Sample records for preventing spacecraft failures

  1. Module failure isolation circuit for paralleled inverters. [preventing system failure during power conditioning for spacecraft applications (United States)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)


    A module failure isolation circuit is described which senses and averages the collector current of each paralled inverter power transistor and compares the collector current of each power transistor the average collector current of all power transistors to determine when the sensed collector current of a power transistor in any one inverter falls below a predetermined ratio of the average collector current. The module associated with any transistor that fails to maintain a current level above the predetermined radio of the average collector current is then shut off. A separate circuit detects when there is no load, or a light load, to inhibit operation of the isolation circuit during no load or light load conditions.

  2. Experimental Study on Thermal Vacuum Environment Sensitivity of Spacecraft Antenna's Typical Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Yanqiang


    Full Text Available With the development of space applications, spacecraft antenna has become an indispensable part of any space system. The spacecraft antenna affects and constrains the performance and functionality of the entire wireless communication system as well as the entire spacecraft. Spacecraft antenna has to withstand the noise, vibration, shock and acceleration as launched, and weightlessness, high vacuum, radiation, extreme hot and cold alternating space environment on-orbit[1].The influence of different environmental factors on the typical failure modes of spacecraft antenna is different. The environmental adaptability of the spacecraft antenna depends mainly on its structural design, material, process and other factors. In this paper, the influence of different environmental factors on the typical failure modes of the spacecraft antenna is studied. The sensitivity analysis of the typical failure modes of the thermal vacuum environment is verified by experiments, which provides support for the development of the spacecraft antenna.

  3. Design of a recovery scheme for the Galileo spacecraft in the event of nutation damper failure (United States)

    Eke, Fidelis O.


    This paper discusses the design and testing of remedial measures that can be taken to achieve reasonable nutation damping of the Galileo spacecraft in the event of failure of its boom damper in flight. One scheme exploits the effects of payload motion on the nutational stability of a spinning spacecraft. This scheme demands that the spacecraft motion compensation algorithm be enabled with the scan platform bore sight pointed in a well chosen direction to produce rapid damping of spacecraft nutation. A second method suggested for nutation damping is a thruster-based open loop control algorithm, utilizing a pair of thrusters as actuators.

  4. Heart failure: preventing disease and death worldwide. (United States)

    Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D; AlHabib, Khalid F; Cowie, Martin R; Force, Thomas L; Hu, Shengshou; Jaarsma, Tiny; Krum, Henry; Rastogi, Vishal; Rohde, Luis E; Samal, Umesh C; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Budi Siswanto, Bambang; Sliwa, Karen; Filippatos, Gerasimos


    Heart failure is a life-threatening disease and addressing it should be considered a global health priority. At present, approximately 26 million people worldwide are living with heart failure. The outlook for such patients is poor, with survival rates worse than those for bowel, breast or prostate cancer. Furthermore, heart failure places great stresses on patients, caregivers and healthcare systems. Demands on healthcare services, in particular, are predicted to increase dramatically over the next decade as patient numbers rise owing to ageing populations, detrimental lifestyle changes and improved survival of those who go on to develop heart failure as the final stage of another disease. It is time to ease the strain on healthcare systems through clear policy initiatives that prioritize heart failure prevention and champion equity of care for all. Despite the burdens that heart failure imposes on society, awareness of the disease is poor. As a result, many premature deaths occur. This is in spite of the fact that most types of heart failure are preventable and that a healthy lifestyle can reduce risk. Even after heart failure has developed, premature deaths could be prevented if people were taught to recognize the symptoms and seek immediate medical attention. Public awareness campaigns focusing on these messages have great potential to improve outcomes for patients with heart failure and ultimately to save lives. Compliance with clinical practice guidelines is also associated with improved outcomes for patients with heart failure. However, in many countries, there is considerable variation in how closely physicians follow guideline recommendations. To promote equity of care, improvements should be encouraged through the use of hospital performance measures and incentives appropriate to the locality. To this end, policies should promote the research required to establish an evidence base for performance measures that reflect improved outcomes for patients

  5. Failure analysis and failure prevention in electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, C.A. Jr.; Becker, D.G.; Besuner, P.M.; Cipolla, R.C.; Egan, G.R.; Gupta, P.; Johnson, D.P.; Omry, U.; Tetelman, A.S.; Rettig, T.W.; Peters, D.C.


    New methods have been developed and applied to better quantify and increase the reliability, safety, and availability of electric power plants. Present and potential problem areas have been identified both by development of an improved computerized data base of malfunctions in nuclear power plants and by detailed metallurgical and mechanical failure analyses of selected problems. Significant advances in the accuracy and speed of structural analyses have been made through development and application of the boundary integral equation and influence function methods of stress and fracture mechanics analyses. The currently specified flaw evaluation procedures of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code have been computerized. Results obtained from these procedures for evaluation of specific in-service inspection indications have been compared with results obtained utilizing the improved analytical methods. Mathematical methods have also been developed to describe and analyze the statistical variations in materials properties and in component loading, and uncertainties in the flaw size that might be passed by quality assurance systems. These new methods have been combined to develop accurate failure rate predictions based upon probabilistic fracture mechanics. Improved failure prevention strategies have been formulated by combining probabilistic fracture mechanics and cost optimization techniques. The approach has been demonstrated by optimizing the nondestructive inspection level with regard to both reliability and cost. (Auth.)

  6. Model-Based Real Time Assessment of Capability Left for Spacecraft Under Failure Mode, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is aimed at developing a model based diagnostics system for spacecraft that will allow real time assessment of its state, while it is impacted...

  7. Acute heart failure: Epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention. (United States)

    Farmakis, Dimitrios; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos


    Acute heart failure represents the first cause of hospitalization in elderly persons and is the main determinant of the huge healthcare expenditure related to heart failure. Despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis of acute heart failure is poor, with in-hospital mortality ranging from 4% to 7%, 60- to 90-day mortality ranging from 7% to 11%, and 60- to 90-day rehospitalization from 25% to 30%. Several factors including cardiovascular and noncardiovascular conditions as well as patient-related and iatrogenic factors may precipitate the rapid development or deterioration of signs and symptoms of heart failure, thus leading to an acute heart failure episode that usually requires patient hospitalization. The primary prevention of acute heart failure mainly concerns the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and heart disease, including coronary artery disease, while the secondary prevention of a new episode of decompensation requires the optimization of heart failure therapy, patient education, and the development of an effective transition and follow-up plan. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Herman, Andrew [CTS Corporation; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL


    The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. The testing included controlled engine dynamometer evaluations, which characterized soot slip from various filter failure modes, as well as on-road fleet vehicle tests. The results show a high sensitivity to detect conditions resulting in soot leakage from the particulate filter, as well as potential for direct detection of structural failures including internal cracks and melted regions within the filter media itself. Furthermore, the measurements demonstrate, for the first time, the capability to employ a direct and continuous monitor of particulate filter diagnostics to both prevent and detect potential failure conditions in the field.

  9. Current strategies for preventing renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure: a heart failure stage approach (United States)

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Andrade, Lúcia; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides


    Renal dysfunction is common during episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, and historical data indicate that the mean creatinine level at admission has risen in recent decades. Different mechanisms underlying this change over time have been proposed, such as demographic changes, hemodynamic and neurohumoral derangements and medical interventions. In this setting, various strategies have been proposed for the prevention of renal dysfunction with heterogeneous results. In the present article, we review and discuss the main aspects of renal dysfunction prevention according to the different stages of heart failure. PMID:23644863

  10. A Tool for Preventing Teamwork Failure: the TFP Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle; Rebollar, Rubeén; Lidón, Iván


    This paper presents the process used to devise the Teamwork Failure Prevention Questionnaire (TFP Questionnaire), a tool that allows teams with problems in functioning to be detected early. The TFP Questionnaire was formulated in a project management course at the University of Zaragoza (Spain...

  11. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John


    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  12. Chemical cleaning's role in tube failure prevention and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, K.J.; Dooley, R.B.


    Properly applied, chemical cleaning is a valuable tool used to prevent tube failures involving overheating and corrosion due to waterside deposits. In many cases, however, cleaning becomes yet an additional cost associated with correction of tube failure incidents. Discussion is focused on approaches taken to appraise tube waterside cleanliness and determine the need to clean, as typically practiced in conventional fossil plants. Also presented is an assessment of the suitability and limitations of these approaches to plants with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) units. (orig.)

  13. Preventing blood transfusion failures: FMEA, an effective assessment method. (United States)

    Najafpour, Zhila; Hasoumi, Mojtaba; Behzadi, Faranak; Mohamadi, Efat; Jafary, Mohamadreza; Saeedi, Morteza


    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a method used to assess the risk of failures and harms to patients during the medical process and to identify the associated clinical issues. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of blood transfusion process in a teaching general hospital, using FMEA as the method. A structured FMEA was recruited in our study performed in 2014, and corrective actions were implemented and re-evaluated after 6 months. Sixteen 2-h sessions were held to perform FMEA in the blood transfusion process, including five steps: establishing the context, selecting team members, analysis of the processes, hazard analysis, and developing a risk reduction protocol for blood transfusion. Failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers (RPNs) were identified. The overall RPN scores ranged from 5 to 100 among which, four failure modes were associated with RPNs over 75. The data analysis indicated that failures with the highest RPNs were: labelling (RPN: 100), transfusion of blood or the component (RPN: 100), patient identification (RPN: 80) and sampling (RPN: 75). The results demonstrated that mis-transfusion of blood or blood component is the most important error, which can lead to serious morbidity or mortality. Provision of training to the personnel on blood transfusion, knowledge raising on hazards and appropriate preventative measures, as well as developing standard safety guidelines are essential, and must be implemented during all steps of blood and blood component transfusion.

  14. Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene for Chordal Replacement: Preventing Knot Failure. (United States)

    Miller, Jacob R; Deeken, Corey R; Ray, Shuddhadeb; Henn, Matthew C; Lancaster, Timothy S; Schuessler, Richard B; Damiano, Ralph J; Melby, Spencer J


    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene suture is commonly used for chordal replacement in mitral valve repair, but due to material characteristics, knots can unravel. Our aim was to determine the knot security, including how many throws are necessary to prevent knot failure, with Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, MD) and the newly available Chord-X (On-X Life Technologies Inc, Austin, TX). Knots were evaluated for maximal load based on: number of throws (6, 8, 10, and 12), tension to secure each throw (10%, 50%, and 85%) and suture type (Gore-Tex CV-5 and Chord-X 3-0). A physiologic force of 2 N was used for comparison. We evaluated 240 knots. For all knots, the mean load to failure was 11.1 ± 5.8 N. Failure occurred due to unraveling in 141 knots (59%) at 7.1 ± 4.1 N and to breaking in 99 (41%) at 16.7 ± 2.0 N (p Gore-Tex failed at higher loads (12.6 ± 6.0 N vs 9.5 ± 5.2 N, p Gore-Tex and 6 Chord-X, unraveled at 2 N, all with fewer than 10 throws. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene has adequate strength to prevent breakage; however, a risk of knot unraveling at physiologic conditions exists when fewer than 10 throws are performed. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preoperative Prevention of Heart Failure in Noncardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Likhvantsev


    Full Text Available Congestive heart failure is consistently associated with adverse outcomes, and is characterized by a twofold increase in mortality in noncardiac surgery. In this regard, developing the methods aimed to prevent and treatacute heart failure (AHF in the intraoperative period remain a challenging problem.Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of preoperative levosimendan infusion in reduction both mortality and duration of treatment of elderly patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in noncardiac surgery.Material and Methods. Design: Multicenter blind randomized placebocontrolled study. Patients: 81 patients operated on abdominal organs. The main endpoint of the study: The length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU and at the hospital were chosen as the primary endpoints. The secondary endpoints of the study were 30 day and annual mortality, the rate of acute myocardial infarction and stroke.Results. Levosimendan infusion at a rate of 0,05 μg/kg/min — 0,1 μg/kg/min to patients with low left ven tricular ejection fraction just before the surgery reduced the length of stay in ICU for 2 days and required hospital stay for 3 days. NTproBNP showed the best ratio of sensitivity/specificity in predicting 30day mortality in cumulative group: AUC=0,86 (90,77 to 0,93, P<0,0001. From other indicators the most informative were the Inotropes scoring, no change or decrease of a left ventricular ejection fraction, and cardiac index.Conclusion. To reduce perioperative mortality, the intravenous infusion of levosimendan at a rate of 0,05—0,1 μg/kg/min in elderly patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction is recommened as a preoperative preparation the day before the alleged noncardiac surgery.

  16. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: an evaluation of incidence, causes, management and guidelines for preventative measures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M


    The incidence of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been reported to occur in approximately 1 per 1000 cases. While the resultant morbidity and mortality is low, electrical failure is a life-threatening scenario. We report three major electrical failures during CPB in a patient population of 3500 over a 15-year period. These cases involved mains failure and generator shut down, mains failure and generator power surge, and failure of the uninterruptable power supply (UPS), which caused protected sockets to shut down. Protocols for preventative maintenance, necessary equipment, battery backup and guidelines for the successful management of such accidents during CPB are discussed.

  17. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.


    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  18. Dispersed Trading and the Prevention of Market Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, David C.; Tanggaard, Carsten; G. Weaver, Daniel

    With augmented demands on power grids resulting in longer and larger blackouts combined with heightened concerns of terrorist attacks, trading institutions and policy makers have widened their search for systems that avoid market failure during these disturbing events. We provide insight...... into this issue by examining trading behavior at the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during a major blackout. We find that although market quality declined, markets remained functional and some price discovery occurred during the blackout period suggesting that the NOREX structure of interlinked trading systems...... combined with widely dispersed trading locations may be a viable means of protection against market failure during massive power disruptions or terrorist attacks....

  19. Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van Felix J.S.; Santman-Berends, Inge M.G.A.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Hogeveen, Henk


    Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in

  20. Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, Felix J S; Santman-Berends, Inge M G A; Lam, Theo J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Hogeveen, Henk


    Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in

  1. Distributed monitoring for the prevention of cascading failures in operational power grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Warnier (Martijn); S.O. Dulman (Stefan); Y. Koç (Yakup); E.J. Pauwels (Eric)


    textabstractElectrical power grids are vulnerable to cascading failures that can lead to large blackouts. The detection and prevention of cascading failures in power grids are important problems. Currently, grid operators mainly monitor the states (loading levels) of individual components in a power

  2. Causes and prevention of structural materials failures in naval environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwala, V.S.; Berman, D.A.; Kohlhaas, G.


    An analysis is made of most corrosion-related, naval aircraft, structural materials failure problems. The phenomena of stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen or environmental cracking, corrosion fatigue, and exfoliation corrosion are discussed. Methods of determining hydrogen embrittling effects and hydrogen concentration are related to sustained-load tolerances of cadmium plated high strength steels. An electromechanical test is described to illustrate the hydrogen-induced elastic deformation effect in steels. This test procedure has also been used to calculate the hydrogen diffusion coefficient as well as hydrogen concentration. A technique which can monitor corrosivity of the naval environment aboard ship has been reported. Metallurgical methods of mitigating corrosion, such as heat treatment and alloy development, are described. Mechanistic aspects of corrosion-assisted mechanical failures (cracking) are analyzed and a multidisciplinary approach to solve the problem is described. It is demonstrated that modifications of the crack-tip chemistry can effectively lead to inhibition of corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in high strength alloy.

  3. Methods for preventing steam generator failure or degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.J.


    PWR steam generators have suffered from a variety of degradation phenomena. This paper identifies the corrosion-related defects and their probable causes and suggests approaches to correct and prevent corrosive activity. In the attempt to solve the degradation problems, research programs have concentrated on modifying materials, stresses, and the chemical environment in both new and operating steam generators. The following corrosion-related defects have been studied: tube wastage, denting, primary side (ID) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), OD-initiated intergranular attack (IGA), pitting, and corrosion fatigue. Plants affected by wastage have greatly reduced their problem by adopting an all volatile treatment (AVT). In the case of denting, a less aggressive chemical environment is recommended. Primary side IGSCC responds to temperature reduction, stress relief, and material improvements, while flushing and boric acid addition minimizes OD-initiated IGA. It has further been shown that pitting can be minimized by sludge lancing and by reducing impurity ingress. (author)

  4. A multicentre randomized controlled trial of moderate hypothermia to prevent intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Murphy, Nicholas; Brown, Sarah


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Animal models and human case series of acute liver failure (ALF) suggest moderate hypothermia (MH) to have protective effects against cerebral oedema (CO) development and intracranial hypertension (ICH). However, the optimum temperature for patient management is unknown...... above management at 36°C in prevention of ICH or in overall survival. This study did not confirm advantage of its prophylactic use. (ISRCTN registration number 74268282; no funding.) LAY SUMMARY: Studies in animals with acute liver failure (ALF) have suggested that cooling (hypothermia) could prevent...

  5. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy prevents progression of renal failure in heart failure patients. (United States)

    Jeevanantham, Vinodh; Turagam, Mohit; Shanberg, David; Reddy, Madhu; Atoui, Moustapha; Daubert, James P; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    The goal of this study is to assess the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) over time on renal function and its impact on mortality. The effect of CRT on renal function in patients with heart failure is not well understood. All patients who underwent CRT implantation at University of Kansas between year 2000 and 2009 were reviewed and patients who had pre and post CRT renal function studied were included in our study. Stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were defined based on Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines. The effect of CRT on renal and cardiac function were studied at short term (≤6 months post implantation) and long term (>6 months). A total of 588 patients with mean age of 67 ± 12 yrs were included in the study. CRT responders (defined by increase in LVEF ≥ 5%) were 54% during short term follow-up and 65% on long term follow-up. When compared to baseline, there was no significant deterioration in mean Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) during follow up. When analyzed based on the stages of CKD, there was significant improvement of renal function in patients with advanced kidney disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that stable GFR or an improvement in GFR independently predicted mortality after adjusting for co-morbidities. CRT was associated with stabilization of renal function in patients with severe LV dysfunction and improvement in stage 4 and 5 CKD. Improved renal function was associated with a lower mortality. Copyright © 2016 Indian Heart Rhythm Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.


    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  7. [Electrical failure with nerve stimulation: cases report and check list for prevention]. (United States)

    Choquet, O; Feugeas, J-L; Capdevila, X; Manelli, J-C


    Functionality of the nerve stimulator and integrity of the electrical circuit should be verified and confirmed before performing peripheral nerve blockade. The clinical cases reported here demonstrate that electrical disconnection or malfunction during nerve localization can unpredictably occur and a checklist is described to prevent the unknown electrical circuit failure.

  8. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs


    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia


    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were ...

  9. Intralipid prevents and rescues fatal pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular failure in rats. (United States)

    Umar, Soban; Nadadur, Rangarajan D; Li, Jingyuan; Maltese, Federica; Partownavid, Parisa; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Eghbali, Mansoureh


    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling leading to right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and failure. Intralipid (ILP), a source of parenteral nutrition for patients, contains γ-linolenic acid and soy-derived phytoestrogens that are protective for lungs and heart. We, therefore, investigated the therapeutic potential of ILP in preventing and rescuing monocrotaline-induced PAH and RV dysfunction. PAH was induced in male rats with monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). Rats then received daily ILP (1 mL of 20% ILP per day IP) from day 1 to day 30 for prevention protocol or from day 21 to day 30 for rescue protocol. Other monocrotaline-injected rats were left untreated to develop severe PAH by day 21 or RV failure by approximately day 30. Saline or ILP-treated rats served as controls. Significant increase in RV pressure and decrease in RV ejection fraction in the RV failure group resulted in high mortality. Therapy with ILP resulted in 100% survival and prevented PAH-induced RV failure by preserving RV pressure and RV ejection fraction and preventing RV hypertrophy and lung remodeling. In preexisting severe PAH, ILP attenuated most lung and RV abnormalities. The beneficial effects of ILP in PAH seem to result from the interplay of various factors, among which preservation and/or stimulation of angiogenesis, suppression and/or reversal of inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy, in both lung and RV, appear to be major contributors. In conclusion, ILP not only prevents the development of PAH and RV failure but also rescues preexisting severe PAH.

  10. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation]. (United States)

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico


    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia


    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  12. Predictors of prevention failure in college students participating in two indicated depression prevention programs. (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L; Otero, Patricia


    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force.

  13. Secondary prevention- an essential component of the comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Dana


    Full Text Available Heart failure is currently a real public health problem due to the extremely high morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this context, cardiovascular prevention measures should be implemented as early as possible. In addition to classic prevention measures, a number of extremely important specific recommendations should be considered: informing patients about their underlying disease, identifying the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular factors that have led to cardiac decompensation, reducing daily salt consumption, monitoring body weight, forbidding smoking and recreational substances, conducting a regular exercise program under supervision, and increasing adherence to treatment.

  14. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure


    Fernández Río, Francisco Javier; Cecchini Estrada, José Antonio; Méndez Giménez, Antonio; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio


    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.20...

  15. How change management can prevent the failure of information systems implementation among Malaysian government hospitals? (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Jasin, Noorhayati Md; Bakar, Nur Azzah Abu


    Fail to prevent or control challenges of Information System (IS) implementation have led to the failure of its implementation. Successful implementation of IS has been a challenging task to any organization including government hospitals. Government has invested a big amount of money on information system (IS) projects to improve service delivery in healthcare. However, several of them failed to be implemented successfully due to several factors. This article proposes a prevention model which incorporated Change Management (CM) concepts to avoid the failure of IS implementation, hence ensuring the success of it. Challenges of IS implementation in government hospitals have been discovered. Extensive literature review and deep interview approaches were employed to discover these challenges. A prevention model has been designed to cater the challenges. The model caters three main phases of implementation; pre-implementation, during implementation, and post-implementation by adopting CM practices of Lewin's, Kotter's and Prosci's CM model. Six elements of CM comprising thirteen sub-elements adopted from the three CM models have been used to handle CFFs of Human and Support issues; guiding team, resistance avoidance, IS adoption, enforcement, monitoring, and IS sustainability. Successful practice of the proposed mapping is expected to prevent CFFs to occur, hence ensuring a successful implementation of IS in the hospitals. The proposed model has been presented and successfully evaluated by the domain experts from the selected hospitals. The proposed model is believed to be beneficial for top management, IT practitioners and medical practitioners in preventing IS implementation failure among government hospitals towards ensuring the success implementation.

  16. Antimetabolites in cataract surgery to prevent failure of a previous trabeculectomy. (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Crichton, Andrew; Thomas, Bennett C


    Patients having cataract surgery have often earlier undergone a trabeculectomy for glaucoma. However, cataract surgery may be associated with failure of the previous glaucoma surgery and antimetabolites may be used with cataract surgery to prevent such failure. There is no systematic review on whether antimetabolites with cataract surgery prevent failure of a previous trabeculectomy. To assess the effects of antimetabolites with cataract surgery on functioning of a previous trabeculectomy. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 10 June 2014. We also searched the Science Citation Index database (July 2013) and reference lists of potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antimetabolites with cataract surgery in people with a functioning trabeculectomy. Two review authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts from the electronic searches. Two review authors independently assessed relevant full-text articles and entered data. We identified no RCTs to test the effectiveness of antimetabolites with cataract surgery in individuals with the intention of preventing failure of a previous trabeculectomy. There are no RCTs of antimetabolites with cataract surgery in people with a functioning trabeculectomy. Appropriately powered RCTs

  17. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.S.; Koulouriotis, D.E.; Botsaris, P.N.


    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  18. Stormwater Volume Control to Prevent Increases in Lake Flooding and Dam Failure Risk (United States)

    Potter, K. W.


