WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventing violent extremism

  1. Violent Extremism, Community-Based Violence Prevention, and Mental Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan M; Stone, Andrew; Saeed, Aliya; Shanfield, Stephen; Beahrs, John; Gutman, Alisa; Mihajlovic, Aida

    2017-01-01

    New community-based initiatives being developed to address violent extremism in the United States are utilizing mental health services and leadership. This article reviews current approaches to preventing violent extremism, the contribution that mental illness and psychosocial problems can make to violent extremism, and the rationale for integrating mental health strategies into preventing violent extremism. The authors describe a community-based targeted violence prevention model and the potential roles of mental health professionals. This model consists of a multidisciplinary team that assesses at-risk individuals with comprehensive threat and behavioral evaluations, arranges for ongoing support and treatment, conducts follow-up evaluations, and offers outreach, education, and resources for communities. This model would enable mental health professionals in local communities to play key roles in preventing violent extremism through their practice and leadership.

  2. Violent Extremism, National Security and Prevention. Institutional Discourses and Their Implications for Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Christer; Säljö, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Currently, threats to societal security from extremist groups are high on the political agenda in many countries. Politicians, policymakers at various levels and communities are searching for methods to counteract recruitment to violent organizations. These efforts are often referred to as Prevention of Violent Extremism (PVE-programmes). One of…

  3. Canaries in the coal mine: Interpersonal violence, gang violence, and violent extremism through a public health prevention lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Flavahan, Louise

    2017-08-01

    This paper asks what programmes and policies for preventing violent extremism (also called 'countering violent extremism', or CVE) can learn from the public health violence prevention field. The general answer is that addressing violent extremism within the wider domain of public health violence prevention connects the effort to a relevant field of research, evidence-based policy and programming, and a broader population reach. This answer is reached by examining conceptual alignments between the two fields at both the case-level and the theoretical level. To address extremist violence within the wider reach of violence prevention, having a shared model is seen as a first step. The World Health Organization uses the social-ecological framework for assessing the risk and protective factors for violence and developing effective public-health based programmes. This study illustrates how this model has been used for gang violence prevention and explores overlaps between gang violence prevention and preventing violent extremism. Finally, it provides policy and programme recommendations to align CVE with public health violence prevention.

  4. The personal dispositions of violent extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydov D.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the differences in the nature of extremism and radicalism, and the necessity of introducing the concept of "violent extremism." It is shown that the ideology is the explanation of extremist behavior, rather than its cause. The ideology of extremism often eclectic, contradictory and can easily be transformed by changing the object of hostility, depending on the situation. For the description of the psychological causes of extremism it is proposed to use the concept of personal disposition. Disposition is the preferred way to subjective interpretation of reality and reflects both the specific needs of a person as well the typical social situations where it realized and personal experience. Considered the following dispositions of violent extremism: the Cult of force and aggression, Intolerance, Out-group hostility Conventional coercion, Social pessimism and destructiveness, Mystical, Fighting and overcoming, Nihilism to law, Anti-subjectivism. It is proposed to use these dispositions as diagnostic criteria and for preventing and correcting.

  5. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  6. Engaging Civil Society in Countering Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper Dr. Bibi van Ginkel takes an in depth look at how multi-lateral institutions, engage with civil society to counter violent extremism. Dr. van Ginkel argues that civil society can play a crucial role in preventing and countering violent extremism in numerous ways – by working on development programs, through their work in conflict transformation, in providing a platform to raise political grievances and to facilitate dialogue, or through their work in empowering victims and survivors of terrorism. The Paper finds that over the last decade there has been a more intensive coordination of activities between the UN and other multi-lateral organisations and civil society but the question remains whether the implementation as well as the drafting of these policies will live up to their potential effectiveness. This Paper gauges how effective these measures have been and what more there is to do. The final section concludes with a series of policy recommendations.

  7. Genetic background of extreme violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M-R; Ollila, H M; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Palotie, A; Pietiläinen, O; Kristiansson, K; Joukamaa, M; Lauerma, H; Saarela, J; Tyni, S; Vartiainen, H; Paananen, J; Goldman, D; Paunio, T

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial recidivistic offenders, but no genes have been shown to contribute to recidivistic violent offending or severe violent behavior, such as homicide. Our results, from two independent cohorts of Finnish prisoners, revealed that a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity genotype (contributing to low dopamine turnover rate) as well as the CDH13 gene (coding for neuronal membrane adhesion protein) are associated with extremely violent behavior (at least 10 committed homicides, attempted homicides or batteries). No substantial signal was observed for either MAOA or CDH13 among non-violent offenders, indicating that findings were specific for violent offending, and not largely attributable to substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. These results indicate both low monoamine metabolism and neuronal membrane dysfunction as plausible factors in the etiology of extreme criminal violent behavior, and imply that at least about 5-10% of all severe violent crime in Finland is attributable to the aforementioned MAOA and CDH13 genotypes.

  8. Countering violent extremism via de-securitisation on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Warrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a civil society actor on Twitter entering a securitized discourse on terrorism illustrates the transformative theoretical potential that emerges from new forms of communication online. Through a qualitative analysis of tweets from the Average Mohamed profile, the potential to change a negative narrative of violent extremism operating within a securitised discourse of Islamic terrorism, is discussed in an online context. The arguments forming from this analysis offers a new approach to studying online counter narratives by linking a theoretical framework of securitisation and de-securitisation to recent political efforts Countering Violent Extremism (CVE and Preventing Violent Extremism (PVE. Through the inclusion of a civil society Twitter account as an illustrative case, this paper explores how social media can challenge existing assumptions of who can be a de-securitising actor within security theory by blurring the lines between political and societal sectors in a securitised threat from Islamic terrorism. If and how a civil society actor can loosen the dichotomous discursive relationship between Self/Other relations within a contemporary discourse on terrorism becomes relevant for a theoretical discussion by presenting an argument suggesting that online CVE polices are more effective within the sphere of ‘normal’ politics rather than within the realm of securitization. This theoretical perspective offers an analytical framework including a wide range of actors involved in counter narratives policies which is useful for further CVE research.

  9. Male Youth Perceptions of Violent Extremism: towards a Test of Rational Choice Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Mandeep K; Murray, Jennifer

    2016-09-20

    Understanding how people perceive the pros and cons of risky behaviors such as terrorism or violent extremism represents a first step in developing research testing rational choice theory aiming to explain and predict peoples' intentions to engage in, or support, these behaviors. Accordingly, the present study provides a qualitative, exploratory analysis of a sample of 57 male youths' perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of: (a) accessing a violent extremist website, (b) joining a violent extremist group, and (c) leaving such a group. Youth perceived significantly more drawbacks than benefits of joining a violent extremist group (p = .001, d = .46) and accessing a violent extremist website (p = .001, d = .46). The perceived benefits of engagement referred to gaining knowledge/awareness, being part of a group/similar people, and fighting the enemy/for a cause. The drawbacks referred to being exposed to negative material and emotions, having violent/criminal beliefs and behaviors, and getting in trouble with the law. The perceived benefits of disengagement referred to no longer committing illegal acts, and regaining independence/not being manipulated. The drawbacks referred to exposing oneself to harm and reprisal. These findings provide an insight into how male youth think about (dis)engagement in violent extremism, and can inform future quantitative research designed to explain and predict (dis)engagement in violent extremism. Eventually, such research may inform the development of evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies.

  10. Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests how violence prevention can be better informed by embracing an evolutionary approach to understanding and preventing violent crime. Here, ethical crime control through an evolutionary lens is consid-ered and speculation is offered as to what an evolution-evidenced crime reduction programme might look like. The paper begins with an outline of the current landscape of crime prevention scholarship within criminology and presents some possible points of contact with actual or ...

  11. Violent and Non-Violent Extremism: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Dr. Alex P. Schmid seeks to clarify some conceptual issues that tend to obscure the debate about how best to counter violent extremism. The main focus of this Research Paper is on obtaining a clearer understanding of what “Islamist extremism” entails in the context of the ongoing debate on allegedly “acceptable” non-violent extremists and “unacceptable” violent extremists. The author discusses a number of conceptualisations of religious extremism in the context of liberal democracies and also distinguishes, inter alia, between merely “not (yet violent” militancy and principled non-violent political activism in the Gandhian tradition. The author argues that the distinction between “non-violent extremism” and “violent extremism” is not a valid one. The paper provides a set of twenty indicators of extremism that can be used as an instrument for monitoring extremist statements and actions, with an eye to challenging and countering such non-democratic manifestations.

  12. Exposure of US Adolescents to Extremely Violent Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Keilah A.; Chambers, Jennifer Gibson; Nassau, Daniel H.; Rakhra, Balvinder K.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Despite concerns about exposure to violent media, there are few data on youth exposure to violent movies. In this study we examined such exposure among young US adolescents. Methods We used a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years fielded in 2003. Using previously validated methods, we determined the percentage and number of US adolescents who had seen each of 534 recently released movies. We report results for the 40 that were rated R for violence by the Motion Picture Association of America, UK 18 by the British Board of Film Classification and coded for extreme violence by trained content coders. Results The 40 violent movies were seen by a median of 12.5% of an estimated 22 million US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. The most popular violent movie, Scary Movie, was seen by >10 million (48.1%) children, 1 million of whom were 10 years of age. Watching extremely violent movies was associated with being male, older, nonwhite, having less-educated parents, and doing poorly in school. Black male adolescents were at particularly high risk for seeing these movies; for example Blade, Training Day, and Scary Movie were seen, respectively, by 37.4%, 27.3%, and 48.1% of the sample overall versus 82.0%, 81.0%, and 80.8% of black male adolescents. Violent movie exposure was also associated with measures of media parenting, with high-exposure adolescents being significantly more likely to have a television in their bedroom and to report that their parents allowed them to watch R-rated movies. Conclusions This study documents widespread exposure of young US adolescents to movies with extreme graphic violence from movies rated R for violence and raises important questions about the effectiveness of the current movie-rating system. PMID:18676548

  13. Exposure of US adolescents to extremely violent movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Keilah A; Gibson Chambers, Jennifer; Nassau, Daniel H; Rakhra, Balvinder K; Sargent, James D

    2008-08-01

    Despite concerns about exposure to violent media, there are few data on youth exposure to violent movies. In this study we examined such exposure among young US adolescents. We used a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years fielded in 2003. Using previously validated methods, we determined the percentage and number of US adolescents who had seen each of 534 recently released movies. We report results for the 40 that were rated R for violence by the Motion Picture Association of America, UK 18 by the British Board of Film Classification and coded for extreme violence by trained content coders. The 40 violent movies were seen by a median of 12.5% of an estimated 22 million US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. The most popular violent movie, Scary Movie, was seen by >10 million (48.1%) children, 1 million of whom were 10 years of age. Watching extremely violent movies was associated with being male, older, nonwhite, having less-educated parents, and doing poorly in school. Black male adolescents were at particularly high risk for seeing these movies; for example Blade, Training Day, and Scary Movie were seen, respectively, by 37.4%, 27.3%, and 48.1% of the sample overall versus 82.0%, 81.0%, and 80.8% of black male adolescents. Violent movie exposure was also associated with measures of media parenting, with high-exposure adolescents being significantly more likely to have a television in their bedroom and to report that their parents allowed them to watch R-rated movies. This study documents widespread exposure of young US adolescents to movies with extreme graphic violence from movies rated R for violence and raises important questions about the effectiveness of the current movie-rating system.

  14. Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Özerdem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the complex of motivating variables that define the push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict, "radicalization"—or "violent extremism"—is not conceived as a very strong motive, as is the case with studies on terrorism. As part of disarming youth combatants,the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible rerecruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood to mitigate such risks. In our analysis, the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one. The risk of radicalization and involvement in violent extremism is ultimately a structural challenge, which needs to address root causes of recruitment rather than trying to find a solution through a band-aid approach of stopgap reintegration assistance.

  15. The Role of Women in Strengthening Communities Against Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in Kenya: A Theoritical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael Omondi; Mbulwa, Faith

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the roles women play in strengthening communities against radicalisation and violent extremism. Radicalisation and violent extremism are precursor to terrorism and focusing on them amounts to preventing terrorism at an earlier stage, before it is too late for non coercive...... measures. The realisation that traditional methods of combating terrorism are expensive and destruct development gravely affecting women, who in the first place it seeks to protect, has led to handling its root causes which is radicalism and violent extremism with non coercive measure. Further, the number...... radicalised and become violent extremist who can engage in terror, is a measure to both in targeting front-end prevention of radicalisation as well as developing infrastructures for de-radicalisation. This study was guided by three theories that is; Frustration Aggression Hypothesis and Relative Deprivation...

  16. Connections Among Communities: Preventing Radicalization and Violent Extremism Through Social Network Analysis in the Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Broadbent, “Using Grassroots Community Programs as an Anti-Extremism Strategy,” 192. 293 Michael Ungar, The Social Ecology of Resilience: A Handbook of...to promoting authoritative scholarship and learning and harnessing religious ethics to promote a better civic and social experience, through...partnering with Islamic and non-Islamic organizations seeking to enrich social capital by offering advice on how best to apply Islamic ethics in the

  17. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become "Normalized".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-12

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People's Temple, Heaven's Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  18. Determining the role of the Internet in violent extremism and terrorism: six suggestions for progressing research

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Some scholars and others are skeptical of a significant role for the Internet in processes of violent radicalization. There is increasing concern on the part of other scholars, and increasingly also policymakers and publics, that easy availability of violent extremist content online may have violent radicalizing effects. This article identifies a number of core questions regarding the interaction of violent extremism and terrorism and the Internet, particularly social media, that have yet to ...

  19. Edges of Radicalization: Ideas, Individuals and Networks in Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    1980), 301–310.  35 David  Matsumoto , “ Cultural  Similarities and Differences in Display Rules,” Motivation and Emotion 14,  no. 3 (1990), 195–214; and...understanding of  psychological  studies of terrorist actors. Garry Robins  reviewed an earlier draft, highlighting important aspects of network dynamics. Others...social‐ psychological  process  that occur  as people  come  to  adopt  new radical views.  6  INTRODUCTION  Violent  extremism presents  one  of

  20. Deterring violent extremism in America by utilizing good counter-radicalization practices from abroad: a policy perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Amy Fires

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The problem of violent extremism is approaching a critical point in America. American government and community leaders must find an effective approach to deterring violent extremism immediately. A national and comprehensive approach to deter violent extremism in America is currently lacking. This comparative policy perspective seeks to determine whether the United Kingdom and Australia have good practices to deter violent extremism tha...

  1. Losing the Plot: Narrative, Counter-Narrative and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glazzard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Counter-terrorist practitioners and policy makers appear to be very interested in narrative. They often describe the worldview of violent Islamist groups and movements as the ‘jihadi narrative’, while their efforts to confront terrorist propaganda are usually labelled as ‘counter-narrative’ or ‘alternative narrative’. However, while the counter-narrative approach has gained widespread acceptance in governments, think-tanks and civil society organisations, it is built on very shaky theoretical and empirical foundations. Some valuable theoretical contributions to the study of violent extremist narrative have been made by psychologists in particular, but there is one discipline which is conspicuous by its absence from the field: literary studies. This paper makes a case for the value of studying violent extremist narratives as narratives in the literary sense. By employing the tools and techniques of literary criticism, violent extremist communication can be revealed as not only potentially persuasive, but also creative and aesthetically appealing: terrorists inspire their followers, they don’t merely persuade them. Understanding the creative sources of this inspiration is vital if counter-narrative is to succeed in presenting an alternative to the propaganda of violent extremist groups.

  2. Youth engagement in addressing violent extremism and gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... extremism and gender violence through early warning systems in Kenya and Tanzania ... Using a participatory approach, researchers will target youths (male and ... by intensifying sexual and reproductive and adolescent health research.

  3. "Beyond Bali": A Transformative Education Approach for Developing Community Resilience to Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Elisabeth; Taylor, Peter Charles; Karnovsky, Saul; Aly, Anne; Taylor, Nell

    2017-01-01

    The Bali bombings of 2002 and 2005 confronted Australia and its neighbours directly for the first time with the dangers of violent extremism. Since then, the Bali Peace Park Association (BPPA), consisting of former victims, their families and other interested parties, has been lobbying for the creation of the "Bali Peace Park" to be…

  4. Phases of Violent Extremism: Targeting the Evolution of Al-Shabaab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Edi Rama, prime minister of Albania suggests, “The threat from the radicalization of ideologies and particularly from violent jihadist extremism will...Killed Al-Shabab Leader,” BBC News Africa, Accessed October 10, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-29034409. 219 Edi Rama, To Defeat Extremism...Balasubramaniyan. “Organizational and Structural Evolution- Lessons from Al-Qaeda.” Indian Defense Review, November 21, 2013. Rama, Edi . To Defeat

  5. Do climate extreme events foster violent civil conflicts? A coincidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.

    2014-05-01

    Civil conflicts promoted by adverse environmental conditions represent one of the most important potential feedbacks in the global socio-environmental nexus. While the role of climate extremes as a triggering factor is often discussed, no consensus is yet reached about the cause-and-effect relation in the observed data record. Here we present results of a rigorous statistical coincidence analysis based on the Munich Re Inc. extreme events database and the Uppsala conflict data program. We report evidence for statistically significant synchronicity between climate extremes with high economic impact and violent conflicts for various regions, although no coherent global signal emerges from our analysis. Our results indicate the importance of regional vulnerability and might aid to identify hot-spot regions for potential climate-triggered violent social conflicts.

  6. Lone Actors: Challenges and Opportunities for Countering Violent Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Richman, A.; Sharan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores some of the key challenges and opportunities concerning the prevention and control of lone actor terrorism. It is argued that lone actors do not operate in a social vacuum and that the interaction points between lone actors and their social environments can render lone actors

  7. Deterring Violent Extremism in America by Utilizing Good Counter-Radicalization Practices from Abroad: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    counter-violent extremism, deterring violent extremism, counter-radicalization, country study, CVE, DVE, deterrence, policy perspective , good practices...both North America and in Europe, more constructive policies must be developed to manage diversity. There are serious flaws in the current policies...EXTREMISM IN AMERICA BY UTILIZING GOOD COUNTER-RADICALIZATION PRACTICES FROM ABROAD: A POLICY PERSPECTIVE by Amy Fires Bonanno March 2017

  8. Possible association between serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and extremely violent crime in Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ding-Lieh; Hong, Chen-Jee; Shih, Hao-Ling; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, has been implicated in aggressive behavior. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which reuptakes serotonin into the nerve terminal, plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function. Previous western reports have demonstrated that the low-activity short (S) allele of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic-region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with aggressive behavior and associated personality traits. In the present study, we investigated this 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism in a group of Chinese males who had been convicted for extremely violent crime (n = 135) and a normal control group (n = 111). The proportion of S-allele carriers was significantly higher in the criminal group than in the controls (p = 0.006). A significant association was not demonstrated for the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse or alcohol abuse in the criminal group. Our findings demonstrate that carriage of the low-activity S allele is associated with extremely violent criminal behavior in Chinese males, and suggests that the 5-HTT may be implicated in the mechanisms underlying violent behaviors.

  9. To the fringe and back: Violent extremism and the psychology of deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W; Jasko, Katarzyna; Chernikova, Marina; Dugas, Michelle; Webber, David

    2017-04-01

    We outline a general psychological theory of extremism and apply it to the special case of violent extremism (VE). Extremism is defined as motivated deviance from general behavioral norms and is assumed to stem from a shift from a balanced satisfaction of basic human needs afforded by moderation to a motivational imbalance wherein a given need dominates the others. Because motivational imbalance is difficult to sustain, only few individuals do, rendering extreme behavior relatively rare, hence deviant. Thus, individual dynamics translate into social patterns wherein majorities of individuals practice moderation, whereas extremism is the province of the few. Both extremism and moderation require the ability to successfully carry out the activities that these demand. Ability is partially determined by the activities' difficulty, controllable in part by external agents who promote or oppose extremism. Application of this general framework to VE identifies the specific need that animates it and offers broad guidelines for addressing this pernicious phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Patterns of Disengagement from Violent Extremism: A Stocktaking of Current Knowledge and Implications for Counterterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2018-01-01

    This chapter takes stock of what we do and do not know from primary sources about individuals’ disengagement from violent extremism. It points to three broad patterns: doubts related to the binary nature of the extremist world view, disappointment with peers or leaders, and changing personal...... priorities. The chapter shows how, for example, first-hand exposure to extremist violence or being condemned by mainstream society can either reinforce radicalization or expedite disengagement and argues that one-size-fits-all counterterrorism measures should be supplanted by a differentiated approach...

  11. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become “Normalized”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People’s Temple, Heaven’s Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  12. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become “Normalized”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-01

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People’s Temple, Heaven’s Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience. PMID:29329259

  13. The Secret Society of Torturers: The Social Shaping of Extremely Violent Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Mackert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available How do normal people become able to torture others? In order to explain this puzzling social phenomenon, we have to take secrecy – the characteristic trait of modern torture – as the lynchpin of the analysis. Following Georg Simmel’s formal analysis of the “secret society”, the contribution reconstructs structural and cultural aspects of the secret society of torturers that generate social processes that allow its members to behave extremely violently, forcing individuals to turn into torturers. The contribution argues that the form of social behaviour that we call torture is socially shaped. It goes beyond social psychology to develop an explanation from the perspective of relational sociology.

  14. Characteristics of workplace violence prevention training and violent events among home health and hospice care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladutiu, Catherine J; Casteel, Carri; Nocera, Maryalice; Harrison, Robert; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    In the rapidly growing home health and hospice industry, little is known about workplace violence prevention (WVP) training and violent events. We examined the characteristics of WVP training and estimated violent event rates among 191 home health and hospice care providers from six agencies in California. Training characteristics were identified from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines. Rates were estimated as the number of violent events divided by the total number of home visit hours. Between 2008 and 2009, 66.5% (n = 127) of providers reported receiving WVP training when newly hired or as recurrent training. On average, providers rated the quality of their training as 5.7 (1 = poor to 10 = excellent). Among all providers, there was an overall rate of 17.1 violent events per 1,000 visit-hours. Efforts to increase the number of home health care workers who receive WVP training and to improve training quality are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Do Barriers to Crime Prevention Moderate the Effects of Situational Crime Prevention Policies on Violent Crime in High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Eric L.; Zhang, Gary

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates how barriers to school-based crime prevention programming moderate the effects of situational crime prevention (SCP) policies on levels of violent crime in U.S. public high schools. Using data from the 2008 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we estimate a series of negative binomial regression models with interactions to…

  16. Countering violent extremism in Indonesia: priorities, practice and the role of civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Sumpter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experimented with initiatives aimed at countering violent extremism (CVE since the wave of arrests following the first Bali bombing attack in 2002. Initial efforts involved police attempting to develop relationships of trust with terrorists in custody. Today, a broader range of strategies are employed, from promoting peace among youth and thwarting the allure of extremist narratives, to managing prisoners and assisting former terrorists reintegrate with society. The lead government body since 2010 has been the national counterterrorism agency, Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme (BNPT, which is tasked with coordinating stakeholders in Indonesia’s struggle with domestic terrorism. But managing the divergent and sometimes competing interests of Indonesia’s large state institutions has not been straightforward, and effective collaboration between relevant state agencies remains an obstacle to the success of CVE initiatives. Where government has fallen short, civil society organisations (CSOs often fill the gaps, and a number of dedicated practitioners now have invaluable experience, local contacts, and the specific knowledge required for countering extremism in the Indonesian context. CSOs also possess greater levels of trust among the communities they engage than security-centric state agencies could possibly hope to achieve. Yet instead of exploiting these civil society resources, the BNPT has largely preferred an independent (and top-down approach to CVE initiatives, collaborating if and when assistance is required. The Indonesian government should make better use of the unique legitimacy and expertise of civil society organisations.

  17. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  18. Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

    2013-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

  19. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  20. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412

  1. Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A

    2011-06-01

    Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment

  2. Russia and Countering Violent Extremism in the Internet and Social Media: Exploring Prospects for U.S.-Russia Cooperation Beyond the "Reset"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyl N. Cross Dr.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia has been targeted with a series of terrorist attacks over the past several years, and there are a growing number of extremist groups operating throughout Russia’s society utilizing the Internet/social media to promote their narratives and objectives. Russia’s policy community has created institutional mechanisms and laws to address the challenge of violent extremism in the Internet/social media, and recognizes the importance of international cooperation toward these ends. This study, based on primary research conducted in Moscow in 2012, defines Russia’s assessment of domestic and international sources violent extremist threats; explains Moscow’s perspective on balancing democratic principles with the challenge of countering violent extremism in the Internet/social media; assesses existing capacities and impediments to further international collaboration with Russia in countering violent extremism in the Internet/social media spheres; defines specific initiatives that Russia, the United States, and other nations of the world community could advance to enhance international cooperation in countering violent extremism throughout the world cyber community.

  3. Islamist Violent Extremism: A New Form of Conflict or Business as Usual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glazzard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Islamist violent extremist (IVE groups are frequently involved in civil conflicts. Indeed, some groups owe their origins to conflict, and tens of thousands of Islamists have chosen to participate in conflicts taking place in foreign countries in the past 35 years. Increasingly, IVE groups appear to have the capacity to influence the conflicts they are involved in, and are influenced in turn by their experiences. As a result, for those working on conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction, the involvement of IVE groups raises questions of whether traditional responses remain adequate. Drawing on three country case studies – Nigeria, Kenya and Iraq/Syria, this article examines the similarities and differences between IVE groups and other conflict actors, and what this means for development, state-building and peacebuilding responses.

  4. The Impact of Duty to Warn (And Other Legal Theories) on Countering Violent Extremism Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Programs, Juvenile Justice Bulletin,” Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2010, 12, http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED 518416. 2 Jason Payne...Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin,” Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2010, 12, http...de-identified PHI as “aggregate statistical data or data stripped of 111 U.S. Government, 45 CFR

  5. HOW THE WAR WAS ‘ONE’: COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM AND THE SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF COUNTER-TERRORISM IN CANADA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Amanda Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global “war on terror” highlights a fundamental quandary for all liberal democracies seeking to counter the violent extremism of their own citizens while maintaining civic rights and freedoms. This challenge accompanies a transformation in international conflict from inter-state war and superpower rivalry, to homegrown terrorism, radicalization-to-violence, Internet propaganda, and targeting and recruitment of vulnerable persons. These new threats shift the battlefield, as traditionally defined, to the home front, as extremist violence is nurtured by and perpetrated within public spaces, such as schools, places of religious worship, civil society and the home. Today, violence emanates from within liberal democratic society and its extremist motivations bypass the very institutions that would otherwise support civic rights, freedoms and multiculturalism. As such, attempts to counter extremist violence must appeal to the political, social, cultural, religious and familial aspects of human behavior alongside a parallel shift in efforts to keep citizens safe within their own social spaces. In recent years, Canada has been introduced to home grown and lone individual terrorism with the cases of attack against armed forces personnel in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Ottawa in 2014. This article identifies the social dimensions of counter-terrorism in the Canadian context, a propitious case by which to evaluate different approaches to countering violent extremism. Canadian initiatives - simultaneously proliferating and in their infancy – raise a host of questions about counter-terrorism in liberal democratic countries. For example, why do individuals radicalize-to-violence in rights-based and multicultural societies? How and when can the liberal democratic state best temper the radicalization process in ways that are effective and procedurally just? What state-society balance works best to counter radicalized viewpoints? Who are the

  6. “More Than a Game”: The Impact of Sport-Based Youth Mentoring Schemes on Developing Resilience toward Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Johns

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon the findings of an evaluation of “More than a Game”, a sport-focused youth mentoring program in Melbourne, Australia that aimed to develop a community-based resilience model using team-based sports to address issues of identity, belonging, and cultural isolation amongst young Muslim men in order to counter forms of violent extremism. In this essay we focus specifically on whether the intense embodied encounters and emotions experienced in team sports can help break down barriers of cultural and religious difference between young people and facilitate experiences of resilience, mutual respect, trust, social inclusion and belonging. Whilst the project findings are directly relevant to the domain of countering violent extremism, they also contribute to a growing body of literature which considers the relationship between team-based sport, cross-cultural engagement and the development of social resilience, inclusion and belonging in other domains of youth engagement and community-building.

  7. Russia and Countering Violent Extremism in the Internet and Social Media: Exploring Prospects for U.S.-Russia Cooperation Beyond the "Reset"

    OpenAIRE

    Sharyl N. Cross Dr.

    2013-01-01

    Russia has been targeted with a series of terrorist attacks over the past several years, and there are a growing number of extremist groups operating throughout Russia’s society utilizing the Internet/social media to promote their narratives and objectives. Russia’s policy community has created institutional mechanisms and laws to address the challenge of violent extremism in the Internet/social media, and recognizes the importance of international cooperation toward these ends. This study, b...

  8. Extremism among young people and its prevention in educational organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Kirsanov,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results of a survey of 50 experts – representatives of educational institutions of Moscow, district education authorities and the staff of the juvenile justice system. We note that the researchers often miss the opinion of the subjects of preventive work. Expert survey allowed to specify the conditions and behavioral manifestations of contemporary youth extremism, rank his psychological reasons, summarize the available methods and forms of prevention. We show the basic extremist ideas that are common among young people, and extremists speech features. The study revealed the understanding by the subjects of the preventive work of the “extremism” concept content, of goals and mechanisms of prevention, shows the typical difficulties in this work. The results can be used to search for new and more effective forms of prevention and improving the organization of preventive work in general.

  9. Increasing self-esteem and empathy to prevent violent radicalization: a longitudinal quantitative evaluation of a resilience training focused on adolescents with a dual identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, A.R.; Mann, L.; Doosje, B.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative results are reported of a longitudinal evaluation of a resilience training as a possible method to prevent violent radicalization (Diamant; SIPI, 2010). A total of 46 male and female Muslim adolescents and young adults with a migrant background participated. Results show that the

  10. Dealing with School Violence: The Effect of School Violence Prevention Training on Teachers' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Dealing with Violent Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela-Shayovitz, Revital

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between school violence prevention training and teachers' perceived self-efficacy in handling violent events. Three indicators were used to examine teachers' self-efficacy: personal teaching efficacy (PTE), teachers' efficacy in the school as an organisation (TESO), and teachers' outcome efficacy (TOE). Data…

  11. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  12. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  13. Shift in U.S. payer responsibility for the acute care of violent injuries after the Affordable Care Act: Implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupet, Edouard; Karp, David; Wiebe, Douglas J; Kit Delgado, M

    2018-03-28

    Investment in violence prevention programs is hampered by lack of clearly identifiable stakeholders with a financial stake in prevention. We determined the total annual charges for the acute care of injuries from interpersonal violence and the shift in financial responsibility for these charges after the Medicaid expansion from the Affordable Care Act in 2014. We analyzed all emergency department (ED) visits from 2009 to 2014 with diagnosis codes for violent injury in the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). We used sample weights to estimate total charges with adjusted generalized linear models to estimate charges for the 15% of ED visits with missing charge data. We then calculated the share attributable by payer and determined the difference in proportion by payer from 2013 to 2014. Between 2009 and 2013, the uninsured accounted for 28.2-31.3% of annual charges for the acute care of violent injury, while Medicaid was responsible for a similar amount (29.0-31.0%). In 2014, there were $10.7 billion in total charges for violent injury. Medicaid assumed the greatest share, 39.8% (95% CI: 38.0-41.5%, $3.5-5.1 billion), while the uninsured accounted for 23.6% (95% CI: 22.2-24.9%, $2.0-3.0 billion), and Medicare accounted for 7.8% (95% CI: 7.7-8.0%, $0.7-1.0 billion). After Medicaid expansion, taxpayers are now accountable for nearly half of the $10.7 billion in annual charges for the acute care of violent injury in the U.S. These findings highlight the benefit to state Medicaid programs of preventing interpersonal violence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Terrorism, the Internet and the Social Media Advantage: Exploring how terrorist organizations exploit aspects of the internet, social media and how these same platforms could be used to counter-violent extremism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bertram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The deeply engrained nature of social media in modern life have provided ease of access to information and speed of use within almost every aspect of a person’s life. These same benefit are also available to terrorists and their organizations. The same technology that allows for a globalized world to interact without regard for distance or physical location is also utilized, exploited and adapted to by terrorist organizations to conduct operations, reach candidates and ensure organizational longevity. This article takes the position of observer of these advancements with the end goal of informing counter-violent extremism strategists of the advances that terrorist groups have already made in digital technology; and where the priority of intervention strategies should be aimed. Further, this is intended to guide policy makers to embrace and utilize digital technologies as a mechanism to carry counter-radicalization and counter-violent extremism interventions through the same digital potential and reach the same audiences as terrorist organizations. What appears strongly apparent is that social media will not abate from its intrinsic position graphed into daily life. This means that counter-terrorism, counter-radicalization and counter-violent extremism strategies must take up the same technology in order to effectively discredit and nullify extremist groups – a digital problem needs a digital solution.

  15. Promoting Disengagement from Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ICCT’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications (CTSC Project’s Research Papers “Making CVE Work: A Focused Approach Based on Process Disruption” and “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out a multi-tiered framework for counter-terrorism strategic communications programmes and concrete evaluation of programme results. The Policy Brief proposes highly focused interventions which can be evaluated quantitatively and deployed across multiple platforms, using an evolving set of messaging themes that are informed by the results of evaluation and reiterated with adjustments to improve efficacy.

  16. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    ” plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings. While most Bugkalot men has...... that can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence.......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality...

  17. Violent potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Friis Søgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as ‘performed violent potentiality’ plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings...... provide general insights that can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence.......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters engaged in ritual killings. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence...

  18. Can GWOT Primary Prevention Strategy More Effectively Impede Religious Extremism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyers, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    .... This concept, when related to the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) in the Middle East, provides insights on the current strategy's effort and effectiveness in staying ahead of religious extremism expansion. Current U.S...

  19. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  20. Detecting and describing preventive intervention effects in a universal school-based randomized trial targeting delinquent and violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoolmiller, M; Eddy, J M; Reid, J B

    2000-04-01

    This study examined theoretical, methodological, and statistical problems involved in evaluating the outcome of aggression on the playground for a universal preventive intervention for conduct disorder. Moderately aggressive children were hypothesized most likely to benefit. Aggression was measured on the playground using observers blind to the group status of the children. Behavior was micro-coded in real time to minimize potential expectancy biases. The effectiveness of the intervention was strongly related to initial levels of aggressiveness. The most aggressive children improved the most. Models that incorporated corrections for low reliability (the ratio of variance due to true time-stable individual differences to total variance) and censoring (a floor effect in the rate data due to short periods of observation) obtained effect sizes 5 times larger than models without such corrections with respect to children who were initially 2 SDs above the mean on aggressiveness.

  1. Violent comic books and judgments of relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J; Olczak, Paul V

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading extremely violent versus mildly violent comic books on the interpretation of relational provocation situations. One hundred and seventeen introductory psychology students read either an extremely violent comic book or a mildly violent comic book. After reading the comic books, participants read five hypothetical stories in which a child, caused a relationally aggressive event to occur to another child, but the intent of the provocateur was ambiguous. After each story, participants were asked a series of questions about the provocateur's intent; potential retaliation toward the provocateur; and the provocateur's emotional state. Responses were coded in terms of amount of negative and violent content. Results indicated that participants reading the extremely violent comic books ascribed more hostile intent to the provocateur, suggested more retaliation toward the provocateur, and attributed a more negative emotional state to the provocateur than participants reading the mildly violent comic book. These data suggest that social information processing of relationally aggressive situations is influenced by violent comic books, even if the comic books do not contain themes of relational aggression.

