controlled syngas formation is discussed in terms of competitive electron flow from TiO 2 to each of the CO 2 -reduction and hydrogen-evolving sites depending on the efficiencies of the two catalytic reaction cycles under given reaction conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Peri-implant biomechanical responses to standard, short-wide, and double mini implants replacing missing molar supporting hybrid ceramic or full-metal crowns under axial and off-axial loading: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadaly, Lamiaa Said; Khairallah, Lamiaa Sayed; Al Agroudy, Mona Atteya

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical response of the peri-implant bone to standard, short-wide, and double mini implants replacing missing molar supporting either hybrid ceramic crowns (Lava Ultimate restorative) or full-metal crowns under two different loading conditions (axial and off-axial loading) using strain gauge analysis. Three single-molar implant designs, (1) single, 3.8-mm (regular) diameter implant, (2) single, 5.8-mm (wide) diameter implant, and (3) two 2.5-mm diameter (double) implants connected through a single-molar crown, were embedded in epoxy resin by the aid of a surveyor to ensure their parallelism. Each implant supported full-metal crowns made of Ni-Cr alloy and hybrid ceramic with standardized dimensions. Epoxy resin casts were prepared to receive 4 strain gauges around each implant design, on the buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal surfaces. Results were analyzed statistically. Results showed that implant design has statistically significant effect on peri-implant microstrains, where the standard implant showed the highest mean microstrain values followed by double mini implants, while the short-wide implant showed the lowest mean microstrain values. Concerning the superstructure material, implants supporting Lava Ultimate crowns had statistically significant higher mean microstrain values than those supporting full-metal crowns. Concerning the load direction, off-axial loading caused uneven distribution of load with statistically significant higher microstrain values on the site of off-axial loading (distal surface) than the axial loading. Implant design, superstructure material, and load direction significantly affect peri-implant microstrains.

  10. Wide Angle of Incidence-Insensitive Polarization-Independent THz Metamaterial Absorber for Both TE and TM Mode Based on Plasmon Hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Tao Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-wide-angle THz metamaterial absorber (MA utilizing sixteen-circular-sector (SCR resonator for both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM mode is designed and investigated numerically. At normal incidence, the absorptivity of the proposed MA is higher than 93.7% at 9.05 THz for different polarization angles, due to the rotational symmetry structure of the unit cell. Under oblique incidence, the absorptivity can still exceed 90%, even when the incident angle is up to 70° for both TE and TM mode. Especially, the frequency variation in TE mode is less than 0.25% for different incident angles from 0° to 70°. The electric field (Ez distributions are used to explain the absorption mechanism. Numerical simulation results show that the high absorption with wide-angle independence stems from fundamental dipole resonance and gap surface plasmons. The broadband deep-infrared MA is also obtained by stacking three metal-dielectric layers. The designed MA has great potential in bolometric pixel elements, biomedical sensors, THz imaging, and solar cells.

  11. Novel molecular host materials based on carbazole/PO hybrids with wide bandgap via unique linkages for solution-processed blue phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hua; Zhou, Kaifeng; Wu, Hongyu; Chen, Kai; Xie, Gaozhan; Hu, Jingang; Yan, Guobing; Ma, Songhua; Su, Shi-Jian; Cao, Yong

    2016-10-01

    A series of novel molecules with wide bandgap based on electron-withdrawing diphenyl phosphine oxide units and electron-donating carbazolyl moieties through insulated unique linkages of flexible chains terminated by oxygen or sulfur atoms as solution-processable host materials were successfully synthesized for the first time, and their thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties were studied thoroughly. These materials possess high triplet energy levels (ET, 2.76-2.77 eV) due to the introduction of alkyl chain to interrupt the conjugation between electron-donor and electron-acceptor. Such high ET could effectively curb the energy from phosphorescent emitter transfer to the host molecules and thus assuring the emission of devices was all from the blue phosphorescent emitter iridium (III) bis [(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinate-N,C2‧]picolinate (FIrpic). Among them, the solution-processed device based on CBCR6OPO without extra vacuum thermal-deposited hole-blocking layer and electron-transporting layer showed the highest maximum current efficiency (CEmax) of 4.16 cd/A. Moreover, the device presented small efficiency roll-off with current efficiency (CE) of 4.05 cd/A at high brightness up to 100 cd/m2. Our work suggests the potential applications of the solution-processable materials with wide bandgap in full-color flat-panel displays and organic lighting.

  12. Testing the feasibility of a briefer school-based preventive intervention with aggressive children: A hybrid intervention with face-to-face and internet components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jones, Shannon; Qu, Lixin; Ewoldsen, David; Nelson, W Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study describes the results from a feasibility study of an innovative indicated prevention intervention with hybrid face-to-face and web-based components for preadolescent youth. This intervention includes a considerably briefer set of face-to-face sessions from the evidence-based Coping Power program and a carefully integrated internet component with practice and teaching activities and cartoon videos for children and for parents. The Coping Power - Internet Enhanced (CP-IE) program introduces a set of cognitive-behavioral skills in 12 small group sessions for children delivered during the school day and 7 group sessions for parents. Eight elementary schools were randomly assigned to CP-IE or to Control, and six children at each school were identified each year based on 4th grade teacher ratings of aggressive behavior. Path analyses of teacher-rated disruptive behavior outcomes for 91 fifth grade children, across two annual cohorts, indicated Control children had significantly greater increases in conduct problem behaviors across the 5th grade year than did CP-IE children. This much briefer version of Coping Power provided beneficial preventive effects on children's behavior in the school setting similar to the effects of the longer version of Coping Power. The website materials appeared to successfully engage children, and parents' use of the website predicted children's changes in conduct problems across the year. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Response to Intervention and Continuous School Improvement: How to Design, Implement, Monitor, and Evaluate a School-Wide Prevention System, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Victoria L.; Hébert, Connie L.

    2017-01-01

    Experts Bernhardt and Hébert's latest book demonstrates strategies to ensure your entire staff works together to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate a schoolwide prevention system with integrity and fidelity. Each step in this important resource is designed to help administrators, teachers, and other educators improve the learning of every…

  14. Baseline Assessment of Campus-Wide General Health Status and Mental Health: Opportunity for Tailored Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Awareness Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lisa D.; MacDonald, Michael G.; Wallace, Erica H.; Smith, Julia; Wummel, Brian; Wren, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A campus-wide assessment examined the physical and mental health status of a midsize midwestern public university. Participants: Two thousand and forty-nine students, faculty, and staff on a single college campus were assessed in March-April 2013. Methods: Participants completed an online survey with sections devoted to demographics,…

  15. Unreduced gamete formation in wheat × Aegilops spp. hybrids is genotype specific and prevented by shared homologous subgenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Zhaleh; Mirzaghaderi, Ghader; Ahmadian, Samira; Mason, Annaliese S

    2016-05-01

    The presence of homologous subgenomes inhibited unreduced gamete formation in wheat × Aegilops interspecific hybrids. Unreduced gamete rates were under the control of the wheat nuclear genome. Production of unreduced gametes is common among interspecific hybrids, and may be affected by parental genotypes and genomic similarity. In the present study, five cultivars of Triticum aestivum and two tetraploid Aegilops species (i.e. Ae. triuncialis and Ae. cylindrica) were reciprocally crossed to produce 20 interspecific hybrid combinations. These hybrids comprised two different types: T. aestivum × Aegilops triuncialis; 2n = ABDU(t)C(t) (which lack a common subgenome) and T. aestivum × Ae. cylindrica; 2n = ABDD(c)C(c) (which share a common subgenome). The frequency of unreduced gametes in F1 hybrids was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads, and the frequency of viable pollen, germinated pollen and seed set were recorded. Different meiotic abnormalities recorded in the hybrids included precocious chromosome migration to the poles at metaphase I and II, laggards in anaphase I and II, micronuclei and chromosome stickiness, failure in cell wall formation, premature cytokinesis and microspore fusion. The mean frequency of restitution meiosis was 10.1 %, and the mean frequency of unreduced viable pollen was 4.84 % in T. aestivum × Ae. triuncialis hybrids. By contrast, in T. aestivum × Ae. cylindrica hybrids no meiotic restitution was observed, and a low rate of viable gametes (0.3 %) was recorded. This study present evidence that high levels of homologous pairing between the D and D(c) subgenomes may interfere with meiotic restitution and the formation of unreduced gametes. Variation in unreduced gamete production was also observed between T. aestivum × Ae. triuncialis hybrid plants, suggesting genetic control of this trait.

  16. Effect of transporting an evidence-based, violence prevention intervention to Jamaican preschools on teacher and class-wide child behaviour: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S

    2018-01-01

    Based on extensive piloting work, we adapted the Incredible Years (IY) teacher-training programme to the Jamaican preschool setting and evaluated this adapted version through a cluster-randomised trial. Twenty-four community preschools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to intervention (12 schools, 37 teachers) or control (12 schools, 36 teachers). The intervention involved training teachers in classroom management through eight full-day training workshops and four individual 1-h in-class support sessions. Outcome measurements included direct observation of teachers' positive and negative behaviours to the whole class and to high-risk children and four observer ratings: two measures of class-wide child behaviour and two measures of classroom atmosphere. Measures were repeated at a six-month follow-up. Significant benefits of intervention were found for teachers' positive [effect size (ES) = 3.35] and negative (ES = 1.29) behaviours to the whole class and to high-risk children (positive: ES = 0.83; negative: ES = 0.50) and for observer ratings of class-wide child behaviour (ES = 0.73), child interest and enthusiasm (ES = 0.98), teacher warmth (ES = 2.03) and opportunities provided to share and help (ES = 5.72). At 6-month follow-up, significant benefits of intervention were sustained: positive behaviours (ES = 2.70), negative behaviours (ES = 0.98), child behaviour (ES = 0.50), child interest and enthusiasm (ES = 0.78), teacher warmth (ES = 0.91), opportunities to share and help (ES = 1.42). The adapted IY teacher-training programme produced large benefits to teacher's behaviour and to class-wide measures of children's behaviour, which were sustained at 6-month follow-up. Benefits were of a similar magnitude to those found in a pilot study of the minimally adapted version that required significantly more in-class support for teachers.

  17. Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Office, Title 10, U.S. Code ; Act of 5 May 1960. 3. 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report, February 2010, 8. 4. Hybrid Warfare, Global Accountability...Rise of Hybrid Wars.” Proceedings 132 (November 2005); William J. Nemeth , Future War and Chechnya: A Case for Hybrid War- fare (master’s thesis, U.S...William J. Nemeth which represents the earliest scholarly work on the subject, in which the emergence of devolved hybrid societies gives rise to hybrid

  18. Production of haploid plants from ten hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through wide hybridization with maize (Zea mays L. Producción de plantas haploides a partir de 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain haploid plants of bread wheat through wide hybridization with maize. The experimental material included ten bread wheat hybrids (female parent and one population of maize (pollen donor. Two assays were carried out in two different seasons (summer and winter. Wheat spikes were manually emasculated, each spike was pollinated twice with fresh pollen of maize and a solution of 2,4-D (100 mg l-1 was sprayed on pollinated florets and injected in the upper internode. Fifteen and 21 days after pollination caryopses were removed and surface sterilized. Embryos were cultured in tubes containing B5 medium. The ten hybrid combinations produced caryopses, but only eight of these hybrids produced embryos and, in six of them, the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets. The results showed that there is genotypic influence of the wheat parents on the percentage of haploid embryo formation, in accordance with the results obtained by other authors. Regardless of the genotype, the sowing season and the harvest date, 69.4% of the pollinated flowers gave place to the formation of caryopses, 5.5% of these caryopses developed into presumably haploid embryos (for their morphological phenotypes and 26.1 % of the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener plantas haploides de trigo para pan mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz. Se utilizaron 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (madre y una población de maíz (donante de polen; se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos en distintas estaciones de cultivo. Cada espiga de trigo fue emasculada manualmente y polinizada dos veces con polen fresco de maíz; las flores polinizadas se pulverizaron con una solución de 2,4-D (100 mg l-1, la que también se inyectó en la base de la espiga. Las semillas se cosecharon a los 15 y 21 días posteriores a la polinización. Los embriones recuperados se colocaron en tubos conteniendo medio de

  19. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miin Roh

    Full Text Available Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. Age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP are the main risk factors for glaucomatous loss of vision. Several studies have implicated the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as a link between elevated IOP and RGC death, but the cellular source of TNF-α and its causative role in RGC death remain uncertain. Here, using a rat model of glaucoma, we investigated the source of elevated TNF-α and examined whether Etanercept, a TNF-α blocker that is in common clinical use for other indications, is protective against RGC death.Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC caused intraocular pressure (IOP to be elevated for at least 28 days. IOP elevation resulted in a dramatic increase in TNF-α levels within a few days, axonal degeneration, and a 38% loss of RGCs by 4 weeks. Immunostaining coupled with confocal microscopy showed that OHT induced robust induction of TNF-α in Iba-1-positive microglia around the optic nerve head (ONH. Despite persistent elevation of IOP, Etanercept reduced microglial activation, TNF-α levels, axon degeneration in the optic nerve, and the loss of RGCs.Ocular hypertension (OHT triggers an inflammatory response characterized by the appearance of activated microglia around the ONH that express TNF-α. Blocking TNF-α activity with a clinically approved agent inhibits this microglial response and prevents axonal degeneration and loss of RGCs. These findings suggest a new treatment strategy for glaucoma using TNF-α antagonists or suppressors of inflammation.

  20. Multi Agent System Based Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Leo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-agent system based wide area protection scheme is proposed in order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events. The distributed relays and controllers work as a device agent which not only executes the normal function automatically but also can be mod...... the effectiveness of proposed protection strategy. The simulation results indicate that the proposed multi agent control system can effectively coordinate the distributed relays and controllers to prevent the long term voltage instability induced cascading events.......In this paper, a multi-agent system based wide area protection scheme is proposed in order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events. The distributed relays and controllers work as a device agent which not only executes the normal function automatically but also can...... be modified to fulfill the extra function according to external requirements. The control center is designed as a highest level agent in MAS to coordinate all the lower agents to prevent the system wide voltage disturbance. A hybrid simulation platform with MATLAB and RTDS is set up to demonstrate...

  1. Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ian; Mejia, Carlos; Melendez, Johanna; Chan, Philip A; Nunn, Amy C; Powderly, William; Goodenberger, Katherine; Liu, Jingxia; Mayer, Kenneth H; Patel, Rupa R

    2017-01-01

    HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID) specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87%) of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%), risk compensation (90%), and cost (64%). Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were significant predictors for

  2. Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ross

    Full Text Available HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700 in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP.Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87% of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM, sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%, risk compensation (90%, and cost (64%. Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were significant predictors

  3. Creation of a high yielding recombinant maize hybrid for the production of a microbicide for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available transgenic maize lines containing the monoclonal antibody 2G12 were backcrossed twice to their respective original elite line (donor/recurrent parent) followed by three generations of self-fertilisation (S1 to S3) and selection. Selection was done using..., over 90% homozygosity of the recurrent parent phenotype was obtained for each of the parent backgrounds, NPS5120A and SSG62B, and this seed was stored at the master seed bank, from which seed was also used for hybrid production (F1 and F2). Hybrids...

  4. Hypersensitive response-like reaction is associated with hybrid necrosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii coss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Mizuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hybrid speciation is classified into homoploid and polyploid based on ploidy level. Common wheat is an allohexaploid species that originated from a naturally occurring interploidy cross between tetraploid wheat and diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Aegilops tauschii provides wide naturally occurring genetic variation. Sometimes its triploid hybrids with tetraploid wheat show the following four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: types II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. The growth abnormalities in the triploid hybrids could act as postzygotic hybridization barriers to prevent formation of hexaploid wheat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report on the geographical and phylogenetic distribution of Ae. tauschii accessions inducing the hybrid growth abnormalities and showed that they are widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Molecular and cytological characterization of the type III necrosis phenotype was performed. The hybrid abnormality causing accessions were widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes such as pathogenesis-related genes were highly up-regulated in the type III necrosis lines. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that cell death occurred accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species in leaves undergoing type III necrosis. The reduction of photosynthetic activity occurred prior to the appearance of necrotic symptoms on the leaves exhibiting hybrid necrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking these results together strongly suggests that an autoimmune response might be triggered by intergenomic incompatibility between the tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii genomes in type III necrosis, and that genetically programmed cell death could be regarded as a hypersensitive response-like cell death similar to that observed in Arabidopsis

  5. Hypersensitive response-like reaction is associated with hybrid necrosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii coss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Hosogi, Naoki; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2010-06-25

    Hybrid speciation is classified into homoploid and polyploid based on ploidy level. Common wheat is an allohexaploid species that originated from a naturally occurring interploidy cross between tetraploid wheat and diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Aegilops tauschii provides wide naturally occurring genetic variation. Sometimes its triploid hybrids with tetraploid wheat show the following four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: types II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. The growth abnormalities in the triploid hybrids could act as postzygotic hybridization barriers to prevent formation of hexaploid wheat. Here, we report on the geographical and phylogenetic distribution of Ae. tauschii accessions inducing the hybrid growth abnormalities and showed that they are widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Molecular and cytological characterization of the type III necrosis phenotype was performed. The hybrid abnormality causing accessions were widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes such as pathogenesis-related genes were highly up-regulated in the type III necrosis lines. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that cell death occurred accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species in leaves undergoing type III necrosis. The reduction of photosynthetic activity occurred prior to the appearance of necrotic symptoms on the leaves exhibiting hybrid necrosis. Taking these results together strongly suggests that an autoimmune response might be triggered by intergenomic incompatibility between the tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii genomes in type III necrosis, and that genetically programmed cell death could be regarded as a hypersensitive response-like cell death similar to that observed in Arabidopsis intraspecific and Nicotiana interspecific hybrids. Only Ae. tauschii accessions without such

  6. Low sustainability, poor governance, and other challenges encountered by grassroots non-governmental organizations targeting HIV prevention for men who have sex with men in China - a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Yoona; Li, Jinghua; Gu, Jing; Mo, Phoenix K H; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Grassroots non-governmental organizations (NGOs) played pivotal roles in HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Their governance and sustainability issues were under-studied. This nation-wide study surveyed leaders of 202 of the HIV related NGOs in China.58.4% of the leaders believed that their NGO would last for ≤5 years; which was negatively associated with perceived good relationship with CDC. 65.3% mentioned ≥3 non-sustainability issues; associated factors included perceived inadequacies in prevention skills, management skills, policy support, technical support, operational support, and CDC's support; a reverse association was found for frequent collaboration with organizations in China. 30.6% of the leaders mentioned ≥7 governance issues; a stepwise model found a positive association with having no office and negative associations with number of full-time staff and core volunteers. These problems would severely limit the effectiveness of HIV prevention among MSM. Related improvements and support are warranted.

  7. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Isolation of genes involved in the preventive effect of electroacupuncture at Fenglong acupoint (ST40) on hypercholesterolemia mice by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with negative subtraction chain (NSC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjie; Zhang, Yizheng; Yan, Wenqi; Kang, Jinmei; Kang, Yaoxia; Lie, Min

    2006-01-01

    We have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at Fenglong acupoint (ST40) has the cholesterol-lowering effect in hypercholesterolemia mice. The present study was designed to study preventive effect of EA at ST40 on hypercholesterolemia. C57BL/6j mice were randomly divided into normal group (NG), hypercholesterolemia group (HG) and EA prevention group (EPG). NG were fed chow, HG a hypercholesterolemic diet (HD), and EPG the same HD and received EA treatment simultaneously. Lipid profile of both the plasma and liver indicated that EA at ST40 had preventive effect on hypercholesterolemia. Compared with corresponding values in the HG mice, the levels of the hepatic total cholesterol and total triglyceride in the EPG mice lowered 45% and 23% respectively, and the levels of plasma total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol in the EPG mice lowered 39%, 37% and 39% respectively. Eleven genes whose expressions were up-regulated in EPG mice compared with HG were isolated using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with negative subtraction chain (NSC) technology, and then confirmed by dot-blot assay. Except two genes whose functions were still unknown, the others were mainly involved in cholesterol metabolism, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and immune response. The potential molecular mechanism of preventive effect was discussed.