    Urban expansion is not often considered a major factor contributing to dam failure. But if urbanization occurs without mitigation of the hydrologic impacts, the risk of dam failure will increase. Of particular concern are increases in the volume of storm runoff resulting from increases in the extent of impervious surfaces. Storm runoff volumes are not regulated for much the U.S, and where they are, the required control is commonly less than 100%. Unmitigated increases in runoff volume due to urbanization can pose a risk to dams. A recent technical advisory committee of Dane County has recommended that the county require 100% control of stormwater volumes for new developments. The primary motivation was to prevent increases in the water levels in the Yahara Lakes, slowly draining lakes that are highly sensitive to runoff volume. The recommendations included the use of "volume trading" to achieve efficient compliance. Such recommendations should be considered for other slowly draining lakes, including those created by artificial structures.

  19. A novel role of three dimensional graphene foam to prevent heater failure during boiling. (United States)

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Ji Min; Park, Chibeom; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyungdae; Kaviany, Massoud; Kim, Moo Hwan


    We report a novel boiling heat transfer (NBHT) in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspended in water (RGO colloid) near critical heat flux (CHF), which is traditionally the dangerous limitation of nucleate boiling heat transfer because of heater failure. When the heat flux reaches the maximum value (CHF) in RGO colloid pool boiling, the wall temperature increases gradually and slowly with an almost constant heat flux, contrary to the rapid wall temperature increase found during water pool boiling. The gained time by NBHT would provide the safer margin of the heat transfer and the amazing impact on the thermal system as the first report of graphene application. In addition, the CHF and boiling heat transfer performance also increase. This novel boiling phenomenon can effectively prevent heater failure because of the role played by the self-assembled three-dimensional foam-like graphene network (SFG).

  20. Can we reduce preventable heart failure readmissions in patients enrolled in a Disease Management Programme?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, D


    BACKGROUND: Disease Management Programmes (DMPs) are successful in reducing hospital readmissions in heart failure (HF). However, there remain a number of patients enrolled in a DMP who are readmitted with HF. The primary aim of the study was to determine the proportion of preventable readmissions (PR). The secondary aim was to recognise patient characteristics which would identify certain patients at risk of having a PR. METHODS: A retrospective chart search was performed on patients readmitted over a 1-year period. RESULTS: 38.5% of readmissions were classified as PR. None of these patients made prior contact with the DMP. Admission levels of BNP, potassium, urea and creatinine were significantly lower in the PR group. CONCLUSION: DMP have proven benefits in reducing hospital readmission nonetheless a significant proportion of these readmissions are preventable. Further work is required to prospectively analyse why these patients fail to contact the DMP.

  1. Tools for in service monitoring and testing of riser to prevent failure and extend service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Haakon; Bondevik, Jon Olav; Skjerve, Haavard; Tveit, Oeyvind [SeaFlex AS, Asker (Norway)


    Exploration and development of new oil and gas fields is heavily dependant on use of flexible pipes and many field developments would not have been possible without them. The number of flexible risers in service is constantly increasing since relatively few offshore projects have reached the estimated operational life and the operational lifetime of several fields in-service has been extended due to new and improved technology. Many risers have been in service over a large number of years. Some risers have been operated under demanding conditions such as severe dynamic loads, high pressure and temperatures. One may in some cases find that risers actually have shorter service life than estimated in the design phase due to the severe operational conditions. In order to extend the use of the riser, some risers may have to be modified and re-terminated and prepared for a new and less demanding application. In order to operate risers safely, it is important to re-assess the fatigue life in order to prevent potential riser failure. The operator should implement methods and tools for in-service monitoring and testing. This paper addresses efficient and reliable methods and tools for monitoring of critical operational parameters as well as in-service riser testing. A brief description of structural failure modes will also be given in order to understand how to interpret test results in view of potential failure modes. (author)

  2. An Enhanced Preventive Maintenance Optimization Model Based on a Three-Stage Failure Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Yang


    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants are highly complex systems and the issues related to their safety are of primary importance. Probabilistic safety assessment is regarded as the most widespread methodology for studying the safety of nuclear power plants. As maintenance is one of the most important factors for affecting the reliability and safety, an enhanced preventive maintenance optimization model based on a three-stage failure process is proposed. Preventive maintenance is still a dominant maintenance policy due to its easy implementation. In order to correspond to the three-color scheme commonly used in practice, the lifetime of system before failure is divided into three stages, namely, normal, minor defective, and severe defective stages. When the minor defective stage is identified, two measures are considered for comparison: one is that halving the inspection interval only when the minor defective stage is identified at the first time; the other one is that if only identifying the minor defective stage, the subsequent inspection interval is halved. Maintenance is implemented immediately once the severe defective stage is identified. Minimizing the expected cost per unit time is our objective function to optimize the inspection interval. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed models.

  3. Spacecraft sterilization. (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.


    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  4. Maximizing survival benefit with primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in a heart failure population. (United States)

    Levy, Wayne C; Lee, Kerry L; Hellkamp, Anne S; Poole, Jeanne E; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linker, David T; Maggioni, Aldo P; Anand, Inder; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; Fishbein, Daniel P; Johnson, George; Anderson, Jill; Mark, Daniel B; Bardy, Gust H


    Although implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy reduces mortality in moderately symptomatic heart failure patients with an ejection fraction benefits of ICD treatment in the primary prevention Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). In the placebo arm, predicted 4-year mortality grouped into 5 equal-sized risk groups varied from 12% to 50% (c statistic=0.71), whereas the proportion of SCD in those same risk groups decreased from 52% to 24% of all deaths. ICD treatment decreased relative risk of SCD by 88% in the lowest-risk group versus 24% in the highest-risk group (P=0.009 for interaction) and decreased relative risk of total mortality by 54% in the lowest-risk group versus no benefit (2%) in the highest-risk group (P=0.014 for interaction). Absolute 4-year mortality reductions were 6.6%, 8.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%, and -4.9% across risk quintiles. In highest-risk patients (predicted annual mortality >20%), no benefit of ICD treatment was seen. Projected over each patient's predicted lifespan, ICD treatment added 6.3, 4.1, 3.0, 1.9, and 0.2 additional years of life in the lowest- to highest-risk groups, respectively. A clinical risk prediction model identified subsets of moderately symptomatic heart failure patients in SCD-HeFT in whom single-lead ICD therapy was of no benefit and other subsets in which benefit was substantial.

  5. Melatonin and Fertoprotective Adjuvants: Prevention against Premature Ovarian Failure during Chemotherapy. (United States)

    Jang, Hoon; Hong, Kwonho; Choi, Youngsok


    Premature ovarian failure is one of the side effects of chemotherapy in pre-menopausal cancer patients. Preservation of fertility has become increasingly important in improving the quality of life of completely recovered cancer patients. Among the possible strategies for preserving fertility such as ovarian tissue cryopreservation, co-treatment with a pharmacological adjuvant is highly effective and poses less of a burden on the human body. Melatonin is generally produced in various tissues and acts as a universally acting antioxidant in cells. Melatonin is now more widely used in various biological processes including treating insomnia and an adjuvant during chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the information indicating that melatonin may be useful for reducing and preventing premature ovarian failure in chemotherapy-treated female patients. We also mention that many adjuvants other than melatonin are developed and used to inhibit chemotherapy-induced infertility. This information will give us novel insights on the clinical use of melatonin and other agents as fertoprotective adjuvants for female cancer patients.

  6. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is essential to prevent irreversible renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nicanor


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The urofacial or Ochoa syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the presence of functional obstructive uropathy associated with peculiar facial features when patients attempt to smile or laugh. Unfortunately, many of these patients remain without proper diagnosis or adequate treatment due to lack of recognition of the disease. This can ultimately result in upper tract deterioration and eventual renal failure. We present our experience with this rare syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 3 patients who presented initially with acute renal failure, urinary tract infection (UTI and severe dysfunctional elimination. All patients were thoroughly evaluated, including screening for spinal cord anomalies, and were subsequently diagnosed with urofacial syndrome. RESULTS: At the outset, the two older patients (aged 4 and 9 years presented with the typical facial features when attempting to smile or laugh. One patient in the newborn period presented with urinary and fecal retention and septicemia and, to our knowledge, represents the youngest case of urofacial syndrome reported so far. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography, renal scan, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG and urodynamics. Findings included hydronephrosis and a thick-walled, trabeculated bladder with poor compliance and detrusor hypereflexia respectively in each patient. All were subsequently treated with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC, antibiotic prophylaxis and anticholinergic therapy. One patient required appendicovesicostomy for CIC due to discomfort secondary to a sensate urethra. CONCLUSIONS: Our series demonstrates that early recognition of this rare syndrome is necessary to adequately treat and prevent upper tract deterioration in these unique individuals. Although the urofacial is difficult to diagnose in infants, cognizance must be maintained in order to prevent severe subsequent sequalae.

  7. New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent or Delay Beta-Cell Failure in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Floriana Elvira


    Full Text Available Background and aims: The most recent estimates of International Diabetes Federation indicate that 382 million people have diabetes, and the incidence of this disease is increasing. While in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM beta-cell death is autoimmunemediated, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors that impair beta-cell function and insulin action. Many people with T2DM remain unaware of their illness for a long time because symptoms may take years to appear or be recognized, while the body is affected by excess blood glucose. These patients are often diagnosed only when diabetes complications have already developed. The aim of this article was to perform a review based on literature data on therapeutic modalities to prevent/delay beta cell function decline. Material and Methods: We searched MEDLINE from 2000 to the present to identify the therapeutic approaches to prevent or delay beta-cell failure in patients with T2DM. Results and conclusions: Several common polymorphisms in genes linked to monogenic forms of diabetes appear to influence the response to T2DM pharmacotherapy. Recent studies report the role of the G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40, also known as Free Fatty Acids Receptor 1 (FFAR1 in the regulation of beta-cell function- CNX-011-67 (a GPR40 agonist has the potential to provide good and durable glycemic control in T2DM patients.

  8. Evaluation of a cavity flooding strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure in a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Je, Moo Sung; Park, Chang Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, TaeJon (Korea, Republic of)


    As a part of the evaluation of accident management strategies for severe accident prevention or mitigation in a station blackout scenario for YGN 3 and 4, an external vessel cooling strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure has been estimated using the MAAP4 computer code. The sensitivity studies have been performed such as actuating timings and the number of spray pumps used. To explore external vessel cooling strategies, containment spray pumps were actuated by varying time spanning core uncovery, core melting and relocation of molten core material. It was shown that flooding of the reactor cavity using the containment spray system may prevent reactor vessel failure but may not prevent the failure of the relocation of molten core material during the station blackout sequence of YGN 3 and 4. Reactor vessel failure can be prevented by external vessel cooling using condensed water from the operation of two containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pump at the time of core uncovery. (Author) 46 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Embodied Revelation: A Classic Grounded Theory of Heart Failure Patient Decision Making Surrounding Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy


    Vera Barton-Caro Ph.D.,


    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to explain the complex decision making process of heart failure (HF) patients considering primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death for people with HF as well as the primary cause of death in the United States (US). ICDs represent the standard of care as the only effective therapy for primary prevention of SCD. However, a significant proportion of quali...

  10. Serelaxin treatment promotes adaptive hypertrophy but does not prevent heart failure in experimental peripartum cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Nonhoff, Justus; Ricke-Hoch, Melanie; Mueller, Mirco; Stapel, Britta; Pfeffer, Tobias; Kasten, Martina; Scherr, Michaela; von Kaisenberg, Constantin; Bauersachs, Johann; Haghikia, Arash; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise


    angiogenesis and compensatory hypertrophy in the diseased heart, but the effects are not sufficient to prevent heart failure in an experimental PPCM model. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael


    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  12. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure. (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A


    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12-17 years old ( M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ -means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students' academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  13. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A.; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A.


    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12–17 years old (M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ-means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students’ academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  14. Regenerative Therapy Prevents Heart Failure Progression in Dyssynchronous Nonischemic Narrow QRS Cardiomyopathy (United States)

    Yamada, Satsuki; Arrell, D Kent; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Behfar, Atta; Kane, Garvan C; Perez-Terzic, Carmen M; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J; McDonald, Robert J; Wyles, Saranya P; Zlatkovic-Lindor, Jelena; Nelson, Timothy J; Terzic, Andre


    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy using bi-ventricular pacing is proven effective in the management of heart failure (HF) with a wide QRS-complex. In the absence of QRS prolongation, however, device-based resynchronization is reported unsuitable. As an alternative, the present study tests a regenerative cell-based approach in the setting of narrow QRS-complex HF. Methods and Results Progressive cardiac dyssynchrony was provoked in a chronic transgenic model of stress-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. In contrast to rampant end-stage disease afflicting untreated cohorts, stem cell intervention early in disease, characterized by mechanical dyssynchrony and a narrow QRS-complex, aborted progressive dyssynchronous HF and prevented QRS widening. Stem cell-treated hearts acquired coordinated ventricular contraction and relaxation supporting systolic and diastolic performance. Rescue of contractile dynamics was underpinned by a halted left ventricular dilatation, limited hypertrophy, and reduced fibrosis. Reverse remodeling reflected a restored cardiomyopathic proteome, enforced at systems level through correction of the pathological molecular landscape and nullified adverse cardiac outcomes. Cell therapy of a dyssynchrony-prone cardiomyopathic cohort translated prospectively into improved exercise capacity and prolonged survivorship. Conclusions In narrow QRS HF, a regenerative approach demonstrated functional and structural benefit, introducing the prospect of device-autonomous resynchronization therapy for refractory disease. PMID:25964205

  15. Future Issues and Approaches to Health Monitoring and Failure Prevention for Oil-Free Gas Turbines (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher


    Recent technology advances in foil air bearings, high temperature solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of small Oil-Free gas turbines. These turbomachines are currently commercialized as small (<100 kW) microturbine generators and larger machines are being developed. Based upon these successes and the high potential payoffs offered by Oil-Free systems, NASA, industry, and other government entities are anticipating Oil-Free gas turbine propulsion systems to proliferate future markets. Since an Oil-Free engine has no oil system, traditional approaches to health monitoring and diagnostics, such as chip detection, oil analysis, and possibly vibration signature analyses (e.g., ball pass frequency) will be unavailable. As such, new approaches will need to be considered. These could include shaft orbit analyses, foil bearing temperature measurements, embedded wear sensors and start-up/coast down speed analysis. In addition, novel, as yet undeveloped techniques may emerge based upon concurrent developments in MEMS technology. This paper introduces Oil-Free technology, reviews the current state of the art and potential for future turbomachinery applications and discusses possible approaches to health monitoring, diagnostics and failure prevention.

  16. Constructing an effective prevention mechanism for MSW lifecycle using failure mode and effects analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Wu, Wen-Fang


    Municipal solid waste in Taiwan is a valuable source of renewable energy. Phases of municipal solid waste lifecycle (classification, disposal, storage, collection and transportation) before incineration or landfilled face various potential failures. Applying a proper technique to eliminate or decrease potential failures is desirable and needed. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to municipal solid waste lifecycle was found in literature. This study utilized the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a convenient technique for determining, classifying and analyzing common failures in the municipal solid waste lifecycle. As a result, an appropriate risk scoring of severity, occurrence, and detection of failure modes and computing the Risk Priority Number for identifying the high potential failure modes were made. Nineteen failure modes were identified, and nine of them were ranked as the priority items for improvement. Recommended actions for all failure modes were suggested. Occurrences of failures were remarkably reduced after implementing the procedure for six months. The results of this study have minimized potential failures and brought continuous improvement, thus achieving a better protection of the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Failure rate of no-scalpel vasectomy in prevention of pregnancy in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shakeri


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bilateral vasectomy is the most effective method of male contraception but there are still some reports on its failure. This study was undertaken to determine the failure rate of the no-scalpel vasectomy in Shiraz Vasectomy Center, Southern Iran. METHODS: From 2001 to 2003, 3900 no-scalpel vasectomies were done in Nader Kazemi Health Center. The records were studied for any failure in the method. Presence of any live sperm 6 months after surgery or any report of pregnancy post-vasectomy were considered as vasectomy failure. RESULTS:Among 3900 cases, 2928 patients had a complete follow up file while failure in the method was visible among 109 (3.72% cases. CONCLUSION: The low failure rate of no-scalpel method indicated its high efficacy to control the fertility in males but there is still need of performance by expert surgeons in well organized centers. KEYWORDS: Iran, no-scalpel vasectomy, failure rate.

  18. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group (United States)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.


    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  19. Sodium Channel β2 Subunits Prevent Action Potential Propagation Failures at Axonal Branch Points. (United States)

    Cho, In Ha; Panzera, Lauren C; Chin, Morven; Hoppa, Michael B


    Neurotransmitter release depends on voltage-gated Na + channels (Na v s) to propagate an action potential (AP) successfully from the axon hillock to a synaptic terminal. Unmyelinated sections of axon are very diverse structures encompassing branch points and numerous presynaptic terminals with undefined molecular partners of Na + channels. Using optical recordings of Ca 2+ and membrane voltage, we demonstrate here that Na + channel β2 subunits (Na v β2s) are required to prevent AP propagation failures across the axonal arborization of cultured rat hippocampal neurons (mixed male and female). When Na v β2 expression was reduced, we identified two specific phenotypes: (1) membrane excitability and AP-evoked Ca 2+ entry were impaired at synapses and (2) AP propagation was severely compromised with >40% of axonal branches no longer responding to AP-stimulation. We went on to show that a great deal of electrical signaling heterogeneity exists in AP waveforms across the axonal arborization independent of axon morphology. Therefore, Na v β2 is a critical regulator of axonal excitability and synaptic function in unmyelinated axons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels are fulcrums of neurotransmission that convert electrical inputs into chemical outputs in the form of vesicle fusion at synaptic terminals. However, the role of the electrical signal, the presynaptic action potential (AP), in modulating synaptic transmission is less clear. What is the fidelity of a propagating AP waveform in the axon and what molecules shape it throughout the axonal arborization? Our work identifies several new features of AP propagation in unmyelinated axons: (1) branches of a single axonal arborization have variable AP waveforms independent of morphology, (2) Na + channel β2 subunits modulate AP-evoked Ca 2+ -influx, and (3) β2 subunits maintain successful AP propagation across the axonal arbor. These findings are relevant to understanding the flow of excitation in the

  20. Failure of fragmented parathyroid gland autotransplantation to prevent permanent hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy. (United States)

    Lorente-Poch, Leyre; Sancho, Juan; Muñoz, Jose Luis; Gallego-Otaegui, Lander; Martínez-Ruiz, Carlos; Sitges-Serra, Antonio


    Parathyroid autotransplantation during total thyroidectomy leads to higher rates of postoperative hypocalcaemia. It has been argued, however, that it prevents permanent hypoparathyroidism. The impact of autografted normal parathyroid gland fragments on long-term parathyroid status has not been assessed properly. To clarify this, the short- and long-term parathyroid function was assessed in patients with three glands remaining in situ after total thyroidectomy, in whom the fourth gland was either autotransplanted (Tx) or accidentally resected (AR). Consecutive patients (n = 669) undergoing first-time total thyroidectomy were prospectively studied recording the number of parathyroid glands remaining in situ: PGRIS =4-(glands autografted + glands in the specimen). The study was focused on the subgroup of 186 patients with three parathyroid glands remaining in situ as a result of either accidental resection (AR, n = 76) or autotransplantation into the sternocleidomastoid muscle (Tx, n = 110). Prevalence of postoperative hypocalcaemia, protracted, and permanent hypoparathyroidism were compared between the two groups. Demographic, disease-related, laboratory, and surgical variables were recorded. All patients were followed for at least 1 year. Both groups were comparable in terms of disease and extent of surgery. Mean postoperative serum calcium was the same (AR: 1.97 ± 0.2 vs Tx: 1.97 ± 0.22 mmol/L). Rates of protracted (AR: 24% vs Tx: 25.5%) and permanent hypoparathyroidism (AR: 5.3% vs Tx: 7.3%) were similar in both groups. The prevalence of parathyroid failure syndromes after total thyroidectomy was similar whether a parathyroid gland was inadvertently excised or autotransplanted. Autotransplantation did not influence the permanent hypoparathyroidism rate.

  1. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.


    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  2. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980 (United States)


    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  3. Beneficial effects of Resveratrol, present in grapes in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Movahed


    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3, 5, 4- trihydroxystilbene is one of the natural polyphenolic bioactive compounds synthesized by plants to serve many functions, especially defense against fungal infections, environmental stresses and UV radiation. It is found mainly in grapes, green tea, peanuts and berries. This compound has recently received increased attention in medical research, due to its effects on prevention and treatment of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Over the past two decades, researchers from all over the world studied the beneficial effects of resveratrol against cardiovascular diseases and heart failure in different animal models. Importantly, the results of these studies have been promising and recently this knowledge has been translated into examining the efficacy of resveratrol in humans with heart failure. Since heart failure continues to be a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality in the developed and also developing countries, and despite different medicines available for the treatment of such common chronic systemic diseases, preventive measures to be necessary to combat the incidence of heart problems. In this review article the protective effects of resveratrol and its mechanisms of action on different metabolic pathways with respect to heart disease and failure will be discussed.

  4. Prevention preferable to treatment: 3 case reports of patients experiencing right-sided heart failure after Ebstein anomaly correction (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Lin, Jing; Qin, Zhen; Du, Lei


    Abstract Rationale: Ebstein anomaly is a common congenital heart disease that may induce severe tricuspid regurgitation and dilation of the “atrialized” portion of the right ventricle. Patients who undergo surgery to correct Ebstein anomaly are at high risk of postoperative right-sided heart failure, yet little is known about what pre-, peri-, or postoperative procedures may help reduce this risk. Patient concerns: Here, we describe 3 cases of adults with Ebstein anomaly who underwent corrective surgery and in whom right-sided heart failure occurred with severe tricuspid regurgitation detected by transesophageal echocardiography. Diagnoses: Ebstein anomaly. Intervention: Various approaches were applied to prevent right heart failure: perioperative control of atrial and ventricle arrhythmia, protection of myocardium, reduction of right-side cardiac workload after cardiopulmonary bypass, and mechanical support for right heart. Outcomes: One of the 3 patients died, another experienced kidney failure despite postoperative support on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and the third patient survived without complications. Lessons: Our case series suggests that surgical prognosis can be improved through aggressive preoperative treatment, vasoactive and anti-arrhythmia medications, and comprehensive measures designed to reduce myocardial injury, prevent myocardial edema, and reduce pre- and afterload on the right ventricle. PMID:28072699

  5. Vascular access specialist teams for device insertion and prevention of failure. (United States)

    Carr, Peter J; Higgins, Niall S; Cooke, Marie L; Mihala, Gabor; Rickard, Claire M


    one registered clinical trial in progress. No studies could be included in the analysis or review. We assigned one study as awaiting classification, as it has not been accepted for publication. This systematic review failed to locate relevant published RCTs to support or refute the assertion that vascular access specialist teams are superior to the generalist model. A vascular access specialist team has advanced knowledge with regard to insertion techniques, clinical care, and management of vascular access devices, whereas a generalist model comprises nurses, doctors, or other designated healthcare professionals in the healthcare facility who may have less advanced insertion techniques and who care for vascular access devices amongst other competing clinical tasks. However, this conclusion may change once the one study awaiting classification and one ongoing study are published. There is a need for good-quality RCTs to evaluate the efficacy of a vascular access specialist team approach for vascular access device insertion and care for the prevention of failure.

  6. Causes and prevention of splitting/bursting failure of concrete crossties: a computational study (United States)


    Concrete splitting/bursting is a well-known failure mode of concrete crossties that can compromise the crosstie integrity and raise railroad maintenance and track safety concerns. This paper presents a computational study aimed at better understandin...