  2. The Ways of Preventing Students’ Extremism and Intolerance in the Regional Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Selivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper reveals the inefficiency problem of preventive measures controlling students’ intolerant and extremist behavior in higher educational institutions. According to the author, such trends in students’ society, as well as the rising phenomenon of nationalistic religious identity inevitably leading to interpersonal tensions, are caused in the last decades by the degrading prestige of higher education, growing pragmatism and formality of its achievement and key value depreciation in higher educational institutions. To improve the existing situation, it is necessary to revive the main functions of higher educational establishments –the intellectual and professional elite formation, cherishing the humanity values, social responsibility and active civil position; on the other hand, it is vitally important to create the system of prevention and correction of such trends as intolerance and extremism. However, the above goals are aggravated by the number of other problems listed in the paper.The method of developing the system of complex prevention of the mentioned negative phenomena is proposed with the reference to higher educational institutions; the specific stages of the given method, the technologies and organizational forms being outlined; the practical application and outcome in Tyumen State University being discussed. The research findings can be interesting for people responsible for preventive measures in higher educational instinutionms. 

  3. Understanding the effects of violent video games on violent crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. Scott; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external validity. We investigate the relationship between the prevalence of violent video games and violent crimes. Our results are consistent with t...

  4. Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    suggests they are self-evident concepts. Even worse, the terms are often used in a circular fashion : a radical is someone who has radical ideas or...dented Muslim confidence that they were regarded as Victorians / Australians of equal value to those of different belief systems. In some cases

  5. Countering Violent Extremism: Scientific Methods & Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    discredited after working classes in Europe and the U.S. turned to more peaceful institutions like unions and syndicates to promote their interests. During...popular culture— actors, models, sports figures, newspaper columnists , news anchors, thought leaders, academics, or recognized national achievers

  6. Promoting Online Voices for Countering Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia , and Jakarta. Individu- als were introduced to social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and more, with a...United States,” December 2011. 7 This positive influence abroad is especially important as government censorship and pressure from formal religious

  7. Secondary prevention of work-related upper extremity disorders: recommendations from the Annapolis conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Michael; Harrington, Cherise B

    2006-09-01

    Efforts to improve the secondary prevention of work-related upper extremity (WRUE) symptoms continue to present a challenge. As with many occupational musculoskeletal pain disorders no single, direct cause-effect relationship exists among specific exposures, pathologic processes, and symptoms. The field has yet to create truly effective and efficient interventions for these problems that are based on current epidemiological and clinical knowledge. A working conference was held in Annapolis, Maryland on September 23rd and 24th, 2005 with leaders in research and application related to upper extremity disorders to address this challenge. The intent of the meeting was to review "state of the art" evidence in epidemiology and intervention research in order to develop suggestions regarding next steps in intervention research and application. On day 2 a number of stakeholders were present to discuss what they perceived as the missing pieces in both epidemiological research and applied intervention research in order to generate more effective workplace interventions. The papers in this series of the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation indicate that scientifically sound progress has been made over the past decade in identifying ergonomic, workplace psychosocial, and individual factors in both the etiology and exacerbation of these symptoms/disorders. However, there is a gap between this knowledge and the development and practical implementation of comprehensive interventions for these problems. The conference also highlighted the paucity of economic analyses of the impact of these disorders as well as the economic study of the impact of intervention. Approaches for such evaluations were presented and are included in this special section of the journal. This series of papers and the summary of the invited group's discussions provided in this paper clearly emphasize the need for innovative ways to think about these problems and specific research topics that can help

  8. Evaluation, management and prevention of lower extremity youth ice hockey injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkin CA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Charles A Popkin,1 Brian M Schulz,2 Caroline N Park,1 Thomas S Bottiglieri,1 T Sean Lynch1 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine at Columbia University, New York, NY, 2Kerlan‑Jobe Orthopedic Clinic, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Ice hockey is a fast-paced sport played by increasing numbers of children and adolescents in North America and around the world. Requiring a unique blend of skill, finesse, power and teamwork, ice hockey can become a lifelong recreational activity. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is ongoing concern about the high frequency of musculoskeletal injury associated with participation in ice hockey. Injury rates in ice hockey are among the highest in all competitive sports. Numerous research studies have been implemented to better understand the risks of injury. As a result, rule changes were adopted by the USA Hockey and Hockey Canada to raise the minimum age at which body checking is permitted to 13–14 years (Bantam level from 11–12 years (Pee Wee. Continuing the education of coaches, parents and players on rules of safe play, and emphasizing the standards for proper equipment use are other strategies being implemented to make the game safer to play. The objective of this article was to review the evaluation, management and prevention of common lower extremity youth hockey injuries. Keywords: youth hockey, body checking, injury prevention, femoroacetabular impingement, apophyseal avulsions

  9. Climate change, natural disasters, and the risk of violent conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slettebak, Rune Thorkildsen

    2012-07-01

    This PhD project aims to assess the relation between natural disasters triggered by extreme weather events and the risk of violent conflict. The focus on these natural disasters stems from expectations that climate change will increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, combined with frequent suggestions that climate change in general and natural disasters in particular can be expected to trigger more violent conflicts. A number of conflict types, ranging from riots to civil war, are tested. Case studies have found examples where environmental factors have contributed to triggering conflict. However, without systematic assessments, we do not know whether these cases are exceptions or parts of a common pattern. Learning more about this is a prime aim of this thesis. As the effects of climate change are still mainly in the future, I turn to the past for learning more about these connections. Although future relations may differ from those in the past, learning from history is considered the best way of increasing our basis of knowledge on what to expect from the future. The thesis tests two opposing theoretical traditions against each other. On one side is the environmental security literature, which holds that environmentally induced adversity is likely to increase the risk of violent conflict. The other, relatively unknown tradition, called disaster sociology, expects adversity to stimulate altruistic behavior and replace past ascribed identities with new 'communities of sufferers' in the disaster aftermath. In a violent conflict setting, this argument is read as that disasters should reduce conflict risk. Four analyses have been conducted. The first has a global coverage, two focus on India and the last one on Indonesia. The first analysis aims to uncover general trends, while the three others use cases where environmentally driven violence is considered particularly likely, and disaggregated analytical designs that should be well

  10. Completed Suicide with Violent and Non-Violent Methods in Rural Shandong, China: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hua; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe the specific characteristics of completed suicides by violent methods and non-violent methods in rural Chinese population, and to explore the related factors for corresponding methods. Methods Data of this study came from investigation of 199 completed suicide cases and their paired controls of rural areas in three different counties in Shandong, China, by interviewing one informant of each subject using the method of Psychological Autopsy (PA). Results There were 78 (39.2%) suicides with violent methods and 121 (60.8%) suicides with non-violent methods. Ingesting pesticides, as a non-violent method, appeared to be the most common suicide method (103, 51.8%). Hanging (73 cases, 36.7%) and drowning (5 cases, 2.5%) were the only violent methods observed. Storage of pesticides at home and higher suicide intent score were significantly associated with choice of violent methods while committing suicide. Risk factors related to suicide death included negative life events and hopelessness. Conclusions Suicide with violent methods has different factors from suicide with non-violent methods. Suicide methods should be considered in suicide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:25111835

  11. Extreme Heat: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  12. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain a bet...

  13. Self-image and suicidal and violent behaviours of adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background An increase in self-destructive and aggressive behaviours in adolescents has been observed in recent years. The present study focused on self-perception of adolescent girls who show different types of extreme destructive behaviours (suicidal or violent. The main aim of the study was to identify personality predictors of suicidal and violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Participants and procedure The study involved 163 female participants aged 13-17 years, including 44 suicide attempters (without extreme aggressive behaviour towards others, 46 girls using violence against others (without extreme self-destructive behaviour and 77 girls exhibiting no destructive behaviour. The following research methods were applied: the Adjective Checklist (ACL (versions “What am I like?” and “What would I like to be?”, and the Sentence Completion Test. Results The girls showing extreme destructive behaviour, particularly self-destructive behaviour, were found to have a more negative self-image, a lower level of consistency of the self-image, lower self-esteem and a higher level of inner conflict than the control group. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine predictors of extreme self-destructive or aggressive behaviours. Escalated inner conflicts within the attitude towards oneself appear to be the most important predictor of suicidal behaviour in adolescent girls, whereas self-perception based on strength seems to be the most significant predictor of violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Conclusions The research showed that destructive behaviour among adolescents is a multidimensional phenomenon. The statistical model presented in the study has been proved to have a high value. The results can help in successful prevention and therapy of destructive behaviours in adolescents.

  14. Prevention through policy: Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic leakage is extremely pertinent. Here, we explore why and how coastal cities can reduce macroplastic leakages during extreme rainfall events. Using nine global cities as a basis, we establish that while c...

  15. Violent life events and social disadvantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This is a systematic study of the social background of Danish males convicted for the first time of lethal violence, either actual or potential (e.g. unlawful killers, attempted homicides, negligent homicide, grievous bodily harm, N=125). Using registers, the paper addresses the following questio...... behaviour but a less strong predictor of suicidal behaviour. In contrast, being battered and being neglected during childhood more strongly predict later suicidal behaviour than violent behaviour. The implications for prevention are considered....

  16. Prevention through policy: Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-11-15

    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic leakage is extremely pertinent. Here, we explore why and how coastal cities can reduce macroplastic leakages during extreme rainfall events. Using nine global cities as a basis, we establish that while cities actively create policies that reduce plastic leakages, more needs to be done. Nonetheless, these policies are economically, socially and environmentally cobeneficial to the city environment. While the lack of political engagement and economic concerns limit these policies, lacking social motivation and engagement is the largest limitation towards implementing policy. We recommend cities to incentivize citizen and municipal engagement with responsible usage of plastics, cleaning the environment and preparing for future extreme rainfall events. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  18. When a victim becomes violent perpetrator: Violent victimization in childhood, violent criminal behavior in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international research has identified that direct or indirect exposure to violent victimization in a familial context during childhood is a risk factor for violent criminal behavior of victimized children in adulthood. Studies of violent victimization of children in Serbia are rare, and are mostly directed at determining the prevalence, the main characteristics of or the immediate physical, psychological and behavioral consequences of victimization. Empirical analysis of the criminological consequences of early violent victimization in adulthood are an exception in scientific studies in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of research into the influence of early violent victimization on violent crime of adult men and women. After the introduction a brief overview of the worldwide research confirming the correlation between the experience of violent victimization and subsequent violent behavior is given. The results of the research conducted by the author will then be discussed. The results illustrate the possibility of predicting violent criminal behavior in adulthood based on indicators of direct and indirect victimization in childhood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  19. Prevention through policy : Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic

  20. Improved Training Program for Fall Prevention of Warfighters with Lower Extremity Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Release; Distribution Unlimited The views , opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Overseas Contingency Operations have produced many U.S. warfighters with lower extremity injuries

  1. Prevention and nursing care of the complications occurred in interventional therapy for arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yang; Qi Yuchun; Wang Hua; Han Yajun; Fu Wenli; Fan Rui; Lv Xiaoying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the prevention and nursing care of the perioperative complications occurred in interventional therapy for arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity. Methods: During the period of July 2006 to June 2009, interventional treatment for the arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity was performed in 380 cases. The clinical data and complications were reviewed and analyzed, and the prevention and nursing care of the complications were summarized. Results: Complications occurred in 41 cases. During the surgery, vascular rupture or arterial dissection occurred in 5 cases, hypoglycemia reaction in 3 cases and elevation of blood pressure in 2 cases. The complications,which occurred after the treatment,included acute arterial thrombosis (n=3), deep vein thrombosis (n=2), bleeding of different tissues or organs (n=17), acute myocardial infarction (n=2), pseudoaneurysm (n=2), excessive lower limb perfusion syndrome (n=4) and compression sores (n=1). Conclusion: Detailed information of medical history, careful observation of clinical condition, intensive care of patient, adequate preparation of medical materials, seriously handing over the duty to the next shift and taking one's turn on duty, etc. are all the effective measures to prevent and to reduce the occurrence of complications. (authors)

  2. Are violent video games harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Guy; Starcevic, Vladan

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the controversial issue of the association of violent video games and aggressive behaviour. Several lines of evidence suggest that there is a link between exposure to violent video games and aggressive behaviour. However, methodological shortcomings of research conducted so far make several interpretations of this relationship possible. Thus, aggressive behaviour may be a consequence of playing violent video games, an expression of hostile traits that existed before exposure to these games, and/or it may be a result of several possible combinations of these and other factors. Mental health professionals need to be aware of these potentially negative effects of violent video games when assessing patients who present with aggression. There is a need for prospective, long-term studies similar to those evaluating the effects of television and film violence on children and adolescents.

  3. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  4. Political Violence and the Mediating Role of Violent Extremist Propensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Schils

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into violent extremism is lacking integrated theoretical frameworks explaining individual involvement in politically or religiously motivated violence, resulting in a poor understanding of causal mechanisms. Building on situational action theory, the current study moves beyond the dominant risk factor approach and proposes an integrated model for the explanation of political/religious violence, distinguishing between direct mechanisms and “causes of the causes.” The model integrates mechanisms from different but complementary traditions. Following previous work, this study focusses on the causes of the causes influencing direct key mechanisms, violent extremist propensity, and exposure to violent extremist moral settings that explain political/religious violence. The theoretical model is tested using structural equation modelling. The analyses are based on a web survey (N = 6,020 among adolescents and young adults in Belgium. Results show that violent extremist propensity and exposure to violent extremist moral settings have direct effects on the likelihood of political/religious violence. These direct mechanisms are in turn determined by a series of exogenous factors: perceived injustice and poor social integration. The relationship between perceived injustice and poor social integration and political/religious violence is further mediated by perceived alienation, perceived procedural justice, and religious authoritarianism. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. ‘Paving the way for Extremism: How Preventing the Symptoms Does Not Cure the Disease of Terrorism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Awan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The British government’s controversial counter-terrorism strategies and policies have come under fierce opposition with critics arguing it has not actually prevented extremism but has manifested itself into a political and ideological campaign that unfairly targets the Muslim community. Moreover, such strategies have marginalised the Muslim community in the UK from wider civic society and created an atmosphere of hate and anger. The Prime Minister of Great Britain, David Cameron in 2010, spoke at a conference in Munich about security, radicalisation, and multi-culturalism, sparking a debate about how the UK monitors and deals with extremism. Blaming the doctrine of ‘state-multiculturalism’ the British coalition government argued for a more ‘active muscular liberalism’ which would identify the root causes of extremist ideologies.  Moreover, this paranoia and hysteria has led to a social, political, moral and theological debate about Islamism, Muslims, and terrorism which is fuelled by the way Britain is portrayed across the world as a country where extremist organisations employ tactics of persuasion, indoctrination, radicalisation and the promotion of religious intolerance.

  6. Youth and Violent Conflict. Study Guide for Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Institute of Peace, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study guide are: (1) to increase student understanding of the prevalence of youth participation in violent conflict and the challenges to addressing this global issue; (2) to familiarize students with strategies for conflict prevention, management, and resolution; (3) to develop students' analytical reading, writing, and…

  7. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  8. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  9. Demobilising and Disengaging Violent Extremists: Towards a New UN Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available First and second generation programmes of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR, are no longer ‘fit for purpose’ in contexts of violent extremism. Recognising this, voices from within the United Nations (UN system have recently called for the development of a practice framework combining DDR and Countering Violent Extremism (CVE. Drawing on examples from Nigeria and Somalia, this commentary outlines six issue areas where DDR and CVE overlap, and where further operational guidance is required. These issue areas are: safe passage; the handling of seized and captured weapons; risk assessment; the use of deradicalisation programmes; the reintegration of extremist offenders; and the links between DDR and rehabilitation programmes for extremist prisoners.

  10. Violent and Non-Violent Criminal Behavior among Young Chinese Drug Users: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Chui, Wing Hong; Chen, Ye

    2018-03-02

    Young drug users are found to be increasingly involved in criminal justice issues. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to analyze the criminal behaviors among young Chinese drug users through a mixed methods research design. Quantitative analysis indicates that young drug users with and without a history of criminality show significant differences in terms of several features. Male drug users, particularly, those who are older, with religious beliefs, and initiated into drug use at younger age were most likely to commit crimes. Among drug users with criminal experiences, those who committed crimes prior to drug initiation have a greater likelihood of committing violent crimes. Furthermore, young drug users with severe depression are more likely to commit crimes, especially violent ones. Qualitative analysis further illustrates that young male drug users often get involved in criminal conduct of the youth gang nature with propensity for engaging in violent crimes as compared to their female counterparts who are more likely to turn into drug dealers and traffickers, in addition to engaging in larceny. The research findings are consistent with developmental theories and "victim to offender cycle". Integrated mental health and substance use services are suggested for crime prevention among young Chinese drug users.

  11. National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) provides states and communities with a clearer understanding of violent deaths to guide local decisions about...

  12. VOICES AGAINST EXTREMISM: A CASE STUDY OF A COMMUNITY-BASED CVE COUNTER-NARRATIVE CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Macnair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the recently conceived and ongoing counter-extremism campaign, Voices Against Extremism, a campaign designed and implemented by university students from Vancouver, Canada. Through a multifaceted approach that includes extensive use of social media, academic research, and grassroots community activities and involvement, Voices Against Extremism operates under the mission statement of countering and preventing violent extremism and radicalization through the humanization of minority groups and through the education and engagement of the silent majority. This article examines the effectiveness of this campaign as a proactive counter-radicalization strategy by outlining its specific components and activities. Based on the results of this campaign, suggestions are then offered regarding specific counter-extremism and counter-radicalizations policies that may be adopted by law enforcement, policymakers – or any other organizations concerned with countering and preventing radicalization and violent extremism – with a specific focus on the potential benefits of proactive and long-term social and community engagement.

  13. Self-image and suicidal and violent behaviours of adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase in self-destructive and aggressive behaviours in adolescents has been observed in recent years. The present study focused on self-perception of adolescent girls who show different types of extreme destructive behaviours (suicidal or violent). The main aim of the study was to identify personality predictors of suicidal and violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Participants and procedure The study involved 163 female participants aged 13-17 years, inc...

  14. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  15. Violent computer games, empathy, and cosmopolitanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many philosophical and public discussions of the ethical aspects of violent computer games typically centre on the relation between playing violent videogames and its supposed direct consequences on violent behaviour. But such an approach rests on a controversial empirical claim, is often one-sided

  16. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  17. The intergenerational transmission of violent offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the intergenerational transmission and concentration of violent offending using conviction data of 3,440 persons from three consecutive generations from the Dutch Transfive study. Violent offending is more concentrated within nuclear families than non-violent offending,

  18. Correlates of violent response among Peruvian women abused by an intimate partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Lam, Nelly; Cripe, Swee May; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2010-01-01

    The authors sought to identify correlates of violent response among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) in Lima, Peru. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to IPV and women's physical violent reaction towards their abuser. Women who were sexually abused by their partners, as compared with women who experienced emotional abuse only, were more than twice as likely to respond in a violent manner to the abuse (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.14-4.74). Similarly, women who reported being physically abused, were 4 times as likely than those who experienced emotional abuse only to retaliate in a physically violent manner (OR = 4.04, 95% CI = 2.68-6.11). Women's educational status, history of witnessing parental violence as a child, and type of IPV are significantly associated with women's violent response. Community support networks and culturally appropriate intervention programs designed to prevent and mitigate the impact of IPV are needed.

  19. As representações sociais da violência doméstica: uma abordagem preventiva Social representations of physically abused adolescents in violent homes: an preventive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição N. Monteiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar a construção de três tipos de representações sociais: as da violência doméstica, as dos agressores e as que os adolescentes, agredidos na infância têm de si mesmos. Buscaram-se temas que norteassem uma proposta de prevenção da violência doméstica pesquisando-os em 90 adolescentes da cidade de Campinas, São Paulo. O ponto de partida foi analisar a problemática que envolve o fenômeno da violência doméstica e sua relação com os comportamentos socialmente inadequados (rebeldia, condutas marginais ou violentas e seu efeito na auto-imagem dos adolescentes. A dinâmica de coleta de dados visou, através da entrevista inicial, dos questionários e das fichas de registro do Crami - Centro Regional de Registro e Atenção aos Maus Tratos na Infância, Campinas - a identificar a notificação de violências físicas sofridas na infância e a investigar os discursos dos atores sociais, numa perspectiva dialógica, como a principal fonte de informação e expressão oral e escrita. A análise realizada foi de natureza qualitativa-quantitativa. A primeira, destina-se ao exame dos conteúdos dos discursos, através da análise semântica e léxica. A segunda refere-se à análise fatorial de correspondência, que se destina a identificar os núcleos centrais das representações sociais da violência doméstica nos dois grupos de adolescentes.This study aims to identify the construction of three types of social representations pertaining to domestic violence: the violence itself, the aggressors, and adolescent victims of violence as seen by themselves. The study interviewed 90 adolescents in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, in order to identify underlying themes to base a proposal for prevention of domestic violence in that city. The point of departure was an analysis of the issues surrounding the domestic violence phenomenon and its relation to socially inadequate behaviors (rebelliousness and

  20. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  1. Medicolegal aspects of hospital treatment of violent mentally ill persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper deals with medicolegal aspects of the hospital treatment of patients suffering from severe mental disorders and who are prone to violent behavior, dangerous to self and others. Violent acts in this study were defined as deliberate and nonconsensual acts of actual, attempted or threatened harm to a person or persons, and classified into categories of any type of violence, physical violence and nonphysical violence, which is in accordance with approaches used in other risk assessment researches. Outline of Cases. The authors present four cases of mentally ill inpatients whose violent behavior toward self or other persons resulted in self-destruction and physical aggression against other persons. The presented cases involved: 1 selfinjury in a patient with acute organic mental disorder after jumping through a hospital window, 2 suicide by drowning of a patient with acute mental disorder after escaping from intensive care unit, 3 suicide in a depressive patient after escaping from a low-security psychiatry unit, 4 physical violence against body and life of other persons in a patient with chronic mental disorder. Conclusion. The presented cases are considered to be rare in clinical practice and risk of violent behavior and the consequent danger of mentally ill inpatients may be efficiently predicted and prevented with appropriate hospital management based on 1 repeated escalation of violent behavior and 2 protection of the patient and others. Hence, if the physician, in order to prevent harmful consequences, does not apply all the necessary measures, including appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as treatment in an adequate setting, such act is against the Criminal Law of the Republic of Serbia which sanctions physician's negligence. Also, according to the Law on Obligations of the Republic of Serbia this presents a legal ground for damage claim and the requirement of liability for nonmaterial damage

  2. Teachers' stress intensifies violent disciplining in Tanzanian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Goessmann, Katharina; Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin

    2018-02-01

    Violent forms of discipline in schools continue to be widespread across the globe despite their damaging effects. Since little is known about factors influencing the extent of violence applied by teachers, this study aimed to investigate the influence of teachers' stress, work satisfaction, and personal characteristics on their disciplining style. Using structural equation modeling, associations between violent discipline, burnout symptoms, and job perceptions (pressure and difficulties in class) reported by 222 teachers from 11 secondary schools in Tanzania in 2015 were analyzed. Results indicated a direct association between perceived stress and emotional violent discipline (β=.18, pjob perceptions and both forms of violent disciplining. The model showed good model fit (χ 2 [44, n=222]=67.47 (p=.013), CFI=.94, TLI=.91, IFI=.94, RMSEA=.049 [90%-CI=.02-.07, PCLOSE=.50], SRMR=.06). Our findings suggest that teachers' personal perceptions of their work as well as their stress burden play a role in their disciplining styles. Our findings underline the importance of integrating topics, such as stress and coping as well as positive, nonviolent discipline measures into the regular teacher's training and in addition to develop and evaluate school-based preventative interventions for teachers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Change in Family Structure and Rates of Violent Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Jeannie A

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Have the changes in family structure in the U.S. become a catalyst for juvenile delinquency? For this research, I use existing statistics for my three independent variables: divorce rates, rate of working mothers with children under age 18, percent female-headed households. My dependent variable, juvenile violent crime rates, is measured using data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. My control variables consist of the followin...

  5. The Cloudy Crystal Ball: Detecting and Disrupting Homegrown Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    investigators that Mateen had been watching videos of the radical cleric Anwar al-Awlaki. This lead to a third interview with Mateen, but there was still...Mateen’s viewing of radical videos online was only confirmed during the follow-up investigation. One official said emphatically, “We don’t have a...change over time, the risk assessment can likewise adapt. The Sexual Violence Risk (SVR-20) instrument is designed to detect a sex offender’s risk

  6. IS and its Predecessors : Violent Extremism in Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, B.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Islamic State uses an age old apocalyptic narrative to attract followers and legitimatize its existence. This research note show which narrative elements were used during previous violence-inciting apocalyptic manifestation in Christianity and Western ideology and how they can be retraced in the

  7. Evaluation in the Extreme: Research, Impact and Politics in Violently ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... Kenneth Bush was the Altajir lecturer in Post-war Recovery Studies and ... development, and peace-building organizations in the Global North and South − from ... He will be greatly missed by family, colleagues, and friends.

  8. Countering Violent Extremism: The Challenge and the Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    of Iraq, abuses at Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo , and images of civilian deaths and destruction.” (Esposito and Mogahed, 2007, p. 65) As a result... strategies that combine government, nongovernment, and community leaders to combat terrorism at the ideological level. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 166 14...mechanism to develop and support strategies that combine government, nongovernment, and community leaders to combat terrorism at the ideological level

  9. Beyond Hate: Countering Violent Extremism from the White Power Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    perceived unfair treatment.144 The “second floor” is often indicative of dictatorships when an individual acts independently of the population, referred to...renewed his Klan involvement from childhood .504 Spence also explained the Klan is a family tradition, which makes it normal, perhaps even expected, with

  10. Violent Deaths Among Georgia Workers: An Examination of Suicides and Homicides by Occupation, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Antionette; Ramirez-Irizarry, Viani; Bayakly, A Rana; Koplan, Carol; Bryan, J Michael

    2016-11-01

    Workers in certain occupations may be at an increased risk of a violent-related death such as homicide or suicide. The purpose of this study is to describe rates of violent deaths among Georgia workers by occupation, including cases occurring at work and outside of the workplace, and identify leading circumstances surrounding suicides and homicides for the occupations most at risk. Data from the 2006-2009 Georgia Violent Death Reporting System were used. Occupational text fields were recoded into 23 major occupation categories based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification system. Crude rates and standardized mortality ratios for violent deaths (suicides and homicides) were calculated by occupation among Georgia workers aged ≥16 years. The leading circumstances precipitating violent deaths among the high-risk occupations were described. Analyses were conducted during 2012-2013 and 2015. A total of 4,616 Georgia resident workers were victims of a violent death during 2006-2009. Of these deaths, 2,888 (62.6%) were suicides and 1,728 (37.4%) were homicides. Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations had the highest rate of violent deaths at 80.5 per 100,000 workers followed by construction and extraction occupations at 65.5 per 100,000. The most common suicide circumstances among workers were having a current depressed mood, a current mental health problem, and an intimate partner problem. Use of the Violent Death Reporting System provides a unique opportunity to explore violent deaths among workers. This analysis shows the need to ensure that workers have access to workplace and community-based suicide and violence prevention services. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...

  12. Violent phenomena in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant V

    2007-01-01

    The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova

  13. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  14. What Does it Take to Be a True Muslim? Implications for Efforts to Counter al-Qa’ida’s Violent Extremist Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    4 Evolution of the AQ Narrative: The Salafist-Jihadist Movement ............................................ 5 Salafism ...extremists with whom AQAA shares its underlying ideology: Salafism . The Salafi movement offers Salafi-Jihadists like AQAA fertile ground planted with...violent extremism (in this case, from non-violent Salafism to Salafi-Jihadism). This paper addresses this issue and surrounding dynamics within the

  15. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  16. Is basic personality related to violent and non-violent video game play and preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chory, Rebecca M; Goodboy, Alan K

    2011-04-01

    Based on the uses and gratifications perspective, personality was expected to relate to violent video game play frequency and game preferences. Participants completed measures of personality and frequency of violent video game play, and identified their most frequently played video games. Results indicate that individuals higher in openness but lower in agreeableness played violent video games more frequently. In addition, more open and extroverted but less agreeable and neurotic individuals generally preferred to play video games that are more violent. Results suggest personality may be more predictive of violent video game use than traditional media use, though the predictive personality dimensions may be consistent across media types.

  17. Management of the acutely violent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jorge R

    2005-09-01

    Violence in the work place is a new but growing problem for our profession. It is likely that at some point a psychiatrist will be confronted with a potentially violent patient or need to assess a violent patient. Understanding predictors and associated factors in violence as well as having a clear and well-defined strategy in approaching and dealing with the violent patient, thus, are crucial. Ensuring patient, staff, and personal safety is the most important aspect in the management of a violent patient. All of the staff must be familiar with management strategies and clear guidelines that are implemented and followed when confronted with a violent patient. The more structured the approach to the violent patient, the less likely a bad outcome will occur. Manipulating one's work environment to maximize safety and understanding how to de-escalate potentially mounting violence are two steps in the approach to the violent patient. Restraint, seclusion, and psychopharmacologic interventions also are important and often are necessary components to the management of the violent patient.

  18. Experience and Perpetration of Violent Behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... Worldwide, adolescents are disproportionately affected by violent ... and perpetration of physical, sexual and psychological violent behaviours among ... of violence among males were use of alcohol, witnessing domestic violence, ...

  19. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  20. The Narrative Labyrinth of Violent Dying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynearson, E. K.

    2005-01-01

    This essay outlines the dynamics of retelling the violent death of a loved one and the narrative "dilemma" of vulnerable family members fixated on retelling. To counter this fixation, the author presents a mythic retelling of violent death (the Myth of Theseus) as narrative basis for developing a restorative retelling. The essay begins by…

  1. When will collective action be effective? Violent and non-violent protests differentially influence perceptions of legitimacy and efficacy among sympathizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma F; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-02-01

    Collective action will be effective in achieving broader social change goals to the extent that it influences public opinion yet the degree to which collective action "works" in changing opinion is rarely studied. Experiment 1 (n = 158) showed that, consistent with a logic of strategic non-violence, non-violent collective action more effectively conveys a sense of the illegitimacy of the issue and the efficacy of the group, thereby promoting support for future non-violent actions. Experiment 2 (n = 139) explored the moderating role of allegations of corruption. A social context of corruption effectively undermined the efficacy and legitimacy of non-violent collective action, relative to support for violence, thereby promoting (indirectly) support for future extreme action. The implications of this research, for the logic of strategic non-violence and mobilizing supportive public opinion, are discussed.

  2. Sex Differences in Violent versus Non-Violent Life-Threatening Altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on Hamilton's (1964 inclusive fitness theory have used the burning house and kidney donation examples of life-threatening altruism. However, these examples may not be sufficiently exhibiting the risk involved with life-threatening altruism that would have occurred in hunter-gatherer societies, such as fighting off attackers and/or predators. The present study examined participants' estimated likelihood to perform altruistic acts for specific kin members/friends in two violent life-threatening situations (i.e., being mugged and being chased and two non-violent life-threatening situations (i.e., the burning house and kidney donation examples. Participants were 216 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward an actual kin member/friend. Each questionnaire contained four life-or-death scenarios (two violent and two non-violent in which either the participant's sibling, cousin, or best friend was in danger and needed help. Results indicated that people were more likely to help siblings than cousins and friends in both the violent and non-violent hypothetical scenarios. Participants indicated a greater likelihood to help people in violent situations than in non-violent situations. Women indicated a greater estimated likelihood than men to help people in non-violent situations while men indicated a greater estimated likelihood than women to help people in violent situations. Both male and female participants indicated a greater estimated likelihood to help women than men in violent situations.

  3. Recidivistic offending and mortality in alcoholic violent offenders: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-06-30

    Predictive data supporting prevention of violent criminality are scarce. We examined risk factors for recidivism and mortality among non-psychotic alcoholic violent offenders, the majority having antisocial or borderline personality disorders, or both, which is a group that commits the majority of violent offences in Finland. Criminal records and mortality data on 242 male alcoholic violent offenders were analysed after a 7- to 15-year follow-up, and compared between themselves and with those of 1210 age-, sex- and municipality-matched controls. Recidivism and mortality rates were high. The risk of recidivistic violence was increased by antisocial or borderline personality disorder, or both, childhood maltreatment, and a combination of these. A combination of borderline personality disorder and childhood maltreatment was particularly noxious, suggesting an additive risk increase for a poor outcome. Accurate diagnosis and careful childhood interview may help to predict recidivism and premature death.

  4. Place of origin and violent disagreement among Asian American families: analysis across five States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J

    2011-08-01

    We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.

  5. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  6. Developmental Predictors of Violent Extremist Attitudes : A Test of General Strain Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivette, Amy; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the influence of collective strain on support for violent extremism among an ethnically diverse sample of Swiss adolescents. This study explores two claims derived from general strain theory: (1) Exposure to collective strain is associated with higher support for

  7. A Top Pilot Tunnel Preconditioning Method for the Prevention of Extremely Intense Rockbursts in Deep Tunnels Excavated by TBMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanqing; Feng, Xiating; Zhou, Hui; Qiu, Shili; Wu, Wenping

    2012-05-01

    The headrace tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station cross the Jinping Mountain with a maximum overburden depth of 2,525 m, where 80% of the strata along the tunnels consist of marble. A number of extremely intense rockbursts occurred during the excavation of the auxiliary tunnels and the drainage tunnel. In particular, a tunnel boring machine (TBM) was destroyed by an extremely intense rockburst in a 7.2-m-diameter drainage tunnel. Two of the four subsequent 12.4-m-diameter headrace tunnels will be excavated with larger size TBMs, where a high risk of extremely intense rockbursts exists. Herein, a top pilot tunnel preconditioning method is proposed to minimize this risk, in which a drilling and blasting method is first recommended for the top pilot tunnel excavation and support, and then the TBM excavation of the main tunnel is conducted. In order to evaluate the mechanical effectiveness of this method, numerical simulation analyses using the failure approaching index, energy release rate, and excess shear stress indices are carried out. Its construction feasibility is discussed as well. Moreover, a microseismic monitoring technique is used in the experimental tunnel section for the real-time monitoring of the microseismic activities of the rock mass in TBM excavation and for assessing the effect of the top pilot tunnel excavation in reducing the risk of rockbursts. This method is applied to two tunnel sections prone to extremely intense rockbursts and leads to a reduction in the risk of rockbursts in TBM excavation.