  9. Does hybrid fixation prevent junctional disease after posterior fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders? A minimum 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, Andrea; Di Silvestre, Mario; Greggi, Tiziana; Vommaro, Francesco; Lolli, Francesco; Scarale, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Medium- to long-term retrospective evaluation of clinical and radiographic outcome in the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with hybrid posterior fixation. Thirty patients were included with the mean age of 47.8 years (range 35 to 60 years). All patients underwent posterior lumbar instrumentation using hybrid fixation for lumbar stenosis with instability (13 cases), degenerative spondylolisthesis Meyerding grade I (6 cases), degenerative disc disease of one or more adjacent levels in six cases and mild lumbar degenerative scoliosis in five patients. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry disability index (ODI), Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and the visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. All patients were assessed by preoperative, postoperative and follow-up standing plain radiographs and lateral X-rays with flexion and extension. Adjacent disc degeneration was also evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at follow-up. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years, we observed on X-rays and/or MRI 3 cases of adjacent segment disease (10.0 %): two of them (6.6 %) presented symptoms and recurred a new surgery. The last patient (3.3 %) developed asymptomatic retrolisthesis of L3 not requiring revision surgery. The mean preoperative ODI score was 67.6, RMDQ score was 15.1, VAS back pain score was 9.5, and VAS leg pain score was 8.6. Postoperatively, these values improved to 28.1, 5.4, 3.1, and 2.9, respectively, and remained substantially unchanged at the final follow-up: (27.7, 5.2, 2.9, and 2.7, respectively). After 5-year follow-up, hybrid posterior lumbar fixation presented satisfying clinical outcomes in the treatment of degenerative disease.

  10. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  11. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  12. [Requirement of standardizing anti-HBs assay methods in Japan for HBV infection-preventing strategy--discrepancy of anti-HBs measurements among three different kits widely used in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-09-01

    The strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by administrating an HB vaccine is changing worldwide; however, this is not the case in Japan. An important concern about the HBV infection-preventing strategy in Japan may be that the assay methods for the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are not standardized. The minimum protective anti-HBs titer against HBV infection has been established as 10 mIU/ml by World Health Organization (WHO) -standardized assay methods worldwide, but that is still determined as a "positive" test result by the passive hemagglutination (PHA) method in Japan. We compared anti-HBs measurements in given samples among PHA(Mycell II, Institute of Immunology), chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse, Fujirebio), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect, Abbott), all of which are currently in wide use in Japan. First, anti-HBs measurements in serum from individuals who received a yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine composed of the major surface protein of either subtype adr or subtype ayw were compared. The results clearly showed that in subtype adr-vaccinees CLIA underestimated the anti-HBs amount compared with CLEIA and PHA, but in ayw-vaccinees, the discordance in the measurements among the three kits was not prominent. Second, anti-HBs measurements in standard or calibration solutions of each assay kit were compared. Surprisingly, CLEIA showed higher measurements in all three kit-associated standard or calibration solutions than CLIA. Thus, the anti-HBs titer of 10 mIU/ml is difficult to introduce in Japan as the minimum protective level against HBV infection. Efforts to standardize anti-HBs assay methods are expected to share international evidence about the HBV infection-preventing strategy.

  13. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  14. A hybrid method using the widely-used WIEN2k and VASP codes to calculate the complete set of XAS/EELS edges in a hundred-atoms system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donval, Gaël; Moreau, Philippe; Danet, Julien; Larbi, Séverine Jouanneau-Si; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Boucher, Florent

    2017-01-04

    Most of the recent developments in EELS modelling has been focused on getting a better agreement with measurements. Less work however has been dedicated to bringing EELS calculations to larger structures that can more realistically describe actual systems. The purpose of this paper is to present a hybrid approach well adapted to calculating the whole set of localised EELS core-loss edges (at the XAS level of theory) on larger systems using only standard tools, namely the WIEN2k and VASP codes. We illustrate the usefulness of this method by applying it to a set of amorphous silicon structures in order to explain the flattening of the silicon L 2,3 EELS edge peak at the onset. We show that the peak flattening is actually caused by the collective contribution of each of the atoms to the average spectrum, as opposed to a flattening occurring on each individual spectrum. This method allowed us to reduce the execution time by a factor of 3 compared to a usual-carefully optimised-WIEN2k calculation. It provided even greater speed-ups on more complex systems (interfaces, ∼300 atoms) that will be presented in a future paper. This method is suited to calculate all the localized edges of all the atoms of a structure in a single calculation for light atoms as long as the core-hole effects can be neglected.

  15. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-09-08

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  16. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  17. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  18. Inorganic–organic hybrid framework solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    indicates that hybrid structures can be formed with zeolite architecture. Keywords. Framework; iron phosphate–oxalate structures; hybrid structures; crosslinked oxalates; self-organization; structure-directing amine. 1. Introduction. The area of framework materials continues to be of interest not only because of the wide.

  19. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  20. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions. Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy. Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy, safety, and compliance.

  1. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 753-756. Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... be composed of normal nuclear matter with hyperons and/or condensed mesons. The matter at ...

  2. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available balance between the inherent advantages and disadvantages. Also, using a hybrid composite that contains two or more types of fibre, the advantages of one type of fibre could complement with what are lacking in the other. As a consequence, a balance in cost...

  3. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  4. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  5. Characterization of wide cross derivatives in rice Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of wide cross derivatives in rice Oryza sativa L. using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). FM Abbas, M Afza, F Perveen, R Masood, SH Shah, AH Shah, R Mujaddad, A Majid, M Sajid, A Gul ...

  6. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    hybrid auction easily extends to multiple slots, and is also applicable to scenarios where the hybrid bidding is per-impression and per-action (i.e. CPM and CPA), or per-click and per-action (i.e. CPC and CPA). Copyright is held by the International World Wide Web Conference Committee (IW3C2).

  7. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores....... In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  8. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees a...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....... and reliability block diagrams). However, limitations in the BNs' calculation engine have prevented BNs from becoming equally popular for domains containing mixtures of both discrete and continuous variables (so-called hybrid domains). In this paper we focus on these difficulties, and summarize some of the last...

  9. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  10. Snoopy's hybrid simulator: a tool to construct and simulate hybrid biological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herajy, Mostafa; Liu, Fei; Rohr, Christian; Heiner, Monika

    2017-07-28

    Hybrid simulation of (computational) biochemical reaction networks, which combines stochastic and deterministic dynamics, is an important direction to tackle future challenges due to complex and multi-scale models. Inherently hybrid computational models of biochemical networks entail two time scales: fast and slow. Therefore, it is intricate to efficiently and accurately analyse them using only either deterministic or stochastic simulation. However, there are only a few software tools that support such an approach. These tools are often limited with respect to the number as well as the functionalities of the provided hybrid simulation algorithms. We present Snoopy's hybrid simulator, an efficient hybrid simulation software which builds on Snoopy, a tool to construct and simulate Petri nets. Snoopy's hybrid simulator provides a wide range of state-of-the-art hybrid simulation algorithms. Using this tool, a computational model of biochemical networks can be constructed using a (coloured) hybrid Petri net's graphical notations, or imported from other compatible formats (e.g. SBML), and afterwards executed via dynamic or static hybrid simulation. Snoopy's hybrid simulator is a platform-independent tool providing an accurate and efficient simulation of hybrid (biological) models. It can be downloaded free of charge as part of Snoopy from http://www-dssz.informatik.tu-cottbus.de/DSSZ/Software/Snoopy .

  11. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  12. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  13. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    intelligence and robotics, all share the same essential data fusion challenges. The design of a hybrid sensor array should draw on this extended body of knowledge. In this chapter, various techniques for data preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and modeling of sensor data will be introduced and illustrated with data fusion approaches that have been implemented in applications involving data from hybrid arrays. The example systems discussed in this chapter involve the development of prototype sensor networks for damage control event detection aboard US Navy vessels and the development of analysis algorithms to combine multiple sensing techniques for enhanced remote detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in both ground surveys and wide area assessments.

  14. Semiconductor/High-Tc-Superconductor Hybrid ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) containing both Si-based semiconducting and YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) superconducting circuit elements on sapphire substrates developed. Help to prevent diffusion of Cu from superconductors into semiconductors. These hybrid ICs combine superconducting and semiconducting features unavailable in superconducting or semiconducting circuitry alone. For example, complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout and memory devices integrated with fast-switching Josephson-junction super-conducting logic devices and zero-resistance interconnections.

  15. Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Yabuki; Yasunori Arizumi; Tetsuhiro Shimozato; Samy Guezouli; Hiroaki Matsusita; Masayuki Tai

    2017-01-01

    The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate stre...

  16. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  17. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF WIDE COMPATIBILITY VARIETIES IN SOME TROPICAL JAPONICA RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  19. Allele distributions at hybrid incompatibility loci facilitate the potential for gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Craig

    Full Text Available The accumulation of independent mutations over time in two populations often leads to reproductive isolation. Reproductive isolation between diverging populations may be reinforced by barriers that occur either pre- or postzygotically. Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic isolation in plants. Four postzygotic sterility loci, comprising three hybrid sterility systems (Sa, s5, DPL, have been recently identified in Oryza sativa. These loci explain, in part, the limited hybridization that occurs between the domesticated cultivated rice varieties, O. sativa spp. japonica and O. sativa spp. indica. In the United States, cultivated fields of japonica rice are often invaded by conspecific weeds that have been shown to be of indica origin. Crop-weed hybrids have been identified in crop fields, but at low frequencies. Here we examined the possible role of these hybrid incompatibility loci in the interaction between cultivated and weedy rice. We identified a novel allele at Sa that seemingly prevents loss of fertility in hybrids. Additionally, we found wide-compatibility type alleles at strikingly high frequencies at the Sa and s5 loci in weed groups, and a general lack of incompatible alleles between crops and weeds at the DPL loci. Our results suggest that weedy individuals, particularly those of the SH and BRH groups, should be able to freely hybridize with the local japonica crop, and that prezygotic factors, such as differences in flowering time, have been more important in limiting weed-crop gene flow in the past. As the selective landscape for weedy rice changes due to increased use of herbicide resistant strains of cultivated rice, the genetic barriers that hinder indica-japonica hybridization cannot be counted on to limit the flow of favorable crop genes into weeds.

  20. Primary Prevention With Statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... the population studied, 42% were eligible for statin therapy according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk assessment and cholesterol treatment guidelines approach, versus 56% with the trial-based approach and 21% with the hybrid approach. Among these statin......-eligible subjects, the ASCVD event rate per 1,000 person-years was 9.8, 6.8, and 11.2, respectively. The ACC/AHA-recommended absolute risk score was well calibrated around the 7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk treatment threshold and discriminated better than the trial-based or hybrid approaches. Compared with the ACC...

  1. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  2. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  4. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  5. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  6. Biocompatible Polymer/Quantum Dots Hybrid Materials: Current Status and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are nanometer-sized semiconductor particles with tunable fluorescent optical property that can be adjusted by their chemical composition, size, or shape. In the past 10 years, they have been demonstrated as a powerful fluorescence tool for biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics, biosensing and biolabeling. QDs with high fluorescence quantum yield and optical stability are usually synthesized in organic solvents. In aqueous solution, however, their metallic toxicity, non-dissolubility and photo-luminescence instability prevent the direct utility of QDs in biological media. Polymers are widely used to cover and coat QDs for fabricating biocompatible QDs. Such hybrid materials can provide solubility and robust colloidal and optical stability in water. At the same time, polymers can carry ionic or reactive functional groups for incorporation into the end-use application of QDs, such as receptor targeting and cell attachment. This review provides an overview of the recent development of methods for generating biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials with desirable properties. Polymers with different architectures, such as homo- and co-polymer, hyperbranched polymer, and polymeric nanogel, have been used to anchor and protect QDs. The resulted biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials show successful applications in the fields of bioimaging and biosensing. While considerable progress has been made in the design of biocompatible polymer/QDs materials, the research challenges and future developments in this area should affect the technologies of biomaterials and biosensors and result in even better biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials.

  7. Genome size as a key to evolutionary complex aquatic plants: polyploidy and hybridization in Callitriche (Plantaginaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Prančl

    Full Text Available Despite their complex evolutionary histories, aquatic plants are highly underrepresented in contemporary biosystematic studies. Of them, the genus Callitriche is particularly interesting because of such evolutionary features as wide variation in chromosome numbers and pollination systems. However, taxonomic difficulties have prevented broader investigation of this genus. In this study we applied flow cytometry to Callitriche for the first time in order to gain an insight into evolutionary processes and genome size differentiation in the genus. Flow cytometry complemented by confirmation of chromosome counts was applied to an extensive dataset of 1077 Callitriche individuals from 495 localities in 11 European countries and the USA. Genome size was determined for 12 taxa. The results suggest that many important processes have interacted in the evolution of the genus, including polyploidization and hybridization. Incongruence between genome size and ploidy level, intraspecific variation in genome size, formation of autotriploid and hybridization between species with different pollination systems were also detected. Hybridization takes place particularly in the diploid-tetraploid complex C. cophocarpa-C. platycarpa, for which the triploid hybrids were frequently recorded in the area of co-occurrence of its parents. A hitherto unknown hybrid (probably C. hamulata × C. cophocarpa with a unique chromosome number was discovered in the Czech Republic. However, hybridization occurs very rarely among most of the studied species. The main ecological preferences were also compared among the taxa collected. Although Callitriche taxa often grow in mixed populations, the ecological preferences of individual species are distinctly different in some cases. Anyway, flow cytometry is a very efficient method for taxonomic delimitation, determination and investigation of Callitriche species, and is even able to distinguish homoploid taxa and identify introduced

  8. Advances on research epigenetic change of hybrid and polyploidy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MERCY

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Hybridization between different species, and subsequently polyploidy, play an important role in plant genome evolution, as well as it is a widely used approach for crop improvement. Recent studies of the last several years have demonstrated that, hybridization and subsequent genome doubling (polyploidy).

  9. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  11. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  12. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  13. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  14. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  15. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  16. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  17. Hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, J.W.; Stiles, J.I.; Tye, B.K.; Sherman, F.; Wu, R.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the use of synthetic oligonucleotides for Southern blot experiments and gene bank screening, and the effect of various mismatches on the efficiency of hybridization is demonstrated. The following topics are discussed: sensitivity vs. specificity, hybridization of a 12-mer to the lambda endolysin gene; hybridization of oligonucleotide probes to the E. coli lac operator; hybridization of synthetic probes to the CYC1 gene of yeast; and cloning eucaryotic genes. (HLW)

  18. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  19. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  20. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  1. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  2. Hybrid boosters for future launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargies, E.; Lo, R. E.

    There is a striking similarity in the design of the US Space Transportation System, the European ARI-ANE 5P and the Japanese II-II: they all use a high energy cryogenic core stage along with two large solid propellant rocket boosters (SRB's) in order to provide for a high lift-off thrust level. Prior to last years disasters with Challenger and Titan it was widely held that SRB's were cheap, uncomplicated and safe. Even before the revelation by these accidents of severe safety hazards, shuttle operations demonstrated that the SRB's were by no means as cheap as reusable systems ought to be. In addition, they became known as sources of considerable environmental pollution. In contrast, hybrid rocket propulsion systems offer the following potential advantages: • much higher savety level (TNT equivalent almost zero, shut-down capability in case of ignition failure of one unit, inert against unbonding) • choice of non-toxic propellant combinations • equal or higher specific performance For these reasons, system analysis were carried out to examine hybrids as potential alternative to SRB's. Various analytical tools (mass- and performance models, trajectory simulation etc.) were developed for parametrical studies of hybrid propulsion systems. Special attention was devoted to the well-known primary concern of hybrids: geometrical design of the solid fuel grain and regression rate of the ablating surface. Experimental data were used as input wherever possible. In 1985 first studies were carried out to find possible fields of application for hybrid rocket engines. A mass model and a performance model for hybrid rocket motors were developed, taking into account the peculiarities of hybrid combustion as there are i.e. low regression rate and shifting mixture ratio during operation. After some analytical work was done, hybrids proved to be a promising alternative to SRB's. Compared with solids, hybrids offer many advantages.

  3. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  4. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  5. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  6. Bullying: Proactive Physical Educators' Contribution to School-Wide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbone, Anne; Manson, Mara

    2010-01-01

    Although not a new concept, bullying continues to be a problem in schools across the nation. Bullying involves the intention to hurt the feelings of the victim. Research demonstrates that victims of bullying often experience low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, insecurity, oversensitivity, introversion, and withdrawal from social activities. This…

  7. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  8. Association between chromosomal aberration of COX8C and tethered spinal cord syndrome: array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-jiong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variations have been found in patients with neural tube abnormalities. In this study, we performed genome-wide screening using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization in three children with tethered spinal cord syndrome and two healthy parents. Of eight copy number variations, four were non-polymorphic. These non-polymorphic copy number variations were associated with Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes, and microcephaly. Gene function enrichment analysis revealed that COX8C, a gene associated with metabolic disorders of the nervous system, was located in the copy number variation region of Patient 1. Our results indicate that array-based comparative genomic hybridization can be used to diagnose tethered spinal cord syndrome. Our results may help determine the pathogenesis of tethered spinal cord syndrome and prevent occurrence of this disease.

  9. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  10. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  11. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  12. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  13. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  14. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  15. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  17. Hybrid Warfare and Lawfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik; Mosquera, Andres B Munoz

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid Warfare as a method of war is not new. The change today appears to be that Hybrid Warfare “has the potential to transform the strategic calculations of potential belligerents [it has become] increasingly sophisticated and deadly”. This short paper presents Hybrid Warfare and one of its methods, lawfare. For this, we provide a current, comprehensive definition of hybrid warfare and examine different areas where law has been/is being used as a method of war. This paper focuses on the fol...

  18. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  20. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  1. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  2. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  3. HPV Prevention series

    OpenAIRE

    de Sanjosé Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history st...

  4. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  5. New hybrid systems; Le cas des hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, B. [CEA/Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  6. Coordinated Stability Control of Wind-Thermal Hybrid AC/DC Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind-thermal hybrid power transmission will someday be the main form of transmitting wind power in China but such transmission mode is poor in system stability. In this paper, a coordinated stability control strategy is proposed to improve the system stability. Firstly, the mathematical model of doubly fed wind farms and DC power transmission system is established. The rapid power controllability of large-scale wind farms is discussed based on DFIG model and wide-field optical fiber delay feature. Secondly, low frequency oscillation and power-angle stability are analyzed and discussed under the hybrid transmission mode of a conventional power plant with wind farms. A coordinated control strategy for the wind-thermal hybrid AC/DC power system is proposed and an experimental prototype is made. Finally, real time simulation modeling is set up through Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS, including wind power system and synchronous generator system and DC power transmission system. The experimental prototype is connected with RTDS for joint debugging. Joint debugging result shows that, under the coordinated control strategy, the experimental prototype is conductive to enhance the grid damping and effectively prevents the grid from occurring low frequency oscillation. It can also increase the transient power-angle stability of a power system.

  7. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  8. Dynamic piezoresistive response of hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbaguidi, Audrey; Anees, Muhammad; Namilae, Sirish; Kim, Daewon

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes and graphitic platelets as fillers are known to exhibit remarkable electrical and mechanical properties with many potential strain and damage sensing applications. In this work, we fabricate hybrid nanocomposites with carbon nanotube sheet and coarse graphite platelets as fillers with epoxy matrix. We then examine the electromechanical behavior of these nanocomposites under dynamic loading. The electrical resistivity responses of the nanocomposites are measured in frequency range of 1 Hz to 50 Hz with different levels of induced strains. Axial cycling loading is applied using a uniaxial electrodynamic shaker, and transverse loading is applied on end-clamped specimen using modified speakers. In addition, a dynamic mechanical analysis of nanocomposite specimen is performed to characterize the thermal and dynamic behavior of the nanocomposite. Our results indicate that these hybrid nanocomposites exhibit a distinct piezoresistive response under a wide range of dynamic loading conditions, which can be beneficial for potential sensing applications.