  7. Reliability technology principles and practice of failure prevention in electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pascoe, Norman


    A unique book that describes the practical processes necessary to achieve failure free equipment performance, for quality and reliability engineers, design, manufacturing process and environmental test engineers. This book studies the essential requirements for successful product life cycle management. It identifies key contributors to failure in product life cycle management and particular emphasis is placed upon the importance of thorough Manufacturing Process Capability reviews for both in-house and outsourced manufacturing strategies. The readers? attention is also drawn to the ma

  8. Development of an Advanced Digital Reactor Protection System Using Diverse Dual Processors to Prevent Common-Mode Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Kook; Nam, Sang Ku; Sohn, Se Do; Chang, Hoon Seon


    The advanced digital reactor protection system (ADRPS) with diverse dual processors has been developed to prevent common-mode failure (CMF). The principle of diversity is applied to both hardware design and software design. For hardware diversity, two different types of CPUs are used for the bistable processor and local coincidence logic (LCL) processor. The Versa Module Eurocard-based single board computers are used for the CPU hardware platforms. The QNX operating system and the VxWorks operating system were selected for software diversity. Functional diversity is also applied to the input and output modules, and to the algorithm in the bistable processors and LCL processors. The characteristics of the newly developed digital protection system are described together with the preventive capability against CMF. Also, system reliability analysis is discussed. The evaluation results show that the ADRPS has a good preventive capability against the CMF and is a highly reliable reactor protection system

  9. Predicting and preventing peripheral intravenous cannula insertion failure in the emergency department: Clinician 'gestalt' wins again. (United States)

    Rippey, James Cr; Carr, Peter J; Cooke, Marie; Higgins, Niall; Rickard, Claire M


    Failed attempts at peripheral i.v. cannula (PIVC) insertion in the ED are common. The psychological, physical and economic impact of these failures is significant. We sought to explore whether clinicians of differing experience levels can predict their own likelihood (clinician 'gestalt') of first-time cannula insertion success on any given patient. Data analyses from a prospective self-reported study assessing risk factors for first-time insertion success in a tertiary adult ED. We constructed and compared two simple theoretical clinical decision algorithms in an attempt to improve first-time PIVC insertion success rates. This best algorithm identified a subgroup of 18% of the total PIVC population at higher risk of failure. This 18% comprised 57% of all PIVC failures, and implementation would result in a relative risk reduction of PIVC failure by 31%. When applied to our sample population, an algorithm relying on clinician gestalt to identify patients at high risk of PIVC failure had the greatest potential impact. These patients would be referred to expert PIVC inserters prior to, rather than after, failed attempts. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Systematic analysis and prevention of human originated common cause failures in relation to maintenance activities at Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.


    The focus in human reliability analysis of nuclear power plants has traditionally been on human performance in disturbance conditions. On the other hand, human maintenance failures and design deficiencies, remained latent in the system, have an impact on the severity of a disturbance, e.g. by disabling safety-related equipment on demand. Especially common cause failures (CCFs) of safety related systems can affect the core damage risk to a significant extent. The topic has been addressed in Finnish studies, where experiences of latent human errors have been searched and analysed systematically from the maintenance history stored in the the power plant information systems of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. Both the single and multiple errors (CCFs) were classified in detail and documented as error and event reports. The human CCFs involved human, organisational and technical factors. The review of the analysed single and multiple errors showed that instrumentation and control and electrical equipment are more prone to human error caused failure events than the other maintenance objects. The review of the analysed experience showed that most errors stem from the refuelling and maintenance outage periods. More than half of the multiple errors from the outages remained latent to the power operating periods. The review of the analysed multiple errors showed that difficulties with small plant modifications and planning of maintenance and operability were significant sources of common cause failures. The most dependent human errors originating from small modifications could be reduced by a more tailored planning and coverage of their start-up testing programs. Improvements could also be achieved by identifying better in work planning from the operating experiences those complex or intrusive repair and preventive maintenance work tasks and actions which are prone to errors. Such uncertain cases in important equipment require a more tailored work planning of the installation

  11. Prevention and management of brain edema in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendon, J.; Larsen, Finn Stolze


    1. Intracranial pressure is the pressure exerted by the cranial contents on the dural envelope and consists of the partial pressures of the brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Severe cases of acute liver failure are frequently complicated by brain edema (due to cytotoxic edema) and an incre......1. Intracranial pressure is the pressure exerted by the cranial contents on the dural envelope and consists of the partial pressures of the brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Severe cases of acute liver failure are frequently complicated by brain edema (due to cytotoxic edema......) and an increase in cerebral blood flow while the cerebrospinal fluid volume remains constant. 3. The development of intracranial hypertension in patients with acute liver failure may be controlled by manipulation of the position, body temperature, plasma tonicity, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial...

  12. Prevention and management of brain edema in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendon, J.; Larsen, Finn Stolze


    1. Intracranial pressure is the pressure exerted by the cranial contents on the dural envelope and consists of the partial pressures of the brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Severe cases of acute liver failure are frequently complicated by brain edema (due to cytotoxic edema......) and an increase in cerebral blood flow while the cerebrospinal fluid volume remains constant. 3. The development of intracranial hypertension in patients with acute liver failure may be controlled by manipulation of the position, body temperature, plasma tonicity, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial...

  13. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste


    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  14. Primary Prevention of Reading Failure: Effect of Universal Peer Tutoring in the Early Grades (United States)

    Jones, Giavana; Ostojic, Dragana; Menard, Jessica; Picard, Erin; Miller, Carlin J.


    Reading is typically considered a survival skill in our technology- and literacy-bound culture. Individuals who struggle with learning to read are at significantly elevated risk for a number of negative outcomes, including school failure, under- and unemployment, and special education placement. Thus, those who do not learn to read fluently will…

  15. Which antibiotic regimen prevents implant failure or infection after dental implant surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Fabio; Rodríguez Andrés, Carlos; Arteagoitia, Iciar


    To assess which antibiotic regimen prevents dental implant failures or postoperative infections following dental implant placement. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pubmed, Cochrane, Science Direct, and EMBASE via OVID were searched up to August 2017. Only randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) using antibiotics were included. Outcome measures were set on dental implant failures or postoperative infection incidence after dental implant surgery. Three reviewers independently undertook risk of bias assessment and data extraction. Stratified meta-analyses of binary data using fixed-effects models were performed using Stata 14.0. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. Nine articles were included corresponding to 15 RCTs. All RCTs tested only oral amoxicillin. Implant-failure analysis: overall RR = 0.53 (P = .005, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82) and overall NNT = 55 (95% CI, 33-167). Single-dose oral amoxicillin preoperatively (SDOAP) is beneficial (RR = 0.50, CI: 0.29-0.86. P = .012), when compared to postoperative oral amoxicillin (POA): RR = 0.60, CI: 0.28-1.30. P = .197. Postoperative-infection analysis: overall RR = 0.76 (P = 0.250, 95% CI: 0.47-1.22). Neither SDOAP (RR = 0.82, CI = 0.46-1.45, P = .488) nor POA (RR = 0.64, CI = 0.27-1.51, P = .309) are beneficial. I 2  = 0.0%, chi-squared tests P ≈ 1. Only SDOAP is effective and efficacious at preventing implant failures, but it was not significant for postoperative infections following dental implant surgeries. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Diet Rich in Unsaturated Fatty Acids Prevents Progression Toward Heart Failure in a Rabbit Model of Pressure and Volume Overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ruijter, Hester M.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Schumacher, Cees A.; Houten, Sander M.; Belterman, Charly N. W.; Baartscheer, Antonius; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; van Bilsen, Marc; de Roos, Baukje; Coronel, Ruben


    Background-During heart failure (HF), cardiac metabolic substrate preference changes from fatty acid (FA) toward glucose oxidation. This change may cause progression toward heart failure. We hypothesize that a diet rich in FAs may prevent this process, and that dietary omega 3-FAs have an added

  17. Study on the effect of shape-stabilized phase change materials on spacecraft thermal control in extreme thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wan-fan; Liu, Na; Cheng, Wen-long; Liu, Yi


    Highlights: ► A shape-stabilized PCM is used to protect the spacecraft attacked by high energy. ► Taking a satellite as example, it proves the solution given in the work is feasible. ► Low thermal conductivity makes the material above its thermal stability limit. ► It provides guidance on how to choose the shape-stabilized PCM for similar problems. - Abstract: In space, the emergencies such as short-term high heat flux is prone to cause spacecraft thermal control system faults, resulting in temperature anomalies of electronic equipment of the spacecraft and even failures in them. In order to protect the spacecraft attacked by the high energy, a new guard method is proposed. A shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM), which has high thermal conductivity and does not require being tightly packaged, is proposed to be used on the spacecraft. To prove the feasibility of using the material on spacecraft attacked by high energy, the thermal responses for spacecraft with shape-stabilized PCM are investigated in situations of normal and short-term high heat flux, in contrast to that with conventional thermal control system. The results indicate that the shape-stabilized PCM can effectively absorb the heat to prevent the thermal control system faults when the spacecraft’s outer heat flux changes dramatically and has no negative effect on spacecraft in normal heat flux. Additionally the effect of thermal conductivity of PCM on its application effectiveness is discussed

  18. The Volume Limit in Fluid Resuscitation to Prevent Respiratory Failure in Massively Burned Children without Inhalation Injury


    Okabayashi, Kiyoshi; Ohtani, Minako; Yamanoue, Takao; Sera, Akihiko; Wada, Seishi; Inoue, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Yasumasa


    We evaluated the accurate fluid requirement to prevent respiratory failure during the postresuscitation period in the resuscitation of massively burned children without inhalation injury. Forty-nine children were treated by similar fluid resuscitation and physiologic support protocols. Using a retrospective chart review, the children were divided into three groups as follows: Group N (no lung injury, n = 33, 41.4 ± 18. 7%TBSA burned), Group M (mild-to-moderate lung injury, n = 11, 73.7 ± 17.1...



    David Šuran; Vojko Kanič; Tatjana Golob Gulič; Husam Franjo Naji; Robert Lipovec


    Background Prosthetic heart valve thrombosis (PHVT) represents a dangerous postoperative complication following prosthetic heart valve replacement. Incidence varies according to different data from 0.5–4 % per year following mitral or aortic valve replacement in spite of adequate oral anticoagulation with coumarins. Case report We are presenting a case of prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis as a result of 6-month lowmolecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (nadroparine) treatment failure. Our pat...

  20. Success, Failure, and Unfinished Business of Education, Prevention, Policy, and Intervention Programs on Substance Misuse in Brazilian Sport. (United States)

    Santos, Azenildo M


    The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Reflections on public health policy are noted.

  1. Software verification and validation methodology for advanced digital reactor protection system using diverse dual processors to prevent common mode failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ki Chang; Shin, Hyun Kook; Lee, Nam Hoon; Baek, Seung Min; Kim, Hang Bae


    The Advanced Digital Reactor Protection System (ADRPS) with diverse dual processors is being developed by the National Research Lab of KOPEC for ADRPS development. One of the ADRPS goals is to develop digital Plant Protection System (PPS) free of Common Mode Failure (CMF). To prevent CMF, the principle of diversity is applied to both hardware design and software design. For the hardware diversity, two different types of CPUs are used for Bistable Processor and Local Coincidence Logic Processor. The VME based Single Board Computers (SBC) are used for the CPU hardware platforms. The QNX Operating System (OS) and the VxWorks OS are used for software diversity. Rigorous Software Verification and Validation (V and V) is also required to prevent CMF. In this paper, software V and V methodology for the ADRPS is described to enhance the ADRPS software reliability and to assure high quality of the ADRPS software

  2. Embodied Revelation: A Classic Grounded Theory of Heart Failure Patient Decision Making Surrounding Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Barton-Caro Ph.D.,


    Full Text Available The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to explain the complex decision making process of heart failure (HF patients considering primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD therapy. Sudden cardiac death (SCD is the leading cause of death for people with HF as well as the primary cause of death in the United States (US. ICDs represent the standard of care as the only effective therapy for primary prevention of SCD. However, a significant proportion of qualifying HF patients declines this invasive, yet life-saving device. The grounded theory is of Embodied revelation. The threat of SCD for ICD candidates consists of four stages: living in conscious denial, heightening of awareness, sanctioning ICD therapy, and living in new assurance. The first stage ends abruptly with the critical juncture of grasping the threat of SCD. This grounded theory has implications for research, nursing and medical practice, as well as bioethical considerations.

  3. Apixaban: Effective and Safe in Preventing Thromboembolic Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Renal Failure. (United States)

    Cortese, Francesca; Scicchitano, Pietro; Gesualdo, Michele; Ricci, Gabriella; Carbonara, Santa; Franchini, Carlo; Pia Schiavone, Brigida Immacolata; Corbo, Filomena; Ciccone, Marco Matteo


    Thromboembolic events, principally stroke, represent one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among subjects with atrial fibrillation. Chronic kidney disease determines a further increase of thromboembolic events, bleeding and mortality and complicates the pharmacological management of patients with atrial fibrillation, mainly due to the side effects of antiarrhythmic and anticoagulant drugs with renal excretion. Apixaban is a new oral anticoagulant characterized by good bioavailability and renal elimination accounting for only 25%, showing a safety profile and effectiveness in patients with renal impairment. In this manuscript, we reviewed literature data on the use of apixaban in the management of non-valvular atrial fibrillation in patients with renal failure, in order to clarify an often-debated topic in clinical practice. A PubMed search was performed on the terms atrial fibrillation, apixaban and renal failure with the aim of identifying relevant manuscripts, large randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and current guidelines. Literature data show that apixaban could represent an interesting alternative to warfarin and other selective antagonists of coagulation factors in patients with impaired renal function. About the risk of major bleeding, apixaban appears to be safer than warfarin in the presence of any degree of renal failure. Apixaban show to be an effective anticoagulant in patients with atrial fibrillation, even superior to warfarin in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism regardless of the presence of renal insufficiency. Moreover, Food and Drug Administration allows the use of apixaban in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  4. Ethanol-lock therapy for the prevention of central venous access device infections in pediatric patients with intestinal failure. (United States)

    Cober, M Petrea; Kovacevich, Debra S; Teitelbaum, Daniel H


    Central venous access device (CVAD) infections are a major complication in pediatric patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) and are particularly prevalent in patients with intestinal failure. This study evaluated the outcomes of outpatient ethanol-lock therapy (ELT) for the prevention of CVAD infections in children with intestinal failure. In this retrospective analysis, the primary outcome measure was the rate of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to CVAD infections per 1,000 catheter days, and secondary measures included type of organisms cultured and complications of ELT. Over the course of 2 years, 15 patients received outpatient ELT. Sixty-seven percent were male; patients had a mean ± standard deviation age at enrollment of 5.6 ± 6.9 years and body weight of 19.9 ± 15.4 kg. Mean duration of ELT was 263 ± 190 days. Mean BSI rate per 1,000 catheter days significantly decreased from 8.0 before ELT to 1.3 after ELT (P ELT included thrombosis (n = 1), difficulty withdrawing blood from the CVAD, requiring thrombolytic administration (n = 3), and repair of the CVAD for leakage/tear (n = 20). The rate of CVAD repair for leakage/tear with ELT was compared to prior rates per 1,000 catheter days and was found to be elevated after initiation of ELT (6.4 ± 10.0 vs 3.1 ± 5.2; P = .20). No signs and symptoms of ethanol intoxication were observed. ELT for the prevention of CVAD infections in pediatric intestinal failure patients significantly decreased BSI rates and may be used for extended periods of time in an outpatient setting.

  5. Failure Analysis and Prevention for the Air Logistics Center Engineer: CAStLE Course Development Summary (United States)


    job 3.0a 2.5 positive 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5- 0.0- ALC dU t ien V U. C 0 O.2 C 0 CS 2 u. g 2 0 E 0 ) a cn ee cs o eam br Uf nel -oes t Cot LL (D o u( 0 LL...1992. Witherell, Charles E., Mechanical Failure Avoidance - Strategies & Techniques. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994. - A3 - USAF Academy Center for...Analysis b. x- ray (radiography) c. ultrasound d. magnetic particle e. liquid penetrant 4. Mechanical Testing (BE JUDICIOUS!) a. tensile b. hardness 5

  6. Integrating Preventive Maintenance Scheduling As Probability Machine Failure And Batch Production Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi


    Full Text Available This paper discusses integrated model of batch production scheduling and machine maintenance scheduling. Batch production scheduling uses minimize total actual flow time criteria and machine maintenance scheduling uses the probability of machine failure based on Weibull distribution. The model assumed no nonconforming parts in a planning horizon. The model shows an increase in the number of the batch (length of production run up to a certain limit will minimize the total actual flow time. Meanwhile, an increase in the length of production run will implicate an increase in the number of PM. An example was given to show how the model and algorithm work.

  7. Use of an inactivated vaccine for prevention of parvovirus-induced reproductive failure in gilts. (United States)

    Brown, T T; Whitacre, M D; Robison, O W


    Gilts from dams that had been inoculated with inactivated porcine parvovirus (PPV) vaccine before breeding became seronegative to PPV by 26 weeks of age. Vaccination of these gilts with inactivated PPV vaccine at 32 weeks of age resulted in an antibody response that peaked at about 2 weeks after vaccination, with -log10 mean hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody titers of less than 2. In the first-year group (82 gilts), HI titers gradually decreased, 20% of the gilts being seronegative by 6 to 7 weeks after vaccination and 75% being seronegative by 16 weeks after vaccination. In the second-year group, 93 gilts were infected naturally by a field strain of PPV at about 11 weeks after single vaccination with inactivated PPV. Additionally, in the second year, 20 vaccinated and 6 nonvaccinated gilts were immune-challenged with virulent PPV at 10 to 12 weeks after vaccination. Neither field nor challenge PPV infection of vaccinated pregnant gilts caused reproductive failure, even though some of the gilts became seronegative for PPV before challenge. Our findings suggest that single vaccination of gilts with inactivated PPV vaccine should give adequate protection from PPV-induced reproductive failure, even though serum HI titers decrease to an undetectable level shortly before PPV infection.

  8. Cardiac outcome prevention effectiveness of glucocorticoids in acute decompensated heart failure: COPE-ADHF study. (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Kunshen


    Newly emerging evidence showed that glucocorticoids could potentiate natriuretic peptides' action by increasing the density of natriuretic peptide receptor A, leading to a potent diuresis and a renal function improvement in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Therefore, glucocorticoid therapy may be used in patients with ADHF. One hundred two patients with ADHF were randomized to receive glucocorticoids or standard treatment. Change from baseline in serum creatinine (SCr) at day 7 and cardiovascular death within 30 days were recorded. The study was terminated early because of slow site initiation and patient enrolment. Glucocorticoid therapy seemed to be well tolerated. There was a remarkable SCr reduction after 7 days treatment. The change from baseline in SCr is -0.14 mg/dL in glucocorticoid group versus -0.02 mg/dL in standard treatment group (P glucocorticoid group with odds ratio of 0.26 (3 deaths in glucocorticoid vs. 10 deaths in standard treatment group, P glucocorticoid therapy persisted during the follow-up. Patient-assessed dyspnea and physician-assessed global clinical status were also improved in glucocorticoid group. Limited data indicate that glucocorticoid therapy may be used safely in patients with ADHF in short term. Glucocorticoid therapy did not cause heart failure deterioration. Further investigations are warranted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose of the study. Improvement of results of treatment in patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer by decreasing the risk of post-resection liver failure on the basis of the evaluation of the functional reserves of the liver.Materials and Methods. The study included two independent samples of patients operated about primary or metastatic lesions of the liver at the Department of abdominal Oncology, P. A. Hertsen MORI. The first group included 53 patients who carried out 13C-breath test metallimovie and dynamic scintigraphy of the liver in the preoperative stage in addition to the standard algorithm of examination. Patients of the 2nd group (n=35 had a standard clinical and laboratory examination, the patients were not performed the preoperative evaluation of the functional reserve of the liver, the incidences of total bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin time did not reveal a reduction of liver function. Post-resection liver failure have been established on the basis of the 50/50 criterion in the evaluation on day 5 after surgery.Results. Analysis of operating characteristics of the functional tests showed the absolute methacin breath test sensitivity (SE≥100%, high specificity (SP≥67% of scintigraphy of the liver and the negative predictive value of outcome (VP≥100% at complex use of two diagnostic methods. The incidence of PROPS in the study group was significantly 2 times higher in the control group –15,1% and 26.8%, respectively (p<0.001.Conclusion. The combination of preoperative dynamic scintigraphy of the liver with carrying out 13C-breath methacin test allows you to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the liver functional reserve and can significantly improve preoperative evaluation and postoperative results of anatomic resection in patients with primary and metastatic liver lesions.

  10. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1978 (United States)


    The interaction of the aerospace environment with spacecraft surfaces and onboard, high voltage spacecraft systems operating over a wide range of altitudes from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit is considered. Emphasis is placed on control of spacecraft electric potential. Electron and ion beams, plasma neutralizers material selection, and magnetic shielding are among the topics discussed.

  11. Preventive detection of incipient failure and improvement of availability of French PWR using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenard, B.; Marini, J.


    Laboratory tests, on site experience gained on PWR during start up test as well as during nominal functioning have given FRAMATOME very great confidence in A.E. techniques for preventive detection of incidents. Loose part and leakage monitoring are already being used on an industrial basis. Crack growth detection and monitoring are still in the investigation phase and various. Research and Development programs are presently being carried out

  12. The use of failure mode and effects analysis to construct an effective disposal and prevention mechanism for infectious hospital waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Chao Chung; Liao, Ching-Jong


    Highlights: → This study is based on a real case in a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan. → We use Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) as the evaluation method. → We successfully identify the risk factors of infectious waste disposal. → We propose plans for the detection of exceptional cases of infectious waste. - Abstract: In recent times, the quality of medical care has been continuously improving in medical institutions wherein patient-centred care has been emphasized. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has also been promoted as a method of basic risk management and as part of total quality management (TQM) for improving the quality of medical care and preventing mistakes. Therefore, a study was conducted using FMEA to evaluate the potential risk causes in the process of infectious medical waste disposal, devise standard procedures concerning the waste, and propose feasible plans for facilitating the detection of exceptional cases of infectious waste. The analysis revealed the following results regarding medical institutions: (a) FMEA can be used to identify the risk factors of infectious waste disposal. (b) During the infectious waste disposal process, six items were scored over 100 in the assessment of uncontrolled risks: erroneous discarding of infectious waste by patients and their families, erroneous discarding by nursing staff, erroneous discarding by medical staff, cleaning drivers pierced by sharp articles, cleaning staff pierced by sharp articles, and unmarked output units. Therefore, the study concluded that it was necessary to (1) provide education and training about waste classification to the medical staff, patients and their families, nursing staff, and cleaning staff; (2) clarify the signs of caution; and (3) evaluate the failure mode and strengthen the effects.

  13. Painful posterior shoulder instability: Anticipating and preventing failure. A study in 25 patients. (United States)

    Garret, J; Nourissat, G; Hardy, M B; Antonucci, D; Clavert, P; Mansat, P; Godenèche, A


    Painful posterior shoulder instability (PPSI) is the least common of the three clinical patterns of posterior shoulder instability. PPSI is defined as pain combined with anatomical evidence of posterior instability but no instability events. We studied a multicentre cohort of 25 patients with PPSI; 23 were identified retrospectively and had a follow-up of at least 2 years and 2 patients were included prospectively. Most patients engaged in sports. All 25 patients underwent surgery, which usually consisted in arthroscopic capsulo-labral reconstruction. The outcome was excellent in 43% of patients; another 43% had improvements but reported persistent pain. The pain remained unchanged or worsened in the remaining 14% of patients. Causes of failure consisted of a missed diagnosis of shoulder osteoarthritis with posterior subluxation, technical errors, and postoperative complications. The main cause of incomplete improvement with persistent pain was presence of cartilage damage. Outcomes were excellent in patients who were free of cartilage damage, bony abnormalities associated with posterior instability (reverse Hill-Sachs lesion, erosion or fracture of the posterior glenoid), technical errors, and postoperative complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Becoming a first-class noticer. How to spot and prevent ethical failures in your organization. (United States)

    Bazerman, Max H


    We'd like to think that no smart, upstanding manager would ever overlook or turn a blind eye to threats or wrongdoing that ultimately imperil his or her business. Yet it happens all the time. We fall prey to obstacles that obscure or drown out important signals that things are amiss. Becoming a "first-class noticer," says Max H. Bazerman, a professor at Harvard Business School, requires conscious effort to fight ambiguity, motivated blindness, conflicts of interest, the slippery slope, and efforts of others to mislead us. As a manager, you can develop your noticing skills by acknowledging responsibility when things go wrong rather than blaming external forces beyond your control. Bazerman also advises taking an outsider's view to challenge the status quo. Given the string of ethical failures of corporations around the world in recent years--from BP to GM to JP Morgan Chase--it's clear that leaders not only need to act more responsibly themselves but also must develop keen noticing skills in their employees and across their organizations.