  8. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  9. Modelling and evaluating against the violent insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, D.S.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Saleh, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The violent insider threat poses a special challenge to facilities protecting special nuclear material from theft or diversion. These insiders could potentially behave as nonviolent insiders to deceitfully defeat certain safeguards elements and use violence to forcefully defeat hardware or personnel. While several vulnerability assessment tools are available to deal with the nonviolent insider, very limited effort has been directed to developing analysis tools for the violent threat. In this paper, the authors present an approach using the results of a vulnerability assessment for nonviolent insiders to evaluate certain violent insider scenarios. Since existing tools do not explicitly consider violent insiders, the approach is intended for experienced safeguards analysts and relies on the analyst to brainstorm possible violent actions, to assign detection probabilities, and to ensure consistency. The authors then discuss our efforts in developing an automated tool for assessing the vulnerability against those violent insiders who are willing to use force against barriers, but who are unwilling to kill or be killed. Specifically, the authors discuss our efforts in developing databases for violent insiders penetrating barriers, algorithms for considering the entry of contraband, and modelling issues in considering the use of violence

  10. Modelling and evaluating against the violent insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, D.S.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Saleh, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    The violent insider threat poses a special challenge to facilities protecting special nuclear material from theft or diversion. These insiders could potentially behave as nonviolent insiders to deceitfully defeat certain safeguards elements and use violence to forcefully defeat hardware or personnel. While several vulnerability assessment tools are available to deal with the nonviolent insider, very limited effort has been directed to developing analysis tools for the violent threat. In this paper, we present an approach using the results of a vulnerability assessment for nonviolent insiders to evaluate certain violent insider scenarios. Since existing tools do not explicitly consider violent insiders, the approach is intended for experienced safeguards analysts and relies on the analyst to brainstorm possible violent actions, to assign detection probabilities, and to ensure consistency. We then discuss our efforts in developing an automated tool for assessing the vulnerability against those violent insiders who are willing to use force against barriers, but who are unwilling to kill or be killed. Specifically, we discuss our efforts in developing databases for violent insiders penetrating barriers, algorithms for considering the entry of contraband, and modelling issues in considering the use of violence

  11. Gender specific analysis of occupational diseases of the low back caused by carrying, lifting or extreme trunk flexion—use of a prevention index to identify occupations with high prevention needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Markus; Liebers, Falk; Seidler, Andreas; Gravemeyer, Stefan; Latza, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender specific analysis of the occupational disease of the lumbar spine caused by carrying, lifting, or extreme trunk flexion in Germany (OD No.2108) with the aim to identify areas of focus for prevention and research with a prevention index (PI). Methods Data from the German Statutory Accident Insurance stratified by gender are shown. Results From 2002 until 2009 there were 2,877 confirmed cases of an OD No. 2108 (40.1% male and 59.1% female). The PI indicated the highest prevention need for female nursing/midwifery associate professionals and male building frame and related trades workers. Patient transfer and working in extremely bent posture were the most frequent exposures. Conclusions The identified occupations with high need for prevention among men come from nearly all major occupational groups whereas women cluster in occupational groups from the health and care sectors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:233–244, 2014. © 2013 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24243091

  12. Deliberate self-harm behavior among young violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Natalie; Ozolins, Andrejs; Westling, Sofie; Westrin, Åsa; Billstedt, Eva; Hofvander, Björn; Wallinius, Märta

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders. Data were collected from a nationally representative cohort of 270 male violent offenders, 18-25 years old, imprisoned in Sweden. Participants were interviewed and investigated neuropsychologically, and their files were reviewed for psychosocial background, criminal history, mental disorders, lifetime aggressive antisocial behaviors, and DSH. A total of 62 offenders (23%) had engaged in DSH at some point during their lifetime, many on repeated occasions, yet without suicidal intent. DSH was significantly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, various substance use disorders, being bullied at school, and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and being bullied at school remained significant predictors of DSH in a total regression model. Violent offenders direct aggressive behaviors not only toward other people, but also toward themselves. Thus, DSH must be assessed and prevented in correctional institutions as early as possible, and more knowledge is needed of the function of DSH among offenders.

  13. Is violent radicalisation associated with poverty, migration, poor self-reported health and common mental disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaldeep Bhui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18-45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders, and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. RESULTS: 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year. People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. CONCLUSIONS: Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18-45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors.

  14. Violent Jihad and Beheadings in the Land of Al Fatoni Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Andre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The early 2000s has seen a revival of the Patani resistance manifesting in a violent jihad and new forms of extreme violence never witnessed before in the century-long Southern Thailand conflict. Transported by neojihadism, this new energised generation of fighters is injecting new meaning to their struggle, re-identifying friends and foes, spreading terror in hearts and minds to control mental and physical spaces through the slashing of the body, all in the hope of establishing Al Fatoni Darussalam. This article examines the reflexive repositioning of the Patani struggle through the process of transference of neojihadism and its transformation into a glocalised violent jihad.

  15. Alcohol abuse as the strongest risk factor for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudumija Slijepcevic, Marija; Jukic, Vlado; Novalic, Darko; Zarkovic-Palijan, Tija; Milosevic, Milan; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    To determine predictive risk factors for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in Croatia. The cross-sectional study including male in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia with (N=104) and without (N=102) history of physical violence and violent offending was conducted simultaneously in several hospitals in Croatia during one-year period (2010-2011). Data on their sociodemographic characteristics, duration of untreated illness phase (DUP), alcohol abuse, suicidal behavior, personality features, and insight into illness were collected and compared between groups. Binary logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of violent offending. Predictors of violent offending were older age, DUP before first contact with psychiatric services, and alcohol abuse. Regression model showed that the strongest positive predictive factor was harmful alcohol use, as determined by AUDIT test (odds ratio 37.01; 95% confidence interval 5.20-263.24). Psychopathy, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significant positive predictive factors, while extroversion, pleasantness, and intellect were significant negative predictive factors for violent offending. This study found an association between alcohol abuse and the risk for violent offending in paranoid schizophrenia. We hope that this finding will help improve public and mental health prevention strategies in this vulnerable patient group.

  16. Prevalence of and risk factors for violent disciplinary practices at home in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Dam, Hang

    2014-02-01

    Data on parenting practices and the use of violence in child rearing remain scarce worldwide, hindering prevention efforts. This study examines disciplinary methods used on children at home in Viet Nam. It is based on data collected from 2010 to 2011 through the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4)-a household survey program supported by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) that focuses on women and children in low- and middle-income countries. Respondents in the survey were asked 11 questions relating to disciplinary measures used in the preceding month on one randomly selected child (2-14 years old) in each household. A final question about attitudes probed adults' views on the need for physical punishment in child rearing. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of violent and nonviolent forms of discipline, and to identify risk factors associated with violent punishment. Results showed that three in four children in Viet Nam are disciplined through violent means. The exposure of Vietnamese children to violent forms of discipline was significantly associated with varied characteristics of both children and their caregivers. Moreover, the use of violent disciplinary practices on children was strongly associated with positive attitudes toward corporal punishment. Risk factors for violent child discipline identified in this study can inform future interventions to promote positive practices and to protect Vietnamese children against violence in the home.

  17. Violent crime runs in families: a total population study of 12.5 million individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, T; Lichtenstein, P; Långström, N

    2011-01-01

    Etiological theory and prior research with small or selected samples suggest that interpersonal violence clusters in families. However, the strength and pattern of this aggregation remains mostly unknown. We investigated all convictions for violent crime in Sweden 1973-2004 among more than 12.5 million individuals in the nationwide Multi-Generation Register, and compared rates of violent convictions among relatives of violent individuals with relatives of matched, non-violent controls, using a nested case-control design. We found strong familial aggregation of interpersonal violence among first-degree relatives [e.g. odds ratio (OR)sibling 4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-4.3], lower for more distant relatives (e.g. OR cousin 1.9, 95% CI 1.9-1.9). Risk patterns across biological and adoptive relations provided evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on the development of violent behavior. Familial risks were stronger among women, in higher socio-economic strata, and for early onset interpersonal violence. There were crime-specific effects (e.g. OR sibling for arson 22.4, 95% CI 12.2-41.2), suggesting both general and subtype-specific familial risk factors for violent behavior. The observed familiality should be accounted for in criminological research, applied violence risk assessment, and prevention efforts.

  18. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Universal bursty behaviour in human violent conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoli, S.; Castillo-Mussot, M. Del; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and processes underlying the dynamics of collective violence is of considerable current interest. Recent studies indicated the presence of robust patterns characterizing the size and timing of violent events in human conflicts. Since the size and timing of violent events arises as the result of a dynamical process, we explore the possibility of unifying these observations. By analyzing available catalogs on violent events in Iraq (2003-2005), Afghanistan (2008-2010) and Northern Ireland (1969-2001), we show that the inter-event time distributions (calculated for a range of minimum sizes) obeys approximately a simple scaling law which holds for more than three orders of magnitude. This robust pattern suggests a hierarchical organization in size and time providing a unified picture of the dynamics of violent conflicts.

  20. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    We reexamine the foundations of Lynden-Bell's statistical mechanical discussion of violent relaxation in collisionless stellar systems. We argue that Lynden-Bell's formulation in terms of a continuum description introduces unnecessary complications, and we consider a more conventional formulation in terms of particles. We then find the exclusion principle discovered by Lynden-Bell to be quantitatively important only at phase densities where two-body encounters are no longer negligible. Since the edynamical basis for the exclusion principle vanishes in such cases anyway, Lynden-Bell statistics always reduces in practice to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics when applied to stellar systems. Lynden-Bell also found the equilibrium distribution function generally to be a sum of Maxwellians with velocity dispersions dependent on the phase density at star formation. We show that this difficulty vanishes in the particulate description for an encounterless stellar system as long as stars of different masses are initially well mixed in phase space. Our methods also demonstrate the equivalence between Gibbs's formalism which uses the microcanonical ensemble and Boltzmann's formalism which uses a coarse-grained continuum description. In addition, we clarify the concept of irreversible behavior on a macroscopic scale for an encounterless stellar system. Finally, we comment on the use of unusual macroscopic constraints to simulate the effects of incomplete relaxation

  1. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  2. Does Violent Crime Deter Physical Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Crime has potentially important externalities. We investigate the relationship between recorded violent crime at the local area level and individuals’ participation in their local area through walking and physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people residing in over 320 local areas across England over the period 2005 to 2011. We show that concerns about personal safety co-move with police recorded violent crime. Our analysis controls for individual-level characteristics, no...

  3. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  4. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  5. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E C; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.

  6. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  7. Thinking about the future as a way to succeed in the present: a longitudinal study of future orientation and violent behaviors among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bauermeister, José A

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has linked higher levels of hopelessness about one's future to violent behavior during adolescence; however, little is known about this relationship over time for adolescents. Using growth curve modeling, we tested the association between future orientation and violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of African American youth (n = 681). Variation based on demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, SES, previous violence) was explored. At baseline, differences in violent behavior varied by demographic characteristics. Overall, violent behavior decreased with age. Higher levels of future orientation were associated with greater decreases in violent behavior over time. Demographic characteristics were not associated with change in violent behavior overtime. Our findings suggest that future orientation can act as a promotive factor for at risk African American youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in violence prevention efforts.

  8. Effects of Violent and Non-Violent Computer Game Content on Memory Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Asja; Kollhorster, Kirsten; Riediger, Annemarie; MacDonald, Vanessa; Lohaus, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on the short-term effects of electronic entertainment media on memory and learning processes. It compares the effects of violent versus non-violent computer game content in a condition of playing and in another condition of watching the same game. The participants consisted of 83 female and 94 male adolescents with a mean…

  9. The Role of Violent Thinking in Violent Behavior: It's More About Thinking Than Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Nicola; Walker, Julian; Hughes, Elise; Lewis, Rhiannon; Hyde, Gemma

    2017-08-01

    This article aims to explore and report on violent thinking and alcohol misuse; how these factors may predict self-reported violence. The role of violent thinking in violent behavior is both well established in theoretical models, yet there are few measures that explain this role. One measure that has been identified is the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ). This is the first study to explore the use of the MVQ with a general (nonoffender) adult sample, having already been shown to be valid with young people (under 18 years old), adult male offenders, and mentally disordered offenders. This study involved 808 adult participants-569 female and 239 male participants. As figures demonstrate that around half of all violent crime in the United Kingdom is alcohol related, we also explored the role of alcohol misuse. Regression was used to explore how these factors predicted violence. The results demonstrate the important role of violent thinking in violent behavior. The MVQ factor of "Machismo" was the primary factor in regression models for both male and female self-reported violence. The role of alcohol in the regression models differed slightly between the male and female participants, with alcohol misuse involved in male violence. The study supports theoretical models including the role of violent thinking and encourages those hoping to address violence, to consider "Machismo" as a treatment target. The study also provides further validation of the MVQ as a helpful tool for clinicians or researchers who may be interested in "measuring" violent thinking.

  10. Violent Women: Are They Catching Up To Violent Men or Have They Surpassed Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R. Barri

    Current statistics on arrests, convictions, and prison inmates and recent studies on violence by women indicate that the number of women who commit violent crimes is rising. Violent crimes include murder, rape, terrorism, gang participation, domestic violence, and prostitution. The first section, "Women Who Kill," discusses women who…

  11. Traditional Chinese and western medicine for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shibai; Song, Yi; Chen, Xi; Qian, Wenwei

    2018-04-10

    Chinese herbal medicine has traditionally been considered to promote blood circulation to remove obstruction in the channels and clear pathogenic heat to drain dampness effects. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate its benefits for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after lower extremity orthopedic surgery. Relevant, published studies were identified using the following keywords: lower extremity orthopedic surgery, arthroplasty, joint replacement, fracture, traditional Chinese and western medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and Venous thromboembolism (VTE). The following databases were used to identify the literature consisting of RCTs with a date of search of 31 May 2017: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of knowledge, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, and the Wanfang Database (including three English and four Chinese databases). All relevant data were collected from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The outcome variables were the incidence rate of DVT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and D-dimer; subcutaneous hematoma; and other reported outcomes. RevMan5.2. software was adopted for the meta-analysis. A total of 20 published studies (1862 cases) met the inclusion criteria. The experimental group, 910 patients (48.87%), received the Chinese herbal medicine or traditional Chinese and western medicine for prevention of DVT; the control group, 952 patients (51.13%), received the standard western treatment. The meta-analysis showed that traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy reduced the incidence rates of DVT significantly when compared with controls (risk ratio [RR] = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54; P < 0.00001), and the D-dimer was lower in the experimental group (P = 0.01). Besides, the incidence rate of subcutaneous hematoma was lower in the experimental group (P < 0

  12. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency.

  13. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  14. Autism and Convictions for Violent Crimes: Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeramun, Ragini; Magnusson, Cecilia; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Granath, Sven; Lundberg, Michael; Dalman, Christina; Rai, Dheeraj

    2017-06-01

    Recent systematic reviews have highlighted that the relationship between autism and violent offending is still unclear, but some cases have received extensive media scrutiny. We investigated whether autism is associated with convictions for violent crimes, and studied the associated risk and protective factors. We analyzed data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a total population-based record-linkage cohort in Stockholm County comprising 295,734 individuals followed up between 15 and 27 years of age. Of these, 5,739 individuals had a recorded autism diagnosis. The main outcome measure was a conviction for violent crimes identified using the Swedish National Crime Register. Individuals with autism, particularly those without intellectual disability, initially appeared to have a higher risk of violent offending (adjusted relative risk = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.23-1.58). However, these associations markedly attenuated after co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or conduct disorder were taken into account (adjusted relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.97). Among individuals with autism, male sex and psychiatric conditions were the strongest predictors of violent criminality, along with parental criminal and psychiatric history and socioeconomic characteristics. There was some evidence that a delayed diagnosis of autism was associated with a greater risk of violent crime. Better school performance and intellectual disability appeared to be protective. An initially observed association between autism and violent crimes at a population level was explained by comorbidity with ADHD and conduct disorder. Better understanding and management of comorbid psychopathology in autism may potentially help preventive action against offending behaviors in people with autism. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    Although the older adults have been studied as victims of violence, geriatric patients can display violent behavior. The purpose of the present review was to explore the phenomenon of criminal violations and violent acts in people with dementia. The authors used PubMed to search the MEDLINE database and other sources for original research and review articles on criminal and violent manifestation in demented patients combining the terms "criminal manifestation," "violence, aggressive behavior," "homicide," "suicide" and "homicide-suicide" together with "dementia". Possible biomarkers of violence are considered. The present review highlights the risk factors for violence in patients suffering from dementia, and reviews the literature about criminal violations and homicidal/suicidal behavior in this patient group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 541-549. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. VIM: A Platform for Violent Intent Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Schryver, Jack C.; Whitney, Paul D.; Augustenborg, Elsa C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-03-31

    Radical and contentious political/religious activism may or may not evolve into violent behavior depending on contextual factors related to social, political, cultural and infrastructural conditions. Significant theoretical advances have been made in understanding these contextual factors and the import of their interrelations. However, there has been relative little progress in the development of processes and capabilities which leverage such theoretical advances to automate the anticipatory analysis of violent intent. In this paper, we describe a framework which implements such processes and capabilities, and discuss the implications of using the resulting system to assess the emergence of radicalization leading to violence.

  17. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2009-05-20

    Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; Pgenetic or early environmental) confounding of the

  18. Outcomes of inferior vena cava filter insertion in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism: A single center retrospective analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Jin; Kim, Jae Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Hyoung Ook [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yang Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the mid- and long-term outcomes of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion in patients with underlying deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism, based on a single center experience. A total of 166 IVC filter insertion procedures in 160 patients, between February 2004 and December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. Severity of deep vein thrombosis, indwelling time of the IVC filter, retrieval rate, and complication rate depending on the type of IVC filter were analyzed based on the patients' radiologic findings and medical records. IVC filter insertion procedures were successfully performed in all patients. Among the 99 attempts at filter retrieval, 91 trials succeeded (91.9%, 91/99) and 8 trials failed. Indwelling time of the IVC filter showed a positive correlation with failure of filter retrieval (p = 0.01). There was no procedure-related complication after all IVC filter insertion procedures. Eight delayed complications (5.0%, 8/160 patients with IVC filter insertion) were observed [caval thrombosis below the IVC filter (n = 7) and IVC penetration (n = 1)]. Günther Tulip filter was associated with a significant incidence of complication (p = 0.036). IVC filter insertion in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism can be regarded as a safe treatment modality with an acceptable complication rate.

  19. Outcomes of inferior vena cava filter insertion in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism: A single center retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Jin; Kim, Jae Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kang, Yang Jun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the mid- and long-term outcomes of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion in patients with underlying deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism, based on a single center experience. A total of 166 IVC filter insertion procedures in 160 patients, between February 2004 and December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. Severity of deep vein thrombosis, indwelling time of the IVC filter, retrieval rate, and complication rate depending on the type of IVC filter were analyzed based on the patients' radiologic findings and medical records. IVC filter insertion procedures were successfully performed in all patients. Among the 99 attempts at filter retrieval, 91 trials succeeded (91.9%, 91/99) and 8 trials failed. Indwelling time of the IVC filter showed a positive correlation with failure of filter retrieval (p = 0.01). There was no procedure-related complication after all IVC filter insertion procedures. Eight delayed complications (5.0%, 8/160 patients with IVC filter insertion) were observed [caval thrombosis below the IVC filter (n = 7) and IVC penetration (n = 1)]. Günther Tulip filter was associated with a significant incidence of complication (p = 0.036). IVC filter insertion in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism can be regarded as a safe treatment modality with an acceptable complication rate

  20. Disengagement from Ideologically-Based and Violent Organizations: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Windisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on disengagement from violent extremism is an emerging field of inquiry. As compared to the related field of radicalization, there have been fewer studies of disengagement. Further, little effort has been made to conduct a large scale, systematic review of what is currently known about disengagement from violent extremism. This type of meta-literature assessment can play an important role in terms of informing strategies and programs designed to facilitate exit. To help fill this gap, our project systematically examines the disengagement literature to determine the range and frequency of various exit factors identified in previous studies. We also rely on parallel literatures such as exit from street gangs, mainstream religious groups, cults, and nonviolent social movements to build a robust sample of studies that assess the extent to which group exit factors may generalize across different populations.

  1. [Violent computergames: distribution via and discussion on the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2005-11-01

    The spread and use of computer-games including (interactive) depictions of violence are considered a moral problem, particularly if played by children and youths. This essay expresses an opinion on H. Volper's (2004) demand of condemning certain contents by media ethics. At the same time, an overview on the spread and use of "violent games" by children and youths is offered. As a matter of fact, the share of these titles in the complete range must not be estimated too high, certain titles on the other hand are extremely wide-spread. Finally, Fritz's and Fehr's thesis of the cultural conflict "computer game" (2004) is discussed, demonstrated at the example of the discussion on the Internet, and on the basis of this thesis a mediating position between the two cultures including audience ethics (Funiok 1999) is presented.

  2. Knowledge and practice of junior and senior high school students regarding violent behaviors in Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Omidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the importance of anger, aggression, violence and other misbehaviours in schoolchildren education, the present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan province regarding violence, in order to figure out the required interventions for violence-reduction. Methods: In a survey during 2008-2009, 5500 junior and senior high school students of Isfahan province were assessed in a multistage sampling process to determine their level of knowledge about various types of violent behaviors, causes of violence, its consequences, and preventive behaviors. Validity and reliability of the data collection tool (questionnaire were assessed. Results: The study revealed that the mean scores of violent behaviors knowledge, knowledge of violent behavior outcomes, and knowledge of violence preventive behaviors, were 6.6 ± 2.1, 5.5 ± 1.9, and 4.7 ± 1.3, respectively. Sources of violent behaviors in 92% of urban students and 89% of rural students were personal reasons and family behaviors, and 85% of urban and 88% of rural students considered mass media and computer games blameworthy, and the differences were statistically significant in all cases (P < 0.0001. In terms of practice, overall, 69.7% of girls and 84.2% of boys had violent behaviors. Physical and verbal violence were 31.3% and 40.7%in girls, and 66% and 52.8% in boys, respectively (intersexes P values were P < 0.001 and P = 0.7 respectively, and intra-sex P value was P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Results showed that girls and city dwellers were more aware of recognizing violent behaviors, outcomes, and causes, compared with boys and villagers, and in terms of general practice, violence was observed among boys more than girls. Further complementary studies in this area seem required.

  3. Simulating Social Situations in Immersive Virtual Reality - A Study of Bystander Responses to Violent Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira i Pérez, A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to show how immersive virtual reality (IVR) can be used to study human responses to extreme emergencies in social situations. Participants interact realistically with animated virtual humans. We show this through experimental studies of bystander responses to a violent confrontation, and find that there are conditions under which people intervene to help virtual characters that are threatened. We go on to show that a reinforcement learning (RL) method can capture ...

  4. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  5. Media Violence And Violent Behaviour of Nigerian Youths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Media Violence And Violent Behaviour of Nigerian Youths: Intervention Strategies. ... linking frequent exposure to violent media in child hood with aggressive later in life. Characteristics of viewers, social environments and media content, were ...

  6. Surveillance for Violent Deaths - National Violent Death Reporting System, 17 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Bridget H; Fowler, Katherine A; Jack, Shane P D; Betz, Carter J; Blair, Janet M

    2016-08-19

    In 2013, more than 57,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 17 U.S. states for 2013. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. 2013. NVDRS collects data from participating states regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e.g., child fatality review team data, supplemental homicide reports, hospital data, and crime laboratory data). This report includes data from 17 states that collected statewide data for 2013 (Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, North Carolina, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia, and Wisconsin). NVDRS collates documents for each death and links deaths that are related (e.g., multiple homicides, a homicide followed by a suicide, or multiple suicides) from a single incident. For 2013, a total of 18,765 fatal incidents involving 19,251 deaths were captured by NVDRS in the 17 states included in this report. The majority (66.2%) of deaths were suicides, followed by homicides (23.2%), deaths of undetermined intent (8.8%), deaths involving legal intervention (1.2%) (i.e., deaths caused by law enforcement and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force, excluding legal executions), and unintentional firearm deaths (Revision [ICD-10] and does not denote the lawfulness or legality of the circumstances surrounding a death caused by law enforcement.) Suicides occurred at higher rates among males, non-Hispanic whites, American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons aged 45-64 years, and males aged ≥75 years. Suicides were preceded primarily by a mental health, intimate partner, or physical

  7. Teaching Students about Violent Media Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.

    2018-01-01

    Although violent entertainment has existed for centuries, the media have made it more accessible than ever before. In modern societies, people are immersed in media, like fish in water. Using hand-held devices, people can consume media just about anywhere they want, anytime they want. Moreover, violence is a common theme in the media, and research…

  8. Violent Video Games Recruit American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, William

    2006-01-01

    An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…

  9. The relation between sleep and violent aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Good sleep is important for our emotional stability and aggression control. Although most people do not become violent after a period of poor sleep, this may be different for certain vulnerable individuals. Forensic psychiatric patients may represent a group of such individuals. We studied patients

  10. Violent video games affecting our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J A; Lee, J E

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is associated with increased aggression and its sequelae. Unfortunately, the majority of entertainment video games contain violence. Moreover, children of both genders prefer games with violent content. As there is no compulsory legislative standards to limit the type and amount of violence in video games, concerned adults must assume an oversight role.

  11. Individual Violent Overtopping Events: New Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayaratne, R.; Hunt-Raby, A.; Bullock, G. N.

    2009-01-01

    Wave overtopping is essentially a discrete process in which disastrous consequences can arise from the effect of one or two waves; few of the thousands of previous experiments have focused on the properties of individual events. The violent impacts of water waves on walls create velocities and pr...

  12. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  13. Teaching Peace: Alternatives to Violent Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, Dianne Miller; Velazquez, Michaela

    1995-01-01

    To help combat the effects of violence on children and improve the quality and nature of play, early childhood teachers can: define violence by helping children become aware of the issue, help children resolve their own conflicts, create a peace place in the classroom, intervene when violent play occurs, evaluate media and toys, and educate…

  14. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... goals of treatment typically focus on helping the child to: learn how to control his/her anger; express anger ... identification and intervention programs for violent youngsters Monitoring child's viewing of violence during their screen time including the Internet, tablets, smartphones, TV, videos, and movies. ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and ...

  15. Violent and Fatal Youth Trauma: Is There a Missed Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Madlinger, DO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidents and assaults (homicides are the leading causes of death among the youth of the United States, accounting for 53.3% of deaths among children aged 1 to19 years. Victim recidivism,defined as repeated visits to the emergency department (ED as a victim of violent trauma, is a significantly growing public health problem. As 5-year mortality rates for recidivism are as high as 20%,it is important to determine whether victims with a history of violent trauma are at increased risk for fatal outcome with their next trauma. We hypothesized that victims of violent trauma who have had 1 prior ED visit for violent trauma will have increased odds of fatal outcome.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients presenting with penetrating trauma to the ED from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2009. All patients between the ages of 15 to 25 years who presented to the ED for any penetrating trauma were included. Patients with prior presentations for penetrating trauma were compared to those patients who were first-time presenters to determine the odds ratio of fatal outcome.Results: Overall, 15,395 patients were treated for traumatic presentations. Of these, 1,044 met inclusion criteria. Demographically, 79.4% were Hispanic, 19.4% were African American, and 0.96% were Caucasian. The average age was 21 years, and 98% of the population was male. One hundred and forty-seven (14% had prior presentations, and 897 (86% did not. Forty of the 147 patients (27%with prior presentations had a fatal outcome as compared to 29 patients of the 868 (3% without prior presentations, with odds ratio of 10.8 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–18.1; Pearson v2, P , 0.001. The 5-year mortality rate for those patients with fatal outcomes was calculated at 16.5%.Conclusion: Patients who had prior ED visits for penetrating trauma were at greater risk for fatal outcomes compared to those with no prior visits. Therefore, trauma-related ED visits might

  16. Exposure to Violent Video Games Increases Automatic Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…

  17. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we

  18. [The significance of the results of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities for the prevention of the traffic road accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Grigoryan, V G; Gusarov, A A; Kucheryavets, Yu O

    The disabling injuries inflicted during road traffic accidents (RTA) create a serious challenge for the public health services and are at the same time a major socio-economic problem in the majority of the countries throughout the world. The injuries to the lower extremities of the pedestrians make up the largest fraction of the total number of the non-lethal RTA injuries. Most of them are responsible for the considerable deterioration of the quality of life for the participants in the accidents during the subsequent period. The objective of the present study was to summarize the currently available results of experimental testing of the biomechanical models of the pedestrians' lower extremities in the framework of the program for the prevention of the road traffic accidents as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). The European Enhanced Safety Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has developed a series of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities simulating the vehicle bumper-pedestrian impact. The models are intended for the assessment of the risk of the tibia fractures and the injuries to the knee joint ligaments. The experts of EEVC proposed the biomechanical criteria for the acceleration of the knee and talocrural parts of the lower limbs as well as for the shear displacement of the knee and knee-bending angle. The engineering solution of this problem is based on numerous innovation proposals being implemented in the machine-building industry with the purpose of reducing the stiffness of structural elements of the bumper and other front components of a modern vehicle designed to protect the pedestrians from severe injuries that can be inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The activities of the public health authorities (in the first place, bureaus of forensic medical expertise and analogous facilities) have a direct bearing on the solution of the problem of control of road traffic injuries because they are possessed of

  19. Gendered Pathways: Violent Childhood Maltreatment, Sex Exchange, and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Murphy, Brett; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-20

    Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder. We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 304 (130 women) adults with recent histories of violence and/or drug use, who completed a substance use diagnostic interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and a sex exchange questionnaire. First, structural equation modeling revealed that childhood sexual and physical abuse were related to increased drug engagement in women and men, respectively, above the influence of early childhood contextual variables (e.g., neighborhood, family) and age. Second, sexual abuse was related to sex exchange, which in turn was related to drug use symptoms in women but not men. These data provide empirical support for distinct trauma-related pathways to drug use problems in men and women, which has implications for gendered explanations and prevention approaches.

  20. Association of Cumulative Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Violent Offending With Suicide in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2018-02-01

    with a history of CA who also engage in violent offending in adolescence have a high risk of suicide. Interventions to prevent externalizing behavior during childhood and increased support to youths with delinquent behavior may have the potential to prevent suicide related to CA.

  1. Violent behavior among middle school children: The role of gender and personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Milan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of personality traits and gender in violent interaction among middle school children (11-15 age range. The aim of the research presented here was to determine the contribution of personality traits and gender to various aspects of violent interaction, i.e. predisposition towards and exposure to peer violence. The sample consisted of 344 students from 5th to 8th grade, the majority of whom were girls (60.8%. The instruments used in the research were a questionnaire designed to assess violent behavior in primary school children (PRONA and the Big Five Plus Two inventory (the BF + 2 for children, designed to assess seven basic personality traits in primary school children. The results of a multivariate analysis of covariance suggest that boys tend to perpetrate and be exposed to violent behaviour more than girls, and also that certain personality traits contribute to the manifestation of these constructs. Exposure to violence is determined by low Extraversion, as well as higher levels of Neuroticism and Negative Valence. The traits that contribute most significantly to the tendency towards abusive behaviour are high levels of Aggression and Negative Valence as well as lower levels of Positive Valence. The most effective means of abuse prevention among middle school children is the setting up of prevention programs along with the detection of specific vulnerable groups of students, and the adjustment of these programs to students' personological traits.

  2. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  3. Environmental and nursing-staff factors contributing to aggressive and violent behaviour of patients in mental health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Traut, Annalene; Julie, Hester

    2014-08-14

    Aggressive and violent behaviour of inpatients in mental health facilities disrupts the therapeutic alliance and hampers treatment. The aim of the study was to describe patients' perceptions of the possible environmental and staff factors that might contribute to their aggressive and violent behaviour after admission to a mental health facility; and to propose strategies to prevent and manage such behaviour. A qualitative, phenomenological study was utilised, in which purposefully sampled inpatients were interviewed over a six-month period. Inpatients were invited to participate if they had been admitted for at least seven days and were in touch with reality. Forty inpatients in two mental health facilities in Cape Town participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews over a period of six months. Tesch's descriptive method of open coding formed the framework for the data analysis and presentation of the results. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with the principles of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability. Analysis of the data indicates two central categories in the factors contributing to patients' aggressive and violent behaviour, namely, environmental factors and the attitude and behaviour of staff. From the perspective of the inpatients included in this study, aggressive and violent episodes are common and require intervention. Specific strategies for preventing such behaviour are proposed and it is recommended that these strategies be incorporated into the in-service training programmes of the staff of mental health facilities. These strategies could prevent, or reduce, aggressive and violent behaviour in in-patient facilities.

  4. Violent extremist group ecologies under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, Manuel; Torres, Manuel R; Huerta, Ramon; Fowler, James H

    2013-01-01

    Violent extremist groups are currently making intensive use of Internet fora for recruitment to terrorism. These fora are under constant scrutiny by security agencies, private vigilante groups, and hackers, who sometimes shut them down with cybernetic attacks. However, there is a lack of experimental and formal understanding of the recruitment dynamics of online extremist fora and the effect of strategies to control them. Here, we utilize data on ten extremist fora that we collected for four years to develop a data-driven mathematical model that is the first attempt to measure whether (and how) these external attacks induce extremist fora to self-regulate. The results suggest that an increase in the number of groups targeted for attack causes an exponential increase in the cost of enforcement and an exponential decrease in its effectiveness. Thus, a policy to occasionally attack large groups can be very efficient for limiting violent output from these fora.

  5. Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinic, Mayra; Das Gupta, Monica; Casabonne, Ursula; Verwimp, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Violent conflict, a pervasive feature of the recent global landscape, has lasting impacts on human capital, and these impacts are seldom gender neutral. Death and destruction alter the structure and dynamics of households, including their demographic profiles and traditional gender roles. To date, attention to the gender impacts of conflict has focused almost exclusively on sexual and gender-based violence. We show that a far wider set of gender issues must be considered to better document th...

  6. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  7. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy caused by violent motor tics in a child with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Da-Young; Kim, Seung-Ki; Chae, Jong-Hee; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with Tourette syndrome (TS) who developed progressive quadriparesis that was more severe in the upper extremities. He had experienced frequent and violent motor tics consisting of hyperflexion and hyperextension for years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a focal high-signal intensity cord lesion and adjacent cervical spondylotic changes. Initially, the patient was observed for several months because of diagnostic uncertainty; his neurological status had improved and later worsened again. Anterior cervical discectomy of C3-4 and fusion immediately followed by posterior fixation were performed. After surgery, the neck collar was applied for 6 months. His neurological signs and symptoms improved dramatically. TS with violent neck motion may cause cervical spondylotic myelopathy at an early age. The optimal management is still unclear and attempts to control tics should be paramount. Circumferential fusion with neck bracing represents a viable treatment option.

  8. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latalova K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Klara Latalova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1,2 Jan Prasko1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. Keywords: victimization, violence, severe mental illness, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  9. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness.

  10. Women's experiences of their violent behavior in an intimate partner relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of their violent behavior in a heterosexual partnership. The study followed the traditions of Husserlian descriptive phenomenology and the philosophy of existential phenomenology. Twenty-four volunteer Finnish women, aged 19 to 58 years, with a history of different manifestations of intimate partner violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data were analyzed by the method developed by Colaizzi. The findings revealed that some of the women who opposed all violence on ethical grounds did not label their behavior as violent; some others minimized or justified their violent behavior. The findings offer professional insight into women's violent behavior and call for a readjustment in approaches to work in the area. Prevention and early identification of IPV require knowledge of the various manifestations and individual meanings of violence. Helping methods should provide women with the opportunity to talk about their abusive behavior and to confront and address their feelings of guilt, disappointment, and shame.

  11. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trolling new media: violent extremist groups recruiting through social media

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the advent and subsequent growth of several new media technologies, violent extremist groups have incorporated social media into recruiting strategies. How are violent extremist groups using social media for recruiting? This thesis explores several new media technologies—websites, blogs, social media, mobile phones, and online gaming—to determine if violent extremist groups rely on social media for recruiting. By comparing the com...

  13. Peer Network Dynamics and the Amplification of Antisocial to Violent Behavior among Young Adolescents in Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao

    2018-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in peer network selection and influence associated with self-reported antisocial behavior (AB) and violent behavior (VB) over the course of middle school in a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents. Youth and families were randomly assigned to a school-based intervention focused on the prevention of…

  14. Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-02-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views.

  15. Values, Attitudes Toward Interpersonal Violence, and Interpersonal Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddig, Daniel; Davidov, Eldad

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of human values for the study of the motivational sources of interpersonal violent behavior was investigated in various fields of the social sciences. However, several past studies mixed up values with other dimensions like attitudes, norms, or beliefs, and only a few systematically assessed the effect of values on violent behavior relying on a value theory. Furthermore, in other studies, violence was often analyzed as a composite index of different forms of delinquent behavior rather than as violence per se . In the current study we address these gaps in the literature by building upon Schwartz' theory of basic human values. We use it to explain attitudes toward interpersonal violence and interpersonal violent behavior. We analyze data of young people ( n = 1,810) drawn from a German study in Duisburg, Germany, which assessed various types of self-reported violent behavior as well as values and attitudes toward violence. We test structural equation models in which we explain interpersonal violent behavior with basic human values, and where attitudes toward interpersonal violent behavior mediate this relation. Results show that self-transcendence and conservation values are associated negatively and power and stimulation values positively with interpersonal violent behavior. In addition, attitudes operate as a partial mediator for the former and as a full mediator for the latter in the relation between values and violent behavior. Despite a dominant association between attitudes and behavior, values themselves can significantly contribute to the explanation of violent behavior.