  9. Modelling dependable systems using hybrid Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, Martin; Tailor, Manesh; Marquez, David; Fenton, Norman; Hearty, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid Bayesian network (BN) is one that incorporates both discrete and continuous nodes. In our extensive applications of BNs for system dependability assessment, the models are invariably hybrid and the need for efficient and accurate computation is paramount. We apply a new iterative algorithm that efficiently combines dynamic discretisation with robust propagation algorithms on junction tree structures to perform inference in hybrid BNs. We illustrate its use in the field of dependability with two example of reliability estimation. Firstly we estimate the reliability of a simple single system and next we implement a hierarchical Bayesian model. In the hierarchical model we compute the reliability of two unknown subsystems from data collected on historically similar subsystems and then input the result into a reliability block model to compute system level reliability. We conclude that dynamic discretisation can be used as an alternative to analytical or Monte Carlo methods with high precision and can be applied to a wide range of dependability problems

  10. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space

  11. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  12. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  13. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000 t/m 2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. Hoewel de hybride rassen een hogere opbrengst gaven en iets minder zaaizaad nodig hadden, was dit niet

  14. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  15. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... of a larger hybrid campaign...

  16. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  17. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  18. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  19. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  20. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  1. Vapor-fed bio-hybrid fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Marcus S; Jahnke, Justin P; Mackie, David M

    2017-01-01

    Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions. By bubbling a carrier gas (N 2 ) through a yeast fermentation and then through a direct ethanol FC, we protect the FC anode from the catalyst poisons in the fermentation (which are non-volatile), and also protect the yeast from harmful FC products (notably acetic acid) and from build-up of ethanol. Since vapor-fed direct ethanol FCs at ambient conditions have never been systematically characterized (in contrast to vapor-fed direct methanol FCs), we first assess the effects on output power and conversion efficiency of ethanol concentration, vapor flow rate, and FC voltage. The results fit a continuous stirred-tank reactor model. Over a wide range of ethanol partial pressures (2-8 mmHg), power densities are comparable to those for liquid-fed direct ethanol FCs at the same temperature, with power densities >2 mW/cm 2 obtained. We then demonstrate the continuous operation of a vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC with fermentation for 5 months, with no indication of performance degradation due to poisoning (of either the FC or the fermentation). It is further shown that the system is stable, recovering quickly from disturbances or from interruptions in maintenance. The vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC enables extraction of power from dilute bio-ethanol streams without costly concentration and purification steps. The concept should be scalable to both large and small

  2. Facile preparation of carbon nanotubes–graphene hybrids and the effect of aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes on electrical and thermal properties of silicone rubber based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shizhen; Bai, Lu; Zheng, Junping

    2018-01-01

    Thermal exfoliation, as an effective and easily scalable method, was widely used to produce graphene (GE). In order to prevent the severe stacking of GE sheets after thermal exfoliation process, a facile technique was used to solve this problem through the barrier effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Two kinds of CNTs with different aspect ratios (AR) were taken to prepare CNTs–GE hybrids using this technique, and then the effect of AR of CNTs (namely CNTs-L for low AR and CNTs-H for high AR) in the hybrids on the performance of silicone rubber (SR) composites was investigated. The results indicate that the presence of CNTs can effectively impede the stacking of GE sheets and the hybrids are dispersed uniformly in the SR matrix. With the addition of CNTs–GE hybrids, the resulted SR composites exhibit greatly improved electrical and thermal properties, especially for the composites filled with CNTs-H–GE hybrid. At the hybrids content of 3.0 wt%, the volume resistivity of CNTs-H–GE/SR composite is 5 × 104 Ω cm (about 10 orders of magnitude decrease compared with pure SR). And the thermal conductivity increases by 78% compared to the pure SR. But as for the CNTs-L–GE/SR composite, the corresponding values are 3 × 106 Ω cm and 59%, respectively. In terms of thermal stability, the CNTs-H–GE/SR composite containing 1.0 wt% hybrid exhibits the maximum improvement of initial degradation temperature (419 °C) compared with the CNTs-L–GE/SR composite (393 °C) and pure SR (365 °C).

  3. Student Leadership. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Linda; DeJong, William

    2010-01-01

    Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…

  4. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  5. Hybrid RRM Architecture for Future Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tragos, Elias; Mihovska, Albena D.; Mino, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    The concept of ubiquitous and scalable system is applied in the IST WINNER II [1] project to deliver optimum performance for different deployment scenarios from local area to wide area wireless networks. The integration of cellular and local area networks in a unique radio system will provide...... a great advantage to final users and operators, compared with the nowadays situation with many disconnected systems and users equipped with different subscriptions, radio interfaces and terminals. To this issue, the IST project WINNER II has defined three system modes suited to local, metropolitan...... and wide area respectively. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it presents an architectural solution for scalable and hybrid radio resource management to efficiently integrate the different WINNER modes; second, it proposes a hybrid handover mechanism to exploit the availability of the different...

  6. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  7. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  8. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-11-18

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  10. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)

  11. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid has enhanced chemo-preventive properties compared to aspirin, is gastrointestinal safe with all the classic therapeutic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodela, Ravinder; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-12-15

    Aspirin is chemopreventive; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel hybrid that releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and chemopreventive properties of aspirin and NBS-1120 administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted; tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Chemoprevention: nude mice were gavaged daily for 25 days with vehicle, aspirin or NBS-1120. After one week, each mouse was inoculated subcutaneously in the right flank with HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NBS-1120 did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas aspirin caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that exerted by NBS-1120. SOD activity was significantly inhibited by aspirin but increased by NBS-1120. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Aspirin increased plasma TNFα more than NBS-1120-treated animals. NBS-1120 was better than aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; it dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth and tumor mass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid has enhanced chemo-preventive properties compared to aspirin, is gastrointestinal safe with all the classic therapeutic indications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodela, Ravinder; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is chemopreventive; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel hybrid that releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and chemopreventive properties of aspirin and NBS-1120 administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted; tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Chemoprevention: Nude mice were gavaged daily for 25 days with vehicle, aspirin or NBS-1120. After one week, each mouse was inoculated subcutaneously in the right flank with HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NBS-1120 did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas aspirin caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that exerted by NBS-1120. SOD activity was significantly inhibited by aspirin but increased by NBS-1120. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Aspirin increased plasma TNFα more than NBS-1120-treated animals. NBS-1120 was better than aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; it dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth and tumor mass. PMID:26394025

  13. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  14. Concept of hybrid embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukue Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technique which is similar to a natural process, i.e., biogeochemical (carbonate diagenesis, is proposed to construct a hybrid embankment. In this study, the hybrid embankment is defined as a soil embankment which has a microbially induced framework structure of sand sheets and columns in the soft soil matrix. The sand materials are cemented with magnesium-calcite or dolomite, induced by ureolytic microbes. To design and construct hybrid embankments, fundamental problems, such as feasibility in terms of stability, geoenvironmental engineering practices, etc., are examined and discussed. It was shown that the hybrid embankment can be environmentally friendly and also can contribute solving technical and financial problems encountered in actual practice.

  15. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  16. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  17. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  18. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  19. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  20. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    Systems, supported by IBM and United Technologies), and the Center for Hybrid and Embedded Software Systems ( CHESS ) at UC Berkeley (supported by NSF...Center (Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, supported by IBM and United Technologies), and the Center for Hybrid and Embedded Software Systems ( CHESS ) at...of models given in the Modelica language [15, 20], together with a specification of submodels that should be exported by a tool as FMUs, and re

  1. Human hybrid hybridoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1λ antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays

  2. WideCells Group PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Peter

    2017-07-01

    WideCells Group PLC (Manchester, UK) is a global stem cell services company with the aim of leading a transformation in cord blood banking and stem cell treatment. There are three key divisions: WideCells, WideAcademy and CellPlan. WideCells provides contract, collaborative and in-house research, and stem cell processing and storage facilities for a wide range of human tissues. WideAcademy, the education and training branch of the WideCells Group, aims to become the thought leader in stem cell technology, influencing and informing the next generation of healthcare professionals working in stem cell technology. CellPlan is a first-of-its-kind medical insurance plan to make stem cell treatment accessible and affordable by providing access to renowned specialists and hospitals globally with financial cover for cord blood transplantation and for participation in clinical trials using cord blood.

  3. Effects of natural hybrid and non-hybrid Epichloë endophytes on the response of Hordelymus europaeus to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Martina; Güsewell, Sabine; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) are prevalent in wild grass populations, possibly because of their larger gene variation, resulting in increased fitness benefits for host plants; however, the reasons are not yet known. We tested hypotheses regarding niche expansion mediated by hybrid endophytes, population-dependent interactions and local co-adaptation in the woodland grass Hordelymus europaeus, which naturally hosts both hybrid and non-hybrid endophyte taxa. Seedlings derived from seeds of four grass populations made endophyte free were re-inoculated with hybrid or non-hybrid endophyte strains, or left endophyte free. Plants were grown in the glasshouse with or without drought treatment. Endophyte infection increased plant biomass and tiller production by 10-15% in both treatments. Endophyte types had similar effects on growth, but opposite effects on reproduction: non-hybrid endophytes increased seed production, whereas hybrid endophytes reduced or prevented it completely. The results are consistent with the observation that non-hybrid endophytes in H. europaeus prevail at dry sites, but cannot explain the prevalence of hybrid endophytes. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of niche expansion of hybrid-infected plants. Moreover, plants inoculated with native relative to foreign endophytes yielded higher infections, but both showed similar growth and survival, suggesting weak co-adaptation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  8. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  9. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  10. Hybrid materials for optics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Benedicte; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2011-02-01

    The interest in organic-inorganic hybrids as materials for optics and photonics started more than 25 years ago and since then has known a continuous and strong growth. The high versatility of sol-gel processing offers a wide range of possibilities to design tailor-made materials in terms of structure, texture, functionality, properties and shape modelling. From the first hybrid material with optical functional properties that has been obtained by incorporation of an organic dye in a silica matrix, the research in the field has quickly evolved towards more sophisticated systems, such as multifunctional and/or multicomponent materials, nanoscale and self-assembled hybrids and devices for integrated optics. In the present critical review, we have focused our attention on three main research areas: passive and active optical hybrid sol-gel materials, and integrated optics. This is far from exhaustive but enough to give an overview of the huge potential of these materials in photonics and optics (254 references).

  11. Hybridization in geese: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridization, and (3) hybrid fertility. Hybridization in geese is common on a species-level, but rare on a per-individual level. An overview of the different behavioural mechanisms indicates that forced extra-pair copulations and interspecific nest parasisitm can both lead to hybridization. Other sources of hybrids include hybridization in captivity and vagrant geese, which may both lead to a scarcity of conspecifics. The different mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and it is currently not possible to discriminate between the different mechanisms without quantitative data. Most hybrid geese are fertile; only in crosses between distantly related species do female hybrids become sterile. This fertility pattern, which is in line with Haldane's Rule, may facilitate interspecific gene flow between closely related species. The knowledge on hybrid geese should be used, in combination with the information available on hybridization in ducks, to study the process of avian speciation.

  12. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  13. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  14. Expanding probe repertoire and improving reproducibility in human genomic hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Stephanie N.; Shirley, Ben C.; Knoll, Joan H. M.; Rogan, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic DNA hybridization relies on probes composed of single copy (sc) genomic sequences. Sc sequences in probe design ensure high specificity and avoid cross-hybridization to other regions of the genome, which could lead to ambiguous results that are difficult to interpret. We examine how the distribution and composition of repetitive sequences in the genome affects sc probe performance. A divide and conquer algorithm was implemented to design sc probes. With this approach, sc probes can include divergent repetitive elements, which hybridize to unique genomic targets under higher stringency experimental conditions. Genome-wide custom probe sets were created for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray genomic hybridization. The scFISH probes were developed for detection of copy number changes within small tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes. The microarrays demonstrated increased reproducibility by eliminating cross-hybridization to repetitive sequences adjacent to probe targets. The genome-wide microarrays exhibited lower median coefficients of variation (17.8%) for two HapMap family trios. The coefficients of variations of commercial probes within 300 nt of a repetitive element were 48.3% higher than the nearest custom probe. Furthermore, the custom microarray called a chromosome 15q11.2q13 deletion more consistently. This method for sc probe design increases probe coverage for FISH and lowers variability in genomic microarrays. PMID:23376933

  15. Reproductive isolation and the expansion of an invasive hybrid swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Michael J.; Walters, David M.; Burkhead, Noel M.; Freeman, Byron J.; Porter, Brady A.

    2010-01-01

    Biological invasions involving hybridization proceed according to prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms. Yet few comparisons of reproductive isolation have been carried out to understand how different mechanisms prevent or promote invasions involving hybridization. Here we present a study of prezygotic and postzygotic isolation between non-native red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) from the Coosa River basin (USA) to better understand the formation and expansion of invasive hybrid swarms. We conducted spawning trials to measure mating preferences and raised broods from crosses to assay hybrid viability through early juvenile development. Females of both species were more responsive to conspecific mates, although blacktail shiner females responded more often to heterospecific mates than did red shiner females. Fecundity of red shiner females was also higher than blacktail shiner females. Heterospecific crosses resulted in lower fertilization and egg hatching rates, but we found no other evidence of inviability. Rather, we found comparatively low larval mortality of F1 hybrids, which is suggestive of heterosis. These findings support prior inferences of assortative mating from genetic descriptions of hybridization, and that the invasion in the Coosa River is likely proceeding due to interspecific competition and intrinsic hybrid viability.

  16. Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV

    OpenAIRE

    Vaala, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön tarkoituksena oli tutustua Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV:een sekä TV:n nykytilaan ja tulevaisuuteen. Työ on tehty Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoululle. Media-alalla on menossa murros, joka pakottaa printtimedian ja TV-yhtiöt jatkuviin uudistuksiin. Mainosrahoitteinen TV on myös ongelmissa. Digitalisoituminen on tuonut laajakaistan perinteisten jakelutapojen rinnalle, mikä syö mainostuloja. Käyttöön tulossa oleva Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV perustuu jo olemassa olevii...

  17. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  18. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  19. Lifetime prognostics of hybrid backup power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Modern telecommunication power supplies are based on renewable solutions, e.g. fuel cell/battery hybrid systems, for immediate and prolonged load support during grid faults. The high demand for power continuity increases the emphasis on power supply reliability and availability which raises...... the need for monitoring the system condition for timely maintenance and prevention of downtime. Although present on component level, no current literature addresses the condition monitoring from the perspective of a fuel cell/battery hybrid system such as the telecommunication power supply. This paper...... is a first step towards a condition monitoring approach for such systems. Firstly, the application is defined, thereafter the benefits of predictive maintenance strategies and the prognostics and health management framework are described. A literature review of condition monitoring of the major system...

  20. Growth of five hybrid poplar genotypes exposed to interacting elevated CO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E. Dickson; M.D. Coleman; D.E. Riemenschneider; J.G. Isebrands; G.D. Hogan; D.F. Karnosky

    1998-01-01

    A wide variety of hybrid poplar clones are being introduced for intensive culture biomass production, but the potential clonal or genotypic response to increasing tropospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and their interactions are unknown. To study these effects, we exposed five different hybrid Populus...

  1. The Use of Whole-Mount "in Situ" Hybridization to Illustrate Gene Expression Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamusí, Beatriz; Muñoz-Soriano, Verónica; Paricio, Nuria; Artero, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    "In situ" hybridization is a widely used technique for studying gene expression. Here, we describe two experiments addressed to postgraduate genetics students in which the effect of transcription factors on gene expression is analyzed in "Drosophila embryos of different genotypes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In one of the…

  2. Rhombohedrel Hybrid Crystal Semiconductor Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a new high speed and high efficiency hybrid crystal structure semiconductor device based on the the recent invention of rhombohedral hybrid crystal...

  3. Nucleic acid in-situ hybridization detection of infectious agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Curtis T.

    2000-04-01

    Limitations of traditional culture methods and newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and speciation of infectious agents demonstrate the need for more rapid and better diagnostics. Nucleic acid hybridization is a detection technology that has gained wide acceptance in cancer and prenatal cytogenetics. Using a modification of the nucleic acid hybridization technique known as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, infectious agents can be detected in a variety of specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. The specimens derive from all types of human and animal sources including body fluids, tissue aspirates and biopsy material. Nucleic acid hybridization can be performed in less than one hour. The result can be interpreted either using traditional fluorescence microscopy or automated platforms such as micro arrays. This paper demonstrates proof of concept for nucleic acid hybridization detection of different infectious agents. Interpretation within a cytologic and histologic context is possible with fluorescence microscopic analysis, thereby providing confirmatory evidence of hybridization. With careful probe selection, nucleic acid hybridization promises to be a highly sensitive and specific practical diagnostic alternative to culture, traditional staining methods, immunohistochemistry and complicated nucleic acid amplification tests.

  4. Rapid movement and instability of an invasive hybrid swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Gregory J; Walters, David M; Blum, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Unstable hybrid swarms that arise following the introduction of non-native species can overwhelm native congeners, yet the stability of invasive hybrid swarms has not been well documented over time. Here, we examine genetic variation and clinal stability across a recently formed hybrid swarm involving native blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta) and non-native red shiner (C. lutrensis) in the Upper Coosa River basin, which is widely considered to be a global hot spot of aquatic biodiversity. Examination of phenotypic, multilocus genotypic, and mitochondrial haplotype variability between 2005 and 2011 revealed that the proportion of hybrids has increased over time, with more than a third of all sampled individuals exhibiting admixture in the final year of sampling. Comparisons of clines over time indicated that the hybrid swarm has been rapidly progressing upstream, but at a declining and slower pace than rates estimated from historical collection records. Clinal comparisons also showed that the hybrid swarm has been expanding and contracting over time. Additionally, we documented the presence of red shiner and hybrids farther downstream than prior studies have detected, which suggests that congeners in the Coosa River basin, including all remaining populations of the threatened blue shiner (Cyprinella caerulea), are at greater risk than previously thought.

  5. UNUSUALLY WIDE BINARIES: ARE THEY WIDE OR UNUSUAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M sun . The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at ∼ sun . We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses ∼ sun appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  6. Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Moran; Han, Crystal M.; Liao, Joseph C.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2012-01-01

    We use isotachophoresis (ITP) to control and increase the rate of nucleic acid hybridization reactions in free solution. We present a new physical model, validation experiments, and demonstrations of this assay. We studied the coupled physicochemical processes of preconcentration, mixing, and chemical reaction kinetics under ITP. Our experimentally validated model enables a closed form solution for ITP-aided reaction kinetics, and reveals a new characteristic time scale which correctly predicts order 10,000-fold speed-up of chemical reaction rate for order 100 pM reactants, and greater enhancement at lower concentrations. At 500 pM concentration, we measured a reaction time which is 14,000-fold lower than that predicted for standard second-order hybridization. The model and method are generally applicable to acceleration of reactions involving nucleic acids, and may be applicable to a wide range of reactions involving ionic reactants. PMID:22733732

  7. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  8. Crucible Grows Wide Silicon Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, R.

    1982-01-01

    Inexpensive manufacture of solar cells may require quality silicon ribbon crystals. One way to produce them is by growing wide dendritic webs, which can be very long and have high structural perfection. Dendrites grow from supercooled melt, so width of ribbon depends on how wide a region of supercooled molten silicon can be maintained in crucible. Elongated geometry of suscepter/crucible/lid assembly allows molten silicon to supercool over a wider region -- a necessary condition for the growth of wide dendritic crystal ribbon.

  9. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  10. Hybrid chernoff tau-leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Markovian pure jump processes model a wide range of phenomena, including chemical reactions at the molecular level, dynamics of wireless communication networks, and the spread of epidemic diseases in small populations. There exist algorithms such as Gillespie\\'s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and Anderson\\'s modified next reaction method (MNRM) that simulate a single path with the exact distribution of the process, but this can be time consuming when many reactions take place during a short time interval. Gillespie\\'s approximated tau-leap method, on the other hand, can be used to reduce computational time, but it may lead to nonphysical values due to a positive one-step exit probability, and it also introduces a time discretization error. Here, we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual paths which adaptively switches between the SSA and the tau-leap method. The switching strategy is based on a comparison of the expected interarrival time of the SSA and an adaptive time step derived from a Chernoff-type bound for the one-step exit probability. Because this bound is nonasymptotic, we do not need to make any distributional approximation for the tau-leap increments. This hybrid method allows us (i) to control the global exit probability of any simulated path and (ii) to obtain accurate and computable estimates of the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Investigative Research, FMECA and PHM Modeling of Hybrid-Electric Distributed Propulsion System Architectures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations...