  15. The Financial Benefits of Various Catastrophic Failure Prevention Strategies in a Wind Farm: Two market studies (UK-Spain) (United States)

    Yürüşen, N. Y.; Tautz-Weinert, J.; Watson, S. J.; Melero, J. J.


    Operation of wind farms is driven by the overall aim of minimising costs while maximising energy sales. However, in certain circumstances investments are required to guarantee safe operation and survival of an asset. In this paper, we discuss the merits of various catastrophic failure prevention strategies in a Spanish wind farm. The wind farm operator was required to replace blades in two phases: temporary and final repair. We analyse the power performance of the turbine in the different states and investigate four scenarios with different timing of temporary and final repair during one year. The financial consequences of the scenarios are compared with a baseline by using a discounted cash flow analysis that considers the wholesale electricity market selling prices and interest rates. A comparison with the UK electricity market is conducted to highlight differences in the rate of return in the two countries.

  16. Roof Deformation, Failure Characteristics, and Preventive Techniques of Gob-Side Entry Driving Heading Adjacent to the Advancing Working Face (United States)

    Bai, Jian-biao; Shen, Wen-long; Guo, Guan-long; Wang, Xiang-yu; Yu, Yang


    In mining excavation, the roof bending subsidence of gob-side entry driving heading adjacent to the advancing working face (HAWF) can be considerable. Influenced by the original rock pressure, the front and lateral abutment pressure of the adjacent working face, and the front abutment pressure of the current working face, the support body can easily fail, leading to serious instability of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel. To study the stress state and the deformation failure mechanism of the HAWF roof structure, we use on-site survey data, numerical simulation, and theoretical calculations to fit the spatial distribution law of mining abutment pressure piecewise, and establish a dynamic mechanical model of the roof structure. We then propose a roof failure criterion and examine the roof flexure deformation behavioral pattern. We found that the central part of the roof is the main point that controls the surrounding rock. To prevent the deformation and collapse of the roof and rock surrounding the tunnel, we propose techniques that can be applied to HAWF gob-side entry driving, including setting the coal pillar width, the driving stop and restart timing, and other control concepts.

  17. NASA STD-4005: The LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.


    Power systems with voltages higher than about 55 volts may charge in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) enough to cause destructive arcing. The NASA STD-4005 LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard will help spacecraft designers prevent arcing and other deleterious effects on LEO spacecraft. The Appendices, an Information Handbook based on the popular LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines by Ferguson and Hillard, serve as a useful explanation and accompaniment to the Standard.

  18. Optimizing production and imperfect preventive maintenance planning's integration in failure-prone manufacturing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Tam, Phuoc Le


    This paper investigates the issue of integrating production and maintenance planning in a failure-prone manufacturing system. It is assumed that the system's operating state is stochastically predictable, in terms of its operating age, and that it can accordingly be preventively maintained during preplanned periods. Preventive maintenance is assumed to be imperfect, that is when performed, it brings the manufacturing system to an operating state that lies between ‘as bad as old’ and ‘as good as new’. Only an overhauling of the system brings it to a ‘as good as new’ operating state again. A practical integrated production and preventive maintenance planning model, that takes into account the system's manufacturing capacity and its operational reliability state, is developed. The model is naturally formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem, for which an extended mixed-integer linear reformulation is proposed. This reformulation, while it solves the proposed integrated planning problem to optimality, remains quite demanding in terms of computational time. A fix-and-optimize procedure, that takes advantage of some properties of the original model, is then proposed. The reformulation and the fix-and-optimize procedure are tested on some test instances adapted from those available in the literature. The results show that the proposed fix-and-optimize procedure performs quite well and opens new research direction for future improvements. - Highlights: • Integration of production planning and imperfect preventive maintenance is explored. • Imperfect maintenance is modeled using a fitting age reduction hybrid hazard rate. • A practical approximate optimization model for this integration is proposed. • The resulting naturally MINL optimization model is reformulated and solved as a MILP. • An effective fix-and-optimize procedure is proposed for large instances of this MILP.

  19. Iron-regulatory proteins secure iron availability in cardiomyocytes to prevent heart failure. (United States)

    Haddad, Saba; Wang, Yong; Galy, Bruno; Korf-Klingebiel, Mortimer; Hirsch, Valentin; Baru, Abdul M; Rostami, Fatemeh; Reboll, Marc R; Heineke, Jörg; Flögel, Ulrich; Groos, Stephanie; Renner, André; Toischer, Karl; Zimmermann, Fabian; Engeli, Stefan; Jordan, Jens; Bauersachs, Johann; Hentze, Matthias W; Wollert, Kai C; Kempf, Tibor


    Iron deficiency (ID) is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure (HF) but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Intracellular iron availability is secured by two mRNA-binding iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs), IRP1 and IRP2. We generated mice with a cardiomyocyte-targeted deletion of Irp1 and Irp2 to explore the functional implications of ID in the heart independent of systemic ID and anaemia. Iron content in cardiomyocytes was reduced in Irp-targeted mice. The animals were not anaemic and did not show a phenotype under baseline conditions. Irp-targeted mice, however, were unable to increase left ventricular (LV) systolic function in response to an acute dobutamine challenge. After myocardial infarction, Irp-targeted mice developed more severe LV dysfunction with increased HF mortality. Mechanistically, the activity of the iron-sulphur cluster-containing complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was reduced in left ventricles from Irp-targeted mice. As demonstrated by extracellular flux analysis in vitro, mitochondrial respiration was preserved at baseline but failed to increase in response to dobutamine in Irp-targeted cardiomyocytes. As shown by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo, LV phosphocreatine/ATP ratio declined during dobutamine stress in Irp-targeted mice but remained stable in control mice. Intravenous injection of ferric carboxymaltose replenished cardiac iron stores, restored mitochondrial respiratory capacity and inotropic reserve, and attenuated adverse remodelling after myocardial infarction in Irp-targeted mice but not in control mice. As shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, IRP activity was significantly reduced in LV tissue samples from patients with advanced HF and reduced LV tissue iron content. ID in cardiomyocytes impairs mitochondrial respiration and adaptation to acute and chronic increases in workload. Iron supplementation restores cardiac energy reserve and function in iron

  20. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica


    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  1. A treatment algorithm for children with lupus nephritis to prevent developing renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilofar Hajizadeh


    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is one of the most common complication of systemic lupus erythematosus, which if untreated can lead to the end stage renal disease (ESRD. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment of lupus nephritis (LN is critical to prevent the chronic kidney disease incidence and to reduce the development of ESRD. The treatment of LN has changed significantly over the past decade. In patients with active proliferative LN (Classes III and IV intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g/m2/day for 1 3 days then prednisone 0.5 1.0 mg/kg/day, tapered to <0.5 mg/kg/day after 10 12 weeks of treatment plus mycophenolate mofetile (MMF 1.2 g/m2/day for 6 months followed by maintenance lower doses of MMF 1 2 g/day or azathioprine (AZA 2 mg/kg/day for 3 years have proven to be efficacy and less toxic than cyclophosphamide (CYC therapy. Patients with membranous LN (Class V plus diffuse or local proliferative LN (Class III and Class IV should receive either the standard 6 monthly pulses of CYC (0.5 1 g/m2/month then every 3rd month or to a shorter treatment course consisting of 0.5 g/m2 IV CYC every 2 weeks for six doses (total dose 3 g followed by maintenance therapy with daily AZA (2 mg/kg/day or MMF (0.6 g/m2/day for 3 years. Combination of MMF plus rituximab or MMF plus calcineurin inhibitors may be an effective co therapy for those refractory to induction or maintenance therapies. This report introduces a new treatment algorithm to prevent the development of ESRD in children with LN.

  2. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja


    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  3. A failure of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in the prevention of rat intracranial aneurysm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, T.J.; Kallmes, D.F.; Marx, W.F.


    We tested the hypothesis that nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition with doxycycline would decrease the incidence of intracranial aneurysm formation in a rat aneurysm model. We performed common carotid artery ligation on 96 Long-Evans rats. A treatment group of 48 animals was chosen at random to receive oral doxycycline (3 mg/kg) in addition to standard rat chow, and the control group of 48 animals received standard rat chow only. The major circle of Willis arteries was dissected at 1 year following carotid ligation, and the proportions of animals with aneurysms were compared between groups using Fisher's exact test. Four animals given oral doxycycline and ten control animals expired before 1 year. Of the examined animals, eight saccular intracranial aneurysms were found in 8 of 45 animals which had received doxycycline (17.8%) and seven saccular intracranial aneurysms were found in 7 of 37 control animals (18.9%). There was no significant difference in aneurysm formation between the doxycycline-treated and control groups (P=0.894). Nonspecific MMP inhibition with doxycycline is not effective in preventing intracranial aneurysm formation in a rat model. (orig.)

  4. Failure to use routine prevention of disability (POD assessment resulting In permanent disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zoulba


    Full Text Available Disability is one of problems in leprosy or Morbus Hansen (MH, which can cause the patient loose his autonomy and may affect his social relationship with family and community. Disability occurs due to neurological inflammation that can manifest as silent neuritis (which develops without any pain. Silent neuritis can be recognized early with a routine prevention of disability (POD assessment. A 19-year-old male patient was referred from a District General Hospital with a history of numbness and stiffness of his 4th and 5th fingers of his left hand since 1 month before admittance. The patient was refered by Community Health Center (CHC or PUSKESMAS after a one year treatment and RFT. During his treatment at the CHC, no assessment of peripheral nerve or POD had ever been performed. The POD assessment at our hospital demonstrated sensory deficit at some points of assessment on both palms and reduced muscle strength of the first and 5th fingers in both hands. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV performed at the outpatient of Neurology Department, showed multiple mononeuropathy MH with irreversible damage. Nerve damage is still considered reversible when it occurs less than 6 months. In this case, the silent neuritis was not detected early and there was delayed treatment; as showed by NCV which revealed a manifestation of irreversible nerve damage. Routine POD assessment may detect the condition and appropriate treatment may overcome the nerve damage.

  5. Are the effects of drugs to prevent and to treat heart failure always concordant? The statin paradox and its implications for understanding the actions of antidiabetic medications. (United States)

    Packer, Milton


    Most treatments for chronic heart failure are effective both in preventing its onset and reducing its progression. However, statins prevent the development of heart failure, but they do not decrease morbidity and mortality in those with established heart failure. This apparent discordance cannot be explained by an effect to prevent interval myocardial infarctions. Instead, it seems that the disease that statins were preventing in trials of patients with a metabolic disorder was different from the disease that they were treating in trials of chronic heart failure. The most common phenotype of heart failure in patients with obesity and diabetes is heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In this disorder, the anti-inflammatory effects of statins might ameliorate myocardial fibrosis and cardiac filling abnormalities, but these actions may have little relevance to patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), whose primary derangement is cardiomyocyte loss and stretch. These distinctions may explain why statins were ineffective in trials that focused on HFrEF, but have been reported to produce with favourable effects in observational studies of HFpEF. Similarly, selective cytokine antagonists were ineffective in HFrEF, but have been associated with benefits in HFpEF. These observations may have important implications for our understanding of the effects of antihyperglycaemic medications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have had neutral effects on heart failure events in people at risk for HFpEF, but have exerted deleterious actions in HFrEF. Similarly, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, which exert anti-inflammatory effects and reduce heart failure events in patients who are prone to HFpEF, may not be effective in HFrEF. The distinctions between HFrEF and HFpEF may explain why the effects of drugs on heart failure events in diabetes trials may not be relevant to their use in patients with systolic dysfunction

  6. Spacecraft Spin Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to correct unbalances of spacecraft by using dynamic measurement techniques and static/coupled measurements to provide products of...

  7. Efficacy and predictors of success of noninvasive ventilation for prevention of extubation failure in critically ill children with heart disease. (United States)

    Gupta, Punkaj; Kuperstock, Jacob E; Hashmi, Sana; Arnolde, Vickie; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Prodhan, Parthak; Venkataraman, Shekhar; Roth, Stephen J


    The study aimed primarily to evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and to identify possible predictors for success of NIV therapy in preventing extubation failure in critically ill children with heart disease. The secondary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of prophylactic NIV therapy initiated immediately after tracheal extubation and to determine the characteristics, outcomes, and complications associated with NIV therapy in pediatric cardiac patients. A retrospective review examined the medical records of all children between the ages 1 day and 18 years who sustained acute respiratory failure (ARF) that required NIV in the cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital between January 2008 and June 2010. Patients were assigned to a prophylactic group if NIV was started directly after extubation and to a nonprophylactic group if NIV was started after signs and symptoms of ARF developed. Patients were designated as responders if they received NIV and did not require reintubation during their CVICU stay and nonresponders if they failed NIV and reintubation was performed. The data collected included demographic data, preexisting conditions, pre-event characteristics, event characteristics, and outcome data. The outcome data evaluated included success or failure of NIV, duration of NIV, CVICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and hospital mortality. The two complications of NIV assessed in the study included nasal bridge or forehead skin necrosis and pneumothorax. The 221 eligible events during the study period involved 172 responders (77.8 %) and 49 nonresponders (22.2 %). A total of 201 events experienced by the study cohort received continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), with 156 responders (78 %), whereas 20 events received bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), with 16 responders (80 %). In the study, 58 events (26.3 %) were assigned to the prophylactic group and 163 events (73

  8. A Comparison of Learning Technologies for Teaching Spacecraft Software Development (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy


    The development of software for spacecraft represents a particular challenge and is, in many ways, a worst case scenario from a design perspective. Spacecraft software must be "bulletproof" and operate for extended periods of time without user intervention. If the software fails, it cannot be manually serviced. Software failure may…

  9. Diagnosing Faults in Electrical Power Systems of Spacecraft and Aircraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft, and they exhibit a rich variety of failure modes. This paper discusses electrical power...

  10. N-acetylcysteine for prevention of acute renal failure in patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac surgery: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. (United States)

    Sisillo, Erminio; Ceriani, Roberto; Bortone, Franco; Juliano, Glauco; Salvi, Luca; Veglia, Fabrizio; Fiorentini, Cesare; Marenzi, Giancarlo


    To assess the preventive effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine on postoperative acute renal failure in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac surgery. Randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. University cardiology center. Two hundred fifty-four consecutive patients with chronic renal insufficiency (estimated creatinine clearance acute renal failure (> 25% increase in serum creatinine from baseline) and the in-hospital clinical course were evaluated. Acute renal failure occurred in 46% of patients and was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (7% vs. 0.7%; p = .024). It occurred in 52% of control patients and 40% of N-acetylcysteine-treated patients (p = .06). In-hospital mortality and need for renal replacement therapy were not affected by N-acetylcysteine, but a lower percentage of N-acetylcysteine-treated patients required mechanical ventilation prolonged for > 48 hrs (3% vs. 18%; p 4 days (13% vs. 33%; p acute renal failure in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac surgery.

  11. Exercise training in heart failure: from theory to practice. A consensus document of the Heart Failure Association and the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. (United States)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Conraads, Viviane; Corrà, Ugo; Dickstein, Kenneth; Francis, Darrel P; Jaarsma, Tiny; McMurray, John; Pieske, Burkert; Piotrowicz, Ewa; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Anker, Stefan D; Solal, Alain Cohen; Filippatos, Gerasimos S; Hoes, Arno W; Gielen, Stefan; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Ponikowski, Piotr P


    The European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines firmly recommend regular physical activity and structured exercise training (ET), but this recommendation is still poorly implemented in daily clinical practice outside specialized centres and in the real world of heart failure clinics. In reality, exercise intolerance can be successfully tackled by applying ET. We need to encourage the mindset that breathlessness may be evidence of signalling between the periphery and central haemodynamic performance and regular physical activity may ultimately bring about favourable changes in myocardial function, symptoms, functional capacity, and increased hospitalization-free life span and probably survival. In this position paper, we provide practical advice for the application of exercise in heart failure and how to overcome traditional barriers, based on the current scientific and clinical knowledge supporting the beneficial effect of this intervention.

  12. Astragalus Granule Prevents Ca2+ Current Remodeling in Heart Failure by the Downregulation of CaMKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinai Li


    Full Text Available Background. Astragalus was broadly used for treating heart failure (HF and arrhythmias in East Asia for thousands of years. Astragalus granule (AG, extracted from Astragalus, shows beneficial effect on the treatment of HF in clinical research. We hypothesized that administration of AG prevents the remodeling of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa-L in HF mice by the downregulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. Methods. HF mice were induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC. After 4 weeks of AG treatment, cardiac function and QT interval were evaluated. Single cardiac ventricular myocyte was then isolated and whole-cell patch clamp was used to record action potential (AP and ICa-L. The expressions of L-type calcium channel alpha 1C subunit (Cav1.2, CaMKII, and phosphorylated protein kinase A (p-PKA were examined by western blot. Results. The failing heart manifested distinct electrical remodeling including prolonged repolarization time and altered ICa-L kinetics. AG treatment attenuated this electrical remodeling, supported by AG-related shortened repolarization time, decreased peak ICa-L, accelerated ICa-L inactivation, and positive frequency-dependent ICa-L facilitation. In addition, AG treatment suppressed the overexpression of CaMKII, but not p-PKA, in the failing heart. Conclusion. AG treatment protected the failing heart against electrical remodeling and ICa-L remodeling by downregulating CaMKII.

  13. Focus on Mechanical Failures: Mechanisms and Detection. Proceedings of the Meeting (45th) of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group Held in Annapolis, Maryland on April 9 - 11, 1999 (United States)


    Dickson, S. Lalonde and L. Shiqiong Catastrophic Temperature Increase During the Separation of High Strength Alloys 79 in Tensile Loading D. D. Make/and...Manitoba FRACTOGRAPHY IN IDENTIFYING FAILURE MECHANISMS J.1. Dickson, S. Lalonde and Li Shiqiong Ddpartement de Gdnie Mdtallurgique Ecole Polytechnique P.O...SYSTEM Marc Monaco Agnes Gardiner Naval Ship Systems Engineering Station Philadelphia, PA 19112 Abstract: The Naval Ship Systems Engineering Station

  14. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A


    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  15. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  16. Spacecraft Material Outgassing Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of outgassing data of materials intended for spacecraft use were obtained at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), utilizing equipment developed...

  17. Empagliflozin Prevents Worsening of Cardiac Function in an Experimental Model of Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole J. Byrne, BSc


    Full Text Available This study sought to determine whether the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin improved heart failure (HF outcomes in nondiabetic mice. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients trial demonstrated that empagliflozin markedly prevented HF and cardiovascular death in subjects with diabetes. However, despite ongoing clinical trials in HF patients without type 2 diabetes, there are no objective and translational data to support an effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac structure and function, particularly in the absence of diabetes and in the setting of established HF. Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to either sham or transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce HF. Following surgery, mice that progressed to HF received either vehicle or empagliflozin for 2 weeks. Cardiac function was then assessed in vivo using echocardiography and ex vivo using isolated working hearts. Although vehicle-treated HF mice experienced a progressive worsening of cardiac function over the 2-week treatment period, this decline was blunted in empagliflozin-treated HF mice. Treatment allocation to empagliflozin resulted in an improvement in cardiac systolic function, with no significant changes in cardiac remodeling or diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, isolated hearts from HF mice treated with empagliflozin displayed significantly improved ex vivo cardiac function compared to those in vehicle-treated controls. Empagliflozin treatment of nondiabetic mice with established HF blunts the decline in cardiac function both in vivo and ex vivo, independent of diabetes. These data provide important basic and translational clues to support the evaluation of SGLT2 inhibitors as a treatment strategy in a broad range of patients with established HF.

  18. Endovenous administration of bone-marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells prevents renal failure in diabetic mice. (United States)

    Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Simon, Valeska; Pardo, Fabian; Yañez, Alejandro; Carpio, Daniel; Conget, Paulette


    Twenty-five to 40% of diabetic patients develop diabetic nephropathy, a clinical syndrome that comprises renal failure and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It represents the major cause of chronic kidney disease and is associated with premature morbimortality of diabetic patients. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) contribute to the regeneration of several organs, including acutely injured kidney. We sought to evaluate if MSC protect kidney function and structure when endovenously administered to mice with severe diabetes. A month after nonimmunologic diabetes induction by streptozotocin injection, C57BL/6 mice presented hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hypoinsulinemia, massive beta-pancreatic islet destruction, low albuminuria, but not renal histopathologic changes (DM mice). At this stage, one group of animals received the vehicle (untreated) and other group received 2 doses of 0.5 x 10(6) MSC/each (MSC-treated). Untreated DM mice gradually increased urinary albumin excretion and 4 months after diabetes onset, they reached values 15 times higher than normal animals. In contrast, MSC-treated DM mice maintained basal levels of albuminuria. Untreated DM mice had marked glomerular and tubular histopathologic changes (sclerosis, mesangial expansion, tubular dilatation, proteins cylinders, podocytes lost). However, MSC-treated mice showed only slight tubular dilatation. Observed renoprotection was not associated with an improvement in endocrine pancreas function in this animal model, because MSC-treated DM mice remained hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic, and maintained few remnant beta-pancreatic islets throughout the study period. To study MSC biodistribution, cells were isolated from isogenic mice that constitutively express GFP (MSC(GFP)) and endovenously administered to DM mice. Although at very low levels, donor cells were found in kidney of DM mice 3 month after transplantation. Presented preclinical results support MSC administration as a cell

  19. L-Carnitine prevents the development of ventricular fibrosis and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in hypertensive heart disease. (United States)

    Omori, Yosuke; Ohtani, Tomohito; Sakata, Yasushi; Mano, Toshiaki; Takeda, Yasuharu; Tamaki, Shunsuke; Tsukamoto, Yasumasa; Kamimura, Daisuke; Aizawa, Yoshihiro; Miwa, Takeshi; Komuro, Issei; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro


    Prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains poor because of unknown pathophysiology and unestablished therapeutic strategy. This study aimed to identify a potential therapeutic intervention for HFpEF through metabolomics-based analysis. Metabolomics with capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed using plasma of Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed high-salt diet, a model of hypertensive HFpEF, and showed decreased free-carnitine levels. Reassessment with enzymatic cycling method revealed the decreased plasma and left-ventricular free-carnitine levels in the HFpEF model. Urinary free-carnitine excretion was increased, and the expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 2, which transports free-carnitine into cells, was down-regulated in the left ventricle (LV) and kidney in the HFpEF model. L-Carnitine was administered to the hypertensive HFpEF model. L-Carnitine treatment restored left-ventricular free-carnitine levels, attenuated left-ventricular fibrosis and stiffening, prevented pulmonary congestion, and improved survival in the HFpEF model independent of the antihypertensive effects, accompanied with increased expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1/2, rate-limiting enzymes in forming arachidonic acid, and enhanced production of arachidonic acid, a precursor of prostacyclin, and prostacyclin in the LV. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, L-carnitine attenuated the angiotensin II-induced collagen production with increased FADS1/2 expression and enhanced production of arachidonic acid and prostacyclin. L-Carnitine-induced increase of arachidonic acid was canceled by knock-down of FADS1 or FADS2 in cultured cardiac fibroblasts. Serum free-carnitine levels were decreased in HFpEF patients. L-carnitine supplementation attenuates cardiac fibrosis by increasing prostacyclin production through arachidonic acid pathway, and may be a promising therapeutic option for HFpEF.