  16. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  17. Values, Attitudes Toward Interpersonal Violence, and Interpersonal Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seddig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of human values for the study of the motivational sources of interpersonal violent behavior was investigated in various fields of the social sciences. However, several past studies mixed up values with other dimensions like attitudes, norms, or beliefs, and only a few systematically assessed the effect of values on violent behavior relying on a value theory. Furthermore, in other studies, violence was often analyzed as a composite index of different forms of delinquent behavior rather than as violence per se. In the current study we address these gaps in the literature by building upon Schwartz’ theory of basic human values. We use it to explain attitudes toward interpersonal violence and interpersonal violent behavior. We analyze data of young people (n = 1,810 drawn from a German study in Duisburg, Germany, which assessed various types of self-reported violent behavior as well as values and attitudes toward violence. We test structural equation models in which we explain interpersonal violent behavior with basic human values, and where attitudes toward interpersonal violent behavior mediate this relation. Results show that self-transcendence and conservation values are associated negatively and power and stimulation values positively with interpersonal violent behavior. In addition, attitudes operate as a partial mediator for the former and as a full mediator for the latter in the relation between values and violent behavior. Despite a dominant association between attitudes and behavior, values themselves can significantly contribute to the explanation of violent behavior.

  18. Homegrown violent extremists: A seemingly undetectable threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Justin

    2017-04-01

    With today’s unlimited and instantaneous communication, it is easy for a United States citizen to easily connect with anyone in the world. There are many positives to this; however, the unintended consequences include vulnerable people being influenced by radical ideologies. This is evident with the increase in homegrown violent extremists (HVE).The challenge for law enforcement is how to work with constitutional constraints that require a criminal predicate to be present in order to allow intelligence teams to continue collecting information in a permanent file.

  19. Mental Disorders and Charges of Violent Offences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosden, Niels Patrick; Kramp, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2006-01-01

    This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses. There was no stati......This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses....... There was no statistically significant association between the occurrence of a violent charge and mental disorders in general (OR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)[0.24; 4.38]). An association was found between violent charge and non-danish ethnicity (OR = 7.58, [1.60; 35.92]). Previously reported association between...... violence and mental disorder among adults were not replicated in this male adolescent remand population. A developmental hypothesis is proposed....

  20. Reducing violent injuries: priorities for pediatrician advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, J C; Christoffel, K K

    1994-10-01

    A basic framework for developing an advocacy plan must systematically break down the large task of policy development implementation into manageable components. The basic framework described in detail in this paper includes three steps: Setting policy objectives by narrowing the scope of policy, by reviewing policy options, and by examining options against selected criteria. Developing strategies for educating the public and for approaching legislative/regulatory bodies. Evaluating the effectiveness of the advocacy action plan as a process and as an agent for change. To illustrate the variety of ways in which pediatricians can be involved in the policy process to reduce violent injuries among children and adolescents, we apply this systematic approach to three priority areas. Prohibiting the use of corporal punishment in schools is intended to curb the institutionalized legitimacy of violence that has been associated with future use of violence. Efforts to remove handguns from the environments of children and adolescents are aimed at reducing the numbers of firearm injuries inflicted upon and by minors. Comprehensive treatment of adolescent victims of assault is intended to decrease the reoccurrence of violent injuries.

  1. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms, Academic Achievement, and Violent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2015-12-01

    Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. On the statistical properties and tail risk of violent conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Pasquale; Taleb, Nassim Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    We examine statistical pictures of violent conflicts over the last 2000 years, providing techniques for dealing with the unreliability of historical data. We make use of a novel approach to deal with fat-tailed random variables with a remote but nonetheless finite upper bound, by defining a corresponding unbounded dual distribution (given that potential war casualties are bounded by the world population). This approach can also be applied to other fields of science where power laws play a role in modeling, like geology, hydrology, statistical physics and finance. We apply methods from extreme value theory on the dual distribution and derive its tail properties. The dual method allows us to calculate the real tail mean of war casualties, which proves to be considerably larger than the corresponding sample mean for large thresholds, meaning severe underestimation of the tail risks of conflicts from naive observation. We analyze the robustness of our results to errors in historical reports. We study inter-arrival times between tail events and find that no particular trend can be asserted. All the statistical pictures obtained are at variance with the prevailing claims about ;long peace;, namely that violence has been declining over time.

  3. Why Prevention? Why Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

  4. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; Klaassen, M.G.; Nierop, T.; Van der Wusten, H.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  5. Environmental and nursing-staff factors contributing to aggressive and violent behaviour of patients in mental health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe patients’ perceptions of the possible environmental and staff factors that might contribute to their aggressive and violent behaviour after admission to a mental health facility; and to propose strategies to prevent and manage such behaviour. Research design: A qualitative, phenomenological study was utilised, in which purposefully sampled inpatients were interviewed over a six-month period. Inpatients were invited to participate if they had been admitted for at least seven days and were in touch with reality. Method: Forty inpatients in two mental health facilities in Cape Town participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews over a period of six months. Tesch’s descriptive method of open coding formed the framework for the data analysis and presentation of the results. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with the principles of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability. Results: Analysis of the data indicates two central categories in the factors contributing to patients’ aggressive and violent behaviour, namely, environmental factors and the attitude and behaviour of staff. Conclusion: From the perspective of the inpatients included in this study, aggressive and violent episodes are common and require intervention. Specific strategies for preventing such behaviour are proposed and it is recommended that these strategies be incorporated into the in-service training programmes of the staff of mental health facilities. These strategies could prevent, or reduce, aggressive and violent behaviour in in-patient facilities.

  6. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  7. Playing violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk

    2015-01-01

    This article examines current research linking exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence. Data from questionnaire, behavioral, and psychophysiologic research are reviewed to determine if exposure to violent video games is a risk factor for desensitization to violence. Real-world implications of desensitization are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comfortably numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Anderson, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to violent media reduces aid offered to people in pain. In Study 1, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. After game play, while completing a lengthy questionnaire, they heard a loud fight, in which one person was injured,

  9. Factors underlying male and female use of violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less

  10. An Update on the Effects of Playing Violent Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of existing research on the effects of exposure to violent video games. An updated meta-analysis reveals that exposure to violent video games is significantly linked to increases in aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, and cardiovascular arousal, and to decreases in helping…

  11. Does Marijuana Use Lead to Aggression and Violent Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…

  12. The “Moral Disengagement in Violent Videogames” model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.

    2017-01-01

    How do violent videogames, as entertainment products, communicate violence in the context of warfare and in other settings? Also, why do users enjoy virtual violence? The present article introduces the Moral Disengagement in Violent Videogames model to tackle these important questions. The model

  13. Water Resource Management Mechanisms for Intrastate Violent Conflict Resolution: the Capacity Gap and What To Do About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, M.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Violent conflict and issues surrounding available water resources are both global problems and are connected. Violent conflict is increasingly intrastate in nature and coupled with increased hydrological variability as a function of climate change, there will be increased pressures on water resource use. The majority of mechanisms designed to secure water resources are often based on the presence of a governance framework or another type of institutional capacity, such as offered through a supra- or sub-national organization like the United Nations or a river basin organization. However, institutional frameworks are not present or loose functionality during violent conflict. Therefore, it will likely be extremely difficult to secure water resources for a significant proportion of populations in Fragile and Conflict Affected States. However, the capacity in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations for the appropriate interventions to address this problem is reduced by an increasing reluctance to participate in interventionist operations following a decade of expeditionary warfighting mainly in Iraq and Afghanistan, and related defence cuts. Therefore, future interventions in violent conflict and securing water resources may be more indirect in nature. This paper assesses the state of understanding key areas in the present literature and highlights the gap of securing water resources during violent conflict in the absence of institutional capacity. There is a need to close this gap as a matter of urgency by formulating frameworks to assess the lack of institutional oversight / framework for water resources in areas where violent conflict is prevalent; developing inclusive resource management platforms through transparency and reconciliation mechanisms; and developing endogenous confidence-building measures and evaluate how these may be encouraged by exogenous initiatives including those facilitated by the international community. This effort

  14. Theorizing the Process of Leaving a Violent Marriage and Getting a Divorce in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikparvar, Fatemeh; Stith, Sandra; Myers-Bowman, Karen; Akbarzadeh, Mojgan; Daneshpour, Manijeh

    2017-12-01

    This study utilized qualitative methods to develop a theory regarding the process used by Tehranian women who leave violent marriages to get a divorce. Findings from semistructured, in-depth interviews with nine women in Tehran who left their abusive husbands suggested that there are six stages in this process: "denial," "using cognitive and internal strategies to save marriage," "using behavioral and external strategies to save marriage," "seeking power to end violence," "preparation to leave marriage," and "termination" stage. The implications of this study help therapists working with women in Tehran who are living in violent marriages and provide effective prevention and intervention services that are appropriately targeted to the specific needs of Iranian women.

  15. The roles of the health sector and health workers before, during and after violent conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Caecilie; Barbara, Joanna Santa; Arya, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Starting with a view of war as a significant population health problem, this article explores the roles of health workers in relation to violent conflict. Four different roles are identified, defined by goals and values--military, development, humanitarian and peace. In addition, four dimensions...... of health work are seen as cross-cutting factors influencing health work in violent conflict-- whether the health worker is an insider or outsider to the conflict, whether they are oriented to primary, secondary or tertiary prevention of the mortality and morbidity of war, whether they take an individual...... clinical or a population health approach, and whether they are oriented to policy and whole-sector change or not. This article explores the nature of these roles, the influence of these cross-cutting dimensions, the challenges of each role and finally commonalities and possibilities for cooperation between...

  16. Violent Video Games and Children’s Aggressive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Milani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature provides some evidence that the use of violent video games increases the risk for young people to develop aggressive cognitions and even behaviors. We aimed to verify whether exposure to violent video games is linked to problems of aggression in a sample of Italian children. Four questionnaires were administered to 346 children between 7 and 14 years of age, attending primary and secondary schools in Northern Italy. Variables measured were externalization, quality of interpersonal relationships, aggression, quality of coping strategies, and parental stress. Participants who preferred violent games showed higher scores for externalization and aggression. The use of violent video games and age were linked to higher levels of aggression, coping strategies, and the habitual video game weekly consumption of participants. Our data confirm the role of violent video games as risk factors for problems of aggressive behavior and of externalization in childhood and early adolescence.

  17. Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and violent criminality: a sibling control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all child and adolescent mental health services in Stockholm, we identified 3,391 children, born 1984-1994, with neurodevelopmental disorders, and compared their risk for subsequent violent criminality with matched controls. Individuals with ADHD or TDs were at elevated risk of committing violent crimes, no such association could be seen for ASDs or OCD. ADHD and TDs are risk factors for subsequent violent criminality, while ASDs and OCD are not associated with violent criminality.

  18. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, C.R.; Bartholow, B.D.; Kerr, G.T.; Bushman, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and

  19. Exposure to violent media: the effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Carnagey, Nicholas L; Eubanks, Janie

    2003-05-01

    Five experiments examined effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and hostile feelings. Experiments 1, 3, 4 and 5 demonstrated that college students who heard a violent song felt more hostile than those who heard a similar but nonviolent song. Experiments 2-5 demonstrated a similar increase in aggressive thoughts. These effects replicated across songs and song types (e.g., rock, humorous, nonhumorous). Experiments 3-5 also demonstrated that trait hostility was positively related to state hostility but did not moderate the song lyric effects. Discussion centers on the potential role of lyric content on aggression in short-term settings, relation to catharsis and other media violence domains, development of aggressive personality, differences between long-term and short-term effects, and possible mitigating factors.

  20. Countering Violent Extremism Policy in the United States: Are CVE Programs in America Effectively Mitigating the Threat of Homegrown Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Specifying the Types of Strain Most Likely to Lead to Crime and Delinquency ,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 38 (2001): 319, doi:10.1177... statistical support indicating that the variables of (perceived) anger, prejudice, and cultural isolation are important in understanding crime as...released additional Channel statistics indicating that 415 children aged 10 or under and 1,424 minors between the ages of 11 through 15 had been referred

  1. Have LEGO Products Become More Violent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartneck

    Full Text Available Although television, computer games and the Internet play an important role in the lives of children they still also play with physical toys, such as dolls, cars and LEGO bricks. The LEGO company has become the world's largest toy manufacturer. Our study investigates if the LEGO company's products have become more violent over time. First, we analyzed the frequency of weapon bricks in LEGO sets. Their use has significantly increased. Second, we empirically investigated the perceived violence in the LEGO product catalogs from the years 1978-2014. Our results show that the violence of the depicted products has increased significantly over time. The LEGO Company's products are not as innocent as they used to be.

  2. Have LEGO Products Become More Violent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Ser, Qi; Moltchanova, Elena; Smithies, James; Harrington, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Although television, computer games and the Internet play an important role in the lives of children they still also play with physical toys, such as dolls, cars and LEGO bricks. The LEGO company has become the world’s largest toy manufacturer. Our study investigates if the LEGO company’s products have become more violent over time. First, we analyzed the frequency of weapon bricks in LEGO sets. Their use has significantly increased. Second, we empirically investigated the perceived violence in the LEGO product catalogs from the years 1978–2014. Our results show that the violence of the depicted products has increased significantly over time. The LEGO Company’s products are not as innocent as they used to be. PMID:27203424

  3. Have LEGO Products Become More Violent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartneck, Christoph; Min Ser, Qi; Moltchanova, Elena; Smithies, James; Harrington, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Although television, computer games and the Internet play an important role in the lives of children they still also play with physical toys, such as dolls, cars and LEGO bricks. The LEGO company has become the world's largest toy manufacturer. Our study investigates if the LEGO company's products have become more violent over time. First, we analyzed the frequency of weapon bricks in LEGO sets. Their use has significantly increased. Second, we empirically investigated the perceived violence in the LEGO product catalogs from the years 1978-2014. Our results show that the violence of the depicted products has increased significantly over time. The LEGO Company's products are not as innocent as they used to be.

  4. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION, CORONARY HEART DISEASE, AND ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION OF LOWER EXTREMITY ARTERIES IN THE SECONDARY PREVENTION OF COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karlov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic lesion of lower extremity arteries frequently complicates the long-term course of hypertension and it is generally associated with coronary heart disease. Our study has attempted to evaluate the impact of combination antihypertensive therapy involving amlodipine, bisoprolol, and lisinopril on quality of life in this category of patients.

  5. [Management of agitated, violent or psychotic patients in the emergency department: an overdue protocol for an increasing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Busselo, M T; Aragó Domingo, J; Nuño Ballesteros, A; Loño Capote, J; Ochando Perales, G

    2005-12-01

    Patients with extreme agitation, delirium, violent behavior or acute psychosis are frequently evaluated in the emergency departments of general hospitals. However, the traditional infrequency of this type of situation in pediatric emergency services can lead to a certain lack of foresight and efficiency in the initial management of these patients. Because of the current known increase of psychosocial disorders in pediatric emergencies, new pharmacological treatments for juvenile psychotic processes, and particularly the lack of compliance with these treatments, as well as the earlier consumption of ever more varied illicit drugs among young people, the frequency and diversity of this kind of disorder is on the increase. The treatment of agitation, aggression and violence begins with successful management of the acute episode, followed by strategies designed to reduce the intensity and frequency of subsequent episodes. The key to safety is early intervention to prevent progression from agitation to aggression and violence. Consequently, urgent measures designed to inhibit agitation should be adopted without delay by the staff initially dealing with the patient, usually in the emergency unit. Patients with psychomotor agitation disorder (PMAD) may require emergency physical and/or chemical restraints for their own safety and that of the healthcare provider in order to prevent harmful clinical sequelae and to expedite medical evaluation to determine the cause. However, the risks of restraint measures must be weighed against the benefits in each case. This review aims to present the emergency measures to be taken in children with PMAD. The distinct etiological situations and criteria for the choice of drugs for chemical restraint in each situation, as well as the complications associated with certain drugs, are discussed. It is advisable, therefore, that health professionals become familiar with the distinct pharmacological options.

  6. The Open Sore of Football: Aggressive Violent Behavior and Hooliganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumusgul Osman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggression and violence have been a customary part of life that mankind has had to live with from the beginning of time; it has been accepted by society even though it expresses endless negativity. Aggression and violence can find a place in sports events and football games because of the social problems of the audience watching the competitions or games, which sometimes fall into the category of hooliganism. Turkey is one of the countries that should consider this problem to be a serious social problem. Even during 2014 and 2015, a relatively short period of time, there were significant hazardous acts committed by hooligans. In February 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Liverpool and Arsenal in England; in March 2014, a game between Trabzonspor and Fenerbahce was left half-finished because of violent acts in the stadium that caused players in the pitch to believe that they could not leave stadium alive, although they finally left after a few hours; in another incident in March 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Helsingborg and Djugarden in Sweden; in November 2014, one supporter was killed and 14 supporters were injured before the game between Atletico Madrid and Deportivo in Spain. These are all examples of aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football. This paper aims to discuss aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football, especially in recent years, and investigate what can be done to prevent these acts from occurring again in the future by examining them in hindsight.

  7. An update on the effects of playing violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A

    2004-02-01

    This article presents a brief overview of existing research on the effects of exposure to violent video games. An updated meta-analysis reveals that exposure to violent video games is significantly linked to increases in aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, and cardiovascular arousal, and to decreases in helping behaviour. Experimental studies reveal this linkage to be causal. Correlational studies reveal a linkage to serious, real-world types of aggression. Methodologically weaker studies yielded smaller effect sizes than methodologically stronger studies, suggesting that previous meta-analytic studies of violent video games underestimate the true magnitude of observed deleterious effects on behaviour, cognition, and affect.

  8. Psychiatric Nurses' Attitudes Towards Violent Behaviour: A Brazilian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maraína Gomes Pires Fernandes; de Vargas, Divane

    2018-02-13

    This study examines nurses' attitudes towards violent behaviour and the management of aggressiveness. A convenience sample of 185 nurses working in psychiatric urgent care and emergency services in Brazil responded to the MAVAS-BR. The results show that nurses' attitudes are more reflective of the external and situational models of violent behaviour and the use of control methods to manage aggressiveness. The mapping of this phenomenon using the same tools in a different context from those traditionally studied while observing similar results suggests a pattern of attitudes towards violent behaviour and the management of aggressiveness among nurses around the world.

  9. Firearm Ownership and Violent Crime in the U.S.: An Ecologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Lee, Lois K; Hemenway, David; Mannix, Rebekah; Fleegler, Eric W

    2015-08-01

    Although some view the ownership of firearms as a deterrent to crime, the relationship between population-level firearm ownership rates and violent criminal perpetration is unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the association between state-level firearm ownership and violent crime. State-level rates of household firearm ownership and annual rates of criminal acts from 2001, 2002, and 2004 were analyzed in 2014. Firearm ownership rates were taken from a national survey and crime data were taken from the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports. Rates of criminal behavior were estimated as a function of household gun ownership using negative binomial regression models, controlling for several demographic factors. Higher levels of firearm ownership were associated with higher levels of firearm assault and firearm robbery. There was also a significant association between firearm ownership and firearm homicide, as well as overall homicide. The findings do not support the hypothesis that higher population firearm ownership rates reduce firearm-associated criminal perpetration. On the contrary, evidence shows that states with higher levels of firearm ownership have an increased risk for violent crimes perpetrated with a firearm. Public health stakeholders should consider the outcomes associated with private firearm ownership. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting non-familial major physical violent crime perpetration in the US Army from administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, A J; Monahan, J; Street, A E; Heeringa, S G; Hill, E D; Petukhova, M; Reis, B Y; Sampson, N A; Bliese, P; Schoenbaum, M; Stein, M B; Ursano, R J; Kessler, R C

    2016-01-01

    Although interventions exist to reduce violent crime, optimal implementation requires accurate targeting. We report the results of an attempt to develop an actuarial model using machine learning methods to predict future violent crimes among US Army soldiers. A consolidated administrative database for all 975 057 soldiers in the US Army in 2004-2009 was created in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Of these soldiers, 5771 committed a first founded major physical violent crime (murder-manslaughter, kidnapping, aggravated arson, aggravated assault, robbery) over that time period. Temporally prior administrative records measuring socio-demographic, Army career, criminal justice, medical/pharmacy, and contextual variables were used to build an actuarial model for these crimes separately among men and women using machine learning methods (cross-validated stepwise regression, random forests, penalized regressions). The model was then validated in an independent 2011-2013 sample. Key predictors were indicators of disadvantaged social/socioeconomic status, early career stage, prior crime, and mental disorder treatment. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.80-0.82 in 2004-2009 and 0.77 in the 2011-2013 validation sample. Of all administratively recorded crimes, 36.2-33.1% (male-female) were committed by the 5% of soldiers having the highest predicted risk in 2004-2009 and an even higher proportion (50.5%) in the 2011-2013 validation sample. Although these results suggest that the models could be used to target soldiers at high risk of violent crime perpetration for preventive interventions, final implementation decisions would require further validation and weighing of predicted effectiveness against intervention costs and competing risks.

  11. ANOTHER "LETHAL TRIAD"-RISK FACTORS FOR VIOLENT INJURY AND LONG-TERM MORTALITY AMONG ADULT VICTIMS OF VIOLENT INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laytin, Adam D; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia; Juillard, Catherine J; Dicker, Rochelle A

    2018-04-14

    Mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty are risk factors for violent injury, and violent injury is a risk factor for early mortality that can be attenuated through hospital-based violence intervention programs. Most of these programs focus on victims under the age of 30 years. Little is known about risk factors or long-term mortality among older victims of violent injury. To explore the prevalence of risk factors for violent injury among younger (age < 30 years) and older (age 30 ≥ years) victims of violent injury, to determine the long-term mortality rates in these age groups, and to explore the association between risk factors for violent injury and long-term mortality. Adults with violent injuries were enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Demographic and injury data were recorded on enrollment. Ten-year mortality rates were measured. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to compare older and younger subjects. Among 541 subjects, 70% were over age 30. The overall 10-year mortality rate was 15%, and was much higher than in the age-matched general population in both age groups. Risk factors for violent injury including mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty were prevalent, especially among older subjects, and were each independently associated with increased risk of long-term mortality. Mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty constitute a "lethal triad" that is associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality among victims of violent injury, including both younger adults and those over age 30 years. Both groups may benefit from targeted risk-reduction efforts. Emergency department visits offer an invaluable opportunity to engage these vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between elevated blood lead levels and violent behavior during late adolescence: The South African Birth to Twenty Plus cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomo, Palesa; Mathee, Angela; Naicker, Nisha; Galpin, Jacky; Richter, Linda M; Norris, Shane A

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the adverse neuro-behavioral health effects of lead exposure among children, in particular. However, there is lack evidence in this regard from developing countries. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) during early adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. Our study sample from the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg, South Africa included 1332 study participants (684 females). BLLs were measured using blood samples collected at age 13years. Violent behavior was evaluated using data collected at ages 15 to 16years using the Youth Self Report questionnaire. First, bivariate analysis was used to examine data for an association between lead exposure in early adolescence and violent behavior items during late adolescence. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction and six violent behavior components were derived. Data were further analyzed for an association between BLLs at age 13years and violent behavior using PCA derived components; to determine the specific type(s) of violent behavior associated with lead exposure. Median whole BLLs were 5.6μg/dL (plead exposure (plead exposure. They highlight the urgent need for preventive measures against lead exposure among children in low or middle income countries such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Original Paper Experience and Perpetration of Violent Behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... physical, sexual and psychological violence among males were 75.3%, 44.9% and 13.3% respectively. ... have primary socialising influence for children and adolescents ... violent behaviors include whether “someone said.

  14. Promoting Non-violent Masculine Identities in El Salvador and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... conditions under which non-violent masculine role models and identities can emerge. Focusing on young men from vulnerable urban communities in both countries ... IDRC will partner with the Nicaraguan organization Fundación Puntos de ...

  15. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K

    2016-08-31

    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Violent Adolescent Planet Caught Infrared Handed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, D.; Gaidos, E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view of planet formation depicts accumulation of progressively larger objects, culminating in accretionary impacts between Moon- to Mars-sized protoplanets. Cosmochemists have found evidence in chondritic meteorites for such violent events, and the Moon is thought to have involved a huge impact between a Mars-sized object and the still-growing proto-Earth. Now we may have evidence for a large impact during planet formation around another star. Carey Lisse (Applied Physics Lab of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore) and colleagues from the Space Telescope Science Institute (Baltimore), the University of Cambridge (UK), the Open University (Milton Keyes, UK), the University of Georgia (Athens, GA), Jet Propulsion Lab (Pasadena, CA), and the University of Rochester (New York) analyzed infrared spectra obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. They found a prominent peak in the spectrum at 9.3 micrometers, and two smaller ones at slightly lower and higher wavelengths. These peaks are consistent with the presence of SiO gas, a product expected to be produced by a highly energetic impact. The spectral measurements also allowed Lisse and his colleagues to estimate the size of the dust and they found that there is an abundance of micrometer-sized dust grains. This argues for a fresh source of fine material during the past 0.1 million years. That source may have been an impact between two protoplanets surrounding this young star.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Violent Experiences Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan R; Russell, Tiffany D

    2017-05-01

    The Violent Experiences Questionnaire-Revised (VEQ-R) is a brief retrospective self-report inventory which provides estimates of annual frequencies of childhood physical abuse, sibling physical abuse, exposure to parental violence, peer bullying, and corporal punishment as they were experienced from ages 5 to 16. The VEQ-R indices rely on a frequency metric that estimates the number of days on average per year a specified class of behavior occurred over a 12year retrospective period. All scores range from a frequency of 0 to a high of 104. Scale normative data was generated from both a college (N=1266) and national (N=1290) sample to expand the research applicability of this relatively new inventory. Subscales were added to estimate the frequency of victimization during childhood, the pre-teen years, and adolescence. Four "hostility" component indices were derived from perpetrator source (parent, sibling, peer, or domestic). Thresholds were established to for High, Moderate, Low, and No Risk classifications. Subscales dimensions were found to have both adequate internal and temporal consistency. Evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity was generated using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale-Short-Form © , LONGSCAN Physical Abuse Self-Report scale, and Physical Punishment scale of the Assessing Environments III inventory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Violent Video Games and Children’s Aggressive Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Milani; Elena Camisasca; Simona C. S. Caravita; Chiara Ionio; Sarah Miragoli; Paola Di Blasio

    2015-01-01

    The literature provides some evidence that the use of violent video games increases the risk for young people to develop aggressive cognitions and even behaviors. We aimed to verify whether exposure to violent video games is linked to problems of aggression in a sample of Italian children. Four questionnaires were administered to 346 children between 7 and 14 years of age, attending primary and secondary schools in Nor...

  19. Factors underlying male and female use of violent video games

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less guilt from engaging in virtual violence than females. This may be because males are less empathetic, tend to morally justify physical violence more and have a greater need for sensation and aggression ...

  20. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighbor...

  1. Violent Fantasies in Young Men With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Dangerous or Miserable Misfits? Duty to Protect Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mark T; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Predictability of dangerousness in association with mental disorders remains elusive, outside of a few relatively well-established risk factors for the prognostication of violence, such as male sex, the presence of a psychotic disorder, and comorbid substance abuse. In clinical practice, inquiry into the presence of aggressive or violent ideation, in the form of ideas of homicide or suicide, is part of a standard mental status examination. Nonetheless, fantasy life, when it concerns harm toward others, may not be as reliable an indicator of imminent danger as it may be in the case of self-harm. Five cases of young Italian men with Asperger syndrome and recurrent and extremely violent femicide fantasies are presented. While there is no direct correlation between autism spectrum conditions and violence, as other humans, persons with an autistic condition are capable of committing crimes, including homicide. All five had in common a number of characteristics and behaviors felt to be pathoplastic: All had been bullied, all had been romantically rejected, all were long-standing First Person Shooter (FPS) game players, and all were avid violent pornography consumers. The potential for an actual neurocognitive impact of violent video games, well documented in the literature, and its combination with personal life history and chronic habituation following long-standing violent pornography use is discussed in the context of social and emotional vulnerabilities. While aggressive fantasies cannot and should not be underestimated, in countries where duty to protect legislation does not exist, a clinical approach is imperative, as, incidentally, should be anywhere.

  2. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt , Christopher R.; Bartholow , Bruce D.; Kerr , Geoffrey T.; Bushman , Brad J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and nonviolent photos while their brain activity was measured, and then gave an ostensible opponent unpleasant noise blasts. Participants low in previous exposure to video game ...

  3. Extremely low penetrance of deafness associated with the mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutation in 16 Chinese families: Implication for early detection and prevention of deafness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Pu; Liu Xin; Han Dongyi; Qian Yaping; Huang Deliang; Yuan Huijun; Li Weiming; Yu Fei; Zhang Ruining; Lin Hongyan; He Yong; Yu Youjun; Sun Quanzhu; Qin Huaiyi; Li Ronghua; Zhang Xin; Kang Dongyang; Cao Juyang; Young Wieyen; Guan Minxin

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been found to be associated with sensorineural hearing loss. We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of 16 Chinese pedigrees (a total of 246 matrilineal relatives) with aminoglycoside-induced impairment. Clinical evaluation revealed the variable phenotype of hearing impairment including audiometric configuration in these subjects, although these subjects share some common features: being bilateral and sensorineural hearing impairment. Strikingly, these Chinese pedigrees exhibited extremely low penetrance of hearing loss, ranging from 4% to 18%, with an average of 8%. In particular, nineteen of 246 matrilineal relatives in these pedigrees had aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Mutational analysis of the mtDNA in these pedigrees showed the presence of homoplasmic 12S rRNA A1555G mutation, which has been associated with hearing impairment in many families worldwide. The extremely low penetrance of hearing loss in these Chinese families carrying the A1555G mutation strongly supports the notion that the A1555G mutation itself is not sufficient to produce the clinical phenotype. Children carrying the A1555G mutation are susceptible to the exposure of aminoglycosides, thereby inducing or worsening hearing impairment, as in the case of these Chinese families. Using those genetic and molecular approaches, we are able to diagnose whether children carry the ototoxic mtDNA mutation. Therefore, these data have been providing valuable information and technology to predict which individuals are at risk for ototoxicity, to improve the safety of aminoglycoside therapy, and eventually to decrease the incidence of deafness

  4. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; von Ballmoos, Peter; Frontera, Filippo; Bazzano, Angela; Christensen, Finn; Hernanz, Margarida; Wunderer, Cornelia

    2009-03-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reaching 600 cm2. It will be complemented by a single reflection multilayer coated mirror, extending the GRI energy band into the hard X-ray regime, down to ˜10 keV. The concentrated photons will be collected by a position sensitive pixelised CZT stack detector. We estimate continuum sensitivities of better than 10 - 7 ph cm - 2s - 1keV - 1 for a 100 ks exposure; the narrow line sensitivity will be better than 3 × 10 - 6 ph cm - 2s - 1 for the same integration time. As focusing instrument, GRI will have an angular resolution of better than 30 arcsec within a field of view of roughly 5 arcmin—an unprecedented achievement in the gamma-ray domain. Owing to the large focal length of 100 m of the lens and the mirror, the optics and detector will be placed on two separate spacecrafts flying in formation in a high elliptical orbit. R&D work to enable the lens focusing technology and to develop the required focal plane detector is currently underway, financed by ASI, CNES, ESA, and the Spanish Ministery of Education and Science. The GRI mission has been proposed as class M mission for ESAs Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. GRI will allow studies of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the universe.

  5. Patterns of urban violent injury: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal characteristics of violent injury in a large urban centre.Using a geomatics framework and geographic information systems software, we studied 4,587 ambulance dispatches and 10,693 emergency room admissions for violent injury occurrences among adults (aged 18-64 in Toronto, Canada, during 2002 and 2004, using population-based datasets. We created kernel density and choropleth maps for 24-hour periods and four-hour daily time periods and compared location of ambulance dispatches and patient residences with local land use and socioeconomic characteristics. We used multivariate regressions to control for confounding factors. We found the locations of violent injury and the residence locations of those injured were both closely related to each other and clearly clustered in certain parts of the city characterised by high numbers of bars, social housing units, and homeless shelters, as well as lower household incomes. The night and early morning showed a distinctive peak in injuries and a shift in the location of injuries to a "nightlife" district. The locational pattern of patient residences remained unchanged during those times.Our results demonstrate that there is a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern in violent injury reflected in the ambulance data. People injured in this urban centre more commonly live in areas of social deprivation. During the day, locations of injury and locations of residences are similar. However, later at night, the injury location of highest density shifts to a "nightlife" district, whereas the residence locations of those most at risk of injury do not change.

  6. Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer

  7. Characteristics of Elderly and Other Vulnerable Adult Victims of Homicide by a Caregiver: National Violent Death Reporting System--17 U.S. States, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Debra; Nunn, Kelly Cole

    2011-01-01

    Homicides of dependent elderly and nonelderly adults by their caregivers violate trust and have long-term consequences for families. A better understanding of the characteristics of homicide by caregivers may provide insights that can inform prevention efforts. Data collected in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) between 2003 and…

  8. Homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation and violent behavior in adolescents with social phobia in Metropolitan Lima, Perú.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Roxana; Morón, Giannina; Padilla, Martín; Alarcón, Renato D

    2014-09-01

    Social phobia and violent behavior are both important mental health problems among adolescent populations in different parts of the world. This study attempts to evaluate possible connections between social phobia, homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation, and subsequent violent behavior among adolescents living in the metropolitan area of Lima, Perú. A sample of 991 adolescents, part of the 2002 Epidemiological Study in Metropolitan Lima, conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health "Honorio Delgado-Hideyo Noguchi" (INSM "HD-HN") was studied. Social phobia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical assessment and the use of MINI, and suicidal ideation, homicidal/violent thoughts, and violent behavior were identified through the Mental Health Questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR) statistical analyses adjusted by logistic regression controlling for age and gender were performed. Variables associated with social phobia were homicidal thoughts in the last month (OR: 5.19, confidence interval [CI] at 95% 4.95-5.40), an impulse to hit known (OR: 1.56; 95% CI, 1.53-1.59) and unknown (OR: 3.98, 95% CI,3.89-4.07) persons, the wish to take revenge for a past offense (OR: 2.60, 95% CI 2.54-2.64), getting involved in fights with different kinds of weapons (OR: 1,78, 95% CI 1.70-1.87), suicidal ideation throughout lifetime (OR: 4.74, 95% CI 4.65-4.83), and life prevalence of suicidal attempt (OR: 5.39, 95% CI 5.23-5.55). Social phobia in adolescents of this Peruvian sample seems to be closely associated with both homicidal/violent thoughts, violent behavior, and suicidal ideation. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.

  10. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  11. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2010-12-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior.

  12. Violent entertainment pitched to adolescents: an analysis of PG-13 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Theresa; Jenkins, Lucille; Browne, Nickolas; Afifi, Abdelmonen A; Kraus, Jess

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the violence content of the top-grossing PG-13 films of 1999 and 2000 to determine what percentage of it had potential for negative effects on young viewers and what percentage of it had potential for prosocial or beneficial effects. A large, multidimensional analytic instrument was designed for systematic coding of each act of violence and its contextualization by features that have been shown either to enhance or to protect against harmful effects that are associated with violent media exposure: perpetrators and victims of violence, motivation for violence, presence of weapons, degree of realism, and consequences of violence. Descriptive statistics by genre were performed for each film. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to examine the association between the seriousness of violence and weapons, motive, and genre. In the sample of 77 PG-13 films, a total of 2251 violent actions were observed with roughly half (47%) of lethal magnitude. A total of 118 acts contained justified violence that were initiated by major characters and were extremely serious, and approximately two thirds of the films (49 [64%]) were rated PG-13 for reasons other than violence. Violence permeated nearly 90% of the films in our study. Although only a small subset of this content contained violence that was associated with negative effects, only 1 film contained violence that was associated with protective or beneficial effects.