  12. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  13. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  14. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  15. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  16. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  17. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  18. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  19. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  2. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  8. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  9. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Start-up of an anaerobic hybrid (UASB/filter) reactor treating wastewater from a coffee processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Mendoza, R; Castillo-Rivera, M F

    1998-10-01

    The ability of an anaerobic hybrid reactor, treating coffee wastewater, to achieve a quick start-up was tested at pilot scale. The unacclimatized seed sludge used showed a low specific methanogenic activity of 26.47 g CH4 as chemical oxygen demand (COD)/kg volatile suspended solids (VSS) x day. This strongly limited the reactor performance. After a few days of operation, a COD removal of 77.2% was obtained at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.89 kg COD/m3 x day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 22 h. However, suddenly increasing OLR above 2.4 kg COD/m3 x day resulted in a deterioration in treatment efficiency. The reactor recovered from shock loads after shutdowns of 1 week. The hybrid design of the anaerobic reactor prevented the biomass from washing-out but gas clogging in the packing material was also observed. Wide variations in wastewater strength and flow rates prevented stable reactor operation in the short period of the study.

  11. Proximity hybridization-regulated chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer for homogeneous immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Wu, Jie; Yang, Kaili; Zong, Chen; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-07-01

    Chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) and the proximity ligation assay have been widely used in design of sensors for the bioanalysis. Here, a wash-free and homogeneous strategy was proposed to detect carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) based on proximity hybridization-regulated CRET. The Cy5 demonstrated strong chemiluminescence (CL) via the oxidation of TCPO in the presence of H2O2 and energy transfer between excited TCPO and Cy5. Graphene oxide (GO) as an excellent quencher was used to produce the "Signal off" mode that little CL emission was observed through CRET between GO and the Cy5-labelled DNA3. Once CEA was introduced, the target-induced proximity hybridization occurred to form a proximate complex, which inhibited the CRET by preventing GO from absorbing Cy5-labelled DNA3. Furthermore, taking advantage of nicking endonuclease Nt.BbvCI for in situ recycling, the signal could be further amplified for highly sensitive CL detection. Our results showed that this strategy enabled a specific response to CEA with a detection range of 5 orders of magnitude, along with a detection limit of 3.2pg mL(-1). Apart from its easy operation, high sensitivity and acceptable accuracy, the proposed method needed only 0.3μL of sample, indicating its great opportunity for commercial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  13. Hybrid e-learning tool TransLearning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Marjoleine G.; Kupper, Frank; Beers, P.J.; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning and storytelling approaches can support informal vicarious learning within geographically widely distributed multi-stakeholder collaboration networks. This case study evaluates hybrid e-learning and video-storytelling approach ‘TransLearning’ by investigation into how its storytelling

  14. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus by rapid chromosome evolution and introgression ... The lines with high productivity showed not only a wide spectrum of phenotypes but also obvious variations in fatty acid profiles of seed oil and glucosinolate ...

  15. Effects of fibre orientation on mechanical properties of hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The usage of natural fibre as reinforcement in polymer composites have widely increased because of its enhanced properties. The usage of plant fibre cannot alone satisfy all the needs of the composites. Hence, introduction of hybrid plays a vital role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the FRP composites.

  16. On use of hybrid rocket propulsion for suborbital vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam

    2018-04-01

    While the majority of operating suborbital rockets use solid rocket propulsion, recent advancements in the field of hybrid rocket motors lead to renewed interest in their use in sounding rockets. This paper presents results of optimisation of sounding rockets using hybrid propulsion. An overview of vehicles under development during the last decade, as well as heritage systems is provided. Different propellant combinations are discussed and their performance assessment is given. While Liquid Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Acid have been widely tested with various solid fuels in flight, Hydrogen Peroxide remains an oxidiser with very limited sounding rocket applications. The benefits of hybrid propulsion for sounding rockets are given. In case of hybrid rocket motors the thrust curve can be optimised for each flight, using a flow regulator, depending on the payload and mission. Results of studies concerning the optimal burn duration and nozzle selection are given. Specific considerations are provided for the Polish ILR-33 "Amber" sounding rocket. Low regression rates, which up to date were viewed as a drawback of hybrid propulsion may be used to the benefit of maximising rocket performance if small solid rocket boosters are used during the initial flight period. While increased interest in hybrid propulsion is present, no up-to-date reference concerning use of hybrid rocket propulsion for sounding rockets is available. The ultimate goal of the paper is to provide insight into the sensitivity of different design parameters on performance of hybrid sounding rockets and delve into the potential and challenges of using hybrid rocket technology for expendable suborbital applications.

  17. Scenario analysis of hybrid class 3-7 heavy vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, F.; Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Eberhardt, J. J.

    1999-12-23

    The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, they quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time. From the analysis, they conclude that (1) hybridization can significantly reduce energy consumption of Class 3-7 heavy vehicles under urban driving conditions; (2) the grid-independent, conventional vehicle (CV)-like hybrid is more cost-effective than the grid-dependent, electric vehicle (EV)-like hybrid, and the parallel configuration is more cost-effective than the series configuration; (3) for CV-like hybridization, the on-board engine can be significantly downsized, with a gasoline or diesel engine used for SUVs perhaps being a good candidate for an on-board engine; (4) over the long term, the incremental cost of a CV-like, parallel-configured Class 3-4 hybrid heavy vehicle is about %5,800 in the year 2005 and $3,000 in 2020, while for a Class 6-7 truck, it is about $7,100 in 2005 and $3,300 in 2020; and (5) investment payback time, which depends on the specific type and application of the vehicle, averages about 6 years under urban driving conditions in 2005 and 2--3 years in 2020.

  18. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  19. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  20. A hybrid approach for biobjective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2018-01-01

    be used to a wide variety of biobjective Mixed Integer Programming models. We test the approach on the biobjective extension of the classic traveling salesman problem, on the standard datasets, and determine the full set of nondominated points. This has only been done once before (Florios and Mavrotas...... to singleobjective problems is that no standard multiobjective solvers exist and specialized algorithms need to be programmed from scratch.In this article we will present a hybrid approach, which operates both in decision space and in objective space. The approach enables massive efficient parallelization and can......, 2014), and in our approach we do it in a fraction of the time....

  1. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  2. Behaviour of hydrogen in wide band gap oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Robertson, J. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-28

    The defect formation energies and atomic geometries of interstitial hydrogen in its different charge states in a number of wide band gap oxides are calculated by the Heyd, Scuseria, Ernzerhof hybrid functional. As in semiconductors, two behaviours are found, it acts either as an amphoteric defect or as a shallow donor. There are large scale lattice relaxations between the different charge states for the case of the amphoteric defect. Interestingly, we find that the +/− transition level does have a good alignment below the vacuum level, as was found previously for tetrahedral semiconductors.

  3. Behaviour of hydrogen in wide band gap oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Robertson, J.

    2014-05-01

    The defect formation energies and atomic geometries of interstitial hydrogen in its different charge states in a number of wide band gap oxides are calculated by the Heyd, Scuseria, Ernzerhof hybrid functional. As in semiconductors, two behaviours are found, it acts either as an amphoteric defect or as a shallow donor. There are large scale lattice relaxations between the different charge states for the case of the amphoteric defect. Interestingly, we find that the +/- transition level does have a good alignment below the vacuum level, as was found previously for tetrahedral semiconductors.

  4. Preheating in Hybrid Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Linde, Andrei

    1998-01-01

    We investigate a possibility of preheating in hybrid inflation. This scenario involves at least two scalar fields, the inflaton field $\\phi$, and the symmetry breaking field $\\sigma$. We found that the behavior of these fields after inflation, as well as the possibility of preheating, depends crucially on the ratio of the coupling constant $\\lambda$ (self-interaction of the field For $\\lambda \\gg g^2$, oscillations of the field $\\sigma$ soon after inflation become very small, and all energy is concentrated in the oscillating field light scalar (or vector) fields~$\\chi$. For $\\lambda \\sim g^2$ both fields motion stabilizes, and parametric resonance with production of $\\chi$ particles becomes possible. For $\\lambda \\ll g^2$ parametric resonance typically does not occur, though some exceptions from this rule are possible. In the recently proposed hybrid models with a second stage of inflation after the phase transition, both preheating and usual reheating are inefficient. Therefore for a very long time the unive...

  5. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t ... in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...

  6. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    an alternative approach, devoting special attention to the role played by social and cultural movements in the making of science and technology. They show how social and cultural movements, from the Renaissance of the late 15th century to the environmental and global justice movements of our time, have provided...... contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial......This book presents a cultural perspective on scientific and technological development. As opposed to the “story-lines” of economic innovation and social construction that tend to dominate the both the popular and scholarly literature on science, technology and society (or STS, the authors offer...

  7. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-09-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is presented. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  8. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is given. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  9. High-resolution genome-wide dissection of the two rules of speciation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Masly

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Postzygotic reproductive isolation is characterized by two striking empirical patterns. The first is Haldane's rule--the preferential inviability or sterility of species hybrids of the heterogametic (XY sex. The second is the so-called large X effect--substitution of one species's X chromosome for another's has a disproportionately large effect on hybrid fitness compared to similar substitution of an autosome. Although the first rule has been well-established, the second rule remains controversial. Here, we dissect the genetic causes of these two rules using a genome-wide introgression analysis of Drosophila mauritiana chromosome segments in an otherwise D. sechellia genetic background. We find that recessive hybrid incompatibilities outnumber dominant ones and that hybrid male steriles outnumber all other types of incompatibility, consistent with the dominance and faster-male theories of Haldane's rule, respectively. We also find that, although X-linked and autosomal introgressions are of similar size, most X-linked introgressions cause hybrid male sterility (60% whereas few autosomal introgressions do (18%. Our results thus confirm the large X effect and identify its proximate cause: incompatibilities causing hybrid male sterility have a higher density on the X chromosome than on the autosomes. We evaluate several hypotheses for the evolutionary cause of this excess of X-linked hybrid male sterility.

  10. Ac Hybrid Charge Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini S. Durgam; Anuradha B. Musale

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary needs for socio-economic development in any nation in the world is the provision of reliable electricity supply systems with lower carbon footprint levels. The purpose of this work is the development of a hybrid Power system that harnesses the renewable energy in sun and electricity to generate electricity. The working model can able to run on dual mode- solar and electricity. It can also be driven independently either by solar or electricity. The battery can be...

  11. Hybrid Solar Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, UR; Umanand, L

    2010-01-01

    In the existing traditional solar cookers, the cooking is performed near the collector which may be at an inconvenient location for cooking purposes. This paper proposes a hybrid solar cooking system where the solar energy is brought to the kitchen. The energy source is a combination of the solar thermal energy and the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) that is very common in kitchens. The solar thermal energy is transferred to the kitchen by means of a circulating fluid like oil. The transfer of ...

  12. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  13. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  14. Hybrid beams in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The first proton-ion beams were successfully circulated in the LHC a couple of weeks ago. Everything went so smoothly that the LHC teams had planned the first p-Pb collisions for Wednesday, 16 November. Unfortunately, a last-minute problem with a component of the PS required for proton acceleration prevented the LHC teams from making these new collisions. However, the way is open for a possible physics run with proton-lead collisions in 2012.   Members of the LHC team photographed when the first hybrid beams got to full energy. The proton and lead beams are visible on the leftmost screen up on the wall (click to enlarge the photo). The technical challenge of making different beams circulate in the LHC is by no means trivial. Even if the machine is the same, there are a number of differences when it is operated with beams of protons, beams of lead or beams of proton and lead. Provided that the beams are equal, irrespective of whether they consist of protons or lead nuclei, they revolve at the...

  15. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  16. Hybrid BioMicromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lukas; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2017-09-01

    Micromotors are devices that operate at the microscale and convert energy to motion. Many micromotors are microswimmers, i.e., devices that can move freely in a liquid at a low Reynolds number, where viscous drag dominates over inertia. Hybrid biomicromotors are microswimmers that consist of both biological and artificial components, i.e., one or several living microorganisms combined with one or many synthetic attachments. Initially, living microbes were used as motor units to transport synthetic cargo at the microscale, but this simple allocation has been altered and extended gradually, especially considering hybrid biomicromotors for biomedical in vivo applications, i.e., for non-invasive microscale operations in the body. This review focuses on these applications, where other properties of the microbial component, for example, the capability of chemotaxis, biosensing, and cell-cell interactions, have been exploited in order to realize tasks like localized diagnosis, drug delivery, or assisted fertilization in vivo. In the biohybrid approach, biological and artificially imposed functionalities act jointly through a microrobotic device that can be controlled or supervised externally. We review the development and state-of-the-art of such systems and discuss the mastery of current and future challenges in order to evolve hybrid biomicromotors from apt swimmers to adapted in vivo operators.

  17. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  18. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelcher, Chris; Smith, Steven Rathgeb

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity - segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences.

  19. Antithrombotic Protein Filter Composed of Hybrid Tissue-Fabric Material has a Long Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Akiko; Woo, Taeseong; Kobayashi, Shingo; Shibuya, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Masaru; Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Someya, Takao; Sekino, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    There are recent reports of hybrid tissue-fabric materials with good performance-high biocompatibility and high mechanical strength. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of a hybrid material as a long-term filter for blood proteins. Polyester fabrics were implanted into rats to fabricate hybrid tissue-fabric material sheets. The hybrid materials comprised biological tissue grown on the fabric. The materials were extracted from the rat's body, approximately 100 days post-implantation. The tissues were decellularized to prevent immunological rejection. An antithrombogenicity test was performed by dropping blood onto the hybrid material surface. The hybrid material showed lesser blood coagulation than polysulfone and cellulose. Blood plasma was filtered using the hybrid material to evaluate the protein removal percentage and the lifetime of the hybrid material in vitro. The hybrid material showed a comparable performance to conventional filters for protein removal. Moreover, the hybrid material could work as a protein filter for 1 month, which is six times the lifetime of polysulfone.

  20. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. Results In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Conclusions Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs

  1. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Andreas; Gligor, Mark; Rakotondranary, S Jacques; Rosenkranz, David; Zupke, Oliver

    2011-10-11

    Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs in different environmental settings. This sheds light on the

  2. The World Wide Web Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  3. NMR metabolomics of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance in Senecio hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Choi, Young H; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2009-02-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in F (2) hybrids of Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus. We identified thrips-resistant hybrids applying three different bioassays. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles of these hybrids applying nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The new developments of NMR facilitate a wide range coverage of the metabolome. This makes NMR especially suitable if there is no a priori knowledge of the compounds related to herbivore resistance and allows a holistic approach analyzing different chemical compounds simultaneously. We show that the metabolomes of thrips-resistant and -susceptible hybrids differed considerably. Thrips-resistant hybrids contained higher amounts of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), jacobine, and jaconine, especially in younger leaves. Also, a flavanoid, kaempferol glucoside, accumulated in the resistant plants. Both PAs and kaempferol are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores. In resistant and susceptible F (2) hybrids, young leaves showed less thrips damage than old leaves. Consistent with the optimal plant defense theory, young leaves contained increased levels of primary metabolites such as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, but also accumulated jacaranone as a secondary plant defense compound. Our results prove NMR as a promising tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants.

  4. Hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datas, A. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-04

    A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.

  5. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...

  7. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  8. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  10. Design Method and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Used in Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber, as an additive, can improve the performance of asphalt concrete and be widely studied, but only a few works have been done for hybrid fiber. This paper presents a new and convenient method to design hybrid fiber and verifies hybrid fiber’s superiority in asphalt pavement engineering. Firstly, this paper expounds the design method used as its applied example with the hybrid fiber composed of lignin, polyester, and polypropylene fibers. In this method, a direct shear device (DSD is used to measure the shear damage energy density (SDED of hybrid fiber modified asphalts, and range and variance statistical analysis are applied to determine the composition proportion of hybrid fiber. Then, the engineering property of hybrid fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (AC-13 is investigated. Finally, a cost-benefit model is developed to analyze the advantage of hybrid fiber compared to single fibers. The results show that the design method employed in this paper can offer a beneficial reference. A combination of 1.8% of lignin fiber and 2.4% of polyester fiber plus 3.0% polypropylene fiber presented the best reinforcement of the hybrid fiber. The cost-benefit model verifies that the hybrid fiber can bring about comprehensive pavement performance and good economy.

  11. Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for Hybrid Flowshop Scheduling Problem with Maintenance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-qing; Pan, Quan-ke; Mao, Kun

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm which combines particle swarm optimization (PSO) and iterated local search (ILS) is proposed for solving the hybrid flowshop scheduling (HFS) problem with preventive maintenance (PM) activities. In the proposed algorithm, different crossover operators and mutation operators are investigated. In addition, an efficient multiple insert mutation operator is developed for enhancing the searching ability of the algorithm. Furthermore, an ILS-based local search procedure is embedded in the algorithm to improve the exploitation ability of the proposed algorithm. The detailed experimental parameter for the canonical PSO is tuning. The proposed algorithm is tested on the variation of 77 Carlier and Néron's benchmark problems. Detailed comparisons with the present efficient algorithms, including hGA, ILS, PSO, and IG, verify the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24883414

  12. Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for Hybrid Flowshop Scheduling Problem with Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-qing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid algorithm which combines particle swarm optimization (PSO and iterated local search (ILS is proposed for solving the hybrid flowshop scheduling (HFS problem with preventive maintenance (PM activities. In the proposed algorithm, different crossover operators and mutation operators are investigated. In addition, an efficient multiple insert mutation operator is developed for enhancing the searching ability of the algorithm. Furthermore, an ILS-based local search procedure is embedded in the algorithm to improve the exploitation ability of the proposed algorithm. The detailed experimental parameter for the canonical PSO is tuning. The proposed algorithm is tested on the variation of 77 Carlier and Néron’s benchmark problems. Detailed comparisons with the present efficient algorithms, including hGA, ILS, PSO, and IG, verify the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Hybrid particle swarm optimization for hybrid flowshop scheduling problem with maintenance activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-qing; Pan, Quan-ke; Mao, Kun

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm which combines particle swarm optimization (PSO) and iterated local search (ILS) is proposed for solving the hybrid flowshop scheduling (HFS) problem with preventive maintenance (PM) activities. In the proposed algorithm, different crossover operators and mutation operators are investigated. In addition, an efficient multiple insert mutation operator is developed for enhancing the searching ability of the algorithm. Furthermore, an ILS-based local search procedure is embedded in the algorithm to improve the exploitation ability of the proposed algorithm. The detailed experimental parameter for the canonical PSO is tuning. The proposed algorithm is tested on the variation of 77 Carlier and Néron's benchmark problems. Detailed comparisons with the present efficient algorithms, including hGA, ILS, PSO, and IG, verify the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Novel hybrid polymeric materials for barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, Erin Christine

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites, described as the inclusion of nanometer-sized layered silicates into polymeric materials, have been widely researched due to significant enhancements in material properties with the incorporation of small levels of filler (1--5 wt.%) compared to conventional micro- and macro-composites (20--30 wt.%). One of the most promising applications for polymer-clay nanocomposites is in the field of barrier coatings. The development of UV-curable polymer-clay nanocomposite barrier coatings was explored by employing a novel in situ preparation technique. Unsaturated polyesters were synthesized in the presence of organomodified clays by in situ intercalative polymerization to create highly dispersed clays in a precursor resin. The resulting clay-containing polyesters were crosslinked via UV-irradiation using donor-acceptor chemistry to create polymer-clay nanocomposites which exhibited significantly enhanced barrier properties compared to alternative clay dispersion techniques. The impact of the quaternary alkylammonium organic modifiers, used to increase compatibility between the inorganic clay and organic polymer, was studied to explore influence of the organic modifier structure on the nanocomposite material properties. By incorporating just the organic modifiers, no layered silicates, into the polyester resins, reductions in film mechanical and thermal properties were observed, a strong indicator of film plasticization. An alternative in situ preparation method was explored to further increase the dispersion of organomodified clay within the precursor polyester resins. In stark contrast to traditional in situ polymerization methods, a novel "reverse" in situ preparation method was developed, where unmodified montmorillonite clay was added during polyesterification to a reaction mixture containing the alkylammonium organic modifier. The resulting nanocomposite films exhibited reduced water vapor permeability and increased mechanical properties

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  16. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    . Interspecific hybridization is one of the most important breeding strategies to increase the genetic variation. The main difficulty in obtaining interspecific hybrids is due to occurrence of reproductive barriers. In the study, the possibilities of developing novel interspecific hybrids were studied within two...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...... and growth of pollen tubes, as well as lower frequencies of pollen tubes were observed in specific cross-combinations. Post-fertilization barriers related to endosperm development and hybrid incompatibility were also observed in Kalanchoë and Hibiscus genus, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative...