  20. Exercise training prevents the deterioration in the arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity in chronic heart failure patients. (United States)

    Groehs, Raphaela V; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Antunes-Correa, Ligia M; Trevizan, Patrícia F; Rondon, Maria Urbana P B; Oliveira, Patrícia; Alves, Maria J N N; Almeida, Dirceu R; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E


    Arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (ABRMSNA) is impaired in chronic systolic heart failure (CHF). The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training would improve the gain and reduce the time delay of ABRMSNA in CHF patients. Twenty-six CHF patients, New York Heart Association Functional Class II-III, EF ≤ 40%, peak V̇o2 ≤ 20 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were divided into two groups: untrained (UT, n = 13, 57 ± 3 years) and exercise trained (ET, n = 13, 49 ± 3 years). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was directly recorded by microneurography technique. Arterial pressure was measured on a beat-to-beat basis. Time series of MSNA and systolic arterial pressure were analyzed by autoregressive spectral analysis. The gain and time delay of ABRMSNA was obtained by bivariate autoregressive analysis. Exercise training was performed on a cycle ergometer at moderate intensity, three 60-min sessions per week for 16 wk. Baseline MSNA, gain and time delay of ABRMSNA, and low frequency of MSNA (LFMSNA) to high-frequency ratio (HFMSNA) (LFMSNA/HFMSNA) were similar between groups. ET significantly decreased MSNA. MSNA was unchanged in the UT patients. The gain and time delay of ABRMSNA were unchanged in the ET patients. In contrast, the gain of ABRMSNA was significantly reduced [3.5 ± 0.7 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2, arbitrary units (au)/mmHg, P = 0.04] and the time delay of ABRMSNA was significantly increased (4.6 ± 0.8 vs. 7.9 ± 1.0 s, P = 0.05) in the UT patients. LFMSNA-to-HFMSNA ratio tended to be lower in the ET patients (P training prevents the deterioration of ABRMSNA in CHF patients. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Failure of preventive measures against radon penetration from the ground in a new-built family house - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.; Jiranek, M.; Fronka, A.


    structure in contact with soil, i.e. even under walls. Special attention should be devoted to the sealing of joints and pipe penetrations through the insulation. The high-quality insulation may be replaced by a common damp-proofing if some special conditions are met: the house is built with a cellar under the complete house area; no residential rooms are found in the cellar; all year reliable natural ventilation of the cellar is provided; the cellar entrance from the floors above is provided with an automatic closing door system and with door sealing. The above mentioned approach is considered to be sufficient even in cases when the building site is classified close to the lower limit of the high radon index (the radon concentration in soil does not exceed twice the concentration that separates the medium and high radon index). In all other cases, the radon-proof insulation in all structures in direct contact with soil must be completed with either a a sub-slab ventilation system or an air gap ventilation under the insulation. The sub-slab ventilation system should reduce the radon concentration under the foundation plate, or create negative pressure in subsoil compared to indoor air pressure. It is a system of perforated drainage pipes that are inserted into a gravel layer under the foundation plate. To ensure effective operation of sub-slab ventilation, it is recommended to extract the soil air from the sub-slab region by the vertical exhaust pipes. The ventilation system can operate in two ways: a passive ventilation, i.e. the ventilation system is controlled by temperature and pressure indoor/sub-floor differences, or an active one, using a fan. Because the fan is usually installed on the vertical exhaust pipes, each passive system may be easily transformed into an active one. A failure of preventive protective measures in a new-built family house will be described and analysed in the paper. Detailed measurements of sub-slab parameters, continual monitoring of indoor

  2. The Impact of Rurality on 30-Day Preventable Readmission, Illness Severity, and Risk of Mortality for Heart Failure Medicare Home Health Beneficiaries. (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Carlson, Erin; Popoola, Taiye; Suzuki, Sumihiro


    To examine the impact of rurality on 30-day preventable readmission, and the illness severity and risk of mortality for 30-day preventable readmissions. We analyzed heart failure Medicare beneficiaries who received home health services for postacute care after hospital discharge in 2009. The study was a cross-sectional design with the unit of analysis as the home health episode for postacute care. Data sources included the following: Medicare Beneficiary Summary File, Medicare Provider Analysis Review, Outcome Assessment Information Set, Home Health Agency Research Identifiable File, and Area Health Resources File. The dependent variables were 30-day preventable readmission, and the extreme/major level of illness severity and of risk of mortality for a 30-day preventable readmission. The key independent variable was rurality defined as remote rural, adjacent rural, and micropolitan areas, with urban areas in the reference group. Home health beneficiaries in remote rural areas had 27% lower 30-day preventable readmission than those in urban areas. Home health beneficiaries in adjacent rural areas were 33% less likely to have high illness severity at readmission due to a preventable condition than those in urban areas. Geographical location affects preventable readmission and illness severity of preventable readmission. Patients' geographic location along with patients' risk factors should be taken into consideration in the risk adjustment model for the financial incentive program that penalizes home health agencies with high preventable readmissions. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  3. Dawn Spacecraft Reaction Control System Flight Experience (United States)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Nakazono, Barry


    The NASA Dawn spacecraft mission is studying conditions and processes of the solar system's earliest epoch by investigating two protoplanets remaining intact since their formations, Ceres and Vesta. Launch was in 2007. Ion propulsion is used to fly to and enter orbit around Vesta, depart Vesta and fly to Ceres, and enter orbit around Ceres. A conventional blowdown hydrazine reaction control system (RCS) is used to provide external torques for attitude control. Reaction wheel assemblies were intended to provide attitude control in most cases. However, the spacecraft experienced one, then two apparent failures of reaction wheels. Also, similar thrusters experienced degradation in a long life application on another spacecraft. Those factors led to RCS being operated in ways completely different than anticipated prior to launch. Numerous mitigations and developments needed to be implemented. The Vesta mission was fully successful. Even with the compromises necessary due to those anomalies, the Ceres mission is also projected to be feasible.

  4. Design considerations for sustainable spacecraft water management systems (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Weislogel, Mark M.; Klaus, David M.


    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable over time. This paper presents design strategies and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence. Two representative boundary applications are presented. The first is a short term application where reduced gravity flight tests demonstrated a static phase separator prototype that achieved nearly 100% separation of gas from liquids under widely varying wetting conditions correlated to anticipated ranges of wastewater fouling. The second is a design concept for a lunar outpost water recovery system where wastewater is allowed to age and form biofilms and precipitates that can be filtered through lunar regolith media as the water is reclaimed. Both applications are supported by similar underlying principles of facilitating sustainable fluid handling in the presence of fouled surfaces.

  5. Mechanical Design of Spacecraft (United States)


    In the spring of 1962, engineers from the Engineering Mechanics Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a series of lectures on spacecraft design at the Engineering Design seminars conducted at the California Institute of Technology. Several of these lectures were subsequently given at Stanford University as part of the Space Technology seminar series sponsored by the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Presented here are notes taken from these lectures. The lectures were conceived with the intent of providing the audience with a glimpse of the activities of a few mechanical engineers who are involved in designing, building, and testing spacecraft. Engineering courses generally consist of heavily idealized problems in order to allow the more efficient teaching of mathematical technique. Students, therefore, receive a somewhat limited exposure to actual engineering problems, which are typified by more unknowns than equations. For this reason it was considered valuable to demonstrate some of the problems faced by spacecraft designers, the processes used to arrive at solutions, and the interactions between the engineer and the remainder of the organization in which he is constrained to operate. These lecture notes are not so much a compilation of sophisticated techniques of analysis as they are a collection of examples of spacecraft hardware and associated problems. They will be of interest not so much to the experienced spacecraft designer as to those who wonder what part the mechanical engineer plays in an effort such as the exploration of space.

  6. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  7. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence (United States)

    Hwang, Victor


    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  8. Prevention (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  9. Single reusable spacecraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  10. The MSAT spacecraft of Telesat Mobile Inc. (United States)

    Bertenyi, E.

    The MSAT spacecraft of the Canadian mobile satellite operator, Telesat Mobile Inc. (TMI) is described. When launched in 1994, the large geostationary MSAT spacecraft which is currently under construction by Hughes Aircraft Co. and Spar Aerospace Ltd. will enable TMI to provide mobile and transportable communications services to its customers even in the most remote parts of the North American continent. The main elements of TMI's mobile satellite system (described in a companion paper) are the space segment and the ground segment. TMI's space segment will employ one of two nearly identical satellites, one of which will be owned and operated by TMI, the other by the U.S. mobile satellite operator, American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC). The two companies are participating in a joint spacecraft procurement in order to reduce the nonrecurring costs and to ensure system compatibility between the two systems; and they have also agreed to provide in-orbit backup to each other in the event of a catastrophic satellite failure. The program status, performance requirements, main parameters, and configuration of the MSAT spacecraft are reviewed. The major features of the communications subsystem are discussed in some detail, and a brief summary is presented of the spacecraft service module. Key technology items include the L-band RF power amplifier, which must operate with a high DC to RF power efficiency and generate low intermodulation when loaded with multi-carrier signals; and the large diameter deployable L-band antenna. The development status and expected performance of these spacecraft components is examined.

  11. beta-blockade with nebivolol for prevention of acute ischaemic events in elderly patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Flather, Marcus D.; Boehm, Michael; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Murrone, Adriano; Mascagni, Flavio; Spinucci, Giulio; Conti, Maria Giovanna; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Coats, Andrew J. S.

    Objectives This subanalysis of the Study of the Effects of Nebivolol Intervention on Outcomes and Hospitalisation in Seniors with Heart Failure (SENIORS) investigates whether treatment with nebivolol, a beta-blocker with nitric oxide-releasing properties, can provide additional benefits besides its

  12. beta-blockade with nebivolol for prevention of acute ischaemic events in elderly patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrosio, G.; Flather, M. D.; Boehm, M.; Cohen-Solal, A.; Murrone, A.; Mascagni, F.; Spinucci, G.; Conti, M. G.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Tavazzi, L.; Coats, A. J. S.


    Aim. This subanalysis of the Study of the Effects of Nebivolol Intervention on Outcomes and Hospitalisation in Seniors with Heart Failure (SENIORS) investigates whether treatment with nebivolol, a p-blocker with nitric oxide-releasing properties, can provide additional benefits besides its effects

  13. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations (United States)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)


    Spacecraft trend analysis is a vital mission operations function performed by satellite controllers and engineers, who perform detailed analyses of engineering telemetry data to diagnose subsystem faults and to detect trends that may potentially lead to degraded subsystem performance or failure in the future. It is this latter function that is of greatest importance, for careful trending can often predict or detect events that may lead to a spacecraft's entry into safe-hold. Early prediction and detection of such events could result in the avoidance of, or rapid return to service from, spacecraft safing, which not only results in reduced recovery costs but also in a higher overall level of service for the satellite system. Contemporary spacecraft trending activities are manually intensive and are primarily performed diagnostically after a fault occurs, rather than proactively to predict its occurrence. They also tend to rely on information systems and software that are oudated when compared to current technologies. When coupled with the fact that flight operations teams often have limited resources, proactive trending opportunities are limited, and detailed trend analysis is often reserved for critical responses to safe holds or other on-orbit events such as maneuvers. While the contemporary trend analysis approach has sufficed for current single-spacecraft operations, it will be unfeasible for NASA's planned and proposed space science constellations. Missions such as the Dynamics, Reconnection and Configuration Observatory (DRACO), for example, are planning to launch as many as 100 'nanospacecraft' to form a homogenous constellation. A simple extrapolation of resources and manpower based on single-spacecraft operations suggests that trending for such a large spacecraft fleet will be unmanageable, unwieldy, and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore imperative that an approach to automating the spacecraft trend analysis function be studied, developed, and applied to

  14. Inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels ameliorates an imbalance in cardiac autonomic nerve activity and prevents lethal arrhythmias in mice with heart failure. (United States)

    Yamada, Yuko; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Minami, Takeya; Yamada, Chinatsu; Shibata, Junko; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Cho, Kosai; Arai, Yuji; Yasuno, Shinji; Nishikimi, Toshio; Ueshima, Kenji; Kamakura, Shiro; Nishida, Motohiro; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Mori, Yasuo; Kimura, Takeshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuwa


    Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system activity can trigger ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with heart failure. N-type Ca(2+) channels (NCCs) play an important role in sympathetic nervous system activation by regulating the calcium entry that triggers release of neurotransmitters from peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals. We have investigated the ability of NCC blockade to prevent lethal arrhythmias associated with heart failure. We compared the effects of cilnidipine, a dual N- and L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, with those of nitrendipine, a selective L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, in transgenic mice expressing a cardiac-specific, dominant-negative form of neuron-restrictive silencer factor (dnNRSF-Tg). In this mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy leading to sudden arrhythmic death, cardiac structure and function did not significantly differ among the control, cilnidipine, and nitrendipine groups. However, cilnidipine dramatically reduced arrhythmias in dnNRSF-Tg mice, significantly improving their survival rate and correcting the imbalance between cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity. A β-blocker, bisoprolol, showed similar effects in these mice. Genetic titration of NCCs, achieved by crossing dnNRSF-Tg mice with mice lacking CACNA1B, which encodes the α1 subunit of NCCs, improved the survival rate. With restoration of cardiac autonomic balance, dnNRSF-Tg;CACNA1B(+/-) mice showed fewer malignant arrhythmias than dnNRSF-Tg;CACNA1B(+/+) mice. Both pharmacological blockade of NCCs and their genetic titration improved cardiac autonomic balance and prevented lethal arrhythmias in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy and sudden arrhythmic death. Our findings suggest that NCC blockade is a potentially useful approach to preventing sudden death in patients with heart failure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email:

  15. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa


    The report introduces the concept of spacecraft fractionation, which transforms a traditional monolithic spacecraft into a network of elements where a free-flying payload module is supported by nearby...

  16. Radiation Environment Inside Spacecraft (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick


    Dr. Patrick O'Neill, NASA Johnson Space Center, will present a detailed description of the radiation environment inside spacecraft. The free space (outside) solar and galactic cosmic ray and trapped Van Allen belt proton spectra are significantly modified as these ions propagate through various thicknesses of spacecraft structure and shielding material. In addition to energy loss, secondary ions are created as the ions interact with the structure materials. Nuclear interaction codes (FLUKA, GEANT4, HZTRAN, MCNPX, CEM03, and PHITS) transport free space spectra through different thicknesses of various materials. These "inside" energy spectra are then converted to Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and dose rate - that's what's needed by electronics systems designers. Model predictions are compared to radiation measurements made by instruments such as the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) used inside the Space Station, Orion, and Space Shuttle.

  17. The value of second polar body detection 4 hours after insemination and early rescue ICSI in preventing complete fertilisation failure in patients with borderline semen. (United States)

    Jin, Haixia; Shu, Yimin; Dai, Shanjun; Peng, Zhaofeng; Shi, Senlin; Sun, Yingpu


    In this study we evaluated the value of short-time insemination and early rescue intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in preventing the occurrence of complete fertilisation failure for mild or moderate male infertility patients. A total of 866 couples with borderline semen who underwent in vitro fertilisation treatment in 2010 were included. Regular insemination was performed between January and June of 2010 and short-term insemination was performed from July through December 2010, where, as early as 4h after insemination, oocytes were denuded from cumulus cells and extrusion of the second polar body was evaluated. Of the 4153 mature oocytes with a detectable second polar body 4 h after insemination, 3874 (93.3%) showed signs of fertilisation on Day 1. Where no second polar body was present in any of the retrieved oocytes for a given patient, rescue ICSI was performed immediately. Similar rates of normal fertilisation and percentage of good-quality embryos were obtained between early rescue ICSI and regular ICSI. Clinical pregnancy occurred in 16 of 43 patients (37.2%) receiving early rescue ICSI. Our results showed early rescue ICSI in combination with evaluation of the second polar body 4 h following insemination is an effective method to prevent complete fertilisation failure for patients with mild or moderate male infertility.

  18. Real-Time Smart Grids Control for Preventing Cascading Failures and Blackout using Neural Networks: Experimental Approach for N-1-1 Contingency (United States)

    Zarrabian, Sina; Belkacemi, Rabie; Babalola, Adeniyi A.


    In this paper, a novel intelligent control is proposed based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to mitigate cascading failure (CF) and prevent blackout in smart grid systems after N-1-1 contingency condition in real-time. The fundamental contribution of this research is to deploy the machine learning concept for preventing blackout at early stages of its occurrence and to make smart grids more resilient, reliable, and robust. The proposed method provides the best action selection strategy for adaptive adjustment of generators' output power through frequency control. This method is able to relieve congestion of transmission lines and prevent consecutive transmission line outage after N-1-1 contingency condition. The proposed ANN-based control approach is tested on an experimental 100 kW test system developed by the authors to test intelligent systems. Additionally, the proposed approach is validated on the large-scale IEEE 118-bus power system by simulation studies. Experimental results show that the ANN approach is very promising and provides accurate and robust control by preventing blackout. The technique is compared to a heuristic multi-agent system (MAS) approach based on communication interchanges. The ANN approach showed more accurate and robust response than the MAS algorithm.

  19. Mediterranean Diet and Other Dietary Patterns in Primary Prevention of Heart Failure and Changes in Cardiac Function Markers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sanches Machado d’Almeida


    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure (HF is a complex syndrome and is recognized as the ultimate pathway of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Studies using nutritional strategies based on dietary patterns have proved to be effective for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Although there are studies that support the protective effect of these diets, their effects on the prevention of HF are not clear yet. Methods: We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for studies that examined dietary patterns, such as dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH diet, paleolithic, vegetarian, low-carb and low-fat diets and prevention of HF. No limitations were used during the search in the databases. Results: A total of 1119 studies were identified, 14 met the inclusion criteria. Studies regarding the Mediterranean, DASH, vegetarian, and Paleolithic diets were found. The Mediterranean and DASH diets showed a protective effect on the incidence of HF and/or worsening of cardiac function parameters, with a significant difference in relation to patients who did not adhere to these dietary patterns. Conclusions: It is observed that the adoption of Mediterranean or DASH-type dietary patterns may contribute to the prevention of HF, but these results need to be analyzed with caution due to the low quality of evidence.

  20. Mediterranean Diet and Other Dietary Patterns in Primary Prevention of Heart Failure and Changes in Cardiac Function Markers: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Sanches Machado d'Almeida, Karina; Ronchi Spillere, Stefanny; Zuchinali, Priccila; Corrêa Souza, Gabriela


    Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome and is recognized as the ultimate pathway of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies using nutritional strategies based on dietary patterns have proved to be effective for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Although there are studies that support the protective effect of these diets, their effects on the prevention of HF are not clear yet. We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for studies that examined dietary patterns, such as dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH diet), paleolithic, vegetarian, low-carb and low-fat diets and prevention of HF. No limitations were used during the search in the databases. A total of 1119 studies were identified, 14 met the inclusion criteria. Studies regarding the Mediterranean, DASH, vegetarian, and Paleolithic diets were found. The Mediterranean and DASH diets showed a protective effect on the incidence of HF and/or worsening of cardiac function parameters, with a significant difference in relation to patients who did not adhere to these dietary patterns. It is observed that the adoption of Mediterranean or DASH-type dietary patterns may contribute to the prevention of HF, but these results need to be analyzed with caution due to the low quality of evidence.

  1. Prevention (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  2. The Effect of Education on Preventive Behaviors of Failure to Thrive in Mothers with Children Aged One to Five Years: Applied Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Navabi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background: One of the common and important health problems is failure to thrive in childhood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of education on preventive behaviors of failure to thrive in mothers with children based on health belief model. Materials and Methods: This study is an interventional one in which 100 mothers with children one to five years involved (samples divided into two case and control groups, each of 50 sampling was done by a simple random method. For collecting information, a researcher-made questionnaire based on the health belief model and performance check list were used. Then, case group was trained for one month. 3 months after training, data were gathered and analyzed by Spss20 software. In addition to descriptive statistics, tests such as Chi-square, paired t-test and independent T-test were used. Results: The mean age of case and control was 29.98±5.51 and 25.35±5.30 years old, respectively. The average age of children was 23.31 ± 13.14 and 27.55 ± 14.01months, respectively. Before the intervention, no significant difference was seen between groups. The average score in case group before intervention was as: knowledge(31.87±14.24, perceived susceptibility(64.23±5.86, perceived severity(64.41±9.34, perceived benefits(61.75±6.79, perceived barriers(67.91±8.14, self-efficacy(68.00±7.87, cues to action(44.53±6.82 and action(70.00±9.77. However, after the intervention, significant differences between groups in all variables were obserred. Conclusion: According to the results, education based on health belief model is recommended for promoting preventive behaviors of failure to thrive.

  3. Correlates of isoniazid preventive therapy failure in child household contacts with infectious tuberculosis in high burden settings in Nairobi, Kenya - a cohort study. (United States)

    Okwara, Florence Nafula; Oyore, John Paul; Were, Fred Nabwire; Gwer, Samson


    Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled. Consent was sought. Structured questionnaires administered sought information on index case treatment, socio-demographics and TB knowledge. Contacts underwent baseline clinical screening exclude TB and/or pre-existing chronic conditions. Contacts were then put on daily isoniazid for 6 months and monitored for new TB disease, compliance and side effects. Follow-up continued for another 6 months. At baseline, 428 contacts were screened, and 14(3.2%) had evidence of TB disease, hence excluded. Of 414 contacts put on IPT, 368 (88.8%) completed the 1 year follow-up. Operational challenges were reported by 258(70%) households, while 82(22%) reported side effects. Good compliance was documented in 89% (CI:80.2-96.2). By endpoint, 6(1.6%) contacts developed evidence of new TB disease and required definitive anti-tuberculosis therapy. The main factor associated with IPT failure was under-nutrition of contacts (p = 0.023). Under-nutrition was associated with IPT failure for child contacts below 5 years in high burden, resource limited settings. IPT effectiveness could be optimized through nutrition support of contacts.

  4. Isoniazid-Induced Severe Hepatotoxicity: An Infrequent but Preventable Cause of Liver Failure in Children Treated for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Desrochers


    Full Text Available Isoniazid (INH monotherapy has gained widespread acceptance as an efficacious therapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI especially in low-prevalence settings. Although INH related hepatotoxicity is well recognized, progression to severe liver dysfunction requiring care at a transplant center remains unpredictable. We report the management of a five year-old girl who developed progressive liver failure due to INH prophylaxis. This highlights the potential severity of INH related hepatic injury and underscores the significance of vigilant clinical monitoring throughout the duration of the therapy in children.

  5. Spacecraft Electrostatic Radiation Shielding (United States)


    This project analyzed the feasibility of placing an electrostatic field around a spacecraft to provide a shield against radiation. The concept was originally proposed in the 1960s and tested on a spacecraft by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. Such tests and analyses showed that this concept is not only feasible but operational. The problem though is that most of this work was aimed at protection from 10- to 100-MeV radiation. We now appreciate that the real problem is 1- to 2-GeV radiation. So, the question is one of scaling, in both energy and size. Can electrostatic shielding be made to work at these high energy levels and can it protect an entire vehicle? After significant analysis and consideration, an electrostatic shield configuration was proposed. The selected architecture was a torus, charged to a high negative voltage, surrounding the vehicle, and a set of positively charged spheres. Van de Graaff generators were proposed as the mechanism to move charge from the vehicle to the torus to generate the fields necessary to protect the spacecraft. This design minimized complexity, residual charge, and structural forces and resolved several concerns raised during the internal critical review. But, it still is not clear if such a system is costeffective or feasible, even though several studies have indicated usefulness for radiation protection at energies lower than that of the galactic cosmic rays. Constructing such a system will require power supplies that can generate voltages 10 times that of the state of the art. Of more concern is the difficulty of maintaining the proper net charge on the entire structure and ensuring that its interaction with solar wind will not cause rapid discharge. Yet, if these concerns can be resolved, such a scheme may provide significant radiation shielding to future vehicles, without the excessive weight or complexity of other active shielding techniques.