  13. Recruitment and selection in violent extremist organizations: Exploring what industrial and organizational psychology might contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Samuel T; Shortland, Neil D; Crayne, Matthew P; Ligon, Gina S

    2017-04-01

    For many terrorist organizations, also known as violent extremist organizations (VEOs), their ability to perpetuate violence is often contingent upon successful recruitment and selection of organizational members. Although academic work on terrorist recruitment and selection has improved in recent years, researchers have generally focused more heavily on aspects of radicalization rather than organization attraction and entry. Moreover, a number of terrorism scholars have lamented the lack of conceptual frameworks with which to interpret and extend findings linked to recruitment and selection, specifically. In light of these difficulties, we propose that considering literature bases outside of terrorism may be useful in extending lines of inquiry and offering alternative ways of thinking about how terrorist organizations operate. Specifically, we draw on Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Human Resource Management, and Organizational Behavior literature bases to offer alternative and extended modes of thought on terrorist recruitment and selection. In doing so, we believe both terrorism and more traditional organizational scholars can make substantive and novel contributions to future investigations of increasingly pressing issues surrounding violent extremism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Association of Breakfast Intake with Psychiatric Distress and Violent Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Zeinab; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Zahedi, Hoda; Aram, Mahtab; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Shafiee, Gita; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-09-01

    To assess the relationship of breakfast intake with psychiatric distress and violent behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents. This national survey was conducted among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 y. They were selected by stratified multistage sampling method from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Breakfast intake, psychiatric distress, and violent behaviors were assessed by a questionnaire prepared based on the Global school-based student health survey of the World Health Organization. The data were analyzed by the STATA package. The participation rate was 90.6 %. The percentage of psychiatric distress among breakfast skippers, semi-skippers and non-skippers was 13.4-50.4, 10.1-41.9, and 7.0-33.3 % respectively. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among breakfast skippers than semi-skippers and non-skippers (P value breakfast skippers to non-skippers. The prevalence of violent behaviors was significantly higher among breakfast skippers than non-skippers. Students who skipped breakfast reported to be more victimized (29.2 % vs. 26.7 %, respectively, P = 0.04), bullied (21.0 % vs. 16.2 %, respectively, P breakfast were less likely to experience mental health disorders and violent behavior. Adhering to a regular and balanced diet, besides the awareness of parents on the importance of breakfast eating, may be an appropriate approach for preventing mental health problems and violent behavior in children and adolescents.

  15. Direct and vicarious violent victimization and juvenile delinquency: an application of general strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Cochran, John K; Mieczkowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Using a national probability sample of adolescents (12–17), this study applies general strain theory to how violent victimization, vicarious violent victimization, and dual violent victimization affect juvenile violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the mediating effect and moderating effect of depression, low social control, and delinquent peer association on the victimization–delinquency relationship is also examined. Based on SEM analyses and contingency tables, the results indicate that all three types of violent victimization have significant and positive direct effects on violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the expected mediating effects and moderating effects are also found. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  16. Should violent offenders be forced to undergo neurotechnological treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk; Kragh, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    ’s right to freedom of thought. We argue that this objection can be challenged. First, we present some specifications of what a right to freedom of thought might mean. We focus on the recently published views of Jared Craig, and Jan Cristopher Bublitz and Reinhard Merkel. Secondly, we argue that forcing...... violent offenders to undergo certain kinds of NT may not violate the offender’s right to freedom of thought as that right is specified by Craig, and Bublitz and Merkel. Thirdly, even if non-consensual NT is used in a way that does violate freedom of thought, such use can be difficult to abandon without...... inconsistency. For if one is not an abolitionist, and therefore accepts traditional state punishments for violent offenders like imprisonment – which, the evidence shows, often violate the offender’s right to freedom of thought – then, it is argued, one will have reason to accept that violent offenders can...

  17. Multimodal Classification of Violent Online Political Extremism Content with Graph Convolutional Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudinac, S.; Gornishka, I.; Worring, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a multimodal approach to categorizing user posts based on their discussion topic. To integrate heterogeneous information extracted from the posts, i.e. text, visual content and the information about user interactions with the online platform, we deploy graph convolutional

  18. In Harmony with the Population: Ethnomusicology as a Framework for Countering Violent Extremism in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    112 Morgan D. Jones, The Thinker’s Toolkit : 14 Powerful Techniques for Problem Solving, Revised (New York: Crown Business...appropriate.”147 Second, the project had a direct impact on Mdou Moctar’s musical career , fueling follow-on tours to Europe, Canada, and the United...Jones, Morgan D. The Thinker’s Toolkit : 14 Powerful Techniques for Problem Solving. Revised. New York: Crown Business, 1998. Kerr, Christopher

  19. Education and Countering Violent Extremism: Western Logics from South to North?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the way education and conflict have become entangled during the post-9/11 "war on terror" response to "radical Islam" at home and abroad. The paper charts the complex ways that education has been deployed to serve Western military and security objectives in multiple locations in the global south and how…

  20. Armed Drones and Targeted Killing: Policy Implications for Their Use in Deterring Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-17

    extremist networks makes direct communications unlikely, U.S. government agencies could communicate deterrent threats through known social media sites as...punishment, other militants from using terror tactics in the future. Much of the debate surrounding drone warfare focuses on the moral, ethical , and legal...argue that the legal and ethical questions, collateral civilian casualties, and the potential to flame the fires of hatred toward the United States

  1. Creating a Learning Organization for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement to Combat Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    investigate blind spots and signals of unexpected events. 2. Combine scenario thinking and explorations of organizational purpose. 3. Develop...communication, collaboration, strategic thinking , learning organizations, law enforcement partners 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 103 16. PRICE CODE 17... THINKING ............................................................................30 E. SCENARIO PLANNING

  2. Countering Radicalization: Refocusing Responses to Violent Extremism Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    obsessed with religion.38 His initial goals were laudable; according to his brother, “He said he just wanted to do good. He wanted to go to heaven...time Samir arrived in North Carolina he was completely obsessed with extremist ideology. A friend, Adam Azad related that during their first...volunteer activities. Efforts can be tailored to specific areas such as university campuses, coffee shops, or community centers. Each effort

  3. Comparative Framework for Understanding Jewish and Christian Violent Fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Perliger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although most scholars agree that in the last couple of decades, religious fundamentalism has become the dominant ideological feature in the landscape of modern terrorism, many prefer to ignore the fact that this is not a development which is restricted to the Islamic world, and that other religious traditions have also experienced growth in groups which prefer to use violent strategies to promote their sacred visions. The current chapter strives to fill this gap by analyzing the emergence of violent religious groups in two distinct, non-Islamic, religious traditions. At first glance, the Christian Identity and the Religious-Zionist movements have very little in common. However, both movements served as a breeding ground for the emergence of violent fundamentalist groups aspiring to facilitate an apocalyptic/redemption scenario by engaging in illegal violent campaigns. Moreover, in both cases, the role of spiritual leaders was crucial in shaping the radicalization of the groups and their target selection, and the violence had a clear symbolic narrative. In other words, for the members of these violent groups, the violence served a clear role in the mobilization of potential supporters, and the branding and dissemination of the movement's ideology. Finally, while in general, terrorism is perceived as the weapon of the weak, in these two cases it was perpetrated by individuals/groups affiliated to communities belonging to the dominant religious framework in their respective polities (i.e., the Religious-Zionist and Christian Identity movements are perceived by their members as branches of Judaism and Christianity. Hence, by utilizing a comparative framework, the article will not just analyze the violent manifestations that emerged from these two movements, but also try to identify the unique factors that characterize and facilitate the emergence of religious groups within religious communities belonging to the dominant religious tradition in their

  4. Violência durante o sono Violent behavior during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Poyares

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Casos de comportamento violento (CV durante o sono são relatados na literatura. A incidência de comportamento violento durante o sono não é muito conhecida. Um estudo epidemiológico mostra que cerca de 2% da população geral apresentava comportamento violento dormindo e eram predominantemente homens. Neste artigo, os autores descrevem aspectos clínicos e médico-legais envolvidos na investigação do comportamento violento. O comportamento violento se refere a ferimentos auto-infligidos ou infligidos a um terceiro durante o sono. Ocorre, muito freqüentemente, seguindo um despertar parcial no contexto de um transtorno de despertar (parassonias. Os transtornos do sono predominantes diagnosticados são: transtorno de comportamento REM e sonambulismo. O comportamento violento poderia ser precipitado pelo estresse, uso de álcool e drogas, privação do sono ou febre.Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias. The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever.

  5. A linear relationship between wave power and erosion determines salt-marsh resilience to violent storms and hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Ganju, Neil K.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  6. A linear relationship between wave power and erosion determines salt-marsh resilience to violent storms and hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Ganju, Neil K; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-05

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  7. Power-law relaxation in human violent conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoli, Sergio; Antonio, Fernando J.; Itami, Andreia S.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2017-08-01

    We study relaxation patterns of violent conflicts after bursts of activity. Data were obtained from available catalogs on the conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Northern Ireland. We find several examples in each catalog for which the observed relaxation curves can be well described by an asymptotic power-law decay (the analog of the Omori's law in geophysics). The power-law exponents are robust, nearly independent of the conflict. We also discuss the exogenous or endogenous nature of the shocks. Our results suggest that violent conflicts share with earthquakes and other natural and social phenomena a common feature in the dynamics of aftershocks.

  8. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  9. Characteristics of Youth With Combined Histories of Violent Behavior, Suicidal Ideation or Behavior, and Gun-Carrying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Joseph E; Vagi, Kevin J; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    Youth reporting combined histories of nonfatal violence, suicidal ideation/behavior, and gun-carrying (VSG) are at risk for perpetrating fatal interpersonal violence and self-harm. We characterized these youth to inform prevention efforts. We analyzed 2004 data from 3,931 seventh-, ninth-, and 11-12th-grade youth and compared VSG youth (n = 66) with non-gun carrying youth who either had no histories of violence or suicidal thoughts/behavior (n = 1,839), histories of violence (n = 884), histories of suicidal thoughts/behaviors (n = 552), or both (n = 590). We compared groups based on demographic factors, risk factors (i.e., friends who engage in delinquency, peer-violence victimization, depressive symptoms, illicit substance use), and protective factors (i.e., school connectedness, parental care and supervision). Regression models identified factors associated with VSG youth. Illicit substance use and having friends who engage in delinquency were more common among VSG youth in all comparisons; almost all VSG youth had high levels of these factors. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with VSG youth versus youth without either violent or suicide-related histories and youth with violent histories alone. School connectedness and parental supervision were negatively associated with VSG youth in most comparisons. Family-focused and school-based interventions that increase connectedness while reducing delinquency and substance use might prevent these violent tendencies.

  10. [Pharmacological Treatment for Adult Diagnosed With Schizophrenia With Agitation or Violent Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; Ávila, Mauricio J; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Vélez Fernández, Carolina; Vélez Traslaviña, Ángela; García Valencia, Jenny; Pinzón-Amado, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    To determine the most effective pharmacological intervention and to bring recommendations for decision-making in the management of adults with schizophrenia with violent behavior or agitation. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. It is recommended the use of parenteral drugs in all agitated patient who does not respond to the measures of persuasion. The drugs with better evidence on effectiveness (control of violent behavior) are haloperidol and benzodiazepines, administered jointly or individually. Olanzapine is also an option considering that should only be used in institutions where a psychiatrist is available 24hours. Ziprasidone can be considered as a second-line drug. The information about the side effects associated with these drugs is insufficient and has low quality. Violent behavior in adults with schizophrenia represents a risk for themselves and for those around them, so the opportune implementation of interventions aimed to calm the patient, in order to prevent potential negative outcomes is necessary. It is recommended to initiate these interventions with measures of verbal persuasion, and if these measures are not effective, appropriate use of parenteral drugs: haloperidol and benzodiazepines as first-line and olanzapine and ziprasidone as second choices. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Loneliness and associated violent antisocial behavior: analysis of the case reports of Jeffrey Dahmer and Dennis Nilsen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Willem H J; Palermo, George B

    2005-06-01

    It can be theorized that loneliness plays a significant role in the development and continuation of violent, antisocial attitudes and behavior. Analysis of case reports of two serial killers, Dennis Nilsen and Jeffrey Dahmer, indicate that there is evidence for such a link. In this article, a list of significant correlates of loneliness and antisocial behavior is presented. This may be useful for the assessment of possible dangerousness and in the development of prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions are made for the adequate treatment of loneliness and correlated violent, antisocial behavior. A need is recognized for more research into the psychosocial, emotional, neurobiological, cultural, and ethnic determinants of loneliness and their correlation to specific antisocial and/or criminal behavior.

  12. (Microevidences: a history of the violent sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorella MANOLACHE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study capitalizes the specific meanings of the handbook term, defining the vague and imprecise (imprinted by ambiguity frame of violence, in order to assign it a visual dimension (a history. Hence, the attention given to the concept of violence which represents both a resource marked by regularity, predictability, latency or action and an interactional model impregnated by disorder and re-ordering, but equally influenced by exciting signals and by a control / normalization impulse. Establishing a connection based on the equivalence between the handbook allegation found in International Handbook of Violence Research and the spectra of violence from the movie A History of Violence, the present study’s conviction is that violence can be accepted as an extreme episode of disorder, a chaotic sequence or as an imposed precipitation.

  13. Technicolor/INRIA team at the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection Task

    OpenAIRE

    Penet , Cédric; Demarty , Claire-Hélène; Gravier , Guillaume; Gros , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the work done at Technicolor and INRIA regarding the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection task, which aims at detecting violent scenes in movies. We participated in both the objective and the subjective subtasks.

  14. Combat high or traumatic stress: violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not with symptoms of traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eKöbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Former members of armed groups in eastern DRCongo had typically witnessed, experienced and perpetrated extreme forms of violence. Enhanced trauma-related symptoms had been shown in prior research. But also lashing out in self-defense is a familiar response to threat defined as reactive aggression. Another potential response is appetitive aggression, in which the perpetration of excessive violence is perceived as pleasurable (combat high. What roles do these forms of aggressive behavior play in modern warfare and how are they related to posttraumatic stress symptoms? To answer the question, we sought to determine predictors for appetitive aggressive and trauma-related mental illness, and investigated the frequency of psychopathological symptoms for high- and low-intensity conflict demobilization settings. To this end, we interviewed 213 former members of (paramilitary groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in regard to their combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, appetitive aggression, depression, suicidality, and drug dependence. Random forest regression embedded in a conditional inference framework revealed that perpetrated violent acts are not necessarily stressful. In fact, the experience of violent acts that typically implicated salient cues of hunting (e.g., blood, suffering of the victim, etc. had the strongest association with an appetite for aggression. Furthermore, the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts was the most important predictor of appetitive aggression. However, the number of perpetrated violent acts did not significantly affect the posttraumatic stress. Greater intensity of conflict was associated with more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address appetitive aggression in addition to trauma-related mental illness, including drug dependence, therefore seem indispensible for a successful reintegration of those who fought in the current civil wars.

  15. Violent video games and attitudes towards victims of crime: an empirical study among youth

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, L; Griffiths, MD

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that playing violent video games may be associated with an increase in acceptance of violence and positive attitudes towards perpetrators of crime. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between playing violent video games and attitudes towards victims of crime. A total of 206 young people (aged 12-24 years) completed measures of attitudes towards victims and violent video game exposure. The results suggest that exposure to violent video games ...

  16. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Bushman, Brad J.; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of violent media effects typically have not sampled from populations with confirmed histories of violent and/or nonviolent antisocial behavior. In thi...

  17. Violent Video Games as Exemplary Teachers: A Conceptual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical analyses of several of the "best practices" of learning and instruction, and demonstrates how violent video games use them effectively to motivate learners to persevere in acquiring and mastering a number of skills, to navigate through complex problems and changing environments, and to experiment with…

  18. Institutional degeneration and evolution of violent secret cults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we argue that though a plethora of other factors outside the University system have been advanced to explain the upsurge of violent cults on Nigerian campuses, endogenous forces including policy failure, administrative naivety, and deterioration of structures, equipment and facilities, that is, institutional ...

  19. Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

  20. Transforming Violent Selves through Reflection in Critical Communicative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecha, Ainhoa; Pulido, Cristina; Christou, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Currently, teenagers are being socialized into a world of violent realities, not only through social interaction but also through interaction via the media, especially via the Internet. Research conducted using the critical communicative methodology has shown that this methodology helps young people to reflect critically about their violent…

  1. Trolling New Media: Violent Extremist Groups Recruiting Through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We must make the Internet our tool.”67 In addition to al Neda, al Qaeda maintains several other websites such as al Ansar (the Helpers ) and al...players can hone their sniper skills by executing Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.126 Just as violent extremist groups have expanded recruiting efforts

  2. Spaces of insecurity : human agency in violent conflicts in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witsenburg, K.; Zaal, A.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    There are regions in the world where socio-economic deprivation, ecological marginality, political exclusion, poverty and violence all seem to converge. The cases presented in this book describe various violent conflicts in rural Kenya and aim to understand spatial insecurity while searching for

  3. Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Violent Criminality: A Sibling Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all…

  4. Daily violent video game playing and depression in preadolescent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortolero, Susan R; Peskin, Melissa F; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan L; Lewis, Terri H; Banspach, Stephen W; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004-2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications.

  5. Violent Interaction Detection in Video Based on Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peipei; Ding, Qinghai; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Xinglin

    2017-06-01

    Violent interaction detection is of vital importance in some video surveillance scenarios like railway stations, prisons or psychiatric centres. Existing vision-based methods are mainly based on hand-crafted features such as statistic features between motion regions, leading to a poor adaptability to another dataset. En lightened by the development of convolutional networks on common activity recognition, we construct a FightNet to represent the complicated visual violence interaction. In this paper, a new input modality, image acceleration field is proposed to better extract the motion attributes. Firstly, each video is framed as RGB images. Secondly, optical flow field is computed using the consecutive frames and acceleration field is obtained according to the optical flow field. Thirdly, the FightNet is trained with three kinds of input modalities, i.e., RGB images for spatial networks, optical flow images and acceleration images for temporal networks. By fusing results from different inputs, we conclude whether a video tells a violent event or not. To provide researchers a common ground for comparison, we have collected a violent interaction dataset (VID), containing 2314 videos with 1077 fight ones and 1237 no-fight ones. By comparison with other algorithms, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model for violent interaction detection shows higher accuracy and better robustness.

  6. Building a Nonviolent Organization: Religious Leadership in a Violent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the role of leaders in building nonviolent organizations and the role of organizations in cultivating habits of peace, thereby preparing people as peacemakers in a violent world. Leadership literature asks how to build healthy organizations; conflict literature asks how to make global peace. Both ask how…

  7. Traditional justice and reconciliation after violent conflict: Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after violent conflict: Learning from African experiences. Huyse, Luc and Mark Salter eds. 2008. Stockholm, International IDEA (Institute for Democracy and ... civil society. From their different vantage points they present a cross-cutting analysis on how traditional mechanisms can efficiently and effectively complement ...

  8. MEDIA INFLUENCE AND VIOLENT CRIMES IN THE NIGER DELTA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Violent crimes have also increased to be part of the media content in all ... backed by the Social Learning Theory of Bandura cited in Ugiagbe (2009) who posited .... Desensitization refers to reduced cognitive responsiveness to actual ... cyberbully their peers, get into physical fights, be hostile, argue with teachers, and show.

  9. Violent fan fluctuations: a diffusion perspective to explain supporters' violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, R.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address the question of how diffusion mechanisms predict the level of violence among soccer fans. We embed possible causes of violent fan behavior in a theoretical framework of diffusion, as social movement scholars deploy it to study other instances of collective violence. Four

  10. Life Satisfaction and Violent Behaviors among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; Paxton, Raheem J.; Zullig, Keith J.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2006-01-01

    We explored relationships between violent behaviors and perceived life satisfaction among 2,138 middle school students in a southern state using the CDC Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (MSYRBS) and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS). Logistic regression analyses and multivariate models constructed…

  11. Violent Events: School Social Workers' Perception and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article reports findings from a national web-based survey of 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America (SSWAA). This study examines the types of violent events reported by school social workers and the practitioner's perception of the problem of interpersonal violence in the school context. It identifies interventions being…

  12. Application of reality therapy on violent beliefs of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of Reality Therapy on students' violent beliefs was investigated through quasi-experimental research design with a sample of 18 students (13 boys and 5 girls) and another set of 18 students (15 boys and 3 girls) for experimental and control groups respectively. The students in experimental group were those ...

  13. The Challenge of Researching Violent Societies: Navigating Complexities in Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2009-01-01

    Through use of a recent study researching democratic education and citizenship in Zimbabwe, this paper examines the methodological dilemmas and challenges faced by an ethnographer, particularly by a research student in a violent context. The article posits a bricolage strategy to navigate some of the dangers and methodological dilemmas inherent so…

  14. Democracy and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria: Implications for National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper found that; the nature of competition for political power, multi-ethnic nature of the polity as well as corruption, unemployment and poverty are some of the factors which make democracy in Nigeria‟s Fourth Republic violent-ridden. The paper therefore, recommends among others, the need to cut down on the ...

  15. Giant Galaxy's Violent Past Comes Into Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Long-exposure images of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, together with radio observations, have provided spectacular evidence of repetitive outbursts from the vicinity of the galaxy's supermassive black hole. Magnetized rings, bubbles, plumes and jets ranging in size from a few thousand to a few hundred thousand light years point to ongoing violent activity for hundreds of millions of years. "The hot X-ray emitting gas extending for hundreds of thousands of light years around M87 reveals a record of episodes of black hole activity," said Paul Nulsen of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. and an author of an Astrophysical Journal paper describing the latest Chandra observations. "With these detailed observations, we are beginning to understand how the central supermassive black hole transfers enormous amounts of energy over vast reaches of space." M87, located in the middle of the Virgo galaxy cluster, is surrounded by an extensive atmosphere of multi-million degree Celsius gas. Chandra's long-exposure image has allowed astronomers to see in more detail structures discovered by previous observations with Chandra and other X-ray telescopes, to discover new features, and to make specific comparisons with radio images, which trace the presence of high-energy electrons in a magnetic field." X-ray Image of M87 Chandra X-ray Image of M87, Close-Up The picture that emerges is one in which the infall of material toward a central supermassive black hole produces a magnetized jet of high-energy particles that blasts away from the vicinity of the black hole at near the speed of light. As a jet plows into the surrounding gas, a buoyant, magnetized bubble of high-energy particles is created, and an intense sound wave rushes ahead of the expanding bubble. In Chandra's image of M87, X-rays from the jet dominate the central region of the galaxy. The jet is thought to be pointed at a small angle toward the

  16. BDVC (Bimodal Database of Violent Content): A database of violent audio and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Martínez, Jose Luis; Mijes Cruz, Mario Humberto; Rodríguez Vázqu, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez Espejo, Luis; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Álvaro

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays there is a trend towards the use of unimodal databases for multimedia content description, organization and retrieval applications of a single type of content like text, voice and images, instead bimodal databases allow to associate semantically two different types of content like audio-video, image-text, among others. The generation of a bimodal database of audio-video implies the creation of a connection between the multimedia content through the semantic relation that associates the actions of both types of information. This paper describes in detail the used characteristics and methodology for the creation of the bimodal database of violent content; the semantic relationship is stablished by the proposed concepts that describe the audiovisual information. The use of bimodal databases in applications related to the audiovisual content processing allows an increase in the semantic performance only and only if these applications process both type of content. This bimodal database counts with 580 audiovisual annotated segments, with a duration of 28 minutes, divided in 41 classes. Bimodal databases are a tool in the generation of applications for the semantic web.

  17. "Harder and Harder"? Is Mainstream Pornography Becoming Increasingly Violent and Do Viewers Prefer Violent Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Eran; Seida, Kimberly

    2018-04-18

    It is a common notion among many scholars and pundits that the pornography industry becomes "harder and harder" with every passing year. Some have suggested that porn viewers, who are mostly men, become desensitized to "soft" pornography, and producers are happy to generate videos that are more hard core, resulting in a growing demand for and supply of violent and degrading acts against women in mainstream pornographic videos. We examined this accepted wisdom by utilizing a sample of 269 popular videos uploaded to PornHub over the past decade. More specifically, we tested two related claims: (1) aggressive content in videos is on the rise and (2) viewers prefer such content, reflected in both the number of views and the rankings for videos containing aggression. Our results offer no support for these contentions. First, we did not find any consistent uptick in aggressive content over the past decade; in fact, the average video today contains shorter segments showing aggression. Second, videos containing aggressive acts are both less likely to receive views and less likely to be ranked favorably by viewers, who prefer videos where women clearly perform pleasure.

  18. Beyond the lab: Investigating early adolescents' cognitive, emotional, and arousal responses to violent games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    Cognitive, emotional, and arousal responses to violent games play a central role in theoretical explanations of how violent media may affect aggression. However, existing research has focused on a relatively narrow range of responses to violent games in experimental settings. This limits our

  19. Violent video games stress people out and make them more aggressive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, Y.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress

  20. I wish I were a warrior: Effects of violent video games on adolescent boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, E.A.; Nije Bijvank, M.; Bushman, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that violent video games are especially likely to increase aggression when players identify with violent game characters. Dutch adolescent boys with low education ability (N = 112) were randomly assigned to play a realistic or fantasy violent or nonviolent video

  1. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  2. Daily Violent Video Game Playing and Depression in Preadolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Lewis, Terri H.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004–2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for <2 hours per day (p<0.001). The magnitude of this association was small (Cohen's d=0.16), but this association was consistent across all racial/ethnic subgroups and among boys (Cohen's d values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25). Our findings indicate that there is an association between daily exposure to violent video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications. PMID:25007237

  3. Violent media and hostile appraisals: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J

    2016-11-01

    Hostile people tend to view the world as a hostile place. Although there are individual differences in hostile world-views, situational factors can also play a role. For example, scenes of violence in the mass media might influence people to view the world as a hostile place. This meta-analysis aggregates, for the first time, all studies that have investigated the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (e.g., perceiving the ambiguous actions by others as aggressive actions). This meta-analysis included 37 independent studies involving 10,410 participants. The results showed a "small" to "moderate" sized average correlation between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (r +  = .20, 95%CI = .14, .26). Significant correlations were found in experimental, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, indicating a triangulation of evidence. Effects were not correlated with participant gender. Effects were also stable over time. However, the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals was positively related to age, perhaps because violent media can have cumulative effects over time. There was no evidence of publication bias. The findings from this meta-analysis are consistent with the General Aggression Model (e.g., Anderson, & Bushman, 2002; Annual Review of Psychology 53:27-51). These results compliment those from previous meta-analyses showing that violent media can increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior. These findings also have practical significance, because people who view the world in a hostile manner are more likely to behave aggressively themselves. Aggr. Behav. 42:605-613, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Association Between Deliberate Self-harm and Violent Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Hanna; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Bjureberg, Johan; Lichtenstein, Paul; Molero, Yasmina; Rydell, Mina; Hedman, Erik; Runeson, Bo; Jokinen, Jussi; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hellner, Clara

    2017-06-01

    Individuals who self-harm may have an increased risk of aggression toward others, but this association has been insufficiently investigated. More conclusive evidence may affect assessment, treatment interventions, and clinical guidelines. To investigate the association between nonfatal self-harm and violent crime. This population-based longitudinal cohort study, conducted from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2013, studied all Swedish citizens born between 1982 and 1998 who were 15 years and older (N = 1 850 252). Individuals who emigrated from Sweden before the age of 15 years (n = 104 051) or immigrated to Sweden after the age of 13 years (ie, crime according to the Swedish penal code. The study cohort consisted of 1 850 525 individuals (950 382 males and 900 143 females), and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 8.1 (4.7) years (range, 0-17.0 years; minimum age, 15 years; maximum age, 32 years). During a mean follow-up period of 8.1 years, 55 185 individuals (3.0%) received clinical care for self-harm. The crude hazard ratio was 4.9 (95% CI, 4.8-5.0) for violent crime conviction in exposed individuals compared with the unexposed group. Women who self-harm were at particularly high risk for expressing violent behaviors. After adjustment for relevant psychiatric comorbidities and socioeconomic status, an almost doubled hazard of violent offense remained (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.8-1.9). Self-harm is associated with an increased risk of conviction for a violent offense in both sexes. The risk of violence, as well as the risk of suicide and self-harm, should be assessed among offending and self-harming individuals.

  5. Genetic risk for violent behavior and environmental exposure to disadvantage and violent crime: the case for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Jacobs, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Despite mounds of evidence to suggest that neighborhood structural factors predict violent behavior, almost no attention has been given to how these influences work synergistically (i.e., interact) with an individual's genetic propensity toward violent behavior. Indeed, two streams of research have, heretofore, flowed independently of one another. On one hand, criminologists have underscored the importance of neighborhood context in the etiology of violence. On the other hand, behavioral geneticists have argued that individual-level genetic propensities are important for understanding violence. The current study seeks to integrate these two compatible frameworks by exploring gene-environment interactions (GxE). Two GxEs were examined and supported by the data (i.e., the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health). Using a scale of genetic risk based on three dopamine genes, the analysis revealed that genetic risk had a greater influence on violent behavior when the individual was also exposed to neighborhood disadvantage or when the individual was exposed to higher violent crime rates. The relevance of these findings for criminological theorizing was considered.

  6. Extreme Left Terrorism in Contemporary Europe: from “Communist Combatant Parties” to Militant Campaigns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mareš

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the strategy and tactics of the of extreme left terrorism in Europe. Traditional red terrorist organizations (combatant communist parties like the RAF, the RB etc. have been replaced by small militant groups, by violent militancy campaigns, by anti-globalist violence or by “single-issue” terrorism. The militant extreme left may itself be both a direct and indirect ally to other forms of terrorism, including Islamist terrorism.

  7. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-07-30

    The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  8. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R. Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  9. VARIABILITY OF THE INFRARED EXCESS OF EXTREME DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks with extremely large infrared excesses (fractional luminosities >10 –2 ) are rare. Those with ages between 30 and 130 Myr are of interest because their evolution has progressed well beyond that of protoplanetary disks (which dissipate with a timescale of order 3 Myr), yet they represent a period when dynamical models suggest that terrestrial planet building may still be progressing through large, violent collisions that could yield large amounts of debris and large infrared excesses. For example, our Moon was formed through a violent collision of two large protoplanets during this age range. We report two disks around the solar-like stars ID8 and HD 23514 in this age range where the 24 μm infrared excesses vary on timescales of a few years, even though the stars are not variable in the optical. Variations this rapid are difficult to understand if the debris is produced by collisional cascades, as it is for most debris disks. It is possible that the debris in these two systems arises in part from condensates from silicate-rich vapor produced in a series of violent collisions among relatively large bodies. If their evolution is rapid, the rate of detection of extreme excesses would indicate that major collisions may be relatively common in this age range.

  10. Anders Breivik: Extreme Beliefs Mistaken for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir; Resnick, Phillip J; Harry, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    The case of Anders Breivik, who committed mass murder in Norway in 2011, stirred controversy among forensic mental health experts. His bizarrely composed compendium and references to himself as the "Knights Templar" raised concerns that he had a psychotic mental illness. Beliefs such as Mr. Breivik's that precede odd, unusual, or extremely violent behavior present a unique challenge to the forensic evaluator, who sometimes struggles to understand those beliefs. Psychotic disorder frequently is invoked to characterize odd, unusual, or extreme beliefs, with a classification that has evolved over time. However, the important concept of overvalued idea, largely ignored in American psychiatry, may better characterize these beliefs in some cases. We discuss the definitions of delusion and overvalued ideas in the context of Anders Breivik's rigidly held extreme beliefs. We also review the British definition of overvalued idea and discuss McHugh's construct, to introduce the term "extreme overvalued belief" as an aid in sharpening the forensic evaluator's conceptualization of these and similar beliefs. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  11. Violent behavior of men in their intimate relationships, as they experience it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2008-09-01

    Violence against women has been extensively studied in various disciplines, whereas less attention has been paid to the experiences of men. Even the violent behavior of men in their intimate relationships has been mostly studied as experienced by women. This study follows Husserlian descriptive phenomenology. Twenty open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 Finnish men with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The data were analyzed by the method developed by Colaizzi. Findings suggested that men considered communication and dynamics of the relationship important. Fundamentally, these abusive men had a need to be respected as men, and they sought to experience human dignity. It is necessary to readjust the framework on interpersonal violence, listen to the voice of men, and develop prevention, early identification, and supportive intervention strategies for men, couples, and families. Research on IPV should be expanded to include the experiences of both genders.

  12. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  13. The effects of violent media content on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K; Plante, Courtney; Gentile, Douglas A

    2018-02-01

    Decades of research have shown that violent media exposure is one risk factor for aggression. This review presents findings from recent cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal studies, demonstrating the triangulation of evidence within the field. Importantly, this review also illustrates how media violence research has started to move away from merely establishing the existence of media effects and instead has begun to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects and their limitations. Such studies range from investigations into cross-cultural differences to neurophysiological effects, and the interplay between media, individual, and contextual factors. Although violent media effects have been well-established for some time, they are not monolithic, and recent findings continue to shed light on the nuances and complexities of such effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. H-functions and mixing in violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, S.; Henon, M.; Lynden-Bell, D.

    1986-01-01

    An H-function is any function of the phase space distribution function F(x,v) which is non-decreasing with time. In collisionless systems Boltzmann's H-function - integral F log F dx dv is only one of a variety of H-functions of the form - integral C(F) dx dv, where C is any convex function. Every equilibrium stellar system in which the distribution function is a decreasing function of the energy alone is a stationary point of some H-function of this form. During violent relaxation, all such H-functions must increase, and the distribution function is said to become 'more mixed'. A simple criterion is given for determining whether a given distribution function is more mixed than another; this criterion is used to show that a violently relaxed galaxy resembles observed elliptical galaxies only if the initial state is cold or clumpy. (author)

  15. Motives for offending among violent and psychotic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P J

    1985-11-01

    Two hundred and three male remanded prisoners were interviewed with respect to their current offence, mental state, and social and psychiatric histories. All but nine of the sub-group of 121 psychotic men showed active symptoms at the time of committing a criminal offence; 20% of the actively ill psychotics were directly driven to offend by their psychotic symptoms, and a further 26% probably so. If some of the indirect consequences of the psychosis were taken into account, 82% of their offences were probably attributable to the illness. Among the normal and neurotic men, none claimed psychotic motives for offending, but motives suggesting high emotional arousal such as panic or retaliation triggered the greatest violence. Within the psychotic group, those driven to offend by their delusions were most likely to have been seriously violent, and psychotic symptoms probably accounted directly for most of the very violent behaviour.

  16. Children's exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-07-01

    Desensitization to violence is cited frequently as being an outcome of exposure to media violence and a condition that contributes to increased aggression. This article initiates the development of a conceptual model for describing possible relationships among violent video games, brain function, and desensitization by using empathy and attitudes toward violence as proxy measures of desensitization. More work is needed to understand how specific game content may affect brain activity, how brain development may be affected by heavy play at young ages, and how personality and lifestyle variables may moderate game influence. Given the current state of knowledge, recommendations are made for clinicians to help parents monitor and limit exposure to violent video games and encourage critical thinking about media violence.

  17. The effects of violent media content on aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Plante, Courtney; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    how media violence research has started to move away from merely establishing the existence of media effects and instead has begun to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects and their limitations. Such studies range from investigations into cross-cultural differences to neurophysiological...... effects, and the interplay between media, individual, and contextual factors. Although violent media effects have been well-established for some time, they are not monolithic, and recent findings continue to shed light on the nuances and complexities of such effects.......Decades of research have shown that violent media exposure is one risk factor for aggression. This review presents findings from recent cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal studies, demonstrating the triangulation of evidence within the field. Importantly, this review also illustrates...