  17. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  18. Athermal design and analysis of glass-plastic hybrid lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of security market, the glass-plastic hybrid lens has gradually become a choice for the special requirements like high imaging quality in a wide temperature range and low cost. The reduction of spherical aberration is achieved by using aspherical surface instead of increasing the number of lenses. Obviously, plastic aspherical lens plays a great role in the cost reduction. However, the hybrid lens has a priority issue, which is the large thermal coefficient of expansion of plastic, causing focus shift and seriously affecting the imaging quality, so the hybrid lens is highly sensitive to the change of temperature. To ensure the system operates normally in a wide temperature range, it is necessary to eliminate the influence of temperature on the hybrid lens system. A practical design method named the Athermal Material Map is summarized and verified by an athermal design example according to the design index. It includes the distribution of optical power and selection of glass or plastic. The design result shows that the optical system has excellent imaging quality at a wide temperature range from -20 ° to 70 °. The method of athermal design in this paper has generality which could apply to optical system with plastic aspherical surface.

  19. Tunable Hybrid Qubit in a Triple Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Hu, Xuedong; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate quantum-coherent dynamics of a triple-dot-based multielectron hybrid qubit. Pulsed experiments show that this system can be conveniently initialized, controlled, measured electrically, and has a good ratio Q ˜29 between the coherence time and gate time. Furthermore, the current multielectron hybrid qubit has an operation frequency that is tunable in a wide range, from 2 to about 15 GHz. We also provide a qualitative understanding of the experimental observations by mapping them onto a three-electron system. The demonstration of the high tunability in a triple dot system could be potentially useful for future quantum control.

  20. Negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths through plasmon-photon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalusniak, Sascha; Sadofev, Sergey; Henneberger, Fritz

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths through plasmon-photon hybridization on a simple microcavity with metallic mirrors. Instead of using conventional metals, the plasmonic excitations are provided by a heavily doped semiconductor which enables us to tune them into resonance with the infrared photon modes of the cavity. In this way, the dispersion of the resultant hybrid cavity modes can be widely adjusted. In particular, negative dispersion and negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths on an all-ZnO monolithical cavity are demonstrated.

  1. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  2. The Evolving Wide Area Network Infrastructure in the LHC era

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The global network is more than ever taking its role as the great "enabler" for many branches of science and research. Foremost amongst such science drivers is of course the LHC/LCG programme, although there are several other sectors with growing demands of the network. Common to all of these is the realisation that a straightforward over provisioned best efforts wide area IP service is probably not enough for the future. This talk will summarise the needs of several science sectors, and the advances being made to exploit the current best efforts infrastructure. It will then describe current projects aimed as provisioning "better than best efforts" services (such bandwidth on demand), the global optical R&D testbeds and the strategy of the research network providers to move towards hybrid multi-service networks for the next generation of the global wide area production network.

  3. Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Opportunities in Power Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Marlino, Laura D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Kristina O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The report objective is to explore the Wide Bandgap (WBG) Power Electronics (PE) market, applications, and potential energy savings in order to identify key areas where further resources and investments of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE EERE) would have the most impact on U.S. competiveness. After considering the current market, several potential near-term application areas were identified as having significant market and energy savings potential with respect to clean energy applications: (1) data centers (uninterruptible power supplies and server power supplies); (2) renewable energy generation (photovoltaic-solar and wind); (3) motor drives (industrial, commercial and residential); (4) rail traction; and, (5) hybrid and electric vehicles (traction and charging). After the initial explorative analyses, it became clear that, SiC, not GaN, would be the principal WBG power device material for the chosen markets in the near future. Therefore, while GaN is discussed when appropriate, this report focuses on SiC devices, other WBG applications (e.g., solid-state transformers, combined heat and power, medical, and wireless power), the GaN market, and GaN specific applications (e.g., LiDAR, 5G) will be explored at a later date. In addition to the market, supply and value chain analyses addressed in Section 1 of this report, a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) analysis and potential energy savings analysis was conducted for each application area to identify the major potential WBG application area(s) with a U.S. competitiveness opportunity in the future.

  4. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  5. The Prevention of Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-01-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods taht are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus. PMID:23378598

  6. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  7. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  8. NCenter wide band neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutte, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    This memo describes the physical properties of the currently operating N-Center wide band neutrino beam---commonly called the triplet train, following a past tradition of a triplet lens configuration. In reality, in order to gain a larger momentum acceptance and to minimize the angular divergence of the beam, a quadruplet beam (4 lenses) employing point-to-parallel optics at a central momentum of 300 GeV was built. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  9. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  10. In situ hybridization; principles and applications: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nozhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH is a method that uses labeled complementary single strand DNA or RNA to localize specific DNA or RNA sequences in an intact cell or in a fixed tissue section. The main steps of ISH consist of: probe selection, tissue or sample preparation, pre-hybridization treatment, hybridization and washing, detection and control procedure. Probe selection is one of the important aspects of successful hybridization. ISH sensitivity and specificity can be influenced by: probe construct, efficiency of labeling, percentage of GC, probe length and signal detection systems. Different methods such as nick translation, random priming, end tailing and T4 DNA polymerase replacement are used for probe generation. Both radioactive and non-radioactive labels can be used in order to probe labeling. Nucleic acid maintenance in samples, prevention of morphological changes of samples and probe penetration into tissue section are the main aims of sample preparation step. Then, a small amount of solution containing probe, is added on slides containing tissue sections for hybridization process, then slides are incubated overnight. Next day, washes are carried out to remove the probes which are not bound to target DNA or RNA. Finally, in order to be sure that the observed labeling is specific to the target sequence, using several control procedures is very important. Various techniques based on ISH consist of: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (MFISH. One of the most common techniques of ISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. FISH can be used to: 1 detect small deletions and duplications that are not visible using microscope analysis, 2 detect how many chromosomes of a certain type are present in each cell and 3 confirm rearrangements that are

  11. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  12. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  13. Models for effective prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C L; Kelder, S H

    1992-07-01

    The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Multi-Agent-Based Controller for Voltage Enhancement in AC/DC Hybrid Microgrid Using Energy Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadali Khatibzadeh; Mohammadreza Besmi; Aminollah Mahabadi; Mahmoud Reza Haghifam

    2017-01-01

    Development of renewable energies and DC loads have led microgrids toward the creation of DC networks. The predictions show that the hybrid microgrids will be used widely in the future. This article has studied the voltage stability in the presence of sources of energy storage in AC/DC hybrid networks. However, because the different dynamics of hybrid networks applying centralized and distributed controllers will be faced with different problems, in this study, a multi-agent control for the m...

  15. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...

  16. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  17. Universal hybrid quantum processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    A quantum processor (the programmable gate array) is a quantum network with a fixed structure. A space of states is represented as tensor product of data and program registers. Different unitary operations with the data register correspond to 'loaded' programs without any changing or 'tuning' of the network itself. Due to such property and undesirability of entanglement between program and data registers, universality of quantum processors is a subject of rather strong restrictions. Universal 'stochastic' quantum gate arrays were developed by different authors. It was also proved that 'deterministic' quantum processors with finite-dimensional space of states may be universal only in approximate sense. In the present paper it is shown that, using a hybrid system with continuous and discrete quantum variables, it is possible to suggest a design of strictly universal quantum processors. It is also shown that 'deterministic' limit of specific programmable 'stochastic' U(1) gates (probability of success becomes a unit for the infinite program register), discussed by other authors, may be essentially the same kind of hybrid quantum systems used here

  18. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  19. Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelvetro, Valter; De Vita, Cinzia

    2004-05-20

    Organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O-I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic-organic or O-I core-shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a

  20. Coordination of Advertising Free Riding in Hybrid Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a crucial tool for demand creation and market expansion; enterprises in supply chain use it widely to increase sales and improve profits. But the homogeneity of products sold in hybrid channel supply chain magnifies the positive externalities of advertising and leads to serious free-riding problem. To coordinate the supply chain effectively, firstly, this paper classifies hybrid channel supply chain based on the relationship between members and selects horizontally integrated, vertically integrated, and decentralized hybrid channel supply chains as research objects. Then, a demand function considering the common effect of price and advertising is proposed and coordination schemes for different types of supply chains are designed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of parameters on coordination using orthogonal experiment.

  1. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  2. Conceptual innovations in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A number of innovations in the conception of fusion-fission hybrid reactors, including the blanket, the fusion driver, the coupling of the fusion and the fission components as well as the application of hybrid reactors are described, and their feasibility assessed

  3. Hybrid logics with Sahlqvist axioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, B.; Marx, M.; Viana, P.

    2005-01-01

    We show that every extension of the basic hybrid logic with modal Sahlqvist axioms is complete. As a corollary of our approach, we also obtain the Beth property for a large class of hybrid logics. Finally, we show that the new completeness result cannot be combined with the existing general

  4. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  5. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th...

  6. Electrification of the transportation sector offers limited country-wide greenhouse gas reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2014-03-01

    Compared with conventional propulsion, plugin and hybrid vehicles may offer reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, regional air/noise pollution, petroleum dependence, and ownership cost. Comparing only plugins and hybrids amongst themselves, and focusing on GHG, relative merits of different options have been shown to be more nuanced, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus battery manufacturing and weight, and trip patterns. We present a life-cycle framework to compare GHG emissions for three drivetrains (plugin-electricity-only, gasoline-only-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid) across driving ranges and grid-carbon-intensities, for passenger cars, vans, buses, or trucks (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing). Parameter and model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity analyses. We find that owing to the interplay of range, GHG/km, and portions of country-wide kms accessible to electrification, GHG reductions achievable from plugins (whether electricity-only or hybrids) are limited even when assuming low-carbon future grids. Furthermore, for policy makers considering GHG from electricity and transportation sectors combined, plugin technology may in fact increase GHG compared to gasoline-only-hybrids, regardless of grid-carbon-intensity.

  7. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  8. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  9. Laser driven fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time

  10. Hybridization, transgressive segregation and evolution of new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 3. Hybridization, transgressive segregation and evolution of new genetic systems in Drosophila ... Keywords. Drosophila nasuta; Drosophila albomicans; hybridization; cytoraces; new genetic systems.

  11. Shape-Memory Behavior of Polylactide/Silica Ionic Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Odent, Jérémy

    2017-03-27

    Commercial polylactide (PLA) was converted and endowed with shape-memory properties by synthesizing ionic hybrids based on blends of PLA with imidazolium-terminated PLA and poly[ε-caprolactone-co-d,l-lactide] (P[CL-co-LA]) and surface-modified silica nanoparticles. The electrostatic interactions assist with the silica nanoparticle dispersion in the polymer matrix. Since nanoparticle dispersion in polymers is a perennial challenge and has prevented nanocomposites from reaching their full potential in terms of performance we expect this new design will be exploited in other polymers systems to synthesize well-dispersed nanocomposites. Rheological measurements of the ionic hybrids are consistent with the formation of a network. The ionic hybrids are also much more deformable compared to the neat PLA. More importantly, they exhibit shape-memory behavior with fixity ratio Rf ≈ 100% and recovery ratio Rr = 79%, for the blend containing 25 wt % im-PLA and 25 wt % im-P[CL-co-LA] and 5 wt % of SiO2–SO3Na. Dielectric spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis show a second, low-frequency relaxation attributed to strongly immobilized polymer chains on silica due to electrostatic interactions. Creep compliance tests further suggest that the ionic interactions prevent permanent slippage in the hybrids which is most likely responsible for the significant shape-memory behavior observed.

  12. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  13. Hierarchical hybrid peroxidase catalysts for remediation of phenol wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan

    2014-02-20

    We report a new family of hierarchical hybrid catalysts comprised of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-magnetic nanoparticles for advanced oxidation processes and demonstrate their utility in the removal of phenol from water. The immobilized HRP catalyzes the oxidation of phenols in the presence of H2O2, producing free radicals. The phenoxy radicals react with each other in a non-enzymatic process to form polymers, which can be removed by precipitation with salts or condensation. The hybrid peroxidase catalysts exhibit three times higher activity than free HRP and are able to remove three times more phenol from water compared to free HRP under similar conditions. In addition, the hybrid catalysts reduce substrate inhibition and limit inactivation from reaction products, which are common problems with free or conventionally immobilized enzymes. Reusability is improved when the HRP-magnetic nanoparticle hybrids are supported on micron-scale magnetic particles, and can be retained with a specially designed magnetically driven reactor. The performance of the hybrid catalysts makes them attractive for several industrial and environmental applications and their development might pave the way for practical applications by eliminating most of the limitations that have prevented the use of free or conventionally immobilized enzymes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hierarchical hybrid peroxidase catalysts for remediation of phenol wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaonan; Corgié, Stéphane C; Aneshansley, Daniel J; Wang, Peng; Walker, Larry P; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2014-04-04

    We report a new family of hierarchical hybrid catalysts comprised of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-magnetic nanoparticles for advanced oxidation processes and demonstrate their utility in the removal of phenol from water. The immobilized HRP catalyzes the oxidation of phenols in the presence of H2 O2 , producing free radicals. The phenoxy radicals react with each other in a non-enzymatic process to form polymers, which can be removed by precipitation with salts or condensation. The hybrid peroxidase catalysts exhibit three times higher activity than free HRP and are able to remove three times more phenol from water compared to free HRP under similar conditions. In addition, the hybrid catalysts reduce substrate inhibition and limit inactivation from reaction products, which are common problems with free or conventionally immobilized enzymes. Reusability is improved when the HRP-magnetic nanoparticle hybrids are supported on micron-scale magnetic particles, and can be retained with a specially designed magnetically driven reactor. The performance of the hybrid catalysts makes them attractive for several industrial and environmental applications and their development might pave the way for practical applications by eliminating most of the limitations that have prevented the use of free or conventionally immobilized enzymes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  16. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  17. Whole-genome scanning by array comparative genomic hybridization as a clinical tool for risk assessment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunn, Shelly R.; Mohammed, Mansoor S.; Gorre, Mercedes E.; Cotter, Philip D.; Kim, Jaeweon; Bahler, David W.; Preobrazhensky, Sergey N.; Higgins, Russell A.; Bolla, Aswani R.; Ismail, Sahar H.; de Jong, Daphne; Eldering, Eric; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Mellink, Clemens H. M.; Keating, Michael J.; Schlette, Ellen J.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Robetorye, Ryan S.

    2008-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) provides a powerful method for simultaneous genome-wide scanning and prognostic marker assessment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In the current study, commercially available bacterial artificial chromosome and oligonucleotide array

  18. Hybrid-Electric Rotorcraft Tool Development, Propulsion System Trade Space Exploration, and Demonstrator Conceptual Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming widely accepted as a potential disruptive technology for aircraft that can provide significant reduction in fuel consumption...

  19. Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, David

    As Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist, my goal will be to maximize the science capability of the mission in a cost-contained environment. I hope to work with the HQ, project and the FSWG to assure mission success. I plan to play a leadership role in communicating the WFIRST science capabilities to the astronomy community , obtain input from both science teams and the broader community that help derive performance requirements and calibration metrics. I plan to focus on developing the observing program for the deep fields and focus on using them to calibrate instrument performance and capabilities. I plan to organize workshops that will bring together WFIRST team members with astronomers working on LSST, Euclid, JWST, and the ELTs to maximize combined science return. I am also eager to explore the astrometric and stellar seismology capabilities of the instrument with a goal of maximizing science return without affecting science requirements.

  20. The LOFT wide field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Alvarez, L.

    2012-01-01

    LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) is one of the four missions selected in 2011 for assessment study for the ESA M3 mission in the Cosmic Vision program, expected to be launched in 2024. The LOFT mission will carry two instruments with their prime sensitivity in the 2-30 keV range: a 10 m2...... class large area detector (LAD) with a effective area ~20 times larger than any previous mission and will by timing studies...... be able to address fundamental questions about strong gravity in the vicinity of black holes and the equation of state of nuclear matter in neutron stars. The prime goal of the WFM will be to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. However, with its wide field of view and good energy...

  1. Improving the wide resonance approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    1999-01-01

    A resonance is considered wide if its practical width, in energy, exceeds the average energy loss per collision, E(1-α A )/2, of the absorbing material. When the mass number, A, is taken infinite, the scattering produces only a change in the direction of motion of the neutron and not in its energy. Based on this assumption, the integral in the slowing-down equation describing the contribution of the resonant absorber is evaluated by taking its limit when α A →1. This work questions the necessity to take such a limit and shows that it is still possible to obtain a simple and more accurate expression for the integral without taking such limit

  2. Improving the wide resonance approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S

    1999-03-01

    A resonance is considered wide if its practical width, in energy, exceeds the average energy loss per collision, E(1-{alpha}{sub A})/2, of the absorbing material. When the mass number, A, is taken infinite, the scattering produces only a change in the direction of motion of the neutron and not in its energy. Based on this assumption, the integral in the slowing-down equation describing the contribution of the resonant absorber is evaluated by taking its limit when {alpha}{sub A}{yields}1. This work questions the necessity to take such a limit and shows that it is still possible to obtain a simple and more accurate expression for the integral without taking such limit.

  3. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians......’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  4. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  5. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  6. Polynomial hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We study a simple extension of Linde's hybrid inflation model, with the inflaton mass term replaced by the most general renormalizable potential for φ. The unprocessed power spectrum of density perturbations can have two minima and one maximum, roughly corresponding to two steep regions separated by a somewhat flat region in V(φ). In the examples studied here, a sufficient amount of inflation and normalization to COBE requires a vacuum scale of 10 16 GeV and a φ mass of 10 13 GeV. Depending on the initial value of φ, our model can give either less (∼n 1) power on small scales compared to the scale-invariant spectrum (n=1), given the normalization to COBE. Given the same power on small scales, our power spectra can give more power on intermediate scales, compared to simple ''tilted'' power spectra

  7. Hyper- and hybrid nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Gessner, Manuel; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom, have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows us to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.

  8. Advanced Photonic Hybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Charreyre, Y. Leverrier, J.  Marvel , Polish‐French Workshop on Organic Electronics and Nanophotonics WOREN 2013,  Zlockie, Poland, Feb 2013.  ‐ Hybrid...Chaput, F.; Marotte, S.; Leverrier, Y.;  Marvel , J.; Kamada, K.; Andraud, C.; Baldeck, P.L.; Parola, S. Biomaterials, 2013, 34, pp 8344‐ 8351  (7...145707.  10  J. R. Navarro, D. Manchon,  F.  Lerouge, N.  P. Blanchard,  S. Marotte,  Y.  Leverrier,  J.  Marvel ,  F.  Chaput, G. Micouin, A.‐M.  Gabudean

  9. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  10. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  11. Hybrid powertrain controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Miroslava; Powell, Barry Kay

    2000-12-26

    A hybrid powertrain for a vehicle comprising a diesel engine and an electric motor in a parallel arrangement with a multiple ratio transmission located on the torque output side of the diesel engine, final drive gearing connecting drivably the output shaft of transmission to traction wheels of the vehicle, and an electric motor drivably coupled to the final drive gearing. A powertrain controller schedules fuel delivered to the diesel engine and effects a split of the total power available, a portion of the power being delivered by the diesel and the balance of the power being delivered by the motor. A shifting schedule for the multiple ratio transmission makes it possible for establishing a proportional relationship between accelerator pedal movement and torque desired at the wheels. The control strategy for the powertrain maintains drivability of the vehicle that resembles drivability of a conventional spark ignition vehicle engine powertrain while achieving improved fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions.