  6. Risk and prevention of graft failure in patients with preexisting donor-specific HLA antibodies undergoing unmanipulated haploidentical SCT. (United States)

    Yoshihara, S; Maruya, E; Taniguchi, K; Kaida, K; Kato, R; Inoue, T; Fujioka, T; Tamaki, H; Ikegame, K; Okada, M; Soma, T; Hayashi, K; Fujii, N; Onuma, T; Kusunoki, Y; Saji, H; Ogawa, H


    A role of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) in graft failure after SCT has been suggested, but the relevance of DSA in unmanipulated haploidentical SCT (haplo-SCT) remains unknown. We prospectively examined HLA antibodies using the Luminex-based single Ag assay for 79 adult patients undergoing unmanipulated haplo-SCT. Among them, 16 (20.2%) were HLA Ab-positive, including five patients with antibodies not corresponding to donor HLA Ags and 11 DSA-positive patients. Of the 11 DSA-positive patients, five received treatments to decrease DSA levels, including two, who received plasma exchange and rituximab, two who received platelet transfusions from healthy-related donors having DSA-corresponding HLA Ags and one who received bortezomib. Platelet transfusion was the most simple and effective treatment option for class I DSA. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was significantly lower in pretransplant (post-treatment) DSA-positive patients than in DSA-negative patients (61.9 vs 94.4%, P=0.026). Notably, three of five patients with high levels of DSA had graft failure. Donors should be selected on the basis of an evaluation of HLA antibodies. If haplo-SCT from donors with HLA Ags that correspond to high levels of DSA must be performed, then recipients should be treated for DSA to improve the chances of successful donor engraftment.

  7. Distributed Spacecraft Control Architectures (United States)

    Carpenter, James Russell; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)


    A fundamental issue for estimation and control of distributed systems such as formation flying spacecraft is the information exchange architecture. In centralized schemes, each subordinate need only share its measurement data with a central hub, and the subordinates depend on the center to direct their actions. In decentralized schemes, all nodes participate in the data exchange, so that each has the same in by formation as the center, and may thereby self-direct the same action that the center would have commanded, assuming all share a common goal. This talk compares and contrasts the centralized and decentralized schemes in the context of autonomously maintaining a distributed satellite formation.

  8. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference (United States)

    Pike, C. P. (Editor); Lovell, R. R. (Editor)


    Over 50 papers from the spacecraft charging conference are included on subjects such as: (1) geosynchronous plasma environment, (2) spacecraft modeling, (3) spacecraft materials characterization, (4) spacecraft materials development, and (5) satellite design and test.

  9. Esthetic failure in implant dentistry. (United States)

    Fuentealba, Rodrigo; Jofré, Jorge


    The definition of failure for dental implants has evolved from lack of osseointegration to increased concern for other aspects, such as esthetics. However, esthetic failure in implant dentistry has not been well defined. Although multiple esthetic indices have been validated for objectively evaluating clinical outcomes, including failure of an implant-supported crown, only one author has determined a failure threshold. On the basis of objective indices, esthetic failures in implant dentistry can be categorized as pink-tissue failures and white-tissue failures. This article discusses esthetic failures, the factors involved in these failures, and their prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A


    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  11. Lack of current implantable cardioverter defibrillator guidelines application for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in Latin American patients with heart failure: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Zuelgaray, Jorge; Pellizon, Oscar; Muratore, Claudio A; Oropeza, Elsa Silva; Rabinovich, Rafael; Ramos, José Luis; Tentori, Maria Cristina; Reyes, Nicolás; Aguayo, Rubén; Marin, Jorge; Peterson, Brett J


    This cross-sectional study evaluated the application of accepted international implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) guidelines for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. The PLASMA (Probabilidad de Sufrir Muerte Arritmica) study was designed to characterize management of cardiac patients in Latin America. Twelve centres included 1958 consecutively admitted patients in cardiology units in 2008 and 2009. Discharged patients were evaluated for primary prevention, ICD indication and prescription by general cardiologists. Of 1711 discharged patients, 1525 (89%) had data available for evaluating indication status. Class I indications for ICD therapy were met for 153 (10%) patients based on collected data. Only 20 (13%, 95% confidence interval: 7.7-18.4%) patients with indication were prescribed an ICD. Patients prescribed an ICD were younger than patients who were not prescribed an ICD (62 vs. 68 years, P Latin America, international guidelines for primary prevention ICD implantation are not well followed. The main reason is that cardiologists believe that patients do not meet indication criteria, even though study data confirm that criteria are met. This poses a significant challenge and underlines the importance of continuous and improved medical education.

  12. New Approach to Total Dose Specification for Spacecraft Electronics (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael


    Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to total dose specification for spacecraft electronics. It is shown to have a significant impact. A new approach is developed for total dose requirements that replaces the radiation design margin concept with failure probability during a mission.

  13. Instrument and spacecraft faults associated with nuclear radiation in space (United States)

    Trainos, J. H.


    A review is given which surveys the variety of faults and failures which have occurred in space due both to the effects of single, energetic nuclear particles, as well as effects due to the accumulated ionizing dose or the fluence of nuclear particles. The review covers a variety of problems with sensors, electronics, instruments and spacecraft from several countries.

  14. Perioperative glucocorticoid administration for prevention of systemic organ failure in patients undergoing esophageal resection for esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Raimondi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Preoperative glucocorticoid administration has been proposed for reducing postoperative morbidity. This is not widely used before esophageal resection because of incomplete knowledge regarding its effectiveness. The aim here was to assess the effects of preoperative glucocorticoid administration in adults undergoing esophageal resection for esophageal carcinoma. SEARCH STRATEGY: Studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cancer Lit, SCIELO and Cochrane Library, and by manual searching from relevant articles. The last search for clinical trials for this systematic review was performed in December 2004. SELECTION CRITERIA: This review included randomized studies of patients with potentially resectable carcinomas of the esophagus that compared preoperative glucocorticoid administration with placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted by the same reviewers, and the trial quality was assessed using Jadad scoring. Relative risk and weighted mean difference with 95% confidence limits were used to assess the significance of the difference between the treatment arms. RESULTS: Four randomized trials involving 146 patients were found. There were no differences in postoperative mortality, sepsis, anastomotic leakage, hepatic and renal failure between the glucocorticoid and placebo groups. There were fewer postoperative respiratory complications (p = 0.005 and multiple postoperative complications (p = 0.004 and lower postoperative plasma interleukin-6 levels (p = 0.00001 with preoperative glucocorticoid administration. There was a higher postoperative PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p = 0.0001 with preoperative glucocorticoid administration. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic administration of glucocorticoids is associated with decreased postoperative complications.

  15. Use of nitroglycerin by bolus prevents intensive care unit admission in patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. (United States)

    Wilson, Suprat Saely; Kwiatkowski, Gregory M; Millis, Scott R; Purakal, John D; Mahajan, Arushi P; Levy, Phillip D


    The purpose of this study was to compare health care resource utilization among patients who were given intravenous nitroglycerin for acute heart failure (AHF) in the emergency department (ED) by intermittent bolus, continuous infusion, or a combination of both. We retrospectively identified 395 patients that received nitroglycerin therapy in the ED for the treatment of AHF over a 5-year period. Patients that received intermittent bolus (n=124) were compared with continuous infusion therapy (n=182) and combination therapy of bolus and infusion (n=89). The primary outcomes were the frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and hospital length of stay (LOS). On unadjusted analysis, rates of ICU admission were significantly lower in the bolus vs infusion and combination groups (48.4% vs 68.7% vs 83%, respectively; PICU admission rate remained, and hospital LOS was 1.9 days shorter compared with infusion therapy alone. Use of intubation (bolus [8.9%] vs infusion [8.8%] vs combination [16.9%]; P=.096) and bilevel positive airway pressure (bolus [26.6%] vs infusion [20.3%] vs combination [29.2%]; P=.21) were similar as was the incidence of hypotension, myocardial injury, and worsening renal function. In ED patients with AHF, intravenous nitroglycerin by intermittent bolus was associated with a lower ICU admission rate and a shorter hospital LOS compared with continuous infusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks (United States)

    Loveless, Andrew


    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  17. Failure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.


    After ten years of operation at the Atucha I Nuclear Power Station a gear belonging to a pressurized heavy water reactor refuelling machine, failed. The gear box was used to operate the inlet-outlet heavy-water valve of the machine. Visual examination of the gear device showed an absence of lubricant and that several gear teeth were broken at the root. Motion was transmitted with a speed-reducing device with controlled adjustable times in order to produce a proper fitness of the valve closure. The aim of this paper is to discuss the results of the gear failure analysis in order to recommend the proper solution to prevent further failures. (Author)

  18. Role of electrocardiography and echocardiography in prevention and predicting outcome of subjects at increased risk of heart failure. (United States)

    Di Bello, Vitantonio; La Carrubba, Salvatore; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Caso, Pio; La Canna, Giovanni; Erlicher, Andrea; Badano, Luigi; Romano, Maria Francesca; Zito, Concetta; Vriz, Olga; Conte, Lorenzo; Carerj, Scipione


    Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ALVD) is relatively common in both community and high-risk populations. Early pharmacological intervention can improve clinical outcomes in subjects with this condition. This multicentre study consists on electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examination of stage A and B heart failure (HF) asymptomatic subjects with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, to assess the prognostic value of cardiovascular risk factors per se, clinical history, and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters in prediction of progression of HF and/or in development of cardiovascular primary or secondary events. A total of 2142 asymptomatic subjects (mean age 63 years, 1162 males) performed an electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examination. Electrocardiogram (ECG) pathological signs according to Minnesota code and left ventricular dysfunction both systolic and diastolic by echocardiography were evaluated. There were 2002 subjects who were followed up for 26 ± 11 months, observing their primary and secondary end points. At follow up, the study population presented 111 primary end points (5.2%) and 441 secondary end points (20.6%). ECG criteria of LV hypertrophy and signs of ischaemia or previous myocardial infarction (p < 0.0001) were highly significantly related to primary end points. Both ECG and echocardiography (systolic function) are able at Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curves to predict primary end points (p < 0.0001). Presence or absence of left ventricular systolic and /or diastolic dysfunction has an incremental value in comparison to cardiovascular risk factors, clinical history, and ECG findings to predict both the evolution towards a more severe HF stage (stage C) and also the occurrence of cardiovascular events. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions:

  19. Role of Biomarkers for the Prevention, Assessment, and Management of Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. (United States)

    Chow, Sheryl L; Maisel, Alan S; Anand, Inder; Bozkurt, Biykem; de Boer, Rudolf A; Felker, G Michael; Fonarow, Gregg C; Greenberg, Barry; Januzzi, James L; Kiernan, Michael S; Liu, Peter P; Wang, Thomas J; Yancy, Clyde W; Zile, Michael R


    Natriuretic peptides have led the way as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for the diagnosis and management of heart failure (HF). More recent evidence suggests that natriuretic peptides along with the next generation of biomarkers may provide added value to medical management, which could potentially lower risk of mortality and readmissions. The purpose of this scientific statement is to summarize the existing literature and to provide guidance for the utility of currently available biomarkers. The writing group used systematic literature reviews, published translational and clinical studies, clinical practice guidelines, and expert opinion/statements to summarize existing evidence and to identify areas of inadequacy requiring future research. The panel reviewed the most relevant adult medical literature excluding routine laboratory tests using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science through December 2016. The document is organized and classified according to the American Heart Association to provide specific suggestions, considerations, or contemporary clinical practice recommendations. A number of biomarkers associated with HF are well recognized, and measuring their concentrations in circulation can be a convenient and noninvasive approach to provide important information about disease severity and helps in the detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and management of HF. These include natriuretic peptides, soluble suppressor of tumorgenicity 2, highly sensitive troponin, galectin-3, midregional proadrenomedullin, cystatin-C, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, and others. There is a need to further evaluate existing and novel markers for guiding therapy and to summarize their data in a standardized format to improve communication among researchers and practitioners. HF is a complex syndrome involving diverse pathways and pathological processes that can manifest in circulation as biomarkers. A number of such biomarkers are now clinically available, and monitoring their

  20. Merits of flywheels for spacecraft energy storage (United States)

    Gross, S.


    Flywheel energy storage systems which have a very good potential for use in spacecraft are discussed. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special importance, relative to batteries, are lighter weight, longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes solar array size and the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. Flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have characteristics which would be useful for military applications. The major disadvantages of flywheel energy storage systems are that: power is not available during the launch phase without special provisions; and in flight failure of units may force shutdown of good counter rotating units, amplifying the effects of failure and limiting power distribution system options; no inherent emergency power capability unless specifically designed for, and a high level of complexity compared with batteries. The potential advantages of the flywheel energy storage system far outweigh the disadvantages.

  1. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancourt, Raymond C., E-mail:; Veress, Livia A., E-mail:; Ahmad, Aftab, E-mail:; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B., E-mail:; Rioux, Jacqueline S., E-mail:; Garlick, Rhonda B., E-mail:; White, Carl W., E-mail:


    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  2. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.


    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O 2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  3. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Hsu


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  4. Spacecraft nonlinear control (United States)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.


    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  5. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation


    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  6. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems (United States)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric


    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  7. Spacecraft Electrical Connector Selection and Application Processes (United States)

    Iannello, Chris; Davis, Mitchell I; Kichak, Robert A.; Slenski, George


    This assessment was initiated by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) after a number of recent "high profile" connector problems, the most visible and publicized of these being the problem with the Space Shuttle's Engine Cut-Off System cryogenic feed-thru connector. The NESC commissioned a review of NASA's connector selection and application processes for space flight applications, including how lessons learned and past problem records are fed back into the processes to avoid recurring issues. Team members were primarily from the various NASA Centers and included connector and electrical parts specialists. The commissioned study was conducted on spacecraft connector selection and application processes at NASA Centers. The team also compared the NASA spacecraft connector selection and application process to the military process, identified recent high profile connector failures, and analyzed problem report data looking for trends and common occurrences. The team characterized NASA's connector problem experience into a list of top connector issues based on anecdotal evidence of a system's impact and commonality between Centers. These top issues are as follows, in no particular rank order: electrically shorted, bent and/or recessed contact pins, contact pin/socket contamination leading to electrically open or intermittencies, connector plating corrosion or corrosion of connector components, low or inadequate contact pin retention forces, contact crimp failures, unmated connectors and mis-wiring due to workmanship errors during installation or maintenance, loose connectors due to manufacturing defects such as wavy washer and worn bayonet retention, damaged connector elastomeric seals and cryogenic connector failure. A survey was also conducted of SAE Connector AE-8C1 committee members regarding their experience relative to the NASA concerns on connectors. The most common responses in order of occurrence were contact retention, plating issues, worn-out or damaged

  8. Subchronic treatment with acai frozen pulp prevents the brain oxidative damage in rats with acute liver failure. (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Kuo, Jonnsin; Wohlenberg, Mariane Farias; da Rocha Frusciante, Marina; Freitas, Márcia; Oliveira, Alice S; Andrade, Rodrigo B; Wannmacher, Clovis M D; Dani, Caroline; Funchal, Claudia


    Acai has been used by the population due to its high nutritional value and its benefits to health, such as its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on oxidative stress parameters in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of Wistar rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Thirty male Wistar rats (90-day-old) were orally treated with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days (7 μL/g). On the 15th day, half of the animals received treatment with mineral oil and the other half with CCl 4 (3.0 mL/kg). The cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and used for analysis of creatine kinase activity (CK), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl, sulfhydryl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test. CCl 4 was able to inhibit CK activity in all tissues tested and to provoke lipid damage in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and protein damage in the three tissues tested. CCl 4 enhanced CAT activity in the cerebral cortex, and inhibited CAT activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum and reduced SOD activity in all tissues studied. Acai frozen pulp prevented the inhibition of CK, TBARS, carbonyl and CAT activity in all brain structures and only in hippocampus for SOD activity. Therefore, acai frozen pulp has antioxidant properties and maybe could be useful in the treatment of some diseases that affect the central nervous system that are associated with oxidative damage.

  9. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation (United States)

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.


    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, were instilled into the trachea. Arterial O2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts were evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. PMID:23727623

  10. IP3 3-kinase B controls hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and prevents lethal hematopoietic failure in mice (United States)

    Siegemund, Sabine; Rigaud, Stephanie; Conche, Claire; Broaten, Blake; Schaffer, Lana; Westernberg, Luise; Head, Steven Robert


    Tight regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis ensures lifelong hematopoiesis and prevents blood cancers. The mechanisms balancing HSC quiescence with expansion and differentiation into hematopoietic progenitors are incompletely understood. Here, we identify Inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (Itpkb) as an essential regulator of HSC homeostasis. Young Itpkb−/− mice accumulated phenotypic HSC, which were less quiescent and proliferated more than wild-type (WT) controls. Itpkb−/− HSC downregulated quiescence and stemness associated, but upregulated activation, oxidative metabolism, protein synthesis, and lineage associated messenger RNAs. Although they had normal-to-elevated viability and no significant homing defects, Itpkb−/− HSC had a severely reduced competitive long-term repopulating potential. Aging Itpkb−/− mice lost hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and died with severe anemia. WT HSC normally repopulated Itpkb−/− hosts, indicating an HSC-intrinsic Itpkb requirement. Itpkb−/− HSC showed reduced colony-forming activity and increased stem-cell-factor activation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) effectors Akt/mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). This was reversed by treatment with the Itpkb product and PI3K/Akt antagonist IP4. Transcriptome changes and biochemistry support mTOR hyperactivity in Itpkb−/− HSC. Treatment with the mTOR-inhibitor rapamycin reversed the excessive mTOR signaling and hyperproliferation of Itpkb−/− HSC without rescuing colony forming activity. Thus, we propose that Itpkb ensures HSC quiescence and function through limiting cytokine-induced PI3K/mTOR signaling and other mechanisms. PMID:25788703

  11. Mesh Network Architecture for Enabling Inter-Spacecraft Communication (United States)

    Becker, Christopher; Merrill, Garrick


    To enable communication between spacecraft operating in a formation or small constellation, a mesh network architecture was developed and tested using a time division multiple access (TDMA) communication scheme. The network is designed to allow for the exchange of telemetry and other data between spacecraft to enable collaboration between small spacecraft. The system uses a peer-to-peer topology with no central router, so that it does not have a single point of failure. The mesh network is dynamically configurable to allow for addition and subtraction of new spacecraft into the communication network. Flight testing was performed using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) formation acting as a spacecraft analogue and providing a stressing environment to prove mesh network performance. The mesh network was primarily devised to provide low latency, high frequency communication but is flexible and can also be configured to provide higher bandwidth for applications desiring high data throughput. The network includes a relay functionality that extends the maximum range between spacecraft in the network by relaying data from node to node. The mesh network control is implemented completely in software making it hardware agnostic, thereby allowing it to function with a wide variety of existing radios and computing platforms..

  12. Spacecraft charging requirements and engineering issues (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Whittlesey, Albert C.


    An effort is currently underway to recast and combine two NASA guidelines for mitigating the effects of spacecraft charging and electrostatic discharge on spacecraft. The task has the goal of taking the existing NASA guidelines for preventing surface electrostatic charging, NASA-TP-2361 (Purvis et al., 1984), and internal electrostatic charging, NASAHDBK 4002 (Whittlesey, 1999), and bringing them up to date with recent laboratory and onorbit findings. This paper will describe the status of those on-going efforts to combine and update the two guidelines. Reasons for the upgrades will be presented, including new subject material for which there is now a greater understanding or a greater need which changes satellite design procedures, or both. There will be an emphasis on the proposed contents and on the differences and similarities between surface and internal charging mitigation techniques. In addition, the mitigation requirements that can be derived from the combined handbook will be discussed with emphasis on how they might affect the engineering design and testing of future spacecraft.

  13. Spacecraft signal sources portable test system (United States)

    Kirk, Albert; Kuhnle, Paul; Sydnor, Richard; Diener, William; Stowers, David


    There is a frequent need to measure the frequency stability and phase noise levels of very high performance signal sources that are required for certain spacecraft missions. These measurements need to be done at different locations as the spacecraft subsystems progress through the various stages of development, assembly, test, and integration. Allan Deviation and Phase Noise of high performance sources are generally measured by comparing the unit under test to a reference standard. Five basic requirements are associated with making these kind of measurements: (1) the reference standard performance needs to be equal or better than the unit under test; (2) the measurement system needs to accommodate odd, nonstandard measurement frequencies that can range from 4 MHz to 35 GHz; (3) warm-up frequency drift and aging can corrupt a measurement and must be dealt with; (4) test equipment generated noise must be understood and prevented from limiting the measurements; (5) test equipment noise performance must be verifiable in the field as needed. A portable measurement system that was built by JPL and used in the field is described. The methods of addressing the above requirements are outlined and some measurement noise floor values are given. This test set was recently used to measure state of the art crystal oscillator frequency standards on the TOPEX and MARS OBSERVER spacecraft during several stages of acceptance tests.

  14. Spacecraft Surface Charging Handbook (United States)


    discharges however produce replacement currents that can be global. The local effect of punchthrough is illustrated by a small dipole model for the...St’rap I Farda or TEK7103 Scope Power Dipole -- Line tenna To To PA HP05000 and Spectrum X-Y Analyzer Plotter Figure 61. Test setup for surface...Testing Seminar, Los Angeles, CA, p. 77-82, 19817. Levadou, F., "Proprietes Electriques Des Materiaux." Space Environment: Prevention of Risks Related

  15. Intelligent spacecraft module (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana


    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  16. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky


    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  17. Spacecraft Power Monitor, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Spacecraft Power Monitor (SPM) which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). NEMO transforms the power...

  18. Spacecraft on a Chip Development (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project lays the groundwork for the future development of a spacecraft on a chip implementation (SCOC), which would combine the electronics for multiple...

  19. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  20. Burden and Prevention of Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients with Concomitant Chronic Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Lavoie, Louis; Khoury, Hanane; Welner, Sharon; Briere, Jean-Baptiste


    Chronic heart failure (HF) or coronary artery disease (CAD) confers risk for thromboembolism and secondary adverse cardiac events (ACEs) (e.g., mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke). When HF and CAD occur concomitantly, ACE risk is reported to be elevated. We investigated ACEs, their epidemiology, and the resulting burden among patients with concomitant HF and CAD through a structured review of recent literature. Antithrombotic treatment for ACE prevention was assessed. Pertinent databases (PubMed, other) were searched for relevant articles published from January 2004 to March 2015. Data collected included ACE incidence, healthcare resource use, costs, change in quality of life attributed to ACEs, and treatment practice for prevention of ACEs in patients with concomitant HF and CAD. Mortality rates for patients with both HF and CAD ranged from 4.9-12.3% at 30 days to 13.7-86% for periods between 9.9 months and 10 years. Incidence of ACEs among HF patients with CAD is, respectively, at least 82% and 15% higher than for patients without HF or without CAD, except for stroke investigated in two studies. All-cause and HF-related hospitalization is the main driver of the economic burden in patients with HF, the majority of whom had CAD origin. Despite high prevalence of ischemic complications, there is limited evidence to support the use of warfarin-type antithrombotics among HF patients. This study confirms that patients with concomitant HF and CAD are at elevated risk for ACEs and suggests the need for effective new antithrombotic treatments to further decrease ischemic complication rates in this population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Long-Term Follow-up of Participants with Heart Failure in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) (United States)

    Piller, Linda B.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Simpson, Lara M.; Cushman, William C.; Massie, Barry M.; Einhorn, Paula T.; Oparil, Suzanne; Ford, Charles E.; Graumlich, James F.; Dart, Richard A.; Parish, David C.; Retta, Tamrat M.; Cuyjet, Aloysius B.; Jafri, Syed Z.; Furberg, Curt D.; Saklayen, Mohammad G.; Thadani, Udho; Probstfield, Jeffrey L.; Davis, Barry R.