  18. Epidemiology of violent deaths in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, A; Mercy, J A; Krug, E

    2001-06-01

    This study describes epidemiologic patterns of mortality due to suicide, homicide, and war for the world in order to serve as a benchmark against which to measure future progress and to raise awareness about violence as a global public health problem. The world and its eight major regions. Data were derived from The Global Burden of Disease series and the US National Center for Health Statistics to estimate crude rates, age adjusted rates, sex rate ratios, and the health burden for suicide, homicide, and war related deaths for the world and its eight major regions in 1990. In 1990, an estimated 1,851,000 people died from violence (35.3 per 100,000) in the world. There were an estimated 786,000 suicides. Overall suicide rates ranged from 3.4 per 100,000 in Sub-Saharan Africa to 30.4 per 100,000 in China. There were an estimated 563,000 homicides. Overall homicide rates ranged from 1.0 per 100,000 in established market economies to 44.8 per 100,000 in Sub-Saharan Africa with peaks among males aged 15-24 years old, and among females aged 0-4 years old. There were an estimated 502,000 war related deaths with peaks in rates for both sexes among people aged 0-4, 15-29, and 60-69 years old. The number of violence related deaths in the world is unacceptably high. Coordinated prevention and control efforts are urgently needed.

  19. Violent men in couple relationships: mental disorders and typological profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Echeburúa, Enrique; J. Amor, Pedro; de Corral, Paz

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this theoretical paper are to analyze the mental disorders and the most relevant psychological deficits of intimate partner violent men, as well as to identify different types of batterers according to the classifications of Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) and of Fernandez- Montalvo and Echeburúa (1997). A review of multiple theoretical and empirical papers has been carried out with this purpose. The main results show that the aggressors usually show psychological deficits –la...

  20. School Violent Crime and Academic Achievement in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Educational outcomes vary dramatically across schools in the United States. Many under-performing schools, especially in Chicago, also deal with high levels of violent crime on school grounds. Exposure to this type of frequent violence may be an important factor shaping already disadvantaged students' educational experiences. However, estimating the effect of school violence on learning is difficult due to potential selection bias and the confounding of other school-level problems. Using detailed crime data from the Chicago Police Department, complete administrative records from the Chicago Public Schools, and school climate surveys conducted by the Consortium on Chicago School Research (2002-10), this study exploits variation in violent crime rates within schools over time to estimate its effect on academic achievement. School and neighborhood fixed-effects models show that violent crime rates have a negative effect on test scores, but not on grades. This effect is more likely related to direct reductions in learning, through cognitive stress and classroom disruptions, than changes in perceived safety, general school climate, or discipline practices.

  1. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents’ Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N=704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence. PMID:25684447

  2. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents' Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.

  3. The origin of violent behaviour among child labourers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, K; Rahman, F; Jansson, B

    2008-01-01

    We explored the causes and circumstances of violent behaviour among a group of child labourers in the Indian unorganized sectors. From 14 categories of occupations, a total of 1,400 child labourers were interviewed in both urban and rural areas. The average family size of these mostly illiterate child labourers is seven, and average family income is 3,200 INR per month. In the short term child labourers become violent, aggressive, and criminal, following a pyramid of violent behaviour, including socio-economic pressure, cultural deviance, and psychological pressure. When considering family history it seems that the problem is part of a vicious cycle of violence, which persists through generations and evolves with financial crisis, early marriage, and violence in the family and workplace. Our study demonstrates that the most vulnerable groups of child labourers belong to the following workplaces: dhabas, food stalls, rail/bus stations, rail-floor cleaning, and rag picking. Giving high priority to capacity building within the community, including support for locally-generated solutions, is warranted.

  4. Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children's aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2008-01-01

    There is great concern about the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. The present experimental study was aimed at investigating the differential effects of actively playing vs. passively watching the same violent video game on subsequent aggressive behavior. Fifty-seven children aged 10-13 either played a violent video game (active violent condition), watched the same violent video game (passive violent condition), or played a non-violent video game (active non-violent condition). Aggression was measured through peer nominations of real-life aggressive incidents during a free play session at school. After the active participation of actually playing the violent video game, boys behaved more aggressively than did the boys in the passive game condition. For girls, game condition was not related to aggression. These findings indicate that, specifically for boys, playing a violent video game should lead to more aggression than watching television violence. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Possibilities for teacher’s preventive actions in regard bullying behavior of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of school bullying is an important task of modern educational process, given the seriousness of its consequences for students who behave violently and for those who are exposed to bullying, as well as for other classmates. A teacher, who in comparison with other school staff is in daily contact with students, has an extremely important role in prevention of bullying and in creating encouraging school climate. Through systematized and critical reflection on the views of numerous authors, this article aims at pointing out importance of certain aspects of teachers‘ role in prevention of bullying, and importance of creating a positive school climate as an important prerequisite for preventive activity of teachers, as well as at emphasizing possible obstacles to adequate preventive actions of teachers. In the last section, changes made in recent years in Serbia in regard to prevention of bullying behavior of students in the education system are considered. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179013: Održivost identiteta Srba i nacionalnih manjina u pograničnim opštinama istočne i jugoistočne Srbije

  6. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood, Monstrosity and Violent Imagery: Grand-Guignol, the French Theatre of Horror as a Form of Violent Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Jurković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the sixty-year period of its existence, Grand-Guignol, the French theatre of horror, gained a status of a legendary theatre which dealt with horrors and terrors of human mind, successfully connecting faits divers (common, everyday facts with the erotic and titillating scenes of violence on stage. The performance style, the writing, the special effects, and the directorship over the course of years, made this theatre a legendary place where blood flowed in streams and people fainted during performances, in this way making its indelible mark in horror genre today. In this paper, the author is trying to focus the attention on the theatre of Grand-Guignol as a form of violent entertainment and the way the representations of violence and horror enacted on its stage affected the audience, through Goldstein’s theory of the importance of visual imagery in different media today. Furthermore, through comparison of violent acts presented on the stage of the Grand-Guignol and the atmosphere they create in the viewer’s mind with some of the aspects of Artaud’s vision of his theatre of cruelty, the author attempts to show how this form of violent entertainment in the theatrical media influences the vision of that same violence within the audience, with the sense of security as the main idea in which the viewers feel safe to enjoy, envision and in a way become the participants in the performances enacted on the small stage of the Grand-Guignol.

  8. Extreme Events in Nature and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Significant, and usually unwelcome, surprises, such as floods, financial crisis, epileptic seizures, or material rupture, are the topics of Extreme Events in Nature and Society. The book, authored by foremost experts in these fields, reveals unifying and distinguishing features of extreme events, including problems of understanding and modelling their origin, spatial and temporal extension, and potential impact. The chapters converge towards the difficult problem of anticipation: forecasting the event and proposing measures to moderate or prevent it. Extreme Events in Nature and Society will interest not only specialists, but also the general reader eager to learn how the multifaceted field of extreme events can be viewed as a coherent whole.

  9. The Interaction of Extremist Propaganda and Anger as Predictors of Violent Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortland, Neil; Nader, Elias; Imperillo, Nicholas; Ross, Kyrielle; Dmello, Jared

    2017-12-01

    In this study, and with a view to extending upon existing findings on the effects of general violent media on violent cognitions, we experimentally measured the relationship between exposure to extremist propaganda and violent cognitions. Our results countered our hypotheses and the wider findings of violent media and aggression that exposure to violent stimuli increases violent thoughts and that this effect is moderated by trait aggression. Specifically, this study found that participants with low and medium trait aggression became more pro-social after being exposed to extremist propaganda. We discuss these results with reference to theories of terror management and mortality salience, as well as the implications of these results for wider theories of the role of online extremist material in the wider "radicalization" process.

  10. The effect of violent video game playing on gamer's views of victims of crime

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, L

    2015-01-01

    This research was designed to explore the relationship between violent video game play and attitudes towards victims. As the violent genre of games become more popular and as the graphics and content becomes even more realistic and immersive, there has been concern that this media form offers a different perspective on violence to players than more passive forms of media. Much of the research in the area of violent video game research has focused on changes in players in terms of aggressive b...

  11. Witness and nonwitness children's violent and peaceful behavior in different types of simulated conflict with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif-Spanvill, Bonnie; Clayton, Claudia J; Hendrix, Suzanne B

    2007-04-01

    The violent and peaceful behaviors of 115 children who had or had not witnessed domestic violence were measured in five types of simulated conflict. Witnesses did not differ from nonwitnesses in conflicts involving limited resources, jealousy over possessions, or intimidation; witnesses were significantly more violent in conflicts involving aggression and exclusion. The most violent responses were found among abusers' sons who had been excluded by peers. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  12. [Influence of violent TV upon children of a public school in Bogotá, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Olmos, Isabel; Pinzón, Angela María; González-Reyes, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Molano, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact that a violent and a non-violent movie may cause on scholars. In Bogotá, 125 public primary school students were surveyed, applying a questionnaire to learn both about their daily life violence and their attitude towards it. Two weeks later, they were shown one violent movie, and two weeks later a non-violent one. Children were asked to draw their families, express their opinions and answer a questionnaire after each movie. The initial survey showed that 23.6% of the children reported violent responses when they were offended, 39.8% reported some kind of familiar violence and 19.5% identified themselves with a violent figure. Boys were more prone to respond violently when offended and to identify themselves with a violent figure than girls (p=0.004). Compared with the non-violent movie, a greater percentage of children excluded themselves from the family drawing after watching the violent movie (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.55; 95% Interval Confidence (95% CI) 1.22-5.43, p=0.01). The family drawing after the violent movie also showed more emotional signs (OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 1.35-7.52; p=0.0053) and more aggressive signs (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.22-5.43; p=0.01) than the family drawing after the non-violent movie. The family drawing test showed the immediate impact of television. Television violence negatively influences kids and should be avoided.

  13. The 1% of the population accountable for 63% of all violent crime convictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Orjan; Wallinius, Märta; Lundström, Sebastian; Frisell, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Kerekes, Nóra

    2014-04-01

    Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime. The nationwide multi-generation register was used with many other linked nationwide registers to select participants. All individuals born in 1958-1980 (2,393,765 individuals) were included. Persistent violent offenders (those with a lifetime history of three or more violent crime convictions) were compared with individuals having one or two such convictions, and to matched non-offenders. Independent variables were gender, age of first conviction for a violent crime, nonviolent crime convictions, and diagnoses for major mental disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders. A total of 93,642 individuals (3.9%) had at least one violent conviction. The distribution of convictions was highly skewed; 24,342 persistent violent offenders (1.0% of the total population) accounted for 63.2% of all convictions. Persistence in violence was associated with male sex (OR 2.5), personality disorder (OR 2.3), violent crime conviction before age 19 (OR 2.0), drug-related offenses (OR 1.9), nonviolent criminality (OR 1.9), substance use disorder (OR 1.9), and major mental disorder (OR 1.3). The majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a small number of persistent violent offenders, typically males, characterized by early onset of violent criminality, substance abuse, personality disorders, and nonviolent criminality.

  14. Violent video game effects on salivary cortisol, arousal, and aggressive thoughts in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Bender, Patrick K.; Anderson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effects of violent content in video games on two physiological indicators of the fight-or-flight response (cortisol and cardiovascular changes) and on accessibility of aggressive thoughts in children. Participants played a randomly assigned violent or nonviolent video...... of aggressive thoughts. The cortisol findings in particular suggest that playing a violent video game may activate the sympathetic nervous system and elicit a fight-or-flight type response in children. Theoretical implications and future research are discussed....

  15. Risk factors for violent crime in Schizophrenia: a national cohort study of 13,806 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Grann, Martin; Carlström, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2009-03-01

    To determine risk factors for and prevalence of violent crime in patients with schizophrenia, and in particular, to explore the contribution of familial risk factors. We designed a cohort study that followed up patients with 2 or more hospitalizations for schizophrenia (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10 criteria) and investigated the risk for a violent conviction using Cox proportional hazards models. All 13,806 patients with 2 hospital discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia from January 1, 1973, through December 31, 2004, in Sweden were followed until violent conviction, emigration, death, or end of follow-up (December 31, 2004), and associations with sociodemographic, individual (substance abuse comorbidity, and previous violence), and familial (parental violent crime and parental alcohol abuse) factors were examined. Over an average follow-up period of 12 years, 17.1% (N = 1519) of the men and 5.6% (N = 273) of the women with 2 or more hospitalizations for schizophrenia had a violent conviction after discharge from hospital. Familial risk factors had moderate effects, increasing the risk for violent convictions by 50% to 150%. After adjustment for sociodemographic and individual risk factors, the associations between parental violent crime and risk of violent convictions remained in men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.33 to 2.04) and in women (adjusted HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11 to 3.01), whereas parental alcohol abuse was no longer significantly associated with violent crime. Parental violent crime had moderate associations with violent crime in male and female offspring with at least 2 hospitalizations for schizophrenia, which were mostly stronger than the better documented sociodemographic risk factors. This suggests that familial (genetic or early environmental) risk factors have an important role in the etiology of violent offending among individuals with schizophrenia and should be considered in violence risk assessment. ©Copyright 2009 Physicians

  16. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games.

  17. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  18. Risk and Protective Factors for Difficulty Controlling Violent Behavior in National Guard and Reserve Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Miranda; Rathod, Sujit D; Cohen, Gregory; Sampson, Laura; Ursano, Robert; Gifford, Robert; Fullerton, Carol; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Violent behavior is an important problem for military service members and veterans. A representative cohort of U.S. Reserve and National Guard personnel ( N = 1,293) were interviewed to assess self-reported problems controlling violent behavior, deployment traumas, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and social support. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors. Problems controlling violent behavior were uncommon among male (3.3%) and female (1.7%) service members. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) showed associations between violent behavior and deployment traumas (aPR = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.34, 2.08]), PTSD (aPR = 9.95, 95% CI = [5.09, 19.48]), and PTSD symptom severity (aPR for each additional PTSD symptom = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.06, 1.09]). Social support was associated with lower prevalence of violent behavior (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = [0.52, 0.76]). The association between violent behavior and alcohol abuse was not statistically significant (aPR = 1.94, 95% CI = [0.92, 4.09]). Results were consistent when the population was restricted to personnel who had deployed to a war zone. Problems controlling violent behavior were less common in this cohort than has been documented in other studies. Associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors are consistent with prior research.

  19. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  20. Building a peaceful society: origins, prevention, and reconciliation after genocide and other group violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Ervin

    2013-10-01

    The 20th century was a century of genocide and other great violence between groups within societies. Already at the beginning of the 21st century, there have been mass killings, civil wars, violent conflict, and terrorism. This article summarizes influences that tend to lead to intense group violence. It then considers prevention, stressing early prevention--and reconciliation as an aspect of prevention--and focusing on central principles and practices. The principles include developing positive orientations to previously devalued groups; healing from past victimization and promoting altruism born of suffering; moderating respect for authority; creating constructive ideologies; promoting understanding of the origins of violence, its impact, and avenues to prevention; promoting truth, justice, and a shared history; and raising inclusively caring, morally courageous children. Practices related to all of these are also discussed. The article stresses the role of progressive change, that is, of psychological, behavioral, and social evolution, in both extreme violence and positive relations between groups; the role of passive bystanders in the unfolding of violence; and the role of active bystandership in the prevention of violence, in the promotion of reconciliation, and in the development of harmonious societies. It emphasizes psychological processes but notes the importance of creating societal institutions. The author cites findings from both laboratory research and case studies, reviews interventions and their evaluation in Rwanda, and points to the need for further research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Near infrared photometry of violent star formation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, J.; Terlevich, R.; Moles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared broad band photometry and CO indices for a significant number of Violent Star Formation Regions are presented. The existence of a narrow correlation between W (Hβ) and IR colour is confirmed. The interpretation of this relation as an age sequence implies a correlation between CO index and W(Hβ) which is not found. It is argued however that this failure is most likely a consequence of using narrow band filters to determine CO indices in objects with strong emission-line spectra. (author)

  2. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Talking violent. A phenomenological study of metaphors battering men use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisikovits, Z; Buchbinder, E

    1997-10-01

    This analysis examined the language and metaphors used by men who perpetrated domestic violence in an attempt to shed light on the impulsive and reflective aspects of violent acts as they appear in the context of batterers' experiences. The study is introduced with a brief review of the literature on "intimate violence" to show that it is recognized that batterers rarely define their behavior as violent and aberrant and that they suffer cognitive distortions and an inability to identify emotions accurately. Data were gathered through in-depth, semistructured interviews with 35 couples in Israel who reported at least one incidence of violence in the prior year. Content analysis of the interviews revealed that the men used 1) war metaphors to construct and express conflict and violence, 2) metaphors that presented the self as a dangerous space characterized by inner struggles, and 3) metaphors of de-escalation and balancing. The discussion notes that the metaphors of war were interconnected (war with the self and with the world) and allowed men to threaten violence as a means of self defense and, paradoxically, to attempt to gain self-control by losing control. For these men, the world was dichotomous and life was a constant struggle against real and imagined enemies. Survival depended upon suppression of feelings of weakness (symbolized by the feminine). Interventions should examine metaphors used by batterers and help men develop an alternative metaphoric structure that renders violence foreign and meaningless. This requires that clinicians first assess their own use of metaphors.

  4. Making Friends in Violent Neighborhoods: Strategies among Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanette M. Chan Tack

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have examined friendship formation among children in conventional contexts, comparatively fewer have examined how the process is shaped by neighborhood violence. The literature on violence and gangs has identified coping strategies that likely affect friendships, but most children in violent neighborhoods are not gang members, and not all friendship relations involve gangs. We examine the friendship-formation process based on in-depth interviews with 72 students, parents, and teachers in two elementary schools in violent Chicago neighborhoods. All students were African American boys and girls ages 11 to 15. We find that while conventional studies depict friendship formation among children as largely affective in nature, the process among the students we observed was, instead, primarily strategic. The children’s strategies were not singular but heterogeneous and malleable in nature. We identify and document five distinct strategies: protection seeking, avoidance, testing, cultivating questioners, and kin reliance. Girls were as affected as boys were, and they also reported additional preoccupations associated with sexual violence. We discuss implications for theories of friendship formation, violence, and neighborhood effects.

  5. Fear of Violent Victimization among the Foreign-Born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In general, most studies that examined the relationship immigrants – criminal behavior focused on the immigrants’ involvement in criminal activities as offenders and/or the effects of immigration on crime rates. Only limited research looked at the levels of victimization and perceived safety experienced by immigrants in their receiving countries. Using the most recent available data from the European Social Survey (Round 5/2010, the present quantitative analysis conducted on a representative sample of residents in United Kingdom (N=2422 tries to determine the levels of criminal victimization and fear of violent crime associated with foreign nationals living in a European country, where immigration is generally unpopular. Although foreign-born persons living in United Kingdom appear to have a higher degree of victimization (vicarious and direct than natives, the inter-group difference is not sufficiently large to be significant at p< .05.Nevertheless, compared to natives, first-generation immigrants manifest a significantly higher level of fear of violent victimization. Results also show that in addition to inter-group differences in the levels of perceived unsafety and experiences with victimization, the effects of fear-of-crime correlates vary in intensity among respondents differentiated by their country of birth. In addition, one’s level of acculturation contributes to differences in fear of crime among immigrants.

  6. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  7. From Design to Implementation: Addressing the Causes of Violent Conflict in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy El-Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the ways in which knowledge and research influenced the design of a programme to reduce violent conflict in Nigeria. The diversity of sources and forms of conflict in Nigeria, and the way that local grievances interact with national struggles over politics and resources, combined with a need to show measurable results within five years, made the task of programme design extremely challenging. The article discusses how the project design team responded to this challenge. It describes the four main lessons that emerged from dialogue-based research studies that helped the design team formulate a theory of change for the programme, and subsequently its methodological approach and activities. The studies shaped the central theme of the project, which was the need to transform conflict management institutions into genuinely inclusive forums for dialogue, thereby regaining the trust of those currently excluded from dialogue but yet most affected by violence – particularly unemployed youth and women and girls. The article does not portray research and knowledge simplistically, as the sole solution to project design issues. Rather, it shows that if research findings can take designers directly to the core of the problems as perceived by those most affected by them, then they can play a critical role in designing appropriate interventions and, as implementation proceeds, to demonstrating progress towards project goals.

  8. Arun Kundnani (2014 The Muslims are Coming! Islamophobia, Extremism and the Domestic War on Terror. London: Verso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Luther King Jr understood the link between individual violence at home and state violence abroad. In part of his message that is often downplayed, he told an audience at Riverside Church, New York in 1967 that the promotion of nonviolent direct action (or the prevention of violent extremism among young Americans depended on opposing the violence of US foreign policy in places like Vietnam. Arun Kundnani ends his book arguing this point remains as valid today in the global war on terror. Indeed, in many ways, the material presented in the book paints a depressingly familiar picture of state secrecy and surveillance, the normalisation of preventative measures in the post-9/11 era, governments instilling fear and anxiety across populations, and the criminalisation of formerly lawful activities. It is now beyond dispute that these developments have eroded human rights and civil liberties in Western societies. But they have also impinged, more broadly, upon social relations and political processes. Not surprisingly, this has impacted Muslim communities the most because relations of trust have been eroded in the domestic war on terror. Download the PDF file from this page to read Greg Martin's complete review of Arun Kundnani's book. Download the PDF file to read the complete review of Arun Kundnan's book by Greg Martin.

  9. The thrill of being violent as an antidote to posttraumatic stress disorder in Rwandese genocide perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative exposure to life-threatening events increases the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, over the course of evolutionary adaptation, intra-species killing may have also evolved as an inborn strategy leading to greater reproductive success. Assuming that homicide has evolved as a profitable strategy in humans, a protective mechanism must prevent the perpetrator from getting traumatised by self-initiated violent acts. We thus postulate an inverse relation between a person's propensity toward violence and PTSD. We surveyed a sample of 269 Rwandan prisoners who were accused or convicted for crimes related to the 1994 genocide. In structured interviews we assessed traumatic event types, types of crimes committed, the person's appetitive violence experience with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS and PTSD symptom severity with the PSS-I. Using path-analysis, we found a dose-response effect between the exposure to traumatic events and the PTSD symptom severity (PSS-I. Moreover, participants who had reported that they committed more types of crimes demonstrated a higher AAS score. In turn, higher AAS scores predicted lower PTSD symptom severity scores. This study provides first empirical support that the victim's struggling can be an essential rewarding cue for perpetrators. The results also suggest that an appetitive aggression can inhibit PTSD and trauma-related symptoms in perpetrators and prevent perpetrators from getting traumatised by their own atrocities.

  10. Violent and non-violent methods of attempted and completed suicide in Swedish young men: the role of early risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbacka, Marlene; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-08-14

    There is a paucity of studies on the role of early risk factors for the choice of methods for violent suicide attempts. Adolescent risk factors for the choice of violent or non-violent methods for suicide attempts and the risk of subsequent suicide were studied using a longitudinal design. A national Swedish cohort of 48 834 18-20-year-old young men conscripted for military service from 1969 to 1970 was followed through official registers during a 37-year period. Two questionnaires concerning their psychosocial background were answered by each conscript. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the risk for different methods of attempted suicide and later suicide. A total of 1195 (2.4 %) men had made a suicide attempt and of these, 133 (11.1 %) committed suicide later. The number of suicide victims among the non-attempters was 482 (1 %). Half of the suicides occurred during the same year as the attempt. Suicide victims had earlier onset of suicidal behaviour and had more often used hanging as a method of attempted suicide than those who did not later commit suicide. The early risk factors for both violent and non-violent methods of suicide attempt were quite similar. Violent suicide attempts, especially by hanging, are associated with a clearly elevated suicide risk in men and require special clinical and public health attention. The early risk factors related to the choice of either a violent or a non-violent suicide attempt method are interlinked and circumstantial factors temporally close to the suicide attempt, such as access to a specific method, may partly explain the choice of method.

  11. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Association between Violent Video Game Play and Aggression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J. C.; Good, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school…

  13. Mortal Kombat: The Effects of Violent Video Technology on Males' Hostility and Cardiovascular Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Mary E.; Wiest, J. Rose

    A study examined differences in cardiovascular (CV) reactions and hostility following non-violent play and violent video game play. Subjects were 30 male college undergraduate students. Only male subjects were used because most video games are male oriented, males frequent videogame arcades more often than females, and the gender gap in video game…

  14. The Role of Violent Video Game Content in Adolescent Development: Boys' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Warner, Dorothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous policies have been proposed at the local, state, and national level to restrict youth access to violent video and computer games. Although studies are cited to support policies, there is no published research on how children perceive the uses and influence of violent interactive games. The authors conduct focus groups with 42 boys ages 12…

  15. How violent video games communicate violence: A literature review and content analysis of moral disengagement factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Krakowiak, M.; Tsay-Vogel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of moral disengagement in violent video game play have recently received considerable attention among communication scholars. To date, however, no study has analyzed the prevalence of moral disengagement factors in violent video games. To fill this research gap, the present approach

  16. Violent Video Gaming and Moral Reasoning in Adolescents: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    In this study of 109 adolescents from the eighth grade of seven public elementary schools in Canada, the relationship between adolescents' violent video game playing patterns, habits and attitudes, and their levels of moral reasoning was investigated. The results suggested that playing violent video games in general was a very popular activity…

  17. A 10-year follow-up study of violent victimization in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, Johannes; Bjørkly, Stål; Evensen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Violent victimization in persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences. Little is known about the long-term prevalence of victimization in first episode psychosis, or about factors affecting victimization throughout the course of illness. To assess the prevalence of violent...

  18. Media Managing Mood: A Look at the Possible Effects of Violent Media on Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Alexandra; LaQuea, Rachel; Cromwell, Rachel; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of violent media on children's emotional well-being has been a source of controversy for several decades. To date evidence for a negative impact of violent media on emotional well-being has been mixed and increasingly connected to a "replication crisis" throughout psychological science. Objective: The…

  19. The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Aggressive Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Paul J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Olson, Abbie A.; van Brederode, Tara M.

    Video games have become one of the favorite activities of children in America. A growing body of research links violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. This study tested the predictions that exposure to violent video game content is: (1) positively correlated with hostile attribution bias; (2) positively…

  20. Moral disengagement moderates the effect of violent video games on self-control, cheating and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbiadini, A.; Riva, P.; Andrighetto, L.; Volpato, C.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Violent video games glorify and reward immoral behaviors (e.g., murder, assault, rape, robbery, arson, motor vehicle theft). Based on the moral disengagement theory, we predicted that violent games would increase multiple immoral behaviors (i.e., lack of self-control, cheating, aggression),

  1. Effects of avatar race in violent video games on racial attitudes and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.S.; Gibson, B; Lueke, A.K.; Huesmann, L.R.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    The media often link Black characters and violence. This is especially true in video games, in which Black male characters are virtually always violent. This research tested the effects of playing a violent game as a Black (vs. White) avatar on racial stereotypes and aggression. In Experiment 1,

  2. The Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Cumulates findings across existing empirical research on the effects of violent video games to estimate overall effect size and discern important trends and moderating variables. Suggests there is a smaller effect of violent video games on aggression than has been found with television violence on aggression. (SG)

  3. Seeing the World through "Mortal Kombat" Colored Glasses: Violent Video Games and Hostile Attribution Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.

    Although positive effects of children playing video games have been found, recent research suggests that exposure to violent video games may lead to an increase in aggressive behavior. This study investigated the effects of playing violent versus nonviolent video games on the interpretation of ambiguous provocation situations. Participants were 52…

  4. Violent video games cause an increase in aggression long after the game has been turned off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Gibson, B

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies show that violent video games cause people to behave more aggressively, but how long does the effect last? In most experiments, aggression is measured immediately after gameplay. The present experiment is the first to test the long-term causal effects of violent video games on

  5. Effects of Playing versus Observing Violent versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Daniel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined short-term effects of playing versus observing violent versus nonviolent video games on the aggression of elementary school children. Children (N=146) played or observed games for 14 minutes, then completed three measures of aggression. Found no differences between violent and nonviolent conditions on measures of aggression. (Author/NB)

  6. The Relationship between Juvenile Psychopathic Traits, Delinquency and (Violent) Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van Vugt, Eveline S.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Yousfi, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency, general recidivism, and violent recidivism. Moderator…

  7. A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie

    2012-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association.

  8. Families, Neighborhood Socio-Demographic Factors, and Violent Behaviors among Latino, White, and Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy J.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Pedraza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Blacks and Latinos. Violent behaviors within Latino subgroups and the reasons for subgroup differences are not well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,615), this study examined the risk for violent behaviors among an ethnically…

  9. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Bushman, Brad J.; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of…

  10. The relationships between environmental factors and violent behaviors in adolescent students of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Omidi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings confirmed love and affection and healthy pastime (e.g. watching comedy and drama movies in the family to reduce violent behaviors in adolescents. In contrast, aggressive behaviors in the family, watching crime, police, and action movies were found to increase violent behaviors in adolescents.

  11. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Relationship between Violent Victimization and Criminal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaske, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle; Wright, John Paul

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a significant association between violent victimization and criminal behavior. One potential explanation for this association is that genetically mediated processes contribute to both violent victimization and criminal behavior. The current study uses data from the twin sample of the National Longitudinal Study of…

  12. Personality traits predict brain activation and connectivity when witnessing a violent conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Hortensius, R.; Sinke, Charlotte; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    As observers we excel in decoding the emotional signals telling us that a social interaction is turning violent. The neural substrate and its modulation by personality traits remain ill understood. We performed an fMRI experiment in which participants watched videos displaying a violent conflict

  13. Violent Video Games and the Military: Recruitment, Training, and Treating Mental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to the small collection of art education studies on video games (Parks, 2008; Patton, 2013; Sweeny, 2010) by critically examining the association between violent video games, the U.S. military, and mental disability--from a critical disability studies perspective. Derby overviews the controversies surrounding violent video games…

  14. Buss-Durkee Assessment and Validation with Violent versus Nonviolent Chronic Alcohol Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, Gisele J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abusers who had been violent while intoxicated and nonviolent alcohol abusers were administered the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Violence was documented. Violent drinkers scored significantly higher than control subjects on the inventory total hostility score and on subscales measuring assault, irritability, verbal hostility, indirect…

  15. Victim's Response and Alcohol-Related Factors as Determinants of Women's Responses to Violent Pornography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeanette; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2004-01-01

    Women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study examined the role of specific situational cues embedded within a violent pornographic story, as well as alcohol consumption and alcohol expectancies, to determine potential mechanisms through which these effects occur. Female social drinkers (N=123),…

  16. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Psychology of Violent Conflict in Failing States: A Review of the Scientific Literature (Psychologie des Conflits Violents au sein d’etats en Deroute: Analyse de Publications Scientifiques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Sommaire ..... Psychologie des conflits violents au sein d’états en déroute: Analyse de publications scientifiques Donald M. Taylor; Michael J. A...in parenthesis at the end of the title) The Psychology of Violent Conflict in Failing States (U) Psychologie des conflits violents au sein d’états en

  18. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging.

  19. Advertising Violent Toys in Weekly Circulars of Popular Retailers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H.; Guerra, Laura A.; Reeves, Rachel; Basch, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence is a pervasive problem in the United States. Toys, far from trivial playthings, are a reflection of society, including its beliefs and values. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which violent toys are marketed in online weekly flyers of popular retailers, how the violence is manifested, and whether violent toys are marketed differentially to boys and girls. Methods: For this cross-sectional observational study, online circulars from 5 major retailers were downloaded and examined each week for 14 weeks during the fall of 2014. For each retailer, the total number of toys, as well as the total number of violent and non-violent toys, was recorded. In addition, each violent toy was categorized into one of five groups: picturing a figure with a weapon, a figure with intent to strike (with fists drawn or an angry face), a toy with a violent name, a toy that was a weapon itself, or a set of toys that included two or more of these criteria. Results: A total number of 3,459 toys were observed, of which 1,053 (30%) were deemed violent. Of the violent toys, 95% were marketed to boys (n=1,003) versus 5% to girls (n=50). The most prevalent violent category was a figure with a weapon such as a sword, knife or gun (29%), followed by figures with fists out and aggressive faces (26%). Conclusion: Parents should be mindful of toy retailer‟s marketing of violent toys, especially toward boys, and the potential for those toys to de-sensitize their children to violence PMID:26634197

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Lifetime Assessment of Violent Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan R; Russell, Tiffany D; Bailly, Matthew D

    2017-12-01

    The Lifetime Assessment of Violent Acts (LAVA) inventory provides estimates of the frequency, triggers, and consequences (including injuries to others) of historic acts of aggression. The LAVA also identifies the situational contexts in which prior violence was triggered and allows classifications based on past reactive, intimate partner, alcoholrelated, and/or weapon-related violence. Normative and psychometric data were provided from a college (N = 1,133) and general population (N = 545) sample. Around 15% of the general population sample recalled inflicting 5 or more injuries on others at some time in the past. LAVA scores were significantly higher for women than men (d = .45), and respondents from the general population were more aggressive than those in the college sample (d = .41). The potential benefits, applications, and limitations of this retrospective self-report inventory are discussed.

  1. A Comprehensive Model for Promoting Resiliency and Preventing Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Olivo, Sara Maria; Tran, Oanh Kim; Begum, Gazi Ferdousi; Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle; Garcia, Nicole Marie; Tung, Catherine Yang

    2013-01-01

    Implementing violence prevention programs has become a priority for schools; however, most programs used for this purpose are limited in the skills they teach. In this study, two different resiliency building/violence prevention models were evaluated to assess their effectiveness at preventing violent and maladaptive behaviors in youth. Data from…

  2. Nepotistic patterns of violent psychopathy: evidence for adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brian Krupp

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individual’s inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to protect relatives. Thus, mental disorder and adaptation accounts of psychopathy generate opposing hypotheses: psychopathy should be associated with an increase in the victimization of kin in the former account but not in the latter. Contrary to the mental disorder hypothesis, we show here in a sample of 289 violent offenders that variation in psychopathy predicts a decrease in the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders; that is, psychopathy predicts an increased likelihood of harming nonrelatives. Because nepotistic inhibition in violence may be caused by dispersal or kin discrimination, we examined the effects of psychopathy on (1 the dispersal of offenders and their kin and (2 sexual assault frequency (as a window on kin discrimination. Although psychopathy was negatively associated with coresidence with kin and positively associated with the commission of sexual assault, it remained negatively associated with the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders after removing cases of offenders who had coresided with kin and cases of sexual assault from the analyses. These results stand in contrast to models positing psychopathy as a pathology, and provide support for the hypothesis that psychopathy reflects an evolutionary strategy largely favoring the exploitation of nonrelatives.

  3. Predictors of violent behavior among acute psychiatric patients: clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Mario; Menchetti, Marco; Tonti, Cristina; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Lundgren, Eva; Esposito, William; Berardi, Domenico

    2008-06-01

    Violence risk prediction is a priority issue for clinicians working with mentally disordered offenders. The aim of the present study was to determine violence risk factors in acute psychiatric inpatients. The study was conducted in a locked, short-term psychiatric inpatient unit and involved 374 patients consecutively admitted in a 1-year period. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through a review of the medical records and patient interviews. Psychiatric symptoms at admission were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Psychiatric diagnosis was formulated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Past aggressive behavior was evaluated by interviewing patients, caregivers or other collateral informants. Aggressive behaviors in the ward were assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale. Patients who perpetrated verbal and against-object aggression or physical aggression in the month before admission were compared to non-aggressive patients, moreover, aggressive behavior during hospitalization and persistence of physical violence after admission were evaluated. Violent behavior in the month before admission was associated with male sex, substance abuse and positive symptoms. The most significant risk factor for physical violence was a past history of physically aggressive behavior. The persistent physical assaultiveness before and during hospitalization was related to higher BPRS total scores and to more severe thought disturbances. Higher levels of hostility-suspiciousness BPRS scores predicted a change for the worse in violent behavior, from verbal to physical. A comprehensive evaluation of the history of past aggressive behavior and psychopathological variables has important implications for the prediction of violence in psychiatric settings.