  12. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  14. An Allele Real-Coded Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Hybrid Updating Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Xian; Qian, Xiao-Yi; Peng, Hui-Deng; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    For improving convergence rate and preventing prematurity in quantum evolutionary algorithm, an allele real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm based on hybrid updating strategy is presented. The real variables are coded with probability superposition of allele. A hybrid updating strategy balancing the global search and local search is presented in which the superior allele is defined. On the basis of superior allele and inferior allele, a guided evolutionary process as well as updating alle...

  15. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  16. Carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber hybrid material: a super support material for sludge biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qijie; Dai, Guangze; Bao, Yanling

    2017-07-16

    Carbon fiber (CF) is widely used as a sludge biofilm support material for wastewater treatment. Carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber (CNTs/CF) hybrid material was prepared by ultrasonically assisted electrophoretic deposition (EPD). CF supports (CF without handling, CF oxidized by nitric acid, CNTs/CF hybrid material) were evaluated by sludge immobilization tests, bacterial cell adsorption tests and Derjaguin -Landau -Verwey -Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We found that the CNTs/CF hybrid material has a high capacity for adsorbing activated sludge, nitrifying bacterial sludge and pure strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). CNTs deposited on CF surface easily wound around the curved surface of bacterial cell which resulted in capturing more bacterial cells. DLVO theory indicated the lowest total interaction energy of CNTs/CF hybrid material, which resulted in the highest bacteria cell adsorption velocity. Experiments and DLVO theory results proved that CNTs/CF hybrid material is a super support material for sludge biofilms.

  17. Polymer Combustion as a Basis for Hybrid Propulsion: A Comprehensive Review and New Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Novozhilov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Propulsion is an attractive alternative to conventional liquid and solid rocket motors. This is an active area of research and technological developments. Potential wide application of Hybrid Engines opens the possibility for safer and more flexible space vehicle launching and manoeuvring. The present paper discusses fundamental combustion issues related to further development of Hybrid Rockets. The emphasis is made on the two aspects: (1 properties of potential polymeric fuels, and their modification, and (2 implementation of comprehensive CFD models for combustion in Hybrid Engines. Fundamentals of polymeric fuel combustion are discussed. Further, steps necessary to accurately describe their burning behaviour by means of CFD models are investigated. Final part of the paper presents results of preliminary CFD simulations of fuel burning process in Hybrid Engine using a simplified set-up.

  18. Fabrication of PLA/CaCO3 hybrid micro-particles as carriers for water-soluble bioactive molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, Valeriya L; Zhao, Li; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2017-09-01

    We propose the use of polylactic acid/calcium carbonate (PLA/CaCO 3 ) hybrid micro-particles for achieving improved encapsulation of water-soluble substances. Biodegradable porous CaCO 3 microparticles can be loaded with wide range of bioactive substance. Thus, the formation of hydrophobic polymeric shell on surface of these loaded microparticles results on encapsulation and, hence, sealing internal cargo and preventing their release in aqueous media. In this study, to encapsulate proteins, we explore the solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion method for fabricating core/shell PLA/CaCO 3 systems. We used CaCO 3 particles as a protective core for encapsulated bovine serum albumin, which served as a model protein system. We prepared a PLA coating using dichloromethane as an organic solvent and polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant for emulsification; in addition, we varied experimental parameters such as surfactant concentration and polymer-to-CaCO 3 ratio to determine their effect on particle-size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and capsule permeability. The results show that the particle size decreased and the size distribution narrowed as the surfactant concentration increased in the external aqueous phase. In addition, when the CaCO 3 /PLA mass ratio dropped below 0.8, the hybrid micro-particles were more likely to resist treatment by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and thus retained their bioactive cargos within the polymer-coated micro-particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid computing - Generalities and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Daniele

    1970-01-01

    This note presents the content of a research thesis. It describes the evolution of hybrid computing systems, discusses the benefits and shortcomings of analogue or hybrid systems, discusses the building up of an hybrid system (requires properties), comments different possible uses, addresses the issues of language and programming, discusses analysis methods and scopes of application. An appendix proposes a bibliography on these issues and notably the different scopes of application (simulation, fluid dynamics, biology, chemistry, electronics, energy, errors, space, programming languages, hardware, mechanics, and optimisation of equations or processes, physics) [fr

  20. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  1. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  2. Program Hybrid/GDH. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Bisplinghoff, J.

    1975-10-01

    This code is the most recent in a series of codes for doing a-priori pre-equilibrium decay calculations. It has been written to permit the user to exercise many options at time of execution. It will, for example, permit calculation with either Hybrid model or the geometry dependent Hybrid model (GDH). Intranuclear transition rates can be calculated using either a nucleon-nucleon scattering approach (improved over earlier results) or based on the imaginary optical potential. Transition rates based on exciton lifetimes can be selected (as suggested in the Hybrid model formulation) or an average lifetime for each n-exciton configuration may be selected

  3. Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis in Aicardi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicardi syndrome is characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, chorioretinal lacunae, severe seizures (starting as infantile spasms), neuronal migration defects, mental retardation, costovertebral defects, and typical facial features. Because Aicardi syndrome is sporadic and affects only fem...

  4. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  5. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  6. Impacts of human-induced environmental disturbances on hybridization between two ecologically differentiated Californian oak species

    OpenAIRE

    Ortego, Joaquín; Gugger, Paul F.; Sork, Victoria L.

    2017-01-01

    Natural hybridization, which can be involved in local adaptation and in speciation processes, has been linked to different sources of anthropogenic disturbance. Here, we use genotypic data to study range-wide patterns of genetic admixture between the serpentine-soil specialist leather oak (Quercus durata) and the widespread Californian scrub oak (Quercus berberidifolia). First, we estimated hybridization rates and the direction of gene flow. Second, we tested the hypothesis that genetic ad...

  7. Vegetative and adaptive traits predict different outcomes for restoration using hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Crystal; Nathanael Lichti; Keith Woeste; Douglass Jacobs

    2016-01-01

    Abstract – Hybridization has been implicated as a driver of speciation, extinction, and invasiveness, but can also provide resistant breeding stock following epidemics. However, evaluating the appropriateness of hybrids for use in restoration programs is difficult. Past the F1 generation, the proportion of a progenitor’s genome can vary widely, as can the combinations of parental genomes. Detailed genetic analysis can reveal this information, but cannot expose phenotypic alterations due to...

  8. Recommendations and Improvements for the Evaluation of Integrated Community-Wide Interventions Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koperen, Tessa M; Renders, Carry M; Spierings, Eline J M; Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Westerman, Marjan J; Seidell, Jacob C; Schuit, Albertine J

    2016-01-01

    Background. Integrated community-wide intervention approaches (ICIAs) are implemented to prevent childhood obesity. Programme evaluation improves these ICIAs, but professionals involved often struggle with performance. Evaluation tools have been developed to support Dutch professionals involved in

  9. Hybridization and management of oak populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Gailing

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization can result in the transfer of adaptations among species and may contribute to speciation processes. On the other hand, hybridization can also result in a loss of species diversity due to asymmetric gene flow between species (genetic swamping) and in low hybrid fitness. An understanding of the outcomes of interspecific hybridization is crucial for the...

  10. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  11. Relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S M; Wasserman, D A; Havassy, B E

    1991-01-01

    Although knowledge about relapse prevention is still at an early stage, the extant data highlight the importance of several constructs. 1. Motivation for abstinence remains central. The construct itself is often clouded because of its association with mystical notions such as willpower and self-control. We know that manipulation of environmental events can increase motivation. These interventions are effective, however, only as long as the contingencies are in effect. We need to develop and evaluate strategies for transferring contingency management to the natural environment, that is, to institutions and groups that can perpetuate them for the long term. Also, clarification of the kinds of abstinence goals needed to prevent relapse is important. 2. Coping skills have been studied by several investigators, but research on these, except for job-finding skills, is not encouraging. The skills usually taught may be too basic. Skills training oriented to complex targets, such as building nondrug-using networks, may be useful and should be further explored. 3. Social support is clearly important, yet we do not know how best to use it to promote abstinence. The little research available suggests that both familial and nonfamilial systems should be mobilized. We need to define abstinence-promoting supportive behaviors, identify and engage important support systems in treatment, and help patients expand their nondrug-using contacts. 4. Negative affect may be causally related to relapse. We need to continue efforts to identify dysphoric patients and develop interventions to ameliorate dysphoria concurrent with drug abuse treatment (cf. Zweben and Smith 1989). 5. Drug cue reactivity and extinction to drug cues have been demonstrated in the laboratory. What is needed in this promising line of research are (1) investigation of cues and cue-reactivity phenomena in the natural environment or in conditions closely mimicking that environment and (2) extinction methods that transfer

  12. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  13. Absence of hypomethylation and LINE-1 amplification in a white x black rhinoceros hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Waters, Paul D; Robinson, Terence J

    2006-05-01

    Genomic stress resulting from the interspecific hybridization of marsupials has been shown to lead to hypomethylation and transposable element over-amplification. Here we investigated both methylation status and transposable element (LINE-1) activity in an F1 hybrid between the black (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Our data show that in this instance the hybrid genome was not characterised by gross hypomethylation and LINE-1 over-amplification thus extending previous investigations on eutherian mammals. These findings underscore observations that wide-scale genomic instability involving hypomethylation and mobile element release may be marsupial specific phenomena within Mammalia.

  14. Unit 148 - World Wide Web Basics

    OpenAIRE

    148, CC in GIScience; Yeung, Albert K.

    2000-01-01

    This unit explains the characteristics and the working principles of the World Wide Web as the most important protocol of the Internet. Topics covered in this unit include characteristics of the World Wide Web; using the World Wide Web for the dissemination of information on the Internet; and using the World Wide Web for the retrieval of information from the Internet.

  15. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  16. Matrix Converter in Hybrid Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lettl, Jiří; Flígl, S.

    -, č. 3 (2004), s. 77-80 ISSN 0204-3599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : matrix converter * hybrid drive * electric power splitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  18. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  19. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  20. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    predictions about the inherent interdependency and material dependent performance of the hybrid structure and (2) the inter-scalar design strategies for specification and fabrication. The first investigation focuses on the design pipelines developed between the implementation of realtime physics......This paper presents the research project Hybrid Tower, an interdisciplinary collaboration between CITA—Centre for IT and Architecture, KET—Department for Structural Design and Technology, Fibrenamics, Universidade do Minho Guimarães, AFF a. ferreira & filhos, sa, Caldas de Vizela, Portugal...... and Essener Labor für Leichte Flächentragwerke, Universität Duisburg-Essen. Hybrid Tower is a hybrid structural system combining bending active compression members and tensile members for architectural design. The paper presents two central investigations: (1) the creation of new design methods that embed...

  1. Optical Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    owner

    Research Activities. 1. Hybrid nanomaterials for optoelectronic applications. 2. Design and study of organic nanostructured materials. 3. Light induced processes in functional molecular systems. 4. Functional control of molecules on surfaces ...

  2. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  3. Establishing Tools for Computing Hybrids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiem, Clare; Bhat, Sunil; Blount, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Establishing Tools for Computing hybrids (ETCH) provides a starting point from which to explore how advanced computing technology, based upon biotechnology, might enable intelligent systems and provide new capabilities to the Air Force...

  4. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    Hybrid simulation is a substructural method combining a numerical simulation with a physical experiment. A structure is thereby simulated under the assumption that a substructure’s response is well known and easily modelled while a given substructure is studied more accurately in a physical...... of freedom. In this dissertation the main focus is to develop hybrid simulation for composite structures e.g. wind turbine blades where the boundary between the numerical model and the physical experiment is continues i.e. in principal infinite amount of degrees of freedom. This highly complicates...... the transfer system and the control and monitoring techniques in the shared boundary is therefore a key issue in this type of hybrid simulation. During the research, hybrid simulation platforms have been programmed capable of running on different time scales with advanced control and monitoring techniques...

  5. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  6. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Indirect evolution of hybrid lethality due to linkage with selected locus in Mimulus guttatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Wright

    Full Text Available Most species are superbly and intricately adapted to the environments in which they live. Adaptive evolution by natural selection is the primary force shaping biological diversity. Differences between closely related species in ecologically selected characters such as habitat preference, reproductive timing, courtship behavior, or pollinator attraction may prevent interbreeding in nature, causing reproductive isolation. But does ecological adaptation cause reproductive incompatibilities such as hybrid sterility or lethality? Although several genes causing hybrid incompatibilities have been identified, there is intense debate over whether the genes that contribute to ecological adaptations also cause hybrid incompatibilities. Thirty years ago, a genetic study of local adaptation to copper mine soils in the wildflower Mimulus guttatus identified a locus that appeared to cause copper tolerance and hybrid lethality in crosses to other populations. But do copper tolerance and hybrid lethality have the same molecular genetic basis? Here we show, using high-resolution genome mapping, that copper tolerance and hybrid lethality are not caused by the same gene but are in fact separately controlled by two tightly linked loci. We further show that selection on the copper tolerance locus indirectly caused the hybrid incompatibility allele to go to high frequency in the copper mine population because of hitchhiking. Our results provide a new twist on Darwin's original supposition that hybrid incompatibilities evolve as an incidental by-product of ordinary adaptation to the environment.

  8. Bandgap engineering in semiconductor alloy nanomaterials with widely tunable compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Dou, Letian; Yang, Peidong

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, tremendous progress has been achieved in the development of nanoscale semiconductor materials with a wide range of bandgaps by alloying different individual semiconductors. These materials include traditional II-VI and III-V semiconductors and their alloys, inorganic and hybrid perovskites, and the newly emerging 2D materials. One important common feature of these materials is that their nanoscale dimensions result in a large tolerance to lattice mismatches within a monolithic structure of varying composition or between the substrate and target material, which enables us to achieve almost arbitrary control of the variation of the alloy composition. As a result, the bandgaps of these alloys can be widely tuned without the detrimental defects that are often unavoidable in bulk materials, which have a much more limited tolerance to lattice mismatches. This class of nanomaterials could have a far-reaching impact on a wide range of photonic applications, including tunable lasers, solid-state lighting, artificial photosynthesis and new solar cells.

  9. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  10. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and ... a child for life. Learn more about polio + prevention The Virus The Vaccines The Communities Related resources ...

  11. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  12. Hybrid quantum-classical master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    We discuss hybrid master equations of composite systems, which are hybrids of classical and quantum subsystems. A fairly general form of hybrid master equations is suggested. Its consistency is derived from the consistency of Lindblad quantum master equations. We emphasize that quantum measurement is a natural example of exact hybrid systems. We derive a heuristic hybrid master equation of time-continuous position measurement (monitoring). (paper)

  13. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  15. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  16. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  18. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  19. A new hybrid BCI paradigm based on P300 and SSVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjue; Daly, Ian; Allison, Brendan Z; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Lanlan; Wang, Xingyu

    2015-04-15

    P300 and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) approaches have been widely used for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. However, neither of these approaches can work for all subjects. Some groups have reported that a hybrid BCI that combines two or more approaches might provide BCI functionality to more users. Hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs have only recently been developed and validated, and very few avenues to improve performance have been explored. The present study compares an established hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs paradigm to a new paradigm in which shape changing, instead of color changing, is adopted for P300 evocation to decrease the degradation on SSVEP strength. The result shows that the new hybrid paradigm presented in this paper yields much better performance than the normal hybrid paradigm. A performance increase of nearly 20% in SSVEP classification is achieved using the new hybrid paradigm in comparison with the normal hybrid paradigm. All the paradigms except the normal hybrid paradigm used in this paper obtain 100% accuracy in P300 classification. The new hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs paradigm in which shape changing, instead of color changing, could obtain as high classification accuracy of SSVEP as the traditional SSVEP paradigm and could obtain as high classification accuracy of P300 as the traditional P300 paradigm. P300 did not interfere with the SSVEP response using the new hybrid paradigm presented in this paper, which was superior to the normal hybrid P300/SSVEP paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  1. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  2. Are hybrid species more fit than ancestral parent species in the current hybrid species habitats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, L.A.; Rosenthal, D.R.; Sanchez-Velenosi, M.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Ludwig, F.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid speciation is thought to be facilitated by escape of early generation hybrids into new habitats, subsequent environmental selection and adaptation. Here, we ask whether two homoploid hybrid plant species (Helianthus anomalus, H. deserticola) diverged sufficiently from their ancestral parent

  3. Fuel Consumption Reduction By Use Of Hybrid Drive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Renken, Folker

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles with hybrid drive systems are characterized by their driving dynamics, their energy efficiency and their environment-friendliness especially. Dependent on the electrical power and the drive train structure these hybrid drives are grouped into different classes. Designations such as micro-hybrid, mild- hybrid, full-hybrid, serial-hybrid, serial/parallel-hybrid or power-split-hybrid reflect the large variance of these different drive train possibilities. In hybrid drive systems electro...

  4. Heterosis in okra hybrids obtained by hybridization of two methods: traditional and experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Gabriel M; Luz, José MQ; Campos, Saulo FB; Finzi, Rafael R; Azevedo, Breno NR

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT High heterosis values can be obtained using hybrid okra seeds. However, despite high heterotic values, it is very difficult to produce hybrid okra seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate an experimental methodology of hybridization. Two different methods of hybridization were used: traditional manual hybridization with complete emasculation followed by hand pollination (artificial) and, an experimental methodology, performing manual hybridization with incomplete emasculati...

  5. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna; Herman, William H.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Liew, Danny; Ademi, Zanfina; Magliano, Dianna J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective interventions to prevent, delay, or remit diabetes are currently available. However, their impact on the prevalence of diabetes at the population level is unknown. This study aimed to estimate the impact of a range of diabetes interventions on the population prevalence of diabetes for Australian adults between 2010 and 2025. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Australian Diabetes Projection Model to estimate the impact of a population-wide strategy, high-risk preventio...

  6. Microarray-based genomic profiling and in situ hybridization on fibrotic bone marrow biopsies for the identification of numerical chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Kroef, Marian Jpl; Hebeda, Konnie M; Verwiel, Eugène T; Kamping, Eveline J; van Cleef, Patricia H; Kuiper, Roland P; Groenen, Patricia Jta

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematological malignancies. In MDS patients with a fibrotic bone marrow the aspiration of cells often fails (dry-tap), which hampers standard karyotyping. Obtaining genetic data from these fibrotic marrows is therefore challenging, and up till now in situ hybridization applied to bone marrow biopsies is the only option. The microarray-based genomic profiling technology has already proven its value for bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples, but has never been applied to the technically challenging bone marrow biopsies. We describe an approach for microarray-based genomic profiling on bone marrow biopsies and demonstrate its ability to obtain clinically relevant cytogenetic aberrations. In addition the data were compared with those obtained by in situ hybridization and karyotyping. We have evaluated the success rate of microarray-based genomic profiling by studying twenty-one bone marrow biopsies (7 fibrotic MDS, 12 non-fibrotic MDS and 2 reactive), by microarray-based genomic profiling and in situ hybridization (12 of 21 cases). The data obtained with these techniques were compared with conventional karyotyping data on corresponding bone marrow aspirates. Of the 15 copy number aberrations that were detected by in situ hybridization, 13 were concordant with microarray-based genomic profiling and karyotyping, whereas two hybridizations were misinterpreted. In 20 of 21 patients, the data obtained by microarray-based genomic profiling and karyotyping were identical or differences could be explained by the presence of marker chromosomes, complex karyotypes, clonal heterogeneity or disease progression. We demonstrate that genome wide microarray-based genomic profiling performed on bone marrow biopsies has a similar success rate compared to in situ hybridization, and prevents misinterpretation of chromosomal losses as observed by FISH. In addition, equal to even higher resolutions were

  7. Improving Hybrid III injury assessment in steering wheel rim to chest impacts using responses from finite element Hybrid III and human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Kristian; Davidsson, Johan; Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Rundberget, Peter; Svensson, Mats Y; Thorn, Stefan; Törnvall, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    used in crash tests for which steering wheel rim to chest interaction occurs. For the FE-Hybrid III, bar impacts caused higher chest deflection compared to hub impacts, although the contrary results were obtained with the more humanlike THUMS. Correction factors were developed that can be used to correct the Hybrid III chest responses. Higher injury criteria capping limits for steering wheel impacts are acceptable. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file.