    Background In the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), a randomized, double-blind, practice-based, active-control, comparative effectiveness trial in high-risk hypertensive participants, risk of new-onset heart failure (HF) was higher in the amlodipine (2.5-10 mg/day) and lisinopril (10-40 mg/day) arms compared with the chlorthalidone (12.5-25 mg/day) arm . Similar to other studies, mortality rates following new-onset HF were very high (≥50% at 5 years), and were similar across randomized treatment arms. After the randomized phase of the trial ended in 2002, outcomes were determined from administrative databases. Methods and Results Using national databases, post-trial follow-up mortality through 2006 was obtained on participants who developed new-onset HF during the randomized (in-trial) phase of ALLHAT. Mean follow-up for the entire period was 8.9 years. Of 1761 participants with incident HF in-trial, 1348 died. Post-HF all-cause mortality was similar across treatment groups with adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.95 (0.81-1.12) and 1.05 (0.89-1.25), respectively, for amlodipine and lisinopril compared with chlorthalidone, and 10-year adjusted rates of 86%, 87%, and 83%, respectively. All-cause mortality rates were also similar among those with reduced ejection fractions (84%) and preserved ejection fractions (81%) with no significant differences by randomized treatment arm. Conclusions Once HF develops, risk of death is high and consistent across randomized treatment groups. Measures to prevent the development of HF, especially blood pressure control, must be a priority if mortality associated with development of HF is to be addressed. PMID:21969009

  2. Intravenous renal cell transplantation with SAA1-positive cells prevents the progression of chronic renal failure in rats with ischemic-diabetic nephropathy. (United States)

    Kelly, Katherine J; Zhang, Jizhong; Han, Ling; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Dominguez, Jesus H


    Diabetic nephropathy, the most common cause of progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease, has now reached global proportions. The only means to rescue diabetic patients on dialysis is renal transplantation, a very effective therapy but severely limited by the availability of donor kidneys. Hence, we tested the role of intravenous renal cell transplantation (IRCT) on obese/diabetic Zucker/SHHF F1 hybrid (ZS) female rats with severe ischemic and diabetic nephropathy. Renal ischemia was produced by bilateral renal clamping of the renal arteries at 10 wk of age, and IRCT with genetically modified normal ZS male tubular cells was given intravenously at 15 and 20 wk of age. Rats were euthanized at 34 wk of age. IRCT with cells expressing serum amyloid A had strong and long-lasting beneficial effects on renal function and structure, including tubules and glomeruli. However, donor cells were found engrafted only in renal tubules 14 wk after the second infusion. The results indicate that IRCT with serum amyloid A-positive cells is effective in preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease in rats with diabetic and ischemic nephropathy.

  3. A spacecraft computer repairable via command. (United States)

    Fimmel, R. O.; Baker, T. E.


    The MULTIPAC is a central data system developed for deep-space probes with the distinctive feature that it may be repaired during flight via command and telemetry links by reprogramming around the failed unit. The computer organization uses pools of identical modules which the program organizes into one or more computers called processors. The interaction of these modules is dynamically controlled by the program rather than hardware. In the event of a failure, new programs are entered which reorganize the central data system with a somewhat reduced total processing capability aboard the spacecraft. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the system architecture and the final overall system design rather than the specific logic design.

  4. An investment plan for preventing child injuries using risk priority number of failure mode and effects analysis methodology and a multi-objective, multi-dimensional mixed 0-1 knapsack model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bas, Esra


    In this paper, a general framework for child injury prevention and a multi-objective, multi-dimensional mixed 0-1 knapsack model were developed to determine the optimal time to introduce preventive measures against child injuries. Furthermore, the model maximises the prevention of injuries with the highest risks for each age period by combining preventive measures and supervision as well as satisfying budget limits and supervision time constraints. The risk factors for each injury, variable, and time period were based on risk priority numbers (RPNs) obtained from failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methodology, and these risk factors were incorporated into the model as objective function parameters. A numerical experiment based on several different situations was conducted, revealing that the model provided optimal timing of preventive measures for child injuries based on variables considered.

  5. Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire) Development Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos


    The status is presented of a spacecraft fire safety research project that is under development to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems for exploration missions. The Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project is developing three Spacecraft Fire Experime...

  6. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila


    Decisions made during the operational phase of a space mission often have significant and immediate consequences. Without the explicit consideration of the risks involved and their representation in a solid model, it is very likely that these risks are not considered systematically in trade studies. Wrong decisions during the operational phase of a space mission can lead to immediate system failure whereas correct decisions can help recover the system even from faulty conditions. A problem of special interest is the determination of the system fault protection strategies upon the occurrence of faults within the system. Decisions regarding the fault protection strategy also heavily rely on a correct understanding of the state of the system and an integrated risk model that represents the various possible scenarios and their respective likelihoods. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling is applicable to the full lifecycle of a space mission project, from concept development to preliminary design, detailed design, development and operations. The benefits and utilities of the model, however, depend on the phase of the mission for which it is used. This is because of the difference in the key strategic decisions that support each mission phase. The focus of this paper is on describing the particular methods used for PRA modeling during the operational phase of a spacecraft by gleaning insight from recently conducted case studies on two operational Mars orbiters. During operations, the key decisions relate to the commands sent to the spacecraft for any kind of diagnostics, anomaly resolution, trajectory changes, or planning. Often, faults and failures occur in the parts of the spacecraft but are contained or mitigated before they can cause serious damage. The failure behavior of the system during operations provides valuable data for updating and adjusting the related PRA models that are built primarily based on historical failure data. The PRA models, in turn

  7. Functional Metagenomics of Spacecraft Assembly Cleanrooms: Presence of Virulence Factors Associated with Human Pathogens


    Bashir, Mina; Ahmed, Mahjabeen; Weinmaier, Thomas; Ciobanu, Doina; Ivanova, Natalia; Pieber, Thomas R.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.


    Strict planetary protection practices are implemented during spacecraft assembly to prevent inadvertent transfer of earth microorganisms to other planetary bodies. Therefore, spacecraft are assembled in cleanrooms, which undergo strict cleaning and decontamination procedures to reduce total microbial bioburden. We wanted to evaluate if these practices selectively favor survival and growth of hardy microorganisms, such as pathogens. Three geographically distinct cleanrooms were sampled during ...

  8. Functional metagenomics of spacecraft assembly cleanrooms: Presence of virulence factors associated with human pathogens.


    Mina Bashir; Mina Bashir; Mahjabeen Ahmed; Mahjabeen Ahmed; Thomas Weinmaier; Doina Ciobanu; Natalia Ivanova; Thomas Pieber; Parag A. Vaishampayan


    Strict planetary protection practices are implemented during spacecraft assembly to prevent inadvertent transfer of earth microorganisms to other planetary bodies. Therefore, spacecraft are assembled in cleanrooms, which undergo strict cleaning and decontamination procedures to reduce total microbial bioburden. We wanted to evaluate if these practices selectively favor survival and growth of hardy microorganisms, such as pathogens. Three geographically distinct cleanrooms were sampled during ...

  9. Electromagnetic braking for Mars spacecraft (United States)

    Holt, A. C.


    Aerobraking concepts are being studied to improve performance and cost effectiveness of propulsion systems for Mars landers and Mars interplanetary spacecraft. Access to megawatt power levels (nuclear power coupled to high-storage inductive or capacitive devices) on a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft may make feasible electromagnetic braking and lift modulation techniques which were previously impractical. Using pulsed microwave and magnetic field technology, potential plasmadynamic braking and hydromagnetic lift modulation techniques have been identified. Entry corridor modulation to reduce loads and heating, to reduce vertical descent rates, and to expand horizontal and lateral landing ranges are possible benefits. In-depth studies are needed to identify specific design concepts for feasibility assessments. Standing wave/plasma sheath interaction techniques appear to be promising. The techniques may require some tailoring of spacecraft external structures and materials. In addition, rapid response guidance and control systems may require the use of structurally embedded sensors coupled to expert systems or to artificial intelligence systems.

  10. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...... over the entire span of frequencies applicable to spacecraft attitude control systems. Completing the first steps from theoretical possibility towards a proven concept constitutes the primary focus of the project, having necessitated extensive research and development within several diverse technical......Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...

  11. Budding Uninhibited by Benzimidazole-1 Insufficiency Prevents Acute Renal Failure in Severe Sepsis by Maintaining Anti-Coagulant Functions of Vascular Endothelial Cells. (United States)

    Matsubara, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshiya, Keiji; Yoshida, Ayae; Ikeda, Seiichi; Furuyama, Tadashi; Nakatsu, Yoshimichi; Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Nomura, Masatoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko


    Severe sepsis is critical to health and can result in acute renal failure (ARF). Tissue factor (TF) and thrombomodulin (TM) play key roles in vascular endothelial functions by helping maintain microcirculation in the kidney. Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-1 (Bub1) plays a role in Akt and JNK signaling, which control TF and TM, respectively. We hypothesized that Bub1 could control vascular endothelial function in sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Bub1 in septic ARF. We used Mouse cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) using low Bub1 expressing (Bub1) and wild-type (Bub1) mice in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) in vitro. Bub1 mice had a higher survival rate after CLP than Bub1. Bub1 mice had more severe ARF after CLP than Bub1 with blood biochemical and pathological analyses. TF expression in Bub1 mice and control HAEC (control) significantly increased in the septic model compared with Bub1 and Bub1 silenced HAEC (siBub1). TM expression in the control significantly decreased after LPS stimulation compared with siBub1. Akt and JNK phosphorylation of siBub1 were attenuated after LPS stimulation. Associations of Bub1 with Akt or JNK after LPS stimulation of HAEC were detected using immunoprecipitation, suggesting that Bub1 is involved in the phosphorylation of Akt and JNK after LPS stimulation. Bub1 insufficiency attenuates TF expression and reduces TM suppression by blocking Akt and JNK phosphorylation, respectively, thus leading to the prevention of ARF and death caused by sepsis.

  12. Training for spacecraft technical analysts (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas J.; Bryant, Larry


    Deep space missions such as Voyager rely upon a large team of expert analysts who monitor activity in the various engineering subsystems of the spacecraft and plan operations. Senior teammembers generally come from the spacecraft designers, and new analysts receive on-the-job training. Neither of these methods will suffice for the creation of a new team in the middle of a mission, which may be the situation during the Magellan mission. New approaches are recommended, including electronic documentation, explicit cognitive modeling, and coached practice with archived data.

  13. Ayame/PAM-D apogee kick motor nozzle failure analysis (United States)


    The failure of two communication satellites during firing sequence were examined. The correlation/comparison of the circumstances of the Ayame incidents and the failure of the STAR 48 (DM-2) motor are reviewed. The massive nozzle failure of the AKM to determine the impact on spacecraft performance is examined. It is recommended that a closer watch is kept on systems techniques,

  14. Results from active spacecraft potential control on the Geotail spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Arends, H.; Pedersen, A.


    A low and actively controlled electrostatic potential on the outer surfaces of a scientific spacecraft is very important for accurate measurements of cold plasma electrons and ions and the DC to low-frequency electric field. The Japanese/NASA Geotail spacecraft carriers as part of its scientific payload a novel ion emitter for active control of the electrostatic potential on the surface of the spacecraft. The aim of the ion emitter is to reduce the positive surface potential which is normally encountered in the outer magnetosphere when the spacecraft is sunlit. Ion emission clamps the surface potential to near the ambient plasma potential. Without emission control, Geotail has encountered plasma conditions in the lobes of the magnetotail which resulted in surface potentials of up to about +70 V. The ion emitter proves to be able to discharge the outer surfaces of the spacecraft and is capable of keeping the surface potential stable at about +2 V. This potential is measured with respect to one of the electric field probes which are current biased and thus kept at a potential slightly above the ambient plasma potential. The instrument uses the liquid metal field ion emission principle to emit indium ions. The ion beam energy is about 6 keV and the typical total emission current amounts to about 15 μA. Neither variations in the ambient plasma conditions nor operation of two electron emitters on Geotail produce significant variations of the controlled surface potential as long as the resulting electron emission currents remain much smaller than the ion emission current. Typical results of the active potential control are shown, demonstrating the surface potential reduction and its stability over time. 25 refs., 5 figs

  15. Tumour lysis syndrome and acute renal failure in Burkitt's lymphoma. Description of 2 cases and a review of the literature on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.; Krediet, R. T.; Somers, R.; Arisz, L.


    Two patients with Burkitt's lymphoma and acute renal failure are described, one with acute uric acid nephropathy and the other with acute renal failure due to hyperphosphataemia. Renal insufficiency caused by the precipitation of calcium phosphate salts only occurs after starting treatment of the

  16. Transitions of Care Between Acute and Chronic Heart Failure: Critical Steps in the Design of a Multidisciplinary Care Model for the Prevention of Rehospitalization. (United States)

    Comín-Colet, Josep; Enjuanes, Cristina; Lupón, Josep; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Badosa, Neus; Verdú, José María


    Despite advances in the treatment of heart failure, mortality, the number of readmissions, and their associated health care costs are very high. Heart failure care models inspired by the chronic care model, also known as heart failure programs or heart failure units, have shown clinical benefits in high-risk patients. However, while traditional heart failure units have focused on patients detected in the outpatient phase, the increasing pressure from hospital admissions is shifting the focus of interest toward multidisciplinary programs that concentrate on transitions of care, particularly between the acute phase and the postdischarge phase. These new integrated care models for heart failure revolve around interventions at the time of transitions of care. They are multidisciplinary and patient-centered, designed to ensure continuity of care, and have been demonstrated to reduce potentially avoidable hospital admissions. Key components of these models are early intervention during the inpatient phase, discharge planning, early postdischarge review and structured follow-up, advanced transition planning, and the involvement of physicians and nurses specialized in heart failure. It is hoped that such models will be progressively implemented across the country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The mechanical design and dynamic testing of the IBEX-H1 electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL


    This paper presents the mechanical design, fabrication and dynamic testing of an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument. The functional and environmental requirements combined with limited spacecraft accommodations, resulted in complex component geometries, unique material selections, and difficult fabrication processes. The challenging aspects of the mechanical design and several of the more difficult production processes are discussed. In addition, the successes, failures, and lessons learned from acoustic and random vibration testing of a full-scale prototype instrument are presented.

  18. Calpastatin overexpression prevents progression of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC)-initiated acute renal injury and renal failure (ARF) in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Lock, Edward A.; Latendresse, John R.; Warbritton, Alan A.; Mehendale, Harihara M.


    Previously we have shown that 90% of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetic (DB) mice survive from acute renal failure (ARF) and death induced by a normally LD 9 dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.) of the nephrotoxicant S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC). This remarkable protection is due to a combination of slower progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury and increased compensatory nephrogenic tissue repair in the DB kidneys. BRDU immunohistochemistry revealed that the DB condition led to 4-fold higher number of proximal tubular cells (PTC) entering S-phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that DB-induced augmentation of PTC into S-phase is accompanied by overexpression of the calpain-inhibitor calpastatin, which endogenously prevents the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury mediated by the calpain escaping out of damaged PTCs. Immunohistochemical detection of renal calpain and its activity in the urine, over a time course after treatment with the LD 9 dose of DCVC, indicated progressive increase in leakage of calpain into the extracellular spaces of the injured PTCs of the non-diabetic (NDB) kidneys as compared to the DB kidneys. Calpastatin expression was minimally detected in the NDB kidneys, using immunohistochemistry, over the time course. On the other hand, consistently higher number of tubules in the DB kidney showed calpastatin expression over the time course. The lower leakage of calpain in the DB kidneys was commensurate with constitutively higher expression of calpastatin in the S-phase-laden PTCs of these mice. To test the protective role of newly divided/dividing PTCs, DB mice were given the anti-mitotic agent colchicine (CLC) (2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, i.p., on days 8 and 10 after STZ injection) prior to challenge with a LD 9 dose of DCVC, which led to 100% mortality by 48 h. Mortality was due to rapid progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury, suggesting that newly divided/dividing cells are instrumental in mitigating

  19. Kidney Failure (United States)

    ... enough red blood cells. This is called kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you need treatment to ... providers, family, and friends, most people with kidney failure can lead full and active lives. NIH: National ...

  20. Respiratory Failure (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such as ... need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  1. Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Wiggers, Henrik; McMurray, John J V


    This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint.......This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint....

  2. Heart Failure (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  3. Risk Analysis of On-Orbit Spacecraft Refueling Concepts (United States)

    Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant R.


    On-orbit refueling of spacecraft has been proposed as an alternative to the exclusive use of Heavy-lift Launch Vehicles to enable human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In these scenarios, beyond LEO spacecraft are launched dry (without propellant) or partially dry into orbit, using smaller or fewer element launch vehicles. Propellant is then launched into LEO on separate launch vehicles and transferred to the spacecraft. Refueling concepts are potentially attractive because they reduce the maximum individual payload that must be placed in Earth orbit. However, these types of approaches add significant complexity to mission operations and introduce more uncertainty and opportunities for failure to the mission. In order to evaluate these complex scenarios, the authors developed a Monte Carlo based discrete-event model that simulates the operational risks involved with such strategies, including launch processing delays, transportation system failures, and onorbit element lifetimes. This paper describes the methodology used to simulate the mission risks for refueling concepts, the strategies that were evaluated, and the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that scenarios that employ refueling concepts will likely have to include long launch and assembly timelines, as well as the use of spare tanker launch vehicles, in order to achieve high levels of mission success through Trans Lunar Injection.

  4. Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite...

  5. Service Oriented Spacecraft Modeling Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The I-Logix team proposes development of the Service Oriented Spacecraft Modeling Environment (SOSME) to allow faster and more effective spacecraft system design...

  6. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity (United States)

    Anderson, John D.


    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  7. Multiple spacecraft Michelson stellar interferometer (United States)

    Stachnik, R. V.; Arnold, D.; Melroy, P.; Mccormack, E. F.; Gezari, D. Y.


    Results of an orbital analysis and performance assessment of SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry) are presented. The device considered includes two one-meter telescopes in orbits which are identical except for slightly different inclinations; the telescopes achieve separations as large as 10 km and relay starlight to a central station which has a one-meter optical delay line in one interferometer arm. It is shown that a 1000-km altitude, zero mean inclination orbit affords natural scanning of the 10-km baseline with departures from optical pathlength equality which are well within the corrective capacity of the optical delay line. Electric propulsion is completely adequate to provide the required spacecraft motions, principally those needed for repointing. Resolution of 0.00001 arcsec and magnitude limits of 15 to 20 are achievable.

  8. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion (United States)

    MacDonald-Tenenbaum, Natalia


    Over the past several decades, a variety of laser diagnostic techniques have been developed and applied to diagnose spacecraft propulsion devices. Laser diagnostics are inherently non-intrusive, and provide the opportunity to probe properties such as temperature, concentration or number density of plume species, and plume velocities in the harsh environments of combustion and plasma discharges. This presentation provides an overview of laser diagnostic capabilities for spacecraft propulsion devices such as small monopropellant thrusters, arcjets, ion engines and Hall thrusters. Particular emphasis is placed on recent developments for time-resolved ion velocity measurements in Hall thruster plumes. Results are presented for one such diagnostic method, a time-synchronized CW-laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique based on a sample hold scheme. This method is capable of correlating measured fluorescence excitation lineshapes with high frequency current fluctuations in the plasma discharge of a Hall thruster and is tolerant of natural drifting in the current oscillation frequency.

  9. Spacecraft ion beam noise effects (United States)

    Anenberg, G. L.


    An estimate of the antenna noise temperature and the uplink signal-to-noise ratio has been made for Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by a spacecraft ion beam; a worst-case situation in which the spacecraft antenna is located in the exit plane of the ion beam and directed at varying angles into the ion beam is assumed. Numerical results of the antenna noise temperature versus antenna pointing angle are given for a typical set of ion beam and antenna pattern parameters. The uplink signal-to-noise ratio due to the ion beam noise alone is given in terms of a critical range in AU at which a typical ranging transmission is received with S/N = 0 db. The effects of the ion beam divergence angle and antenna distance on the ion beam are also presented. Results of the study show typical increases in the antenna noise temperature of about 0.2 K and critical ranges of the order of 3-5 AU. An ion engine thus generally introduces an undetectable level of noise into a spacecraft receiver.

  10. Long-term efficacy of implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy plus defibrillator for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with mild heart failure: an updated meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Ping; Li, Chun-Lei; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Li-Xin; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ling


    Previous studies of implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy plus defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy used for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death have suggested that CRT-D therapy is less effective in patients with mild heart failure and a wide QRS complex. However, the long-term benefits are variable. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials identified in systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database. Three studies (3858 patients) with a mean follow-up of 66 months were included. Overall, CRT-D therapy was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality than was implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy (OR, 0.78; 95 % CI, 0.63-0.96; P = 0.02; I (2) = 19 %). However, the risk of cardiac mortality was comparable between two groups (OR, 0.74; 95 % CI, 0.53-1.01; P = 0.06). CRT-D treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hospitalization for heart failure (OR, 0.67; 95 % CI, 0.50-0.89; P = 0.005; I (2) = 55 %). The composite outcome of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure was also markedly lower with CRT-D therapy than with ICD treatment alone (OR, 0.67; 95 % CI, 0.57-0.77; P failure events in patients with mild heart failure with a wide QRS complex. However, long-term risk of cardiac mortality was similar between two groups. More randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially in patients with NYHA class I heart failure or patients without LBBB.

  11. Technology Needs for Air Force Autonomous Spacecraft (United States)


    months. I I I 2. It is estimated that a demonstration program would require * I from 15 to 30 months. I 3 . IASP TLCHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS C.2.4. SPACECRAFT...ready 86 57 IASP TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS I C.6.3. ACTIVE SPACECRAFT CHARGE CONTROL I REQU!4IP, B, A.F. spacecraft must survive in the natural

  12. Integrating standard operating procedures with spacecraft automation, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation has the potential to assist crew members and spacecraft operators in managing spacecraft systems during extended space missions. Automation can...

  13. A Sampling Based Approach to Spacecraft Autonomous Maneuvering with Safety Specifications (United States)

    Starek, Joseph A.; Barbee, Brent W.; Pavone, Marco


    This paper presents a methods for safe spacecraft autonomous maneuvering that leverages robotic motion-planning techniques to spacecraft control. Specifically the scenario we consider is an in-plan rendezvous of a chaser spacecraft in proximity to a target spacecraft at the origin of the Clohessy Wiltshire Hill frame. The trajectory for the chaser spacecraft is generated in a receding horizon fashion by executing a sampling based robotic motion planning algorithm name Fast Marching Trees (FMT) which efficiently grows a tree of trajectories over a set of probabillistically drawn samples in the state space. To enforce safety the tree is only grown over actively safe samples for which there exists a one-burn collision avoidance maneuver that circularizes the spacecraft orbit along a collision-free coasting arc and that can be executed under potential thrusters failures. The overall approach establishes a provably correct framework for the systematic encoding of safety specifications into the spacecraft trajectory generations process and appears amenable to real time implementation on orbit. Simulation results are presented for a two-fault tolerant spacecraft during autonomous approach to a single client in Low Earth Orbit.

  14. Materials and processes for spacecraft and high reliability applications

    CERN Document Server

    D Dunn, Barrie


    The objective of this book is to assist scientists and engineers select the ideal material or manufacturing process for particular applications; these could cover a wide range of fields, from light-weight structures to electronic hardware. The book will help in problem solving as it also presents more than 100 case studies and failure investigations from the space sector that can, by analogy, be applied to other industries. Difficult-to-find material data is included for reference. The sciences of metallic (primarily) and organic materials presented throughout the book demonstrate how they can be applied as an integral part of spacecraft product assurance schemes, which involve quality, material and processes evaluations, and the selection of mechanical and component parts. In this successor edition, which has been revised and updated, engineering problems associated with critical spacecraft hardware and the space environment are highlighted by over 500 illustrations including micrographs and fractographs. Sp...