  4. The causes of Islamic fundamentalist violent movements in postcolonial Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is one of the first African states to be confronted with the violent Islamist fundamentalist group popularly known as Boko Haram. It declared war on the Nigerian secular state in 2009, and implements a program, if successful, to transform the country into an Islamic theocratic state led by sharia (Islamic law, in the country where only half of the population are Muslims. The article starts with clarification of the structure of the Nigerian society from the linguistic perspective, and from the point of view of political cultures of different societies, which were colonized and came under one British colonial rule to 1960. This study analyses the history of Islamist fundamental movements starting from the late 1970s, and focuses on the latest such group - Boko Haram. The authors examine the social, economical, and political causes of the brutal violent conflict in the northeastern Nigeria, which was the heartland of the pre-colonial Kanem Bornu state and the center of Kanuri national culture. Finally, the authors identify social and political causes of the developmental chain of Salafist movements, particularly from 2009 when Boko Haram declared war against the Nigerian state in order to transform it into an Islamic caliphate; thus, there was a catastrophic human rights violation by the Nigerian Army in the name of fighting the Boko Haram terrorists. The authors do not suggest any decisions and do not provide any final conclusions - they admit the uncertainty of the current situation in Nigeria and call for the further research of internal politics tendencies under the new government led by President Buhari, who can either continue to solve the problems of the country by aggressive military means as two previous presidents of Nigeria, or, on the contrary, can prefer peaceful and conciliatory measures.

  5. The lone gamer: Social exclusion predicts violent video game preferences and fuels aggressive inclinations in adolescent players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Violent video game playing has been linked to a wide range of negative outcomes, especially in adolescents. In the present research, we focused on a potential determinant of adolescents' willingness to play violent video games: social exclusion. We also tested whether exclusion can predict increased aggressiveness following violent video game playing. In two experiments, we predicted that exclusion could increase adolescents' preferences for violent video games and interact with violent game playing fostering adolescents' aggressive inclinations. In Study 1, 121 adolescents (aged 10-18 years) were randomly assigned to a manipulation of social exclusion. Then, they evaluated the violent content of nine different video games (violent, nonviolent, or prosocial) and reported their willingness to play each presented video game. The results showed that excluded participants expressed a greater willingness to play violent games than nonviolent or prosocial games. No such effect was found for included participants. In Study 2, both inclusionary status and video game contents were manipulated. After a manipulation of inclusionary status, 113 adolescents (aged 11-16 years) were randomly assigned to play either a violent or a nonviolent video game. Then, they were given an opportunity to express their aggressive inclinations toward the excluders. Results showed that excluded participants who played a violent game displayed the highest level of aggressive inclinations than participants who were assigned to the other experimental conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that exclusion increases preferences for violent games and that the combination of exclusion and violent game playing fuels aggressive inclinations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Potential Adverse Effects of Violent Video Gaming: Interpersonal- Affective Traits Are Rather Impaired Than Disinhibition in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, Ann-Christin S; Andringa, Gerda; Derntl, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    The increasing trend of mass shootings, which were associated with excessive use of violent video games, fueled the debate of possible effects violent video games may have on adolescents and young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible link between violent video gaming effects and the disposition of adverse behavior traits such as interpersonal-affective deficits and disinhibition. Data of 167 young adults, collected by an online questionnaire battery, were analyzed for lifetime video game exposure differences (i.e., non-gamers, non-violent video gamers, stopped violent video game users, and ongoing violent video game users) as well as for recent exposure effects on adverse behavior traits (Levenson's Psychopathy Scale), while controlling for other potentially confounding lifestyle factors. While interpersonal-affective deficits were significantly higher in participants with ongoing violent video game exposure compared to non-gamers and non-violent video gamers, disinhibition was significantly higher in both - stopped and ongoing - violent video game exposure groups compared to non-gamers. Recent violent video game exposure was a stronger predictor for interpersonal-affective deficits, but was also significant for disinhibition. Considering that we observed small to medium effects in a sample of young adults with little to moderate use of violent video games highlights the importance of further investigating the potential adverse effects of violent video games on quality of social relationships.

  7. “Boom, Headshot!”: Effect of violent video game play and controller type on firing aim and accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, J.L.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Video games are excellent training tools. Some writers have called violent video games “murder simulators.” Can violent games “train” a person to shoot a gun? There are theoretical reasons to believe they can. Participants (N = 151) played a violent shooting game with humanoid targets that rewarded

  8. Potential Adverse Effects of Violent Video Gaming: Interpersonal- Affective Traits Are Rather Impaired Than Disinhibition in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin S. Kimmig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of mass shootings, which were associated with excessive use of violent video games, fueled the debate of possible effects violent video games may have on adolescents and young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible link between violent video gaming effects and the disposition of adverse behavior traits such as interpersonal-affective deficits and disinhibition. Data of 167 young adults, collected by an online questionnaire battery, were analyzed for lifetime video game exposure differences (i.e., non-gamers, non-violent video gamers, stopped violent video game users, and ongoing violent video game users as well as for recent exposure effects on adverse behavior traits (Levenson’s Psychopathy Scale, while controlling for other potentially confounding lifestyle factors. While interpersonal-affective deficits were significantly higher in participants with ongoing violent video game exposure compared to non-gamers and non-violent video gamers, disinhibition was significantly higher in both – stopped and ongoing – violent video game exposure groups compared to non-gamers. Recent violent video game exposure was a stronger predictor for interpersonal-affective deficits, but was also significant for disinhibition. Considering that we observed small to medium effects in a sample of young adults with little to moderate use of violent video games highlights the importance of further investigating the potential adverse effects of violent video games on quality of social relationships.

  9. When the woman gets violent: the construction of domestic abuse experience from heterosexual men's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entilli, Lorenza; Cipolletta, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    To promote a critical approach on the conceptualisation of domestic violence by investigating the experience of abuse on the part of men who are victims of domestic violence by their female partners. Media attention and prevention programmes relating to domestic violence have mainly focused on women as the victims and men as the perpetrators. The underlying idea is that violence is predominantly physical and a prerogative of men. This conceptualisation of violence reduces the opportunities for the consideration of different modalities of abuse. Discourse analysis within a qualitative approach. Semistructured interviews with 20 Italian men who claimed to have been abused by their female partners were conducted via Skype and analysed with the software atlas.ti. The grounded theory methodology was used to avoid imposing external points of view. Personal data were collected; in particular, their occupational level was compared to their partners' to assess the social power within the couple. Because of their strong endorsement of social and cultural values, participants showed a protective attitude towards their partners and imputed their violent acts to fragility or an external condition. Emotional distress emerged due to the isolation and subsequent inability to seek help. Although the physical violence reported is severe, the psychological violence was indicated as more damaging. Gaining an understanding of how men experience domestic abuse offers an opportunity to provide better prevention and intervention for them and other family members at risk of abuse. The study identifies gaps in service provision generated by a lack of information or perceived prejudice towards abused men. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is discussed, and future applications for treatments and prevention plans are proposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  11. Optimization with Extremal Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon G.

    2001-01-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard discrete optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively updates extremely undesirable variables of a single suboptimal solution, assigning them new, random values. Large fluctuations ensue, efficiently exploring many local optima. We use extremal optimization to elucidate the phase transition in the 3-coloring problem, and we provide independent confirmation of previously reported extrapolations for the ground-state energy of ±J spin glasses in d=3 and 4

  12. HOW CAN LOVE BE VIOLENT? REFLECTIONS ON RICHARD OF ST.VICTOR’S ON THE FOUR DEGREES OF VIOLENT LOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS TALOŞ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The following article focuses on Richard of St. Victor´s most original treatise: On the Four Degrees of Violent Love. Although the topic of violence within the Christian view on ethics, politics and theology was not at all new by 1173, the major contribution of this short but dense mystical writing consists in developing systematically the violence as an inherent consequence of the infinite charity. The love is so powerful that it “wounds, binds, languishes and brings on a faint”, but the same force may have different effects: if these four steps appear to be destructive when oriented to satisfy the “profane” desires, their infinite strength show providential effects when turned to the divine source of the charity.

  13. [Violence prevention in childhood and adolescence--a brief overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.

  14. Symptom profiles and parental bonding in homicidal versus non-violent male schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmai, Tamás; Tényi, Tamás; Gonda, Xénia

    2017-01-30

    To compare the intensity and the profile of psychotic symptoms and the characteristics of parental bonding of male schizophrenia patients with a history of homicide and those without a history of violent behaviour. Clinical question - We hypothesized more intense psychotic symptoms, especially positive symptoms as signs of a more severe psychopathology in the background of homicidal behaviour. We also hypothesized a more negatively perceived pattern (less Care more Overprotection) of parental bonding in the case of homicidal schizophrenia patients than in non-violent patients and non-violent healthy controls. Symptom severity and symptom profiles were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in a group of male schizophrenia patients (n=22) with the history of committed or attempted homicide, and another group (n=19) of male schizophrenia patients without a history of violent behaviour. Care- and Overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in a third group of non-violent healthy controls (n=20), too. Positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in the homicidal schizophrenia group were significantly (pOverprotection than violent patients and healthy controls. Homicidal schizophrenia patients showed a pattern similar to the one in the healthy control group. It seems imperative to register intense positive psychotic symptoms as predictive markers for later violent behaviour. In the subgroup of male homicidal schizophrenia patients negatively experienced parental bonding does not appear to be major contributing factor to later homicidal behaviour.

  15. The effect of online violent video games on levels of aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hollingdale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS. Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM, has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants (N = 101 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game--offline, neutral video game--online, violent video game--offline and violent video game--online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression.

  16. The effect of online violent video games on levels of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Participants (N = 101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game--offline, neutral video game--online, violent video game--offline and violent video game--online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression.

  17. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  18. Does playing violent video games cause aggression? A longitudinal intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Kugler, Dimitrij Tycho; Schmalen, Katharina; Weichenberger, Markus; Witt, Charlotte; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2018-03-13

    It is a widespread concern that violent video games promote aggression, reduce pro-social behaviour, increase impulsivity and interfere with cognition as well as mood in its players. Previous experimental studies have focussed on short-term effects of violent video gameplay on aggression, yet there are reasons to believe that these effects are mostly the result of priming. In contrast, the present study is the first to investigate the effects of long-term violent video gameplay using a large battery of tests spanning questionnaires, behavioural measures of aggression, sexist attitudes, empathy and interpersonal competencies, impulsivity-related constructs (such as sensation seeking, boredom proneness, risk taking, delay discounting), mental health (depressivity, anxiety) as well as executive control functions, before and after 2 months of gameplay. Our participants played the violent video game Grand Theft Auto V, the non-violent video game The Sims 3 or no game at all for 2 months on a daily basis. No significant changes were observed, neither when comparing the group playing a violent video game to a group playing a non-violent game, nor to a passive control group. Also, no effects were observed between baseline and posttest directly after the intervention, nor between baseline and a follow-up assessment 2 months after the intervention period had ended. The present results thus provide strong evidence against the frequently debated negative effects of playing violent video games in adults and will therefore help to communicate a more realistic scientific perspective on the effects of violent video gaming.

  19. Violent video games stress people out and make them more aggressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Youssef; Bègue, Laurent; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress was measured using cardiac coherence, defined as the synchronization of the rhythm of breathing to the rhythm of the heart. We predicted that cardiac coherence would mediate the link between exposure to violent video games and subsequent aggression. Specifically, we predicted that playing a violent video game would decrease cardiac coherence, and that cardiac coherence, in turn, would correlate negatively with aggression. Participants (N = 77) played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. Cardiac coherence was measured before and during game play. After game play, participants had the opportunity to blast a confederate with loud noise through headphones during a reaction time task. The intensity and duration of noise blasts given to the confederate was used to measure aggression. As expected, violent video game players had lower cardiac coherence levels and higher aggression levels than did nonviolent game players. Cardiac coherence, in turn, was negatively related to aggression. This research offers another possible reason why violent games can increase aggression-by inducing stress. Cardiac coherence can be a useful tool to measure stress induced by violent video games. Cardiac coherence has several desirable methodological features as well: it is noninvasive, stable against environmental disturbances, relatively inexpensive, not subject to demand characteristics, and easy to use. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Violent mass shootings in Sweden from 1960 to 1995: profiles, patterns, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, O; Lidberg, L

    1998-03-01

    During the past few decades, violent mass shooting in Sweden has increased rapidly. In the 36 years between 1960 and 1995, fourteen such occasions were recorded, during which 32 people were killed and 57 were wounded. The 14 offenders were men between the ages of 17 and 61 years. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1979, five shootings were committed by five offenders, leaving 10 dead and 13 wounded; in the 16 years between 1980 and 1995, there were nine different shootings committed by nine offenders, with 22 dead and 44 wounded. Seven of the shootings were classified as mass shootings, six as spree shootings, and one as a serial shooting. In all but four of these cases, the firearms used were illegal weapons. The four legal firearms belonged to an unemployed young laborer, an officer, a former United Nations (U.N.) soldier, and a member of the Swedish military volunteer corps. Of those killed, 68.8% were strangers to the offender; among the wounded, the corresponding figure was 89.5%. Profiles of the offenders and of the victims were studied. The psychiatric diagnoses among the offenders and the measures taken to prevent the increase in mass shooting in Sweden are presented.

  1. An empirical test of social information processing theory and emotions in violent situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra N. Bowen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the decisionmaking process in highriskforviolence situations. Methods formallegal sociological method of hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Results criminological research has favored the rational choice perspective in studying offender decision making. However this theoretical approach does not take into account the complex interplay of situational cognitive emotional and person factors that likely influence criminal decision making. To that end the current study examines decision making in highriskforviolence situations focusing on social information processing and emotional state variables. The current study utilizes a sample of 236 newly incarcerated jailed inmates who provide personal level data and situational reports of violent and avoided violence situations n 466. Scientific novelty the findings for the first time show that several situational social information processing and emotion variables such as intent interpretation goal and response generation are significant predictors of the escalation of violence hence increasing the probability of committing a crime. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and lawenforcement activities when considering the issues of identifying and eliminating the reasons and conditions of crime committing as well as with influencing the individuals in order to prevent crimes or antisocial behavior.

  2. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human.

  3. Social desintegration and violent deaths in countries of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Daniel Bonaldi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intents to show that deep social transformations that took place in the Soviet Union, between middle 80s and middle 90s during XXth. century, provoqued a significant increase in violent deaths rates (suicides, homicides and accidents. Our study follows a theoretical perspective based on Durkheim ideas , that try to explain variations in violent deaths rates analyzing changes in the intensity and nature of social relationships. The analysis of evolution of specific rates by region, sex and age allowed us to verify that groups more directly affected by social transformations were those that also presented the highest rates in the proportion of violent deaths. 

  4. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  5. Mining for Murder-Suicide: An Approach to Identifying Cases of Murder-Suicide in the National Violent Death Reporting System Restricted Access Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Matthew R; Patton, Christina L; Fremouw, William J

    2016-01-01

    The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) is a United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) database of violent deaths from 2003 to the present. The NVDRS collects information from 32 states on several types of violent deaths, including suicides, homicides, homicides followed by suicides, and deaths resulting from child maltreatment or intimate partner violence, as well as legal intervention and accidental firearm deaths. Despite the availability of data from police narratives, medical examiner reports, and other sources, reliably finding the cases of murder-suicide in the NVDRS has proven problematic due to the lack of a unique code for murder-suicide incidents and outdated descriptions of case-finding procedures from previous researchers. By providing a description of the methods used to access to the NVDRS and coding procedures used to decipher these data, the authors seek to assist future researchers in correctly identifying cases of murder-suicide deaths while avoiding false positives. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. SOHO reveals violent action on the quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    SOHO's scientists are impressed by the vigorous action that they see going on every day, because the Sun is in the very quietest phase of its eleven-year cycle of activity. To ground-based observatories it appears extremely calm just now. The early indications of SOHO's performance amply justify the creation of a sungazing spacecraft capable of observing ultraviolet emissions that are blotted out by the Earth's atmosphere. Apart from the imager, two ultraviolet spectrometers and an ultraviolet coronagraph (an imager for the outer atmosphere) are busy analysing the violent processes at a wide range of wavelengths. Between them, these instruments should cure long-lasting ignorance concerning the Sun, especially about why the atmosphere is so hot and what drives the solar wind that blows non-stop into the Solar System. Scientists from other experimental teams use SOHO to explore the Sun from its deep interior to the far reaches of the solar wind. They have watched the supposedly quiet Sun belching huge masses of gas into space. They have mapped a hole burnt by the solar wind in a breeze of gas coming from the stars. And they have detected currents of gas flowing just below the visible surface. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO on 2 December 1995, and also provides the ground stations and an operations centre near Washington. The first results are the more remarkable because SOHO arrived at its vantage point 1,500,000 kilometres out in space only in February, and formally completed its commissioning on 16 April. It has a long life ahead of it. All scientific instruments are working well. The luminosity oscillation imager belonging to the VIRGO experiment had trouble with its lens cover. When opened, the cover rebounded on its hinges and closed again. Commands were devised that gave a shorter impulse

  7. Increasing Lower Extremity Injury Rates Across the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 Seasons of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football: An Unintended Consequence of the "Targeting" Rule Used to Prevent Concussions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Robert W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Wehr, Peter; Amendola, Annuziato

    2016-12-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) have gained increased societal interest in the past decade. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has implemented legislation and rule changes to decrease the incidence and risk of head injury impacts. The "targeting" rule forbids initiating contact with the crown of a helmet and targeting defenseless players in the head and neck area; however, there are concerns that this rule change has unintentionally led to an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in lower extremity injury rates in NCAA football during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons. We hypothesized that the lower extremity injury rate has increased across the time period. Descriptive epidemiology study. Sixty-eight NCAA football programs provided 153 team-seasons of data to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program. Lower extremity injuries (ie, hip/groin, upper leg/thigh, knee, lower leg/Achilles, foot/toes) and SRCs sustained during NCAA football games were examined. We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) for lower extremity injuries and SRCs. Rate ratios (RRs) compared injury rates between the 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 seasons. Overall, 2400 lower extremity injuries were reported during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons; most were to the knee (33.6%) and ankle (28.5%) and caused by player contact (59.2%). The lower extremity injury rate increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 (23.55 vs 20.45/1000 AEs, respectively; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25). This finding was retained when restricted to injuries due to player contact (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32) but not for injuries due to noncontact/overuse (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80-1.14). When examining player contact injury rates by anatomic site, only ankle injuries had an increase (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64). The SRC rate also increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with

  8. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Epidemiology of extremity fractures in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerekamp, M. S. H.; de Muinck Keizer, R. J. O.; Schep, N. W. L.; Ubbink, D. T.; Panneman, M. J. M.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Insight in epidemiologic data of extremity fractures is relevant to identify people at risk. By analyzing age- and gender specific fracture incidence and treatment patterns we may adjust future policy, take preventive measures and optimize health care management. Current epidemiologic data on

  10. Seeing the World through Mortal Kombat-Colored Glasses: Violent Video Games and the Development of a Short-Term Hostile Attribution Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the effects of playing violent versus non-violent video games on the interpretation of ambiguous provocation situation. Found that children playing a violent video game responded more negatively to three of six ambiguous provocation story questions than children playing the non-violent video game. Data suggest that playing violent…

  11. Occupational Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers, 2003-2013: Data From the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Janet M; Fowler, Katherine A; Betz, Carter J; Baumgardner, Jason L

    2016-11-01

    Law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the U.S. are at an increased risk for homicide. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of homicides of LEOs in 17 U.S. states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System. This active surveillance system uses data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze National Violent Death Reporting System data for 2003-2013. Deaths of LEOs feloniously killed in the line of duty were selected for analysis. LEO homicides and the circumstances preceding or occurring during the incident were characterized. Analyses were conducted October 2015-June 2016. A total of 128 officer homicides from 121 incidents were identified. Most (93.7%) LEO victims were male, 60.9% were aged 30-49 years (average age, 40.9 years). Approximately 21.9% of LEOs were killed during an ambush, and 19.5% were killed during traffic stops or pursuits. Of the 14.1% of LEOs killed responding to domestic disturbances, most disturbances were intimate partner violence related. More than half (57.0%) of homicides were precipitated by another crime, and of these, 71.2% involved crimes in progress. Most suspects were male. Ninety-one percent of homicides of LEOs were committed with a firearm. This information is critical to help describe encounter situations faced by LEOs. The results of this study can be used to help educate and train LEOs on hazards, inform prevention efforts designed to promote LEO safety, and prevent homicide among this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Aggression control therapy for violent forensic psychiatric patients: method and clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Aggression control therapy is based on Goldstein, Gibbs, and Glick's aggression replacement training and was developed for violent forensic psychiatric in- and outpatients (adolescents and adults) with a (oppositional-defiant) conduct disorder or an antisocial personality disorder. First, the

  13. The effects of reward and punishment in violent video games on aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, Nicholas L; Anderson, Craig A

    2005-11-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on later aggression-related variables. Participants played one of three versions of the same race-car video game: (a) a version in which all violence was rewarded, (b) a version in which all violence was punished, and (c) a nonviolent version. Participants were then measured for aggressive affect (Experiment 1), aggressive cognition (Experiment 2), and aggressive behavior (Experiment 3). Rewarding violent game actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behavior. Punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, but did not increase aggressive thinking or aggressive behavior. Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking.

  14. The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-04-01

    Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games.

  15. Corrigendum: Like a Magnet: Catharsis Beliefs Attract Angry People to Violent Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Bushman, B. J., & Whitaker, J. L. (2010). Like a magnet: Catharsis beliefs attract angry people to violent video games. Psychological Science, 21, 790-792. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797610369494). © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Gambling, violent behaviour and attitudes towards violence among adolescent gamblers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räsänen Tiina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The purpose of this population-based study was to explore the relationship between gambling and violent behaviour and attitudes towards violence among 14- and 16-year-old adolescents. DESIGN - A national survey was conducted in Finland in 2011. The main measures in our study were gambling frequency and number of reported gambling-related harms. Their associations with violent behaviours and attitudes towards violence were studied using multinomial logistic regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS - 47.1% of adolescents had gambled during the past six months and 13.2% of them had experienced gambling-related harms. Both gambling frequency and the number of gambling-related harms were linked to violent behaviour as well as to positive attitudes towards violence. Adolescents who engaged in gambling on a daily basis and/ or experienced gambling harms had the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS - Health promotion efforts among gamblers should take into account their increased risk for violent behaviour.

  17. Final final Reginald M.J. Oduor Justifying Non-violent Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jimmy Gitonga

    peoples often engaged in violent resistance against them. Kihoro (2005) .... The mothers, relatives and friends of political ... disobedience, with a view to assisting their compatriots to make informed choices. ..... influence on him: It was in this ...

  18. The pacifist Jesus and the violent Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-05-28

    May 28, 2010 ... Jerusalem, while the violent Jesus is the future or eschatological Jesus, who will return from ..... more so once we consider that most of these references are .... the non-Christian Jewish community, the Law-liberal wider.

  19. Muslim Prison Ministry: Hindering the Spread of the Radical, Militant, Violent and Irreconcilable Wing of Islam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dooghan, James K

    2006-01-01

    .... However, addressing violent Islamic ideology at the grass roots level may decrease the number of terrorists recruited and increase the number of Muslims favoring a nonviolent interpretation of the Qur'an...

  20. Advertising Violent Toys in Weekly Circulars of Popular Retailers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey H. Basch

    2015-10-01

    with fists out and aggressive faces (26%. Conclusion: Parents should be mindful of toy retailer’s marketing of violent toys, especially toward boys, and the potential for those toys to desensitize their children to violence.

  1. 91 The Natioral World and Violent Conflict in Nigeria: An Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Ezenwa-Ohaeto

    impact of conflicts on the natural environment in. Nigeria. It is to fill this lacuna that this ... examine in more detail the environmental consequences of violent conflicts. ..... Impact Assessment Act. Nigeria does not lack ideas about environmental ...

  2. Understanding Racial Differences in Exposure to Violent Areas: Integrating Survey, Smartphone, and Administrative Data Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Christopher R; Calder, Catherine A; Ford, Jodi L; Boettner, Bethany; Smith, Anna L; Haynie, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that exposure to violent areas may influence youth wellbeing. We employ smartphone GPS data on youth activity spaces to examine the extent of, and potential explanations for, racial disparities in these exposures. Multilevel models of data from the Adolescent Health and Development in Context study indicate that exposures to violent areas vary significantly across days of the week and between youth who reside in the same neighborhood. African American youth are exposed to areas with substantially higher levels of violence. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood is significantly associated with exposure to violent areas and explains a non-trivial proportion of the racial difference in this outcome. However, neighborhood factors are incomplete explanations of the racial disparity. Characteristics of the activity locations at which youth spend time explain the residual racial disparity in exposure to violent areas. These findings highlight the importance of youth activity spaces, above and beyond their neighborhood environments.

  3. Self-worth mediates the effects of violent loss on PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Anthony D; Prati, Gabriele; Black, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Although research has confirmed that violent losses can exacerbate grief reactions, few investigations have explored underlying mechanisms. In this study, the authors used a dataset on bereaved spouses and bereaved parents at 4- and 18-months postloss to examine the mediating effects of self-worth and worldviews (benevolence and meaningfulness beliefs). Persons bereaved by violent causes had significantly more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), grief, and depression symptoms at 4- and 18-months postloss than persons bereaved by natural causes. Moreover, self-worth but not worldviews mediated the effects of violent loss on PTSD and depression symptoms cross sectionally and PTSD symptoms longitudinally. Findings underscore that self-views are a critical component of problematic reactions to violent loss, but fail to support the role of "shattered" worldviews. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Brain morphometric correlates of MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism in violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romero-Rebollar

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: This findings suggests that grey matter integrity in superior temporal pole could be a neurobiological correlate of the allelic association between MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and violent behavior due to its implication in socio-emotional processing.

  5. Violent Video Games Don't Increase Hostility in Teens, but They Do Stress Girls Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Trigani, Benjamin; Pilato, Steven; Miller, Stephanie; Foley, Kimberly; Barr, Hayley

    2016-03-01

    The impact of violent video games (VVGs) on youth remains unclear given inconsistent results in past literature. Most previous experimental studies have been done with college students, not youth. The current study examined the impact of VVGs in an experimental study of teens (12-18). Participants were randomized to play either a violent or non-violent video game. Teens also reported their levels of stress and hostility both before and after video game play. Hostility levels neither decreased nor increased following violent game play, and Bayesian analyzes confirmed that results are supportive of the null hypothesis. By contrast, VVG exposure increased stress, but only for girls. The impact of VVGs on teen hostility is minimal. However, players unfamiliar with such games may find them unpleasant. These results are put into the context of Uses and Gratifications Theory with suggestions for how medical professionals should address the issue of VVG play with concerned parents.

  6. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  7. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  8. Comorbid personality disorders and violent behavior in psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Schizophrenia without any comorbidity confers a modest, but statistically significant elevation of the risk for violence. That risk is considerably increased by comorbid antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy as well as by comorbid substance use disorders. These comorbidities are frequent. Conduct disorder and conduct disorder symptoms elevate the risk for aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with premorbid conditions, including antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Aggressive behavior in bipolar disorder occurs mainly during manic episodes, but it remains elevated in euthymic patients in comparison with controls. The risk of violent behavior is increased by comorbidity with borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance use disorders. These comorbidities are frequent. Borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are related in their phenomenology and response to medication. These two disorders share a tendency to impulsiveness, and impulsive behavior, including impulsive aggression, is particularly expressed when they co-occur.

  9. Management of violent behaviour in acutely relapsed schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of aggressive behaviour has always been a criticai issue in psychiatry. Finding measures that can be used to accurately predict the likelihood of assaultative behaviour and thus ensure timeous appropriate pharmacological management remains a dilemma. The study objective was to investigate the naturalistic, pharmacological management of inpatient aggressive behaviour in a group of 50 schizophrenic subjects with a view to determine: (1 whether a presenting history of recent violence lead to altered pharmacological management and (2 whether the NOSIE could be regarded as a useful assessment tool with regards to inpatient behaviour management. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the 2 subsets of subjects (history of violence vs none with respect to total doses of medication administered. No statistical correlation could be found between the total NOSIE score and the dose of psychotropic medication used. The relationship between a subset of NOSIE-items and the total dose of medication was more complex and a clear linear relationship could be demonstrated for a total score of 0 to 5. In this particular ward setting a presenting history of recent violent behaviour did not influence the administration of medication and neither could the clinical judgement employed by the nursing staff to manage inpatient behaviour be captured by the NOSIE. However, a five-item subset of the NOSIE with questions relating to aggression and irritability warrants further scrutiny in this regard.

  10. Research Less Violent? Or the Ethics of Performative Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabi Redwood

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I construct an argument which positions research as an inherently violent activity in which the strange is made to appear familiar thereby forcing the otherness of the other into some kind of order, and transforming the unknown into the knowable. Through organising data and imposing an order—which is arguably the point of any analysis and representation—the wild profusion of things is tamed (to use a Foucauldian metaphor. Thus ambiguity and difference are flattened out, and indeterminacy is overlaid with "findings". Furthermore, research can also be seen as an activity in which the moral choices, ethical and analytical decisions, and personal investments of the researcher are secreted away and so are made to appear natural and innocent. I argue that there is an opportunity for performative social science research to remember the ethical consequences of analysis and representation and to take responsibility for the violence of taming the wild profusion of data. This opportunity resides in its potential to show, not tell; to be open to the future, another happening, another event rather than to settle for one final conclusion and close down other possibilities; and to provoke critique, resistance and political action rather than appeal for agreement, conformity and indifference. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802608

  11. Failure to Demonstrate That Playing Violent Video Games Diminishes Prosocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tear, Morgan J.; Nielsen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in vir...

  12. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We...

  13. The Effect of Online Violent Video Games on Levels of Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase...

  14. Sexual Violence Prevention in Indiana: Toward Safer, Healthier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Katie; Heiman, Julia R.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    For roughly three decades, policymakers have sought to reduce sexual violence by reliance on a criminal justice approach in which sexually violent acts are dealt with after they occur. Recognizing that prevention efforts could be more valuable, as they work to stop the problem before it begins, researchers have begun to implement a primary…

  15. U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Natakie

    2016-01-01

    In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…

  16. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.; Huser, Raphaë l

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event

  17. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  18. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  19. Failure to demonstrate that playing violent video games diminishes prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Morgan J; Nielsen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc.) and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior.

  20. Failure to demonstrate that playing violent video games diminishes prosocial behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan J Tear

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc. and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. CONCLUSIONS: We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior.

  1. The influence of religiosity on violent behavior of adolescents: a comparison of Christian and Muslim religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Different criminological theories assume that religiosity protects against violent behavior. Up to now, this assumption is tested empirically almost exclusively for the Christian religiosity. The study presented here questions whether such a relationship between religiosity and violent behavior could be found for Muslims, likewise. Using a German-wide representative school survey of 16,545 male students in the ninth grade, who belong either to a Christian or an Islamic denomination, it can be revealed that only for Christians a higher religiosity correlates with a lower rate of violent behavior. This influence of Christian religiosity can be explained by mainly control theory variables. For Muslims, there is no significant correlation between religiosity and violent behavior in a bivariate analysis. A multivariate analysis, however, reveals a suppression effect: Controlling for alcohol consumption, Muslim religiosity increases violent behavior. In addition, high religious Muslims agree more often to norms of masculinity and consume more often media violence, which are risk factors of violent behavior. Accordingly, it can be concluded that religiosity is not a violence-protecting factor in general; instead, a more differentiated view for separate religious groups is necessary.

  2. The impact of indigenous cultural identity and cultural engagement on violent offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephane M; Delgado, Rosa Hazel; Sherwood, Juanita; Paradies, Yin

    2017-07-24

    Possessing a strong cultural identity has been shown to protect against mental health symptoms and buffer distress prompted by discrimination. However, no research to date has explored the protective influences of cultural identity and cultural engagement on violent offending. This paper investigates the relationships between cultural identity/engagement and violent recidivism for a cohort of Australian Indigenous people in custody. A total of 122 adults from 11 prisons in the state of Victoria completed a semi-structured interview comprising cultural identification and cultural engagement material in custody. All official police charges for violent offences were obtained for participants who were released from custody into the community over a period of 2 years. No meaningful relationship between cultural identity and violent recidivism was identified. However a significant association between cultural engagement and violent recidivism was obtained. Further analyses demonstrated that this relationship was significant only for participants with a strong Indigenous cultural identity. Participants with higher levels of cultural engagement took longer to violently re-offend although this association did not reach significance. For Australian Indigenous people in custody, 'cultural engagement' was significantly associated with non-recidivism. The observed protective impact of cultural engagement is a novel finding in a correctional context. Whereas identity alone did not buffer recidivism directly, it may have had an indirect influence given its relationship with cultural engagement. The findings of the study emphasize the importance of culture for Indigenous people in custody and a greater need for correctional institutions to accommodate Indigenous cultural considerations.

  3. Single-photon emission tomography imaging of monoamine transporters in impulsive violent behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiihonen, J.; Hallikainen, T.; Hakola, P.; Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Yang, J.; Karhu, J.; Viinamaeki, H.; Lehtonen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have shown that impulsive violent and suicidal behaviour is associated with a central serotonin deficit, but until now it has not been possible to use laboratory tests with high sensitivity and specificity to study this kind of deficit or to localize the sites of serotonergic abnormalities in the living human brain. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that monoamine transporter density in brain is decreased in subjects with impulsive violent behaviour. We studied serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) transporter specific binding in 52 subjects (21 impulsive violent offenders, 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and ten non-violent alcoholic controls) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using iodine-123-labelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT) as the tracer. The blind quantitative analysis revealed that the 5-HT specific binding of [ 123 I]β-CIT in the midbrain of violent offenders was lower than that in the healthy control subjects (P<0.005; t test) or the non-violent alcoholics (P<0.05). The results imply that habitual impulsive aggressive behaviour in man is associated with a decrease in the 5-HT transporter density. (orig.)

  4. The relation between abuse and violent delinquency: the conversion of shame to blame in juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2011-07-01

    While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12-19 years; M=15.6; SD=1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Failure to Demonstrate That Playing Violent Video Games Diminishes Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Morgan J.; Nielsen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc.) and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. Methods and Findings Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. Conclusions We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior. PMID:23844191

  6. Facial reactions to violent and comedy films: Association with callous-unemotional traits and impulsive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kyranides, Melina Nicole; Panayiotou, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    The current study adds to prior research by investigating specific (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear) and general (corrugator and zygomatic muscle activity) facial reactions to violent and comedy films among individuals with varying levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and impulsive aggression (IA). Participants at differential risk of CU traits and IA were selected from a sample of 1225 young adults. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 82) facial expressions were recorded while they watched violent and comedy films. Video footage of participants' facial expressions was analysed using FaceReader, a facial coding software that classifies facial reactions. Findings suggested that individuals with elevated CU traits showed reduced facial reactions of sadness and disgust to violent films, indicating low empathic concern in response to victims' distress. In contrast, impulsive aggressors produced specifically more angry facial expressions when viewing violent and comedy films. In Experiment 2 (N = 86), facial reactions were measured by monitoring facial electromyography activity. FaceReader findings were verified by the reduced facial electromyography at the corrugator, but not the zygomatic, muscle in response to violent films shown by individuals high in CU traits. Additional analysis suggested that sympathy to victims explained the association between CU traits and reduced facial reactions to violent films.

  7. Understanding How and Why Young People Enter Radical or Violent Extremist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Schils

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of (violent radicalisation and subsequently joining of radical or violent extremist groups was studied using semi-structured interviews with (young people who considered themselves as radicals or violent extremists in left-wing, right-wing or religious settings. The data was gathered in Belgium from March through November 2013. Though modest in number (12, the interviews tell us a lot about factors that play a role in (violent radicalisation and the organisation of radical or violent extremist groups through online and offline recruitment and daily activities. The results of the interviews are linked to the existing theoretical frameworks on (violent radicalisation, including factors underlying engagement and recruitment. They show that new social media are not as relevant as currently asserted, but that offline methods of recruitment are still uppermost. They also make clear that the content of the ideology is not the first impetus for searching, but that a general discontent with society comes first, a search for ways of dealing with this discontent, and an orientation associated with the search. This has implications for the way society should deal with young people and radical convictions and the alternatives that should be provided.