  8. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  9. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove; Pedersen, Alma B; Overgaard, Søren; Kärrholm, Johan; Garellick, Göran; Mäkelä, Keijo; Eskelinen, Antti; Nordsletten, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) has already published 2 papers describing results of reverse hybrid THAs in different age groups. Based on data collected over 2 additional years, we wanted to perform in depth analyses of not only the reverse hybrid concept but also of the different cup/stem combinations used. Patients and methods From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk of revision. The main endpoint was revision for any reason. We also performed specific analyses regarding the different reasons for revision and analyses regarding the cup/stem combinations used in more than 500 cases. Results We found a higher rate of revision for reverse hybrids than for cemented THAs, with an adjusted relative risk of revision (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.5). At 10 years, the survival rate was 94% (CI: 94–95) for cemented THAs and 92% (95% CI: 92–93) for reverse hybrids. The results for the reverse hybrid THAs were inferior to those for cemented THAs in patients aged 55 years or more (RR =1.1, CI: 1.0–1.3; p revision due to periprosthetic femoral fracture for reverse hybrids than for cemented THAs in patients aged 55 years or more (RR =3.1, CI: 2.2–4.5; p revision than cemented THAs in patients aged 55 or more. The difference in survival was mainly caused by a higher incidence of early revision due to periprosthetic femoral fracture in the reversed hybrid THAs. PMID:28095724

  10. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  11. Manufacturing and testing VLPC hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, L. R.; Ingram, C. M.; Anderson, E. J.

    1998-11-01

    To insure that the manufacture of VLPC devices is a reliable, cost-effective technology, hybrid assembly procedures and testing methods suitable for large scale production have been developed. This technology has been developed under a contract from Fermilab as part of the D-Zero upgrade program. Each assembled hybrid consists of a VLPC chip mounted on an AlN substrate. The VLPC chip is provided with bonding pads (one connected to each pixel) which are wire bonded to gold traces on the substrate. The VLPC/AlN hybrids are mated in a vacuum sealer using solder preforms and a specially designed carbon boat. After mating, the VLPC pads are bonded to the substrate with an automatic wire bonder. Using this equipment we have achieved a thickness tolerance of ±0.0007 inches and a production rate of 100 parts per hour. After assembly the VLPCs are tested for optical response at an operating temperature of 7K. The parts are tested in a custom designed continuous-flow dewar with a capacity 15 hybrids, and one Lake Shore DT470-SD-11 calibrated temperature sensor mounted to an AlN substrate. Our facility includes five of these dewars with an ultimate test capacity of 75 parts per day. During the course of the Dzero program we have assembled more than 4,000 VLPC hybrids and have tested more than 2,500 with a high yield.

  12. Mechanical and thermal design of hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design considerations are discussed. This paper is intended as a companion to that of J. D. Lee of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the nuclear aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design. The major design characteristics of hybrid reactor blankets are discussed with emphasis on the areas of difference between hybrid reactors and standard fusion or fission reactors. Specific examples are used to illustrate the design tradeoffs and choices that must be made in hybrid reactor design. These examples are drawn from the work on the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

  13. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yibing; Zhao, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO 2 ) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity

  14. Microstructure characteristics of laser MIG hybrid welded mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Jun; Hu, Qianwu

    2008-07-01

    To deepen the understanding of laser-arc hybrid welding, the weld shape and microstructure characteristics of laser-metal inert gas hybrid welded mild steel were analyzed. The results showed typical hybrid weld could be classified as two parts: the wide upper zone and the narrow nether zone, which were defined as arc zone and laser zone, respectively. In the hybrid weld, the microstructure, alloy element distribution and microhardness all have evident difference between laser zone and arc zone. The microstructure of arc zone consists of coarse columnar dendrite and fine acicular dendrite between the columnar dendrites, but that of laser zone is composed of fine equiaxed dendrite in weld center and columnar dendrite around the equiaxed dendrite. Compared to arc zone, laser zone has finer grain size, higher microhardness, smaller alloy element content in the fusion zone and narrower heat affected zone. The discussions demonstrated that the observed difference was caused by the difference of temperature gradient, crystallizing and the effects of arc pressure on the molten pool between laser zone and arc zone.

  15. A hybrid parallel framework for the cellular Potts model simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; He, Kejing [SOUTH CHINA UNIV; Dong, Shoubin [SOUTH CHINA UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cellular Potts Model (CPM) has been widely used for biological simulations. However, most current implementations are either sequential or approximated, which can't be used for large scale complex 3D simulation. In this paper we present a hybrid parallel framework for CPM simulations. The time-consuming POE solving, cell division, and cell reaction operation are distributed to clusters using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The Monte Carlo lattice update is parallelized on shared-memory SMP system using OpenMP. Because the Monte Carlo lattice update is much faster than the POE solving and SMP systems are more and more common, this hybrid approach achieves good performance and high accuracy at the same time. Based on the parallel Cellular Potts Model, we studied the avascular tumor growth using a multiscale model. The application and performance analysis show that the hybrid parallel framework is quite efficient. The hybrid parallel CPM can be used for the large scale simulation ({approx}10{sup 8} sites) of complex collective behavior of numerous cells ({approx}10{sup 6}).

  16. Photomobility and photohealing of cellulose-based hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulasevich, Sviatlana A.; Melnyk, Inga; Andreeva, Daria V.; Möhwald, Helmuth; Skorb, Ekaterina V.

    2017-08-01

    In an effort to control the electronic and mechanical interaction between an inorganic surface and a defined polymeric coating, we present a new and easy method of a cellulose-based hybrid formation. We used Schweizer's reagent, a specific copper ammonia hydroxide-based solvent for cotton dissolution and found the optimal concentration for the formation of photosensitive uniform cellulose coating on titania, TiO2-cellulose coating and free-standing hybrid. Photomobility, the material mobility induced by light, of a cellulose layer on a titania surface and of a TiO2-cellulose hybrid on a silicon wafer has been studied. This can be used for photohealing, and the most promising system is the one that can be healed with light due to in situ activation of titania nanoparticles assembled on cellulose fibers in a hydrogel. The interfacial contact between titania particles and fiber is important for local transport of electrons and ions, thus the most promising system was obtained by in situ synthesis of titania nanoparticles on cellulose dispersed in Schweizer's reagent. We propose that cellulose coatings on titania surface and free-standing hybrids can be applicable for a wide range of photochemical devices: films for optics, drug delivery systems, and inks for printing of biologically relevant lab-on-chips. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  17. Hybrid incompatibilities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and its wild diploid relative Aegilops umbellulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Moeko; Yoshida, Kentaro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid abnormalities, severe growth abortion and grass-clump dwarfism, were found in the tetraploid wheat/Aegilops umbellulata hybrids, and the gene expression changes were conserved in the hybrids with those in other wheat synthetic hexaploids. Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., a diploid goatgrass species with a UU genome, has been utilized as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. Here, we examine the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon (Ldn) and various Ae. umbellulata accessions by conducting interspecific crossings. Through systematic cross experiments, three types of hybrid incompatibilities were found: seed production failure in crosses, hybrid growth abnormalities and sterility in the ABU hybrids. Hybrid incompatibilities were widely distributed over the entire range of the natural species, and in about 50% of the cross combinations between tetraploid Ldn and Ae. umbellulata accessions, ABU F 1 hybrids showed one of two abnormal growth phenotypes: severe growth abortion (SGA) or grass-clump dwarfism. Expression of the shoot meristem maintenance-related and cell cycle-related genes was markedly repressed in crown tissues of hybrids showing SGA, suggesting dysfunction of mitotic cell division in the shoot apices. The grass-clump dwarf phenotype may be explained by down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS box genes, which act as flowering promoters, and altered expression in crown tissues of the miR156/SPLs module, which controls tiller number and branching. These gene expression changes in growth abnormalities were well conserved between the Ldn/Ae. umbellulata plants and interspecific hybrids from crosses of Ldn and wheat D-genome progenitor Ae. tauschii.

  18. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. John Butcher and hybrid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdiyeva, Galina; Imanova, Mehriban; Ibrahimov, Vagif

    2017-07-01

    As is known there are the mainly two classes of the numerical methods for solving ODE, which is commonly called a one and multistep methods. Each of these methods has certain advantages and disadvantages. It is obvious that the method which has better properties of these methods should be constructed at the junction of them. In the middle of the XX century, Butcher and Gear has constructed at the junction of the methods of Runge-Kutta and Adams, which is called hybrid method. Here considers the construction of certain generalizations of hybrid methods, with the high order of accuracy and to explore their application to solving the Ordinary Differential, Volterra Integral and Integro-Differential equations. Also have constructed some specific hybrid methods with the degree p ≤ 10.

  20. Molecular identification of the wheat male fertility gene Ms1 and its prospects for hybrid breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Elise J; Baumann, Ute; Kouidri, Allan; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Baes, Mathieu; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Dong, Chongmei; Wu, Yongzhong; Sandhu, Ajay; Singh, Manjit; Langridge, Peter; Wolters, Petra; Albertsen, Marc C; Cigan, A Mark; Whitford, Ryan

    2017-10-11

    The current rate of yield gain in crops is insufficient to meet the predicted demands. Capturing the yield boost from heterosis is one of the few technologies that offers rapid gain. Hybrids are widely used for cereals, maize and rice, but it has been a challenge to develop a viable hybrid system for bread wheat due to the wheat genome complexity, which is both large and hexaploid. Wheat is our most widely grown crop providing 20% of the calories for humans. Here, we describe the identification of Ms1, a gene proposed for use in large-scale, low-cost production of male-sterile (ms) female lines necessary for hybrid wheat seed production. We show that Ms1 completely restores fertility to ms1d, and encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein, necessary for pollen exine development. This represents a key step towards developing a robust hybridization platform in wheat.Heterosis can rapidly boost yield in crop species but development of hybrid-breeding systems for bread wheat remains a challenge. Here, Tucker et al. describe the molecular identification of the wheat Ms1 gene and discuss its potential for large-scale hybrid seed production in wheat.

  1. Power and mass optimization of the hybrid solar panel and thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Trevor Hocksun; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The dynamics of the hybrid PV/TEG system operating in outer space is studied. • A generalized thermodynamic model of the hybrid PV/TEG system is given. • This model is then simplified to consider the outer space scenario. • The design of the hybrid PV/TEG system is optimized using the NSGA-II algorithm. • The optimized hybrid system is more efficient than its monolithic counterparts. - Abstract: The thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been widely considered as an electrical power source in many ground applications because of its clean and noiseless characteristics. Moreover, the hybrid photovoltaic cell and TEG (PV/TEG) system has also received wide attention due to its improved power conversion efficiency over its monolithic counterparts. This paper presents a study of the dynamics and the operation of the hybrid PV/TEG system in an outer space environment where a unified thermodynamic model of this system is presented. Moreover, the multi-objective NSGA-II genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize the design of the TEG both in terms of optimal output power and in terms of mass. Specifically, the design of the single stage and the two stage variant of the aforementioned TEG are considered. Simulation results indicate that the optimized PV/TEG system does indeed achieve better efficiencies than that of the monolithic counterparts. Furthermore, it is shown that the single stage TEG is more beneficial than the two stage TEG in terms of achieving optimal performance.

  2. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...

  3. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  4. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma......, or metal inactive gas/metal active gas.This is followed by reports of how the many process parameters governing the hybrid welding process can be set and how the choice of secondary energy source, shielding gas, etc. can affect the overall welding process....

  5. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  6. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... hybrid model is derived from two different models, i.e., one is based on statistical features and other on formatting characteristics and achieved the best accuracy. We describe the validity of model with the help of experiments conducted on the standard data sets. The results revealed that the proposed...

  7. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH......Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...

  8. Design and control of hybrid active power filters

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Chi-Seng

    2014-01-01

    Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensati...

  9. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  10. Gene flow and simulation of transgene dispersal from hybrid poplar plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Stephen P; Leonardi, Stefano; Slavov, Gancho T; Garman, Steven L; Adams, W Thomas; Strauss, Steven H

    2012-03-01

    Gene flow is a primary determinant of potential ecological impacts of transgenic trees. However, gene flow is a complex process that must be assessed in the context of realistic genetic, management, and environmental conditions. We measured gene flow from hybrid poplar plantations using morphological and genetic markers, and developed a spatially explicit landscape model to simulate pollination, dispersal, establishment, and mortality in the context of historical and projected disturbance and land-use regimes. Most pollination and seed establishment occurred within 450 m of the source, with a very long tail. Modeled transgene flow was highly context-dependent, strongly influenced by the competitive effects of transgenes, transgenic fertility, plantation rotation length, disturbance regime, and spatial and temporal variation in selection. The use of linked infertility genes even if imperfect, substantially reduced transgene flow in a wide range of modeled scenarios. The significance of seed and vegetative dispersal was highly dependent on plantation size. Our empirical and modeling studies suggest that transgene spread can be spatially extensive. However, the amount of spread is highly dependent on ecological and management context, and can be greatly limited or prevented by management or mitigation genes such as those that cause sexual infertility. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Energy management strategy for fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on prediction of energy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, Mauro G.; Costa-Castelló, Ramon; Roda, Vicente; Nigro, Norberto M.; Junco, Sergio; Feroldi, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Offering high efficiency and producing zero emissions Fuel Cells (FCs) represent an excellent alternative to internal combustion engines for powering vehicles to alleviate the growing pollution in urban environments. Due to inherent limitations of FCs which lead to slow transient response, FC-based vehicles incorporate an energy storage system to cover the fast power variations. This paper considers a FC/supercapacitor platform that configures a hard constrained powertrain providing an adverse scenario for the energy management strategy (EMS) in terms of fuel economy and drivability. Focusing on palliating this problem, this paper presents a novel EMS based on the estimation of short-term future energy demand and aiming at maintaining the state of energy of the supercapacitor between two limits, which are computed online. Such limits are designed to prevent active constraint situations of both FC and supercapacitor, avoiding the use of friction brakes and situations of non-power compliance in a short future horizon. Simulation and experimentation in a case study corresponding to a hybrid electric bus show improvements on hydrogen consumption and power compliance compared to the widely reported Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy. Also, the comparison with the optimal strategy via Dynamic Programming shows a room for improvement to the real-time strategies.

  12. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...

  13. Environmental (in)dependence of a hybrid zone: Insights from molecular markers and ecological niche modeling in a hybrid zone ofOriganum(Lamiaceae) on the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariotakis, Michael; Koutroumpa, Konstantina; Karousou, Regina; Pirintsos, Stergios A

    2016-12-01

    The role of environment and the relative significance of endogenous versus exogenous selection in shaping hybrid zones have been crucial issues in the studies of hybridization. Recent advances in ecological niche modeling (ENM) offer new methodological tools, especially in combination with the genotyping of individuals in the hybrid zone. Here, we study the hybrid zone between the widely known spices Origanum onites and Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum in Crete. We analyze the genetic structure of both parental taxa and their hybrid Origanum  ×  intercendens using AFLP markers on 15 sympatric and 12 allopatric populations and employ ecological niche modeling and niche similarity tests to study their niche patterns. We complement these analyses with seed viability measurements. Our study revealed that the hybridizing taxa O. onites and O. vulgare ssp. hirtum and the resulting genotypic classes showed geographical and environmental niche similarities based on the predictions of ENMs and the subsequent similarity tests. The occurrence of the hybrid zone is not directly dependent on environmental factors which favor the fitness of the hybrid compared to the parental taxa, but rather on aspects such as historical factors and management practices, which may contribute to the localization and maintenance of the contact zone between parental species. Our results suggest that if a minimum required niche differentiation between genotypic classes is not achieved, environmental dependence might not have a prominent role on the outcome of the hybridization.

  14. Fundamentals of Hybrid Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides definitions and distinguishing characteristics of the various terms used in the context of hybrid education. The author also offers an overview of the recent literature on hybrid teaching and learning.

  15. Hybrid Models for Sequential Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Ron

    2000-01-01

    To study hybrid architectures of complex learning, especially as applied to a simulated minefield navigation task, we developed a hybrid connectionist model CLARION as a demonstration of the approach...

  16. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely as white men to die from stomach cancer. Stomach Cancer Prevention Key Points Avoiding risk factors and increasing ... factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent stomach cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain ...

  17. Prevention strategies in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V

    2010-10-01

    Child maltreatment remains a prevalent problem for which notable best practices such as home visitation can be effective; however, most eligible families do not receive these beneficial services. Additionally, there are other promising prevention interventions to effectively address child maltreatment. This review focuses on the recent advances and strategies for child maltreatment prevention. Although home visiting does not have a single clearly defined methodology of providing service to children and families, the general supportive framework to improve maternal, child, and family factors makes this intervention the most widely studied and accepted prevention strategy. However, there has been limited effectiveness for most models. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) has provided consistently positive results by targeting families with many risk factors by using highly trained professionals when implementing a research-based intervention. A promising public health approach to parent training (Triple P) may reduce maltreatment and out-of-home placement. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), while a treatment model, is becoming an increasingly important approach to child maltreatment prevention. There may be an opportunity to reduce child maltreatment by enhancing care in the pediatric medical home setting. Effective child maltreatment prevention efforts exist; however, not all programs provide the same effectiveness, or target the same maltreatment issues. Pediatricians are in a key position to offer support to families in their own practice, as well as to direct families to the appropriate resources available.

  18. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  19. Bacterial species determination from DNA-DNA hybridization by using genome fragments and DNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J C; Tiedje, J M

    2001-08-01

    Whole genomic DNA-DNA hybridization has been a cornerstone of bacterial species determination but is not widely used because it is not easily implemented. We have developed a method based on random genome fragments and DNA microarray technology that overcomes the disadvantages of whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization. Reference genomes of four fluorescent Pseudomonas species were fragmented, and 60 to 96 genome fragments of approximately 1 kb from each strain were spotted on microarrays. Genomes from 12 well-characterized fluorescent Pseudomonas strains were labeled with Cy dyes and hybridized to the arrays. Cluster analysis of the hybridization profiles revealed taxonomic relationships between bacterial strains tested at species to strain level resolution, suggesting that this approach is useful for the identification of bacteria as well as determining the genetic distance among bacteria. Since arrays can contain thousands of DNA spots, a single array has the potential for broad identification capacity. In addition, the method does not require laborious cross-hybridizations and can provide an open database of hybridization profiles, avoiding the limitations of traditional DNA-DNA hybridization.