  8. Single-photon emission tomography imaging of monoamine transporters in impulsive violent behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiihonen, J.; Hallikainen, T.; Hakola, P. [Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, FIN-70240 Kuopio (Finland); Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Yang, J. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland); Karhu, J. [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland); Viinamaeki, H.; Lehtonen, J. [Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Several studies have shown that impulsive violent and suicidal behaviour is associated with a central serotonin deficit, but until now it has not been possible to use laboratory tests with high sensitivity and specificity to study this kind of deficit or to localize the sites of serotonergic abnormalities in the living human brain. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that monoamine transporter density in brain is decreased in subjects with impulsive violent behaviour. We studied serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) transporter specific binding in 52 subjects (21 impulsive violent offenders, 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and ten non-violent alcoholic controls) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using iodine-123-labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) as the tracer. The blind quantitative analysis revealed that the 5-HT specific binding of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT in the midbrain of violent offenders was lower than that in the healthy control subjects (P<0.005; t test) or the non-violent alcoholics (P<0.05). The results imply that habitual impulsive aggressive behaviour in man is associated with a decrease in the 5-HT transporter density. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 55 refs.

  9. Preventing aggressive and violent behaviour: Using prevention programs to study the role of peer dynamics in maladjustment problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Vitaro, F.; Eisner, M.

    2007-01-01

    Two processes in the relationships between children have been associated with adverse developmental outcomes in children, namely, peer rejection and affiliation with deviant peers. In numerous studies, both of these processes have been linked not only to negative outcomes, including aggression,

  10. Parental Perception and Attitude to Children's Violent Acts in Ife

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    curriculum are, violence makes it difficult for students to learn. Children who are ... esteem, truancy, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and in extreme cases, suicide ... parents but often this doesn't solve the problem. Many parents also ...

  11. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  12. [Perception and description of violent experience in youth dating relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cepero, Javier; Lana, Alberto; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; Paíno, Susana G; Rodríguez-Díaz, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    To describe the intimate partner violence suffered by youth and to identify the descriptions that best classify it according to gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out among a sample of 3,087 adult Spanish students. The CUVINO questionnaire was used, which measures 8 forms of intimate partner violence and uses 3 descriptions to classify it (abuse, fear and entrapment). Logistic regressions were carried out to identify differences by gender and associations between the subtypes of intimate partner violence and descriptions of the violent experience. Nearly half of the sample (44.6%) had some situation of unperceived violence, mainly of "detachment" (30.0%) and "coercion" (25.1%). All subtypes of intimate partner violence were more frequently perpetrated by women. The largest difference by gender was found in "emotional punishment" (experienced by 20.9% of men vs. 7.6% of women) and "physical violence" (6.6% vs. 2.3%). A total of 28.7% felt trapped, 11.8% felt fear and 6.3% felt mistreated. Men more frequently described themselves as trapped, but less often as afraid or abused. The subtype of intimate partner violence most associated with the feeling of entrapment was coercion in both men (OR=3.8) and women (OR=5.7). Men and women face intimate partner violence while dating differently; resources are needed to address them specifically. The inclusion of routine questions about the sense of entrapment may contribute to the early detection of intimate partner violence. Subtle forms of violence, such as coercion, should be taken into account in awareness campaigns. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of collective guilt after the violent conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, Margareta; Biruski, Dinka Corkalo; Ajduković, Dean

    2013-03-01

    After a violent conflict many post-conflict communities remain ethnically divided and normalization of the inter-group relations is hindered not only by in-group norms and interpretation of past events, but also by collective guilt. Although collective guilt has proved to be an important indicator of post-conflict social repair, more research is needed to define its predictors. This study, conducted in an ethnically divided community, confirmed that collective guilt acceptance and collective guilt assignment in our sample are typical for the post-conflict pattern of intergroup relations--people readily assign guilt to the outgroup but are unwilling to accept the guilt of their in-group. This suggests that the process of community social reconstruction has not considerably progressed. Our findings also suggest that the two aspects of collective guilt--assignment and acceptance--are predicted by similar sets of variables. Both collective guilt assignment and collective guilt acceptance are influenced by identification with in-group which influence is fully or partially mediated with the justification of the in-group's wrongdoings. This indicates that in the post-conflict setting relationship towards the in-group may be more important for experiencing collective guilt than the relationship towards the out-group. Relationship towards out-group, although not crucial, also plays a role in experiencing collective guilt. Specifically, both affect towards and cognitions about out-group members predict collective guilt assignment (with cognition being stronger predictor than positive affect), whereas only (absence of) positive affect predicts acceptance of collective guilt and the cognitive aspect is not predictive.

  14. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  15. Longitudinal effects of violent video games on aggression in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Sakamoto, Akira; Gentile, Douglas A; Ihori, Nobuko; Shibuya, Akiko; Yukawa, Shintaro; Naito, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Kumiko

    2008-11-01

    Youth worldwide play violent video games many hours per week. Previous research suggests that such exposure can increase physical aggression. We tested whether high exposure to violent video games increases physical aggression over time in both high- (United States) and low- (Japan) violence cultures. We hypothesized that the amount of exposure to violent video games early in a school year would predict changes in physical aggressiveness assessed later in the school year, even after statistically controlling for gender and previous physical aggressiveness. In 3 independent samples, participants' video game habits and physically aggressive behavior tendencies were assessed at 2 points in time, separated by 3 to 6 months. One sample consisted of 181 Japanese junior high students ranging in age from 12 to 15 years. A second Japanese sample consisted of 1050 students ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. The third sample consisted of 364 United States 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-graders ranging in age from 9 to 12 years. RESULTS. Habitual violent video game play early in the school year predicted later aggression, even after controlling for gender and previous aggressiveness in each sample. Those who played a lot of violent video games became relatively more physically aggressive. Multisample structure equation modeling revealed that this longitudinal effect was of a similar magnitude in the United States and Japan for similar-aged youth and was smaller (but still significant) in the sample that included older youth. These longitudinal results confirm earlier experimental and cross-sectional studies that had suggested that playing violent video games is a significant risk factor for later physically aggressive behavior and that this violent video game effect on youth generalizes across very different cultures. As a whole, the research strongly suggests reducing the exposure of youth to this risk factor.

  16. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.

    2017-12-01

    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  17. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  18. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential Adverse Effects of Violent Video Gaming: Interpersonal- Affective Traits Are Rather Impaired Than Disinhibition in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Christin S. Kimmig; Ann-Christin S. Kimmig; Gerda Andringa; Birgit Derntl; Birgit Derntl; Birgit Derntl

    2018-01-01

    The increasing trend of mass shootings, which were associated with excessive use of violent video games, fueled the debate of possible effects violent video games may have on adolescents and young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible link between violent video gaming effects and the disposition of adverse behavior traits such as interpersonal-affective deficits and disinhibition. Data of 167 young adults, collected by an online questionnaire battery, were analyzed for...

  20. "No Girls on the Internet": The Experience of Female Gamers in the Masculine Space of Violent Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Assunção

    2016-01-01

    The experience of female gamers in the masculine space of violent videogame playing was explored. Hypotheses concerned identity management strategies used online as well as offline. The study adopts a mixed methods approach. 291 women aged 18-48 were recruited via advertisements on social media. An online questionnaire addressed gaming habits, while a focus group with three women explored the pleasures they take from playing violent games. It was found that those who do play violent games, pl...

  1. Video Games and Aggression: the effects of violent game play on self-reported and peer-observed anger

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew R

    2009-01-01

    The continued upsurge in the popularity of video games has lead to persistent debate over the effects of play, particularly the use of violent video games. The present experimental study aimed to replicate the results of numerous research groups who found that playing violent video games lead to an increase in aggression and to examine peer-observer perceptions of violent game play. Two experiments were carried out; the first used 24 participants in a within-subjects design being filmed while...

  2. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  3. Temperature and Violent Crime in Dallas, Texas: Relationships and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Gamble

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate relationships between ambient temperatures and violent crimes to determine whether those relationships are consistent across different crime categories and whether they are best described as increasing linear functions, or as curvilinear functions that decrease beyond some temperature threshold. A secondary objective was to consider the implications of the observed relationships for injuries and deaths from violent crimes in the context of a warming climate. To address these questions, we examined the relationship between daily ambient temperatures and daily incidents of violent crime in Dallas, Texas from 1993–1999.Methods: We analyzed the relationships between daily fluctuations in ambient temperature, other meteorological and temporal variables, and rates of daily violent crime using time series piece-wise regression and plots of daily data. Violent crimes, including aggravated assault, homicide, and sexualassault, were analyzed.Results: We found that daily mean ambient temperature is related in a curvilinear fashion to daily rates of violent crime with a positive and increasing relationship between temperature and aggravated crime that moderates beyond temperatures of 80 F and then turns negative beyond 90 F.Conclusion: While some have characterized the relationship between temperature and violent crime as a continually increasing linear function, leaving open the possibility that aggravated crime will increase in a warmer climate, we conclude that the relationship in Dallas is not linear, but moderatesand turns negative at high ambient temperatures. We posit that higher temperatures may encourage people to seek shelter in cooler indoor spaces, and that street crime and other crimes of opportunity are subsequently decreased. This finding suggests that the higher ambient temperatures expected with climate change may result in marginal shifts in violent crime in the short term, but are not likely to be

  4. Violent Relaxation, Dynamical Instabilities and the Formation of Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, L. A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN: El problema de la formaci6n de galaxias elfpticas por medjo de colapso gravitacional sin disipaci6n de energfa es estudiado usando un gran numero de simulaciones numericas. Se muestra que este tipo de colapsos, partiendo de condiciones iniciales frfas donde la energfa cinetica inicial representa s6lo un 5%, 0 , de a potencial inicial, produce sistemas relajados de forma triaxial muy similares a las galaxias elfpticas reales en sus formas y perfiles de densidad en proyecci6i . La forina triaxial resulta de la acci6n de una inestabilidad dinamica que aparece en sistemas 'inicos dominados por movimientos radiales, mientras que el perfil de densidad final Cs debido al llamado relajamiento violento que tiende a producir una distribuci6n en espacio fase unica. Estos dos fen6menos tienden a borrar los detalles particulares sobre las condiciones iniciales y dan lugar a una evoluci6n convergente hacia sistemas realistas, esto innecesario el uso de condiciones iniciales especiales (excepto por Ia condici6i de que estas deben ser frfas). Las condiciones iniciales frfas producen los movimientos radiales y fluctuaciones de la energfa potencial requeridos por ambos fen6menos. ABSTRACT: The problem of formation of elliptical galaxies via dissipationless collapse is studied using a large set of numerical simulations. It is shown that dissipationless collapses from cold initial conditions, where the total initial kinetic energy is less than 5% ofthe initial potential energy, lead to relaxed triaxial systems ery similar to real elliptical galaxies ii projected shape and density profiles. The triaxial shape is due to the of a dynamical instability that appears on systems dominated by radial orbits, while final density profile is due to violent relaxation that tends to produce a unique distribution iii space. These two phenomena erase memory of the initial prodtice a convergent evolution toward realistic systems, thus making unnecessary use o[special initial conditions (other

  5. Violent video game players and non-players differ on facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruth L; Wong, Ulric; Hodgins, David C; Chiu, Carina G; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-01-01

    Violent video game playing has been associated with both positive and negative effects on cognition. We examined whether playing two or more hours of violent video games a day, compared to not playing video games, was associated with a different pattern of recognition of five facial emotions, while controlling for general perceptual and cognitive differences that might also occur. Undergraduate students were categorized as violent video game players (n = 83) or non-gamers (n = 69) and completed a facial recognition task, consisting of an emotion recognition condition and a control condition of gender recognition. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires assessing their video game and media consumption, aggression, and mood. Violent video game players recognized fearful faces both more accurately and quickly and disgusted faces less accurately than non-gamers. Desensitization to violence, constant exposure to fear and anxiety during game playing, and the habituation to unpleasant stimuli, are possible mechanisms that could explain these results. Future research should evaluate the effects of violent video game playing on emotion processing and social cognition more broadly. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Charging Neutral Cues with Aggressive Meaning through Violent Video Game Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Krahé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When playing violent video games, aggressive actions are performed against the background of an originally neutral environment, and associations are formed between cues related to violence and contextual features. This experiment examined the hypothesis that neutral contextual features of a virtual environment become associated with aggressive meaning and acquire the function of primes for aggressive cognitions. Seventy-six participants were assigned to one of two violent video game conditions that varied in context (ship vs. city environment or a control condition. Afterwards, they completed a Lexical Decision Task to measure the accessibility of aggressive cognitions in which they were primed either with ship-related or city-related words. As predicted, participants who had played the violent game in the ship environment had shorter reaction times for aggressive words following the ship primes than the city primes, whereas participants in the city condition responded faster to the aggressive words following the city primes compared to the ship primes. No parallel effect was observed for the non-aggressive targets. The findings indicate that the associations between violent and neutral cognitions learned during violent game play facilitate the accessibility of aggressive cognitions.

  7. Are the effects of Unreal violent video games pronounced when playing with a virtual reality system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Patrícia; Esteves, Francisco; Carneiro, Paula; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the short-term effects of violent electronic games, played with or without a virtual reality (VR) device, on the instigation of aggressive behavior. Physiological arousal (heart rate (HR)), priming of aggressive thoughts, and state hostility were also measured to test their possible mediation on the relationship between playing the violent game (VG) and aggression. The participants--148 undergraduate students--were randomly assigned to four treatment conditions: two groups played a violent computer game (Unreal Tournament), and the other two a non-violent game (Motocross Madness), half with a VR device and the remaining participants on the computer screen. In order to assess the game effects the following instruments were used: a BIOPAC System MP100 to measure HR, an Emotional Stroop task to analyze the priming of aggressive and fear thoughts, a self-report State Hostility Scale to measure hostility, and a competitive reaction-time task to assess aggressive behavior. The main results indicated that the violent computer game had effects on state hostility and aggression. Although no significant mediation effect could be detected, regression analyses showed an indirect effect of state hostility between playing a VG and aggression. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Can clans protect adolescent players of massively multiplayer online games from violent behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Boyd, Danah

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether clan membership mediates observed associations between violent game content and externalizing behaviors among youth who play massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). Responses from 486 11- to 18-year-olds who: live in the United States, read English, have been online at least once in the past 6 months, and have played MMOGs in the past year were examined. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the population-averaged incident rate ratio of aggressive, delinquent, and seriously violent behaviors among MMOG players given one's self-reported exposure to in-game content depicting violence. Twenty-nine percent of all youth respondents played MMOGs in the past year. Rates of aggressive, IRR: 1.59, 95% CI [1.11, 2.26], and delinquent, IRR: 1.44, 95% CI [0.99, 2.08], behaviors were significantly higher for MMOG players who were in clans versus not in clans. For females, clan membership attenuated but did not eliminate the observed relation between exposure to in-game violent content and both aggressive and seriously violent behavior (16% and 10% reductions in IRR, respectively); whereas for males, clan membership was largely uninfluential (i.e., less than 2% change). Clan membership is neither associated with lower rates of externalizing behaviors for youth, nor does it affect the likelihood of reporting externalizing behaviors among male players. There is some suggestion that clan membership may attenuate the concurrent association between in-game violent content and some externalizing behaviors for females.

  9. [Validation of a path model on adolescents' suicidal ideation and violent behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the fitness of a path model on the relationship among stress, self-esteem, aggression, depression, suicidal ideation, and violent behavior for adolescents. The subjects consisted of 1,177 adolescents. Data was collected through self-report questionnaires. The data was analyzed by the SPSS and AMOS programs. Stress, self-esteem, aggression, and depression showed a direct effect on suicidal ideation for adolescents, while stress, self-esteem, and aggression showed an indirect effect on suicidal ideation for adolescents. Stress, self-esteem, aggression, and suicidal ideation showed a direct effect on violent behavior for adolescents, while stress, self-esteem, aggression, and depression showed an indirect effect on violent behavior for adolescents. The modified path model of adolescent's suicidal ideation and violent behavior was proven correct. These results suggest that adolescent's suicidal ideation and violent behavior can be decreased by reducing stress, aggression, and depression and increasing self-esteem. Based on the outcomes of this study, it is necessary to design an intervention program that emphasizes reducing stress, aggression, and depression and increasing self-esteem in order to decrease adolescents' suicide ideation and violence.

  10. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood.

  11. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  12. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  13. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  14. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  15. Unsafe and violent behavior in commercials aired during televised major sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburro, Robert F; Gordon, Patricia L; D'Apolito, James P; Howard, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    likelihood of viewing by children after 9:00 PM. For example, afternoon telecasts of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Regional Final and National Semifinal games were assessed in place of the Championship game, which started after 9:00 PM. Weekend afternoon telecasts of the Winter Olympics (3 successive weekends) were assessed as surrogates for all Olympics telecasts. For the World Series, the Super Bowl, and the National Basketball Association Conference Championship games, which began before 9:00 PM but ended after that time, we evaluated only commercials that aired before 9:00 PM. All commercials that were aired during these programs were reviewed at standard speed for unsafe behavior or violence. Commercials that were aired during pregame, postgame, or halftime periods were not assessed. Commercials were categorized according to the product being advertised. Unsafe behavior was simply defined as any action that could have harmful consequences or that contravened the injury prevention recommendations of national organizations. Violence was defined as any intentional physical contact by an aggressor that had the potential to inflict injury or harm or the legitimate threat of such action. All commercials were reviewed by at least 2 investigators; when the 2 could not agree on the findings, a third investigator was used to resolve differences. The percentage of commercials and of commercial breaks that portrayed violent or unsafe behavior was determined for each category of event and advertised product. A commercial break was defined as a series of commercials shown during a single break from the sporting event. chi2 analysis was used for all analyses, and relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were determined. The proportion of commercials that depicted unsafe behavior and/or violence during each sporting event was compared with the proportion of such commercials that were observed during the Masters Golf Tournament (which had the lowest proportion of

  16. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  17. Effectiveness of infection prevention measures featuring advanced source control and environmental cleaning to limit transmission of extremely-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai intensive care unit: An analysis before and after extensive flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Pinitchai, Uayporn; Warachan, Boonyasit; Warren, David K; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Hayden, Mary K

    2014-02-01

    Advanced source control (once-daily bathing and 4-times daily oral care with chlorhexidine aqueous solution) and thorough environmental cleaning were implemented in response to an increased incidence of colonization and infection with extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai medical intensive care unit (MICU). During the 12-month baseline period (P1), contact isolation, active surveillance for XDR A baumannii, cohorting of XDR A baumannii patients, twice-daily environmental cleaning with detergent-disinfectant, and antibiotic stewardship were implemented. In the 5.5-month intervention period (P2), additional measures were introduced. Sodium hypochlorite was substituted for detergent-disinfectant, and advanced source control was implemented. All interventions except cleaning with sodium hypochlorite were continued during the 12.5-month follow-up period (P3). Extensive flooding necessitating closure of the hospital for 2 months occurred between P2 and P3. A total of 1,365 patients were studied. Compared with P1 (11.1 cases/1,000 patient-days), the rate of XDR A baumannii clinical isolates declined in P2 (1.74 cases/1,000 patient-days; P control and thorough environmental cleaning to limit colonization and infection with XDR A baumannii in MICUs in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost analysis of youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.

  19. Personality characteristics and parent-child relationships juveniles who commit violent crimes of a sexual nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartanyan G.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aggressive behavior of teenagers and sexual aggression in particular in the last time are particularly relevant and valuable in modern society. This is confirmed by the data of criminological statistics, according to which the rate of minor crime in the Russian Federation in recent years has virtually the same range. A comprehensive study of the person of a minor convicted of violent crimes of a sexual nature (personal characteristics, characteristics of sexual identity and parent-child relationship on the basis of comparative analysis with a group of teenagers convicted of the crime of mercenary-violent type, and a group of students emerging in socially favourable environment, enabled them to identify some distinctive features. The obtained results allow to suggest a possible mutual influence of personal characteristics and characteristics of sexual identity with the peculiarities of child-parent relationships in a group of juveniles convicted for violent crimes of a sexual nature.

  20. [Family communication styles, attitude towards institutional authority and adolescents' violent behaviour at school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez López, Estefanía; Murgui Pérez, Sergio; Moreno Ruiz, David; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of present study is to analyse the relationship among certain family and school factors, adolescents' attitude towards institutional authority, and violent behaviour at school. The sample is composed of 1049 adolescents of both sexes and aged from 11 to 16 years old. Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling. Results indicate a close association between negative communication with father and violent behaviour in adolescence. Moreover, data suggest that teachers' expectations affect students' attitude towards institutional authority, which in turn is closely related to school violence. Finally, findings show an indirect influence of father, mother and teacher in adolescents' violent behaviour, mainly through their effect on family- and school-self-concept.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative EEG abnormalities in violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Ana Calzada; Amador, Alfredo Alvarez

    2009-02-01

    Resting eyes closed electroencephalogram was studied in a group of violent offenders evaluated at Psychiatric Department of the Legal Medicine Institute in Cuba (18 with antisocial personality disorder, ASPD, and 10 without psychiatric diagnosis). Characteristics of the EEG visual inspection and the use of frequency domain quantitative analysis techniques (narrow band spectral parameters) are described. Both groups were compared to Cuban normative database. High incidences of electroencephalographic abnormalities were found in both groups of violent offenders. The most frequent were: electrogenesis alterations, attenuated alpha rhythm and theta and delta activities increase in the frontal lobe. In the quantitative analysis theta and delta frequencies were increased and alpha activity was decreased in both groups. Differences appear for the topographical patterns present in subjects of both groups. EEG abnormalities were more severe in ASPD than in control group. Results suggest that EEG abnormalities in violent offenders should reflect aspects of brain dysfunction related to antisocial behaviour.

  2. The Roles of Dominance, Jealousy, and Violent Socialization in Chinese Dating Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley, Chandra Y; Durtschi, Jared

    2015-06-01

    Attitude toward women and relationship violence in Chinese societies has been shaped by a history of Confucian patriarchy. Studies suggest that this patriarchal orientation continues to influence modern-day dating behaviors and rates of relationship violence. This study examined through the lens of the intergenerational transmission of violence theory the effects of dominance and jealousy on the likelihood of physical assault and how violent socialization moderates these effects. A maximum likelihood path analysis with robust standard errors was conducted for a total of 915 individuals from Beijing, Shanghai, and Taiwan who participated in the International Dating Violence Study from 2001 to 2006. Results revealed that dominance and violent socialization were significantly associated with assault victimization and perpetration. Violent socialization also significantly amplified the associations between dominance and both minor and severe assault victimization. Jealousy, however, was only associated with severe assault perpetration. Clinical implications and further research directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Revisiting violent videogames research: Game studies perspectives on aggression, violence, immersion, interaction, and textual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Kontour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, the bulk of effects research on violent video games demon-strates troubling correlations between playing violent video games and increases in (or primers for aggressive behavior, which suggests that overall, violent video games may be detrimental to society. However, there may be significant weaknesses in this body of research, concerning not only methodological issues such as study design and the ways in which ‘aggression’ or ‘violence’ are conceptualized, but also containing fundamental misunderstandings of games as text, apparatus, or cultural artifact. Because these studies may not have a sophisticated enough un-derstanding of games as objects or gaming as an activity, we must there-fore reconsider the conclusions and implications thus far arrived at in this research and look for new ways forward for assessing violence in/and video games.

  4. Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on Children's Helpful and Hurtful Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Affective Theory of Mind in Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder and/or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Pawliczek, Christina; Müller, Bernhard W; Wiltfang, Jens; Brüne, Martin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R; Leygraf, Norbert; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2017-10-21

    Among violent offenders with schizophrenia, there are 2 sub-groups, one with and one without, conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), who differ as to treatment response and alterations of brain structure. The present study aimed to determine whether the 2 groups also differ in Theory of Mind and neural activations subsuming this task. Five groups of men were compared: 3 groups of violent offenders-schizophrenia plus CD/ASPD, schizophrenia with no history of antisocial behavior prior to illness onset, and CD/ASPD with no severe mental illness-and 2 groups of non-offenders, one with schizophrenia and one without (H). Participants completed diagnostic interviews, the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version Interview, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, authorized access to clinical and criminal files, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an adapted version of the Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Task (RMET). Relative to H, nonviolent and violent men with schizophrenia and not CD/ASPD performed more poorly on the RMET, while violent offenders with CD/ASPD, both those with and without schizophrenia, performed similarly. The 2 groups of violent offenders with CD/ASPD, both those with and without schizophrenia, relative to the other groups, displayed higher levels of activation in a network of prefrontal and temporal-parietal regions and reduced activation in the amygdala. Relative to men without CD/ASPD, both groups of violent offenders with CD/ASPD displayed a distinct pattern of neural responses during emotional/mental state attribution pointing to distinct and comparatively successful processing of social information. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Management of person with dementia with aggressive and violent behaviour: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enmarker, Ingela; Olsen, Rose; Hellzen, Ove

    2011-06-01

    Studies indicate that physical and pharmacological restraints are still often in the frontline of aggression management in a large number of nursing homes. In the present literature review the aim was to describe, from a nursing perspective, aggressive and violent behaviour in people with dementia living in nursing home units and to find alternative approaches to the management of dementia related aggression as a substitute to physical and chemical restraints. A systematic literature review in three phases, including a content analysis of 21 articles published between 1999 and August 2009 has been conducted. The results could be summarised in two themes: 'origins that may trigger violence' and 'activities that decrease the amount of violent behaviour'. Together, the themes showed that violence was a phenomenon that could be described as being connected to a premorbid personality and often related to the residents' personal care. It was found that if the origin of violent actions was the residents' pain, it was possible to minimise it through nursing activities. This review also indicated that an organisation in special care units for residents who exhibit aggressive and violent behaviour led to the lesser use of mechanical restraints, but also an increased use of non-mechanical techniques. The optimal management of aggressive and violent actions from residents with dementia living in nursing homes was a person-centred approach to the resident. Qualitative studies focusing on violence were sparsely found, and this underlines the importance of further research in this area to elucidate how violence and aggressiveness is experienced and understood by both staff and patients. To communicate with people with dementia provides a challenge for nurses and other health caregivers. To satisfy the needs of good nursing care, an important aspect is therefore to get knowledge and understanding about aggressive and violent behaviour and its management. © 2010 Blackwell

  7. Physiotherapy students' experience, confidence and attitudes on the causes and management of violent and aggressive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Rayment, Nick; Soundy, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare professionals are at risk of experiencing violent and aggressive behaviour from patients. This is most notable in those with least experience, such as students, yet little reported research has considered the experiences of physiotherapy students. The aims of this study were to: (1) explore the incidence and nature of violent and aggressive behaviour experienced by physiotherapy students; and (2) consider the attitudes and confidence of the students in dealing with such behaviour. Retrospective survey. A university in the Midlands region of the UK. Sixty-four final year physiotherapy students. The Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale and an additional survey. Over half (33/64, 52%) of the respondents had experienced at least one incident of violent and aggressive behaviour on a clinical placement. The overwhelming majority of victims (60/64, 94%) did not feel adequately confident to deal with such situations. However, no incidents were officially reported to the university. Both victims and non-victims agreed broadly with the internal model of the causes of aggression and violence, but significantly (P=0.02) more victims did not associate the violent and aggressive behaviour with the responsibility of the patient to control their feelings. Many physiotherapy students experience at least one incident of violent and aggressive behaviour whilst on a clinical placement. Training in the recognition and management of violent and aggressive behaviour would be a beneficial addition to the curricula of physiotherapy programmes. Further larger scale research is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of indigenous cultural identity and cultural engagement on violent offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane M. Shepherd

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possessing a strong cultural identity has been shown to protect against mental health symptoms and buffer distress prompted by discrimination. However, no research to date has explored the protective influences of cultural identity and cultural engagement on violent offending. This paper investigates the relationships between cultural identity/engagement and violent recidivism for a cohort of Australian Indigenous people in custody. Methods A total of 122 adults from 11 prisons in the state of Victoria completed a semi-structured interview comprising cultural identification and cultural engagement material in custody. All official police charges for violent offences were obtained for participants who were released from custody into the community over a period of 2 years. Results No meaningful relationship between cultural identity and violent recidivism was identified. However a significant association between cultural engagement and violent recidivism was obtained. Further analyses demonstrated that this relationship was significant only for participants with a strong Indigenous cultural identity. Participants with higher levels of cultural engagement took longer to violently re-offend although this association did not reach significance. Conclusions For Australian Indigenous people in custody, ‘cultural engagement’ was significantly associated with non-recidivism. The observed protective impact of cultural engagement is a novel finding in a correctional context. Whereas identity alone did not buffer recidivism directly, it may have had an indirect influence given its relationship with cultural engagement. The findings of the study emphasize the importance of culture for Indigenous people in custody and a greater need for correctional institutions to accommodate Indigenous cultural considerations.

  9. Violent deaths of media workers associated with conflict in Iraq, 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Collinson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The violent deaths of media workers is a critical issue worldwide, especially in areas of political and social instability. Such deaths can be a particular concern as they may undermine the development and functioning of an open and democratic society.Method. Data on the violent deaths of media workers in Iraq for ten years (2003–2012 were systematically collated from five international databases. Analyses included time trends, weapons involved, nationality of the deceased, outcome for perpetrators and location of death.Results. During this ten-year period, there were 199 violent deaths of media workers in Iraq. The annual number increased substantially after the invasion in 2003 (peaking at n = 47 in 2007 and then declined (n = 5 in 2012. The peak years (2006–2007 for these deaths matched the peak years for estimated violent deaths among civilians. Most of the media worker deaths (85% were Iraqi nationals. Some were killed whilst on assignment in the field (39% and 28% involved a preceding threat. Common perpetrators of the violence were: political groups (45%, and coalition forces (9%, but the source of the violence was often unknown (29%. None of the perpetrators have subsequently been prosecuted (as of April 2014. For each violent death of a media worker, an average of 3.1 other people were also killed in the same attack (range 0–100 other deaths.Discussion. This analysis highlights the high number of homicides of media workers in Iraq in this conflict period, in addition to the apparently total level of impunity. One of the potential solutions may be establishing a functioning legal system that apprehends offenders and puts them on trial. The relatively high quality of data on violent deaths in this occupational group, suggests that it could act as one sentinel population within a broader surveillance system of societal violence in conflict zones.

  10. Exposure to violent and sexual media content undermines school performance in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans are hard-wired to pay attention to violent and sexual cues. Because humans have limited attention capacity, attention allocated to violent and sexual cues decreases attention that can be allocated to encoding important information in school. This study examined the effects of exposure to violent and sexual media on general school performance and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL scores in Turkish youth. Methods: The relationship between exposure to violent and sexual media on school performance was assessed in a sample of 1545 Turkish adolescents. Then, we compared the TOEFL scores of 143 Turkish boys aged 14 to 18 divided in 71 living in dormitories in which consumption of media was strictly regulated and 72 living at home. Results: A significant negative relationship was found between exposure to violent/sexual media and school success. The effects remained significant even after controlling for the total amount of media exposure. In addition, boys living in the dormitory in which consumption of media was strictly regulated outscored those living at home on the TOEFL post-test immediately after the end of the study, and on a delayed post-test one week later. Conclusions: Because there was no difference between boys living at home and those living in a dormitory on the pre-test, the post-test and delayed post-test differences cannot be attributed to initial differences in English language proficiency. These results suggest that exposure to violent and sexual media impairs adolescent school performance and foreign language memory.

  11. Violent crime rates as a proxy for the social determinants of sexually transmissible infection rates: the consistent state-level correlation between violent crime and reported sexually transmissible infections in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-11-01

    Numerous social determinants of health are associated with violent crime rates and sexually transmissible infection (STI) rates. This report aims to illustrate the potential usefulness of violent crime rates as a proxy for the social determinants of STI rates. For each year from 1981 to 2010, we assessed the strength of the association between the violent crime rate and the gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) rate (number of total reported cases per 100?000) at the state level. Specifically, for each year, we calculated Pearson correlation coefficients (and P-values) between two variables (the violent crime rate and the natural log of the gonorrhoea rate) for all 50 states and Washington, DC. For comparison, we also examined the correlation between gonorrhoea rates, and rates of poverty and unemployment. We repeated the analysis using overall syphilis rates instead of overall gonorrhoea rates. The correlation between gonorrhoea and violent crime was significant at the P<0.001 level for every year from 1981 to 2010. Syphilis rates were also consistently correlated with violent crime rates. In contrast, the P-value for the correlation coefficient exceeded 0.05 in 9 of the 30 years for the association between gonorrhoea and poverty, and in 17 of the 30 years for that between gonorrhoea and unemployment. Because violent crime is associated with many social determinants of STIs and because it is consistently associated with STI rates, violent crime rates can be a useful proxy for the social determinants of health in statistical analyses of STI rates.

  12. Is Maternal PTSD Associated with Greater Exposure of Very Young Children to Violent Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J. Blake; Myers, Michael M.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study examined media-viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing-behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing-behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology. PMID:19924819

  13. Violent offenders respond to provocations with high amygdala and striatal reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Fisher, Patrick M.; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær

    2017-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging point-subtraction aggression paradigm in 44 men, of whom 18 were incarcerated violent offenders and 26 were control non-offenders. We measured brain activation following provocations (monetary subtractions), while the subjects had the possibility to behave aggressively or pursue...... monetary rewards. The violent offenders behaved more aggressively than controls (aggression frequency 150 us 84, P = 0.03) and showed significantly higher brain reactivity to provocations within the amygdala and striatum, as well as reduced amygdala-prefrontal and striato-prefrontal connectivity. Amygdala...

  14. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  15. What motivates participation in violent political action: selective incentives or parochial altruism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginges, Jeremy; Atran, Scott

    2009-06-01

    In standard models of decision making, participation in violent political action is understood as the product of instrumentally rational reasoning. According to this line of thinking, instrumentally rational individuals will participate in violent political action only if there are selective incentives that are limited to participants. We argue in favor of an alternate model of political violence where participants are motivated by moral commitments to collective sacred values. Correlative and experimental empirical evidence in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict strongly supports this alternate view.

  16. Differentiating gang members, gang affiliates and violent men on their psychiatric morbidity and traumatic experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jane L.; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the differences between gang members and gang affiliates;\\ud individuals who associate with gangs, but who are not gang members. Even less is known\\ud about how these groups compare with other violent populations. This study, examined how\\ud gang members, gang affiliates, and violent men, compare on mental health symptoms and\\ud traumatic experiences. Method: Data included a sample of 1,539 adult males, aged 19-34\\ud years, taken from an earlier survey conduct...

  17. A time series modeling approach in risk appraisal of violent and sexual recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Yaghoub, Majid; Fedoroff, J Paul; Curry, Susan; Amundsen, David E

    2010-10-01

    For over half a century, various clinical and actuarial methods have been employed to assess the likelihood of violent recidivism. Yet there is a need for new methods that can improve the accuracy of recidivism predictions. This study proposes a new time series modeling approach that generates high levels of predictive accuracy over short and long periods of time. The proposed approach outperformed two widely used actuarial instruments (i.e., the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide). Furthermore, analysis of temporal risk variations based on specific time series models can add valuable information into risk assessment and management of violent offenders.

  18. Transactional Process of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict and Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-12-01

    This is the first longitudinal study of urban African American adolescents that has examined bidirectional effects between their family conflict and violent behavior across all of high school. Structured interviews were administered to 681 students each year in high school at ages 15, 16 17, and 18 years. We used structural equation modeling to test a transactional model and found bidirectional effects between family conflict and violent behavior across the middle years of high school, while accounting for sex and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest a reciprocal process involving interpersonal conflict in African American families and adolescent engagement in youth violence.

  19. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  20. Planning for a Violent Intruder Event: The School Nurse's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selekman, Janice; Melvin, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    School shootings occur too frequently and often with devastating results. The key to prevention and mitigation of these events is to have a plan that is simple, up-to-date, disseminated, and practiced. This article discusses the steps that school nurses can take to work with school administration to prepare themselves, their staff, and their students.