  20. Genome reorganization in F1 hybrids uncovers the role of retrotransposons in reproductive isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; Parisod, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization leads to new interactions among divergent genomes, revealing the nature of genetic incompatibilities having accumulated during and after the origin of species. Conflicts associated with misregulation of transposable elements (TEs) in hybrids expectedly result in their activation and genome-wide changes that may be key to species boundaries. Repetitive genomes of wild wheats have diverged under differential dynamics of specific long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs), offering unparalleled opportunities to address the underpinnings of plant genome reorganization by selfish sequences. Using reciprocal F1 hybrids between three Aegilops species, restructuring and epigenetic repatterning was assessed at random and LTR-RT sequences with amplified fragment length polymorphism and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms as well as their methylation-sensitive counterparts, respectively. Asymmetrical reorganization of LTR-RT families predicted to cause conflicting interactions matched differential survival of F1 hybrids. Consistent with the genome shock model, increasing divergence of merged LTR-RTs yielded higher levels of changes in corresponding genome fractions and lead to repeated reorganization of LTR-RT sequences in F1 hybrids. Such non-random reorganization of hybrid genomes is coherent with the necessary repression of incompatible TE loci in support of hybrid viability and indicates that TE-driven genomic conflicts may represent an overlooked factor supporting reproductive isolation. PMID:25716787

  1. Hybrid Resonators and Highly Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials Enabled by Vanadium Dioxide (VO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengxiang; Kang, Lei; Werner, Douglas H

    2017-06-28

    Hybrid metamaterials that exhibit reconfigurable responses under external stimulus, such as electric fields and light radiation, have only recently been demonstrated by combining active media with patterned metallic structures. Nevertheless, hybrid terahertz (THz) metamaterials whose spectral performance can be dynamically tuned over a large scale remain rare. Compared with most active media (for instance, silicon) that provide limited activity, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ), which exhibits an insulator-to-metal transition, has been recently explored to facilitate dynamically tunable metamaterials. More importantly, the phase transition yields a three orders of magnitude increase in THz electrical conductivity, which suggests the potential for creating VO 2 based hybrid resonators that operate at THz frequencies. Here, we show that an integration of VO 2 structures and conventional metallic resonating components can enable a class of highly tunable THz metamaterials. Considering the widely studied phase-transition dynamics in VO 2 , the proposed hybrid metamaterials are capable of offering ultrafast modulation of THz radiation.

  2. Properties of CF/PA6 friction spun hybrid yarns for textile reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, MMB; Nitsche, S.; Abdkader, A.; Cherif, Ch

    2017-10-01

    Due to their excellent strength, rigidity and damping properties as well as low weight, carbon fibre reinforced composites (CFRC) are widely being used for load bearing structures. On the other hand, with an increased demand und usage of CFRCs, effective methods to re-use waste carbon fibre (CF) materials, which are recoverable either from the process scraps or from the end-of-life components are attracting increased attention. In this paper, hybrid yarns consisting of staple CF and polyamide 6 (PA 6) are manufactured on a DREF-3000 friction spinning machine with various machine parameters such as spinning drum speed and suction air pressure. The relationship between different textile physical properties of the hybrid yarns, such as tensile strength and elongation with different spinning parameters and CF content of hybrid yarn is investigated. Furthermore, the tensile properties of uni-directional (UD) composites manufactured from the developed hybrid yarn shows 80% of the UD composite strength made from CF filament yarn.

  3. Genetic engineering with tobacco protoplasts. [Hybridization by fusion of leaf protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H H

    1976-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization by fusion of leaf protoplasts of Nicotiana glauca (GG) and N. langsdorffii (LL) was confirmed and extended. Enzymatic digestion of leaf tissues to obtain protoplats was followed by fusion with the aid of polyethylene glycol. The hybrid calli were selected by their better growth on defined culture media. Mature hybrid plants were identified by their morphology and tumor formation. Cytological examination revealed a range in chromosome numbers from 56 to 64 rather than the amphiploid GGLL number of 42. About 75 percent of the hybrids were fertile. The potential range in combining widely disparate genotypes by somatic cell fusion was demonstrated by fusing tobacco GGLL protoplasts with human HeLa cells. The HeLa nucleus was observed inside the plant protoplasts, thus forming an interkingdom heterokaryon.

  4. Hybrid Spectral Micro-CT: System Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, James R; Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Walsh, Michael; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Cao, Guohua; Mohs, Aaron; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Spectral CT has proven an important development in biomedical imaging, and there have been several publications in the past years demonstrating its merits in pre-clinical and clinical applications. In 2012, Xu et al. reported that near-term implementation of spectral micro-CT could be enhanced by a hybrid architecture: a narrow-beam spectral "interior" imaging chain integrated with a traditional wide-beam "global" imaging chain. This hybrid integration coupled with compressive sensing (CS)-based interior tomography demonstrated promising results for improved contrast resolution, and decreased system cost and radiation dose. The motivation for the current study is implementation and evaluation of the hybrid architecture with a first-of-its-kind hybrid spectral micro-CT system. Preliminary results confirm improvements in both contrast and spatial resolution. This technology is shown to merit further investigation and potential application in future spectral CT scanner design.

  5. Photoconducting hybrid perovskite containing carbazole moiety as the organic layer: Fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Meng; Wu Gang; Cheng Siyuan; Wang Mang; Borghs, Gustaaf; Chen Hongzheng

    2008-01-01

    PbCl 2 -based thin films of perovskite structure with hole-transporting carbazole derivatives as the organic layer were successfully prepared by spin-coating from dimethylformamide solution containing stoichiometric amounts of organic and inorganic moieties. The crystal structure and optical property of the hybrid perovskite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL). FT-IR spectra confirmed the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite structure. UV-vis spectra of hybrid perovskite thin films exhibited a wide absorption band in ultraviolet region as well as a sharp peak at 330 nm characteristic of PbCl 2 -based layered perovskite. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the layered structure was oriented parallel to the silica glass slide plane. Meanwhile, double-layer photoreceptors of the hybrid perovskite were also fabricated, which showed the enhancement of photoconductivity by carbazole chromophore

  6. Tailoring nonlinearity and dispersion of photonic crystal fibers using hybrid cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-lun, Liu; Lan-tian, Hou; Wei, Wang

    2009-01-01

    We present a hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber for shaping high nonlinear and flattened dispersion in a wide range of wavelengths. The new structure adopts hybrid cladding with different pitches, air-holes diameters and air-holes arrayed fashions. The full-vector finite element method with perfectly matched layer is used to investigate the characteristics of the hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber such as nonlinearity and dispersion properties. The influence of the cladding structure parameters on the nonlinear coefficient and geometric dispersion is analyzed. High nonlinear coefficient and the dispersion properties of fibers are tailored by adjusting the cladding structure parameters. A novel hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinear coefficient and dispersion flattened which is suited for super continuum generation is designed. (author)

  7. Ecological consequences of plant hybridization in willows

    OpenAIRE

    Hallgren, Per

    2002-01-01

    Segregation of genetic variation into species is traditionally viewed as the principal unit of evolution while intraspecific hybridization was regarded as a mistake in nature. Nevertheless, intraspecific hybridization is common between many plant species and recent studies have suggested that hybridization may be beneficial to individuals. hybridization is also of interest as it influence species that are interacting with the hybridising species, for example herbivores that need to decide whe...

  8. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Epoxy Geopolymer Hybrid Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Cioffi, Raffaele; Tarallo, Oreste

    2013-09-09

    The preparation and the characterization of novel geopolymer-based hybrid composites are reported. These materials have been prepared through an innovative synthetic approach, based on a co-reticulation in mild conditions of commercial epoxy based organic resins and a metakaolin-based geopolymer inorganic matrix. This synthetic strategy allows the obtainment of a homogeneous dispersion of the organic particles in the inorganic matrix, up to 25% in weight of the resin. The materials obtained present significantly enhanced compressive strengths and toughness with respect to the neat geopolymer, suggesting their wide utilization for structural applications. A preliminary characterization of the porous materials obtained by removing the organic phase from the hybrid composites by means of heat treatments is also reported. Possible applications of these materials in the field of water purification, filtration, or as lightweight insulating materials are envisaged.

  10. A hybrid neural network model in handwritten word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, J H

    1998-03-01

    A hybrid neural network model is developed and applied to handwritten word recognition. The word recognition system requires a module that assigns character class confidence values to segments of images of handwritten words. The module must accurately represent ambiguities between character classes and assign low confidence values to a wide variety of non-character segments resulting from erroneous segmentations. The proposed hybrid neural model is a cascaded system. The first stage is a self-organizing feature map algorithm (SOFM). The second stage maps distances into allograph membership values using a gradient descent learning algorithm. The third stage is a multi-layer feedforward network (MLFN). The new system performs better than the baseline system. Experiments were performed on a standard test set from the SUNY/USPS Database.

  11. Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksy, Mariusz; Szwarc-Rzepka, Karolina; Heneczkowski, Maciej; Oliwa, Rafał; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2014-08-22

    A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP) with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS) curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM.

  12. Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Oleksy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS. The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM.

  13. Improved Hybrid Opponent System for Professional Military Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pelosi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is a general-purpose software engineering architecture for autonomous, computer controlled opponent implementation in modern maneuver warfare simulation and training. The implementation has been developed, refined, and tested in the user crucible for several years. The approach represents a hybrid application of various well-known AI techniques, including domain modeling, agent modeling, and object-oriented programming. Inspired by computer chess approaches, the methodology combines this theoretical foundation with a hybrid and scalable portfolio of additional techniques. The result remains simple enough to be maintainable, comprehensible for the code writers as well as the end-users, and robust enough to handle a wide spectrum of possible mission scenarios and circumstances without modification.

  14. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoldas, B.E; Partlow, D.P.; Smith, H.D.; Mattox, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO 2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm 2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  15. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  16. Early verification of a hybrid between noble and California red firs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy R. Silen; William B. Critchfield; Jerry F. Franklin

    1965-01-01

    Hybrids between Abies procera Rehd., and Abies magnifica A. Murr., made reciprocally at Marys Peak near Corvallis, Oreg., and near Placerville, Calif., suggest that no significant genetic barriers prevent crossing of the two species where ranges overlap. Hence, maintenance of species differences must be looked for in other factors...

  17. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    infection must be addressed and motivated to adopt protective behaviour more intensely. The campaign thus must comprise closely related and mutually reinforcing elements: mass communication and individual communication measures, aimed at the public at large and at individual subgroups, national and international cooperation, especially the cooperation and task sharing with the DAH aimed at prevention in the epidemiologically most significant target groups, evaluation and quality assurance. The key element in this respect is the BZgA's annual representative survey of information levels, attitudes, motivation and behaviour in the more than 16- year-old population. In addition to the model of the special partnership between the BZgA and the DAH, a range of public-public partnerships, due to the German federalistic system, and public-private partnerships, which support public efforts, are necessary. It is shown that an increasing number of private partners are necessary to reinforce the program in a situation where Germany has to face new challenges. The new challenges are for instance high mobility in a globalizing society. In a world wide spreading epidemic no country will be excluded from the international development; the increase of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); a tendency to decreasing protective behaviour caused by the optimism that a definitive cure may soon be available. The conception of evaluation of the campaign comprises an annual monitoring of knowledge, attitude and behaviour in the whole population and in specific target groups. It includes pretests of specific prevention instruments and evaluation of different activities. An indicator system is developed to measure the results of the campaign. By continuous feedback of the evaluation results into the further development of the campaign the steering of the campaign at a high level of quality is ensured.

  18. Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids selected for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HartR

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... Both hybrids also clustered with tropical fruit wine producing PS 1 at a 74% genetic similarity cut-off. Moreover, both hybrids clustered with the lower VA producing PS 2, PS 3 and PS 4 (Figure 1). Therefore, these hybrids exhibiting the sought-after tropical fruit aroma enhancing and low VA forming qualities, ...

  19. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  20. Hybrid Computation at Louisiana State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corripio, Armando B.

    Hybrid computation facilities have been in operation at Louisiana State University since the spring of 1969. In part, they consist of an Electronics Associates, Inc. (EAI) Model 680 analog computer, an EAI Model 693 interface, and a Xerox Data Systems (XDS) Sigma 5 digital computer. The hybrid laboratory is used in a course on hybrid computation…

  1. Hybridization...application to pine populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Thompson Conkle

    1970-01-01

    Can hybridization between species and races produce superior forest trees?" In the 1920's and 1930's, some lumbermen and scientists alike were asking this question. They were impressed by the work of Luther Burbank, whose improvements in vegetables and .flowers were being achieved by hybridization. And some of his hybrids far surpassed varieties...

  2. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nanocomposite, in which acid-treated palygorskite was hybridized with carbon, was prepared and designed as an efficient support for electrocatatlysts. Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxidation. The hybrid supports and electrocatalysts were characterized by ...

  3. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  4. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...

  5. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  6. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  7. Study Of Rust Preventive Characteristics Of Rust Preventive Oil From Polarization Curve Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashima D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cu-C sintered steels are widely used as powder materials, because of its small volumetric shrinkage. However, Cu, which acts as cathode enhance formation of rust Fe2O3·xH2O during fabrication. To prevent formation of Fe2O3·xH2O rust preventive oils are widely used. High viscosity of those rust preventive oils decrease workability. While, low viscosity degrade rust preventive performance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new rust preventive oils with contradictory properties of low viscosity and superior rust prevention. In this study, we developed technique to quantitatively evaluate rust prevention ability by measuring polarization curve through thin corrosive solution on Fe-Cu-C sintered steels coated with rust preventive oils. The electrochemical measurements were carried out in corrosive solution of 0.35 mass % NaCl. Using a double capillary was added dropwise to the specimen. From the experimental, it is possible to evaluate the corrosion rate quantitatively in the surface of specimen, which was coated with rust preventive oil through thin corrosive solution. From the measurement results, Corrosion rate is reduced by coating the rust preventive oil. Especially, corrosion rate of the specimen coated with oil that showed best performance indicated 10000 times better than that of without oil ones. Zn addition negative correlation between corrosion rate and period of potential oscillation.

  8. Fluid and hybrid models for streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Zdeněk

    2016-09-01

    Streamers are contracted ionizing waves with self-generated field enhancement that propagate into a low-ionized medium exposed to high electric field leaving filamentary trails of plasma behind. The widely used model to study streamer dynamics is based on drift-diffusion equations for electrons and ions, assuming local field approximation, coupled with Poisson's equation. For problems where presence of energetic electrons become important a fluid approach needs to be extended by a particle model, accompanied also with Monte Carlo Collision technique, that takes care of motion of these electrons. A combined fluid-particle approach is used to study an influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. It is found that fluid-only model predicts substantially faster reignition dynamics compared to coupled fluid-particle model. Furthermore, a hybrid model can be created in which the population of electrons is divided in the energy space into two distinct groups: (1) low energy `bulk' electrons that are treated with fluid model, and (2) high energy `beam' electrons, followed as particles. The hybrid model is then capable not only to deal with streamer discharges in laboratory conditions, but also allows us to study electron acceleration in streamer zone of lighting leaders. There, the production of fast electrons from streamers is investigated, since these (runaway) electrons act as seeds for the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) mechanism, important for high-energy atmospheric physics phenomena. Results suggest that high energy electrons effect the streamer propagation, namely the velocity, the peak electric field, and thus also the production rate of runaway electrons. This work has been supported by the Czech Science Foundation research project 15-04023S.

  9. Hybrid structures for molecular level sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Melburne Charles

    With substantial molecular mobility and segment dynamics relative to metals and ceramics, all polymeric materials, to some extent, are stimuli-responsive by exhibiting pronounced chemical and physical changes in the backbone, side chains, segments, or end groups induced by changes in the local environment. Thus, the push to incorporate polymeric materials as sensing/responsive nanoscale layers into next-generation miniaturized sensor applications is a natural progression. The significance and impact of this research is wide-ranging because it offers design considerations and presents results in perhaps two of the most critical broad areas of nanotechnology: ultrathin multifunctional polymer coatings and miniaturized sensors. In this work, direct evidence is given showing that polymer coatings comprised of deliberately selected molecular segments with very different chemistry can have switchable properties, and that the surface composition can be precisely controlled, and thus properties can be tuned: all in films on the order of 20 nm and less. Furthermore, active sensing layers in the form of plasma-polymerized polymers are successfully incorporated into actual silicon based microsensors resulting in a novel hybrid organic/inorganic materials platform for microfabricated MEMS sensors with record performance far beyond contemporary sensors in terms of detection sensitivity to various environments. The results produced in this research show thermal sensors with more than two orders of magnitude better sensitivity than what is attainable currently. In addition, a humidity response on the order of parts per trillion, which is four orders of magnitude more sensitive than current designs is achieved. Molecular interactions and forces for organic molecules are characterized at the picoscale to optimize polymeric nanoscale layer design that in turn optimize and lead to microscale hybrid sensors with unprecedented sensitivities.

  10. ePHM System Development, Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing, Fault Tree, and FMECA Applied to and Integrated on NASA Hybrid Electric Testbeds, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations...

  11. Value of comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization for molecular diagnostics in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebisch, Peter; Viardot, Andreas; Bassermann, Nicole; Wendl, Christiane; Roth, Katrin; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Einsele, Hermann; Straka, Christian; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Döhner, Hartmut; Bentz, Martin

    2003-07-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, such as 13q deletions, are emerging as important prognostic factors in multiple myeloma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific DNA probes is the technique most widely used for the determination of genomic aberrations in this disease. The utility of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) for molecular diagnostics in plasma cell malignancies has not been systematically analysed. We investigated tumour samples of patients with multiple myeloma (n = 43) or plasma cell leukaemia (n = 3) using CGH and FISH with five DNA probes localized to chromosome bands 1p22, 6q21, 11q22-q23, 13q14 and 17p13. By CGH, the most frequent genomic changes were gains on chromosomes 1q, 9q and 11q, as well as losses on chromosomes 13q, 6q, Xp and Xq. By FISH, trisomy 11q was identified at a similar frequency to the 13q deletion (42%). Compared with FISH data, the sensitivity of CGH was 80.7% and the specificity was 97.5%. Thirty-two aberrations found by FISH were not identified by CGH, mostly as a result of the proportion of cells carrying the respective aberrations, or because of the limited spatial resolution of CGH. Our data indicate that, for clinical molecular diagnostics in multiple myeloma, FISH with a disease-specific DNA probe set is superior to CGH analysis.

  12. The threat of hybrid Phytophthoras

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of invasive plant pathogens have resulted from the introduction of exotic organisms. However, another mechanism for invasiveness results from hybridization between species. This phenomenon has been documented in plants and animals, but its role in plant pathology has only recently been ...

  13. Information transmission on hybrid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongbin; Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Li, Jie; Ji, Bo; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2018-01-01

    Many real-world communication networks often have hybrid nature with both fixed nodes and moving modes, such as the mobile phone networks mainly composed of fixed base stations and mobile phones. In this paper, we discuss the information transmission process on the hybrid networks with both fixed and mobile nodes. The fixed nodes (base stations) are connected as a spatial lattice on the plane forming the information-carrying backbone, while the mobile nodes (users), which are the sources and destinations of information packets, connect to their current nearest fixed nodes respectively to deliver and receive information packets. We observe the phase transition of traffic load in the hybrid network when the packet generation rate goes from below and then above a critical value, which measures the network capacity of packets delivery. We obtain the optimal speed of moving nodes leading to the maximum network capacity. We further improve the network capacity by rewiring the fixed nodes and by considering the current load of fixed nodes during packets transmission. Our purpose is to optimize the network capacity of hybrid networks from the perspective of network science, and provide some insights for the construction of future communication infrastructures.

  14. hybrids lily (Lilium) cultivar 'eyeliner'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... Bulblets propagation by tissue culture was one of the key techniques in the production of lily (Lilium) bulbs. Therefore, in vitro micro-propagation of lily bulblets was studied in detail in this paper. L A hybrids lily cultivar 'eyeliner' was selected as the materials. By using the method of orthogonal design,.

  15. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  16. Interploidy interspecific hybridization in Fuchsia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland Mail Centre,. Auckland 1142, New Zealand. [Talluri R. S. 2012 Interploidy interspecific hybridization in Fuchsia. J. Genet. 91, 71–74]. Introduction. In the past, many hypotheses were put forward to explain the failure of the endosperm in ...

  17. Comparative genomic hybridization: practical guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, J.W.M.; Sprenger, S.H.; Wesseling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a technique used to identify copy number changes throughout a genome. Until now, hundreds of CGH studies have been published reporting chromosomal imbalances in a large variety of human neoplasms. Additionally, technical improvements of specific steps in a

  18. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    . Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  19. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  20. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN....... The Ka-band dual-reflector is inherently a high-gain and low-loss antenna, and investigations show negligible impact of the L-band backfire helical antenna. Therfore, this hybrid single/dual-reflector antenna presents a viable solution to the combined L- and Ka-band antenna. Novel hybrid antennas...... on the performance of an L-band antenna radiating through the FSS. From these investigations, it is concluded that the FSS antenna concept is well suited for hybrid L- and Ka-band operation. A printed reflectarray antenna with FSS ground-plane is demonstrated. The reflectarray produces a collimated beam as a curved...