  15. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches


    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  16. Vitamin D and Heart Failure. (United States)

    Marshall Brinkley, D; Ali, Omair M; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Wang, Thomas J


    Vitamin D is principally known for its role in calcium homeostasis, but preclinical studies implicate multiple pathways through which vitamin D may affect cardiovascular function and influence risk for heart failure. Many adults with cardiovascular disease have low vitamin D status, making it a potential therapeutic target. We review the rationale and potential role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of chronic heart failure. Substantial observational evidence has associated low vitamin D status with the risk of heart failure, ventricular remodeling, and clinical outcomes in heart failure, including mortality. However, trials assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on surrogate markers and clinical outcomes in heart failure have generally been small and inconclusive. There are insufficient data to recommend routine assessment or supplementation of vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of chronic heart failure. Prospective trials powered for clinical outcomes are warranted.

  17. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.


    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  18. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo


    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  19. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing (United States)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.


    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  20. Active control of electric potential of spacecraft (United States)

    Goldstein, R.


    Techniques are discussed for controlling the potential of a spacecraft by means of devices which release appropriate charged particles from the spacecraft to the environment. Attention is given to electron emitters, ion emitters, a basic electron emitter arrangement, techniques for sensing electric field or potential, and flight experiments on active potential control. It is recommended to avoid differential charging on spacecraft surfaces because it can severely affect the efficacy of emitters. Discharging the frame of a spacecraft with dielectric surfaces involves the risk of stressing the dielectric material excessively. The spacecraft should, therefore, be provided with grounded conductive surfaces. It is pointed out that particles released by control systems can return to the spacecraft.

  1. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.


    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  2. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnikov, K K; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V


    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  3. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnikov, K.K.; Makletsov, A.A.; Mileev, V.N.; Novikov, L.S.; Sinolits, V.V.


    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language

  4. Effect of thermo-mechanical loading histories on fatigue crack growth behavior and the threshold in SUS 316 and SCM 440 steels. For prevention of high cycle thermal fatigue failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Masakazu; Muzvidziwa, Milton; Iwasaki, Akira; Kasahara, Naoto


    High cycle thermal fatigue failure of pipes induced by fluid temperature change is one of the interdisciplinary issues to be concerned for long term structural reliability of high temperature components in energy systems. In order to explore advanced life assessment methods to prevent the failure, fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out in a low alloy steel and an austenitic stainless steel under typical thermal and thermo-mechanical histories. Special attention was paid to both the effect of thermo-mechanical loading history on the fatigue crack threshold, as well as to the applicability of continuum fracture mechanics treatment to small or short cracks. It was shown experimentally that the crack-based remaining fatigue life evaluation provided more reasonable assessment than the traditional method based on the semi-empirical law in terms of 'usage factor' for high cycle thermal fatigue failure that is employed in JSME Standard, S017. The crack propagation analysis based on continuum fracture mechanics was almost successfully applied to the small fatigue cracks of which size was comparable to a few times of material grain size. It was also shown the thermo-mechanical histories introduced unique effects to the prior fatigue crack wake, resulting in occasional change in the fatigue crack threshold. (author)

  5. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....

  6. Mechanism and Prevention of a Chock Support Failure in the Longwall Top-Coal Caving Faces: A Case Study in Datong Coalfield, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li


    Full Text Available Longwall chock support failures seriously restrain the safety and high-efficiency of mining of extra thick coal seams, as well as causing a great waste of coal resources. During longwall top-coal caving (LTCC, the influential effect of the properties and the movement regulation of top-coal on strata behavior cannot be ignored, since the top-coal is the medium through which the load of the overlying strata is transferred to the chock supports. Taking Datong coalfield as an example, the mechanism of a chock support failure in the LTCC face was investigated. Research findings indicated that the hard top-coal and insufficient chock support capacity were primary reasons for chock support failure accidents. On account of the field-measured results, a new method to determine support capacity was proposed, which fully took the impact of the top-coal strength into consideration. The calculation revealed that the required support capacity had exceeded the existing production maximum, at about 22,000 KN. Since it was unrealistic to simply increase chock support capacity, other approaches, according to the theoretical analysis, were proposed, such as lowering the integrity and strength of the top-coal, and upgrading its crushing effect to weaken the support load effectively during the weighting period, which reduces the likelihood of chock support accidents occurring. Based on this, hydraulic fracturing for hard top-coal and optimization of the caving process (chock supports raised up and down repeatedly by manual operation before moving forward were presented. The proposed solutions were successfully applied in LTCC-west8101 for subsequent mining and achieved substantial benefits. The above research provides valuable references and ideas for the control of strata behavior to ensure safe and highly efficient mining in extremely thick and hard coal seams with the LTCC method.

  7. Mechanism and Prevention of a Chock Support Failure in the Longwall Top-Coal Caving Faces: A Case Study in Datong Coalfield, China


    Zhu Li; Jialin Xu; Shengchao Yu; Jinfeng Ju; Jingmin Xu


    Longwall chock support failures seriously restrain the safety and high-efficiency of mining of extra thick coal seams, as well as causing a great waste of coal resources. During longwall top-coal caving (LTCC), the influential effect of the properties and the movement regulation of top-coal on strata behavior cannot be ignored, since the top-coal is the medium through which the load of the overlying strata is transferred to the chock supports. Taking Datong coalfield as an example, the mechan...

  8. Testicular failure (United States)

    ... page: // Testicular failure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  9. Students at risk of educational exclusion in secondary education. Perceptions of teachers involved in special programs about prevention of school failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier AMORES FERNÁNDEZ


    Full Text Available School failure in Secondary Education is one of the most serious problems that carries the Spanish educational system today. Initial vocational qualification programs (pcpi were designed to offer a second chance to failed students (or at risk of educational exclusion in this educational stage. This study, for which has been used a mixed or hybrid method research, has provided a number of results that offer a more complete vision on the usefulness of these «Educational reclosing» programs (now Vocational Basic Training, in the centers of the province of Granada, showing viewpoints as interesting as the teachers and students involved in the study. Here the perception of teachers is summarized on these students at risk who, due to several reasons, have been excluded from the mainstream educational system, and doomed to failure. Students that fail not only for learning difficulties or personal problems related to their family, also crash into an educational system that has not been able to provide adequate answers to their needs. 

  10. Hydronephrosis and renal failure following inadequate management of neuropathic bladder in a patient with spinal cord injury: Case report of a preventable complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan Subramanian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Condom catheters are indicated in spinal cord injury patients in whom intravesical pressures during storage and voiding are safe. Unmonitored use of penile sheath drainage can lead to serious complications. Case report A 32-year old, male person, sustained complete paraplegia at T-11 level in 1985. He had been using condom catheter. Eleven years after sustaining spinal injury, intravenous urography showed no radio-opaque calculus, normal appearances of kidneys, ureters and bladder. Blood urea and Creatinine were within reference range. A year later, urodynamics revealed detrusor pressure of 100 cm water when detrusor contraction was initiated by suprapubic tapping. This patient was advised intermittent catheterisation and take anti-cholinergic drug orally; but, he wished to continue penile sheath drainage. Nine years later, this patient developed bilateral hydronephrosis and renal failure. Indwelling urethral catheter drainage was established. Five months later, ultrasound examination of urinary tract revealed normal kidneys with no evidence of hydronephrosis. Conclusion Spinal cord injury patients with high intravesical pressure should not have penile sheath drainage as these patients are at risk for developing hydronephrosis and renal failure. Intermittent catheterisation along with antimuscarinic drug should be the preferred option for managing neuropathic bladder.

  11. Kidney Failure (United States)

    ... The Hope Affair A Pairing for Prevention - Boston Classical Music For a Cause A Pairing for Prevention - ... kidney Financial Assistance Kidney patient assistance HelpLine Grants Management System (GMS) login Education & Research Patient Webinars Become ...

  12. Autonomous Relative Navigation for Small Spacecraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.


    The thesis deals with the relative navigation between two small formation flying spacecraft. The inter-satellite distance is measured using locally generated radiofrequency ranging signals. Design considerations for the spacecraft and the relative navigation system are discussed as well as the

  13. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Katoen, Joost P.; Katsaros, Panagiotis; Mokos, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas; Postma, Bart; Roveri, Marco


    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space

  14. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.


    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  15. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  16. Prevention of pulmonary vascular and myocardial remodeling by the combined tyrosine and serine-/threonine kinase inhibitor, sorafenib, in pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klein


    Full Text Available Inhibition of tyrosine kinases can reverse pulmonary hypertension but little is known about the role of serine-/threonine kinases in vascular and myocardial remodeling. We investigated the effects of sorafenib, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases VEGFR, PDGFR and c-kit as well as the serine-/threonine kinase Raf-1, in pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular (RV pressure overload. In monocrotaline treated rats, sorafenib (10 mg·kg–1·d–1 p.o. reduced pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary artery muscularization and RV hypertrophy, and improved systemic hemodynamics (table 1. Sorafenib prevented phosphorylation of Raf-1 and suppressed activation of downstream signaling pathways (Erk 1/2. After pulmonary banding, sorafenib, but not the PDGFR/c-KIT/ABL-inhibitor imatinib reduced RV mass and RV filling pressure significantly. Congruent with these results, sorafenib only prevented ERK phosphorylation and vasopressin induced hypertrophy of the cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 dose dependently (IC50 = 300 nM. Combined inhibition of tyrosine and serine-/threonine kinases by sorafenib prevents vascular and cardiac remodeling in pulmonary hypertension, which is partly mediated via inhibition of the Raf kinase pathway.

  17. RF Breakdown Prevention in Spacecraft Components Product Overview (United States)


    PUBLICATION DATE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION TOR-2014-02137 May 8, 2014 UNCLASSIFIED Charles Abernethy Aerojet Carlo Abesamis... Cullen JDSU Louis D’Angelo Lockheed Martin louis.a.d’ David Davis SMC Douglas Dawson NASA

  18. Standard/Handbook for Multipactor Breakdown Prevention in Spacecraft Components (United States)


    The Boeing Company Preston Partridge, The Aerospace Corporation Mike Settember, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jian Xu, Aeroflex Incorporated NRO Bruce Flanick Northrop Grumman Mike Floyd General Dynamics David Ford

  19. Attitude sensing of APPLE spacecraft (United States)

    Alex, T. K.; Jain, Y. K.; Philip, M. P.; Kalakrishnan, B.; Kanakaraju, K.; Kamalakar, J. A.


    A variety of attitude sensors have been used in the Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) geosynchronous satellite's control system. Sensor tasks encompass satellite attitude determination after separation from launch vehicle, spin axis orientation for apogee boost motor firing and satellite spin-up, satellite despin and sunward pointing on reaching geosynchronous orbit, three-axis stabilization, and yaw axis control during stationkeeping. Attention is given to problems encountered during APPLE deployment, of which the most serious was the failure of one of the solar panels to deploy. Pitch rotation was used to keep earth sensor temperature below operating maximum range.

  20. Contraceptive failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    , and 2614 received antenatal care. The variables studied comprise age, partner relationship, number of births, occupational and economical situation, and contraceptive use.Contraceptive failure, defined as contraceptive use (condom, diaphragm, IUD, oral contraception, or another modern method...... to use of condom and oral contraception than women aged 25-34 years. In addition, contraceptive failure was found to be associated with being single, a student, and having given birth twice or more previously. Regarding pregnancy acceptance, being 25-34 years of age was positively associated, whereas...

  1. Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients


    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen


    Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better th...

  2. Low power arcjet system spacecraft impacts (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lichtin, D. A.; Palchefsky, J. W.; Bogorad, A. L.


    Application of electrothermal arcjets on communications satellites requires assessment of integration concerns identified by the user community. Perceived risks include plume contamination of spacecraft materials, induced arcing or electrostatic discharges between differentially charged spacecraft surfaces, and conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) for both steady state and transient conditions. A Space Act agreement between Martin Marietta Astro Space, the Rocket Research Company, and NASA's Lewis Research Center was established to experimentally examine these issues. Spacecraft materials were exposed to an arcjet plume for 40 hours, representing 40 weeks of actual spacecraft life, and contamination was characterized by changes in surface properties. With the exception of the change in emittance of one sample, all measurable changes in surface properties resulted in acceptable end of life characteristics. Charged spacecraft samples were benignly and consistently reduced to ground potential during exposure to the powered arcjet plume, suggesting that the arcjet could act as a charge control device on spacecraft. Steady state EMI signatures obtained using two different power processing units were similar to emissions measured in a previous test. Emissions measured in UHF, S, C, Ku and Ka bands obtained a null result which verified previous work in the UHF, S, and C bands. Characteristics of conducted and radiated transient emissions appear within standard spacecraft susceptibility criteria.

  3. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  4. Reproductive Failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for the establishment of a Reproductive Failure. Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital was considered long overdue, as it was felt that there were a number of high risk pregnancies continually being lost among the large volume of pregnant women attending the routine, busy and overcrowded antenatal clinics,. Various ...

  5. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained...

  6. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary


    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  7. Kidney (Renal) Failure (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, is ... is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ...

  8. MarcoPolo-R: Mission and Spacecraft Design (United States)

    Peacocke, L.; Kemble, S.; Chapuy, M.; Scheer, H.


    asteroid properties and map the surface in detail. Five potential sampling sites will be selected and closely observed in a local characterisation phase, leading to a single preferred sampling site being identified. The baseline instruments are a Narrow Angle Camera, a Mid-Infrared Spectrometer, a Visible Near-Infrared Spectrometer, a Radio Science Experiment, and a Close-up Camera. For the sampling phase, the spacecraft will perform a touch-and-go manoeuvre. A boom with a sampling mechanism at the end will be deployed, and the spacecraft will descend using visual navigation to touch the asteroid for some seconds. The rotary brush sampling mechanism will be activated on touchdown to obtain a good quality sample comprising regolith dust and pebbles. Low touchdown velocities and collision avoidance are critical at this point to prevent damage to the spacecraft and solar arrays. The spacecraft will then move away, returning to a safe orbit, and the sample will be transferred to an Earth Re-entry Capsule. After a final post-sampling characterisation campaign, the spacecraft will perform the return transfer to Earth. The Earth Re-entry Capsule will be released to directly enter the Earth's atmosphere, and is designed to survive a hard landing with no parachute deceleration. Once recovered, the asteroid sample would be extracted in a sample curation facility in preparation for the full analysis campaign. This presentation will describe Astrium's MarcoPolo-R mission and spacecraft design, with a focus on the innovative aspects of the design.

  9. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation to Prevent Arteriovenous Fistula and Graft Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Irish, Ashley B; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W; Mori, Trevor A; Pascoe, Elaine M; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Lok, Charmaine E; Palmer, Suetonia C


    Arteriovenous access failure frequently occurs in people on hemodialysis and is associated with morbidity, mortality and large healthcare expenditures. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) may improve access outcomes via pleiotropic effects on access maturation and function, but may cause bleeding complications. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Adults requiring hemodialysis via arteriovenous fistula or graft. Trials evaluating omega-3 PUFA for arteriovenous access outcomes identified by searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to 24 January 2017. Omega-3 PUFA. Primary patency loss, dialysis suitability failure, access abandonment, interventions to maintain patency or assist maturation, bleeding, gastrointestinal side-effects, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization, and treatment adherence. Treatment effects were summarized as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Evidence was assessed using GRADE. Five eligible trials (833 participants) with a median follow-up of 12 months compared peri-operative omega-3 PUFA supplementation with placebo. One trial (n=567) evaluated treatment for fistulae and four (n=266) for grafts. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation prevented primary patency loss with moderate certainty (761 participants, RR 0.81, CI 0.68-0.98). Low quality evidence suggested, that omega-3 PUFA may have had little or no effect on dialysis suitability failure (536 participants, RR 0.95, CI 0.73-1.23), access abandonment (732 participants, RR 0.78, CI 0.59-1.03), need for interventions (732 participants, RR 0.82, CI 0.64-1.04), or all-cause mortality (799 participants, RR 0.99, CI 0.51-1.92). Bleeding risk (793 participants, RR 1.40, CI 0.78-2.49) or gastrointestinal side-effects (816 participants, RR 1.22, CI 0.64-2.34) from treatment were uncertain. There was no evidence of different treatment effects for grafts and fistulae. Small number and methodological limitations of included trials. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation

  10. Study of electromagnetic compatibility requirements of spacecrafts in magnetized plasma with FDTD method (United States)

    Miyake, T.; Amagasu, Y.; Maeda, H.; Okada, T.; Ishisaka, K.


    Spacecrafts have many sensors and instruments onboard themselves to observe various scientific data in space plasma. It is very important for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements of spacecrafts to identify the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic noises emitted from instruments onboard themselves. To solve this problem of EMC requirements of spacecraft, we developed a FDTD simulation code which can treat wave propagations in magnetized plasma, and performed FDTD simulations of electromagnetic noises which propagate in space plasma. Though we need to perform full particle simulations in order to recognize complete characteristic of waves propagating in space plasma, FDTD simulations can be performed with much less computer resources than those necessary for full particle simulations, in memories as well as cpu time. In providing EMC requirements of spacecrafts, we have to perform many simulations with various conditions, therefore, FDTD simulation is a very effective method. In this study, we study about sheilding effects of the conductive hood onboard spacecraft in preventing electromagnetic noises emitted from the spacecraft itself. Especially, we focus on the influences of the angle of the conductive hood and the direction of the ambient magnetic fields. We performed a series of three-dimensional FDTD simulations of electromagnetic noises around spacecraft in magnetized plasma, and confirmed shielding effects of the conductive hood onboard spacecraft. We input gaussian pulses as a wave source of electromagnetic noises. At first, we assume the ambient mangetic field parallel to the z-axis. Since FDTD simulations can be performed with less computer resources, we can perform many simulation experiments with various conditions. In this study, we perform a series of simulations with varying the shape of conductive hood and the direction of the ambient magnetic field. This method with FDTD simulations is very effective tool for providing EMC

  11. Computational Model for Spacecraft/Habitat Volume (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Please note that funding to Dr. Simon Hsiang, a critical co-investigator for the development of the Spacecraft Optimization Layout and Volume (SOLV) model, was...

  12. Fermi FT2 Spacecraft Pointing Files (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This utility permits you to download the most current version of the spacecraft (FT2) file predicting the LAT's pointing for a given mission week. The FT2 file is a...

  13. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.


    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  14. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  15. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  16. Participation of women in spacecraft science teams (United States)

    Rathbun, Julie


    There is an ongoing discussion about the participation of women in science and particularly astronomy. Demographic data from NASA's robotic planetary spacecraft missions show women scientists to be consistently under-represented.

  17. Mirage Fire Sensor for Spacecraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft fires create exception risks to crew members. There is usually no place to escape. Even small amounts of hardware damage can compromise a mission. The...

  18. Automated constraint checking of spacecraft command sequences (United States)

    Horvath, Joan C.; Alkalaj, Leon J.; Schneider, Karl M.; Spitale, Joseph M.; Le, Dang


    Robotic spacecraft are controlled by onboard sets of commands called "sequences." Determining that sequences will have the desired effect on the spacecraft can be expensive in terms of both labor and computer coding time, with different particular costs for different types of spacecraft. Specification languages and appropriate user interface to the languages can be used to make the most effective use of engineering validation time. This paper describes one specification and verification environment ("SAVE") designed for validating that command sequences have not violated any flight rules. This SAVE system was subsequently adapted for flight use on the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft. The relationship of this work to rule-based artificial intelligence and to other specification techniques is discussed, as well as the issues that arise in the transfer of technology from a research prototype to a full flight system.

  19. Odor Control in Spacecraft Waste Management Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft and lunar bases generate a variety of wastes containing water, including food wastes, feces, and brines. Disposal of these wastes, as well as recovery of...

  20. Chaos in attitude dynamics of spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yanzhu


    Attitude dynamics is the theoretical basis of attitude control of spacecrafts in aerospace engineering. With the development of nonlinear dynamics, chaos in spacecraft attitude dynamics has drawn great attention since the 1990's. The problem of the predictability and controllability of the chaotic attitude motion of a spacecraft has a practical significance in astronautic science. This book aims to summarize basic concepts, main approaches, and recent progress in this area. It focuses on the research work of the author and other Chinese scientists in this field, providing new methods and viewpoints in the investigation of spacecraft attitude motion, as well as new mathematical models, with definite engineering backgrounds, for further analysis. Professor Yanzhu Liu was the Director of the Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. Dr. Liqun Chen is a Professor at the Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, China.

  1. Advanced Spacecraft Thermal Modeling, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft developers who spend millions to billions of dollars per unit and require 3 to 7 years to deploy, the LoadPath reduced-order (RO) modeling thermal...

  2. Prophylactic Methylxanthines for Preventing Extubation Failure in the Preterm Neonates with the Gestational Age of ≤30 Weeks: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shivakumar


    Full Text Available Background: Preterm neonates are at a high risk of respiratory depression at birth. Incidence of respiratory distress is reported in 60-80% of the neonates born with the gestational age of less than 28 weeks and 15-30% of the neonates with the gestational age of less than 32-34 weeks. The present study aimed to compare the incidence and risk of failed extubation in using caffeine and aminophylline in the preterm neonates with the gestational age of ≤30 weeks in the periextubation period.Methods: This single-centered, parallel, open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital in India during June 2014-2016. Neonates with the gestational age of ≤30 weeks who were intubated for a minimum of 24 hours were enrolled in the study. Neonates with major anomalies, heart disease, and sepsis were excluded from the study. After the random allocation of the infants to treatment with the standard dose of caffeine citrate and aminophylline methylxanthine, intubation continued for seven consecutive days with or without non-invasive ventilatory support. As the primary objective, the incidence and risk of failed extubation were assessed. Secondary objective of the research was to compare the relative incidence of acute adverse effects, persistent apnea, and the associated morbidities.Results: Neonates treated by caffeine were at a higher risk of extubation failure (1.09 times adjusted with birth weight (31.5% versus 21.4%; RR=1.09; 95% CI: 0.81-1.46; P=0.55, which was not statistically significant. In addition, risk of apnea within seven days and after seven days of methylxanthine therapy was 1.57 (95% CI: 0.95-2.61 and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95-2.61 times higher in the neonates with caffeine treatment. Also, rate of tachycardia was high in the neonates treated by aminophylline, which was statistically significant (RR=0.27; 95% CI: 0.13-0.56; P

  3. Spacecraft Swarm Coordination and Planning Tool, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fractionated spacecraft architectures to distribute mission performance from a single, monolithic satellite across large number of smaller spacecraft, for missions...

  4. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B


    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  5. A study on effective system depressurization during a PWR vessel bottom break LOCA with HPI failure and gas inflow prevention. ROSA-V/LSTF test SB-PV-05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Asaka, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hideo


    A small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) experiment was conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) of ROSA-V program to study effects of accident management (AM) measures on core cooling, which are important in case of total failure of high pressure injection (HPI) system during an SBLOCA at a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The LSTF is a full-height and 1/48 volume-scaled facility simulating a 4-loop Westinghouse-type PWR (3423 MWt). The experiment, SB-PV-05, simulated a PWR vessel bottom SBLOCA with a rupture of nine instrument tubes, which is equivalent to 0.18% cold leg break. It is clarified that AM actions with steam generator (SG) depressurization to achieve a primary loop cooling rate at -55 K/h and auxiliary feedwater supply for 30 minutes are effective to avoid core uncovery by actuating the low pressure injection (LPI) system. It is also shown through the comparison with the previous experiment of SB-PV-03 that prevention of non-condensable gas inflow from the accumulator injection system (AIS) is very important to actuate the LPI to achieve adequate core cooling. This report presents experiment results of SB-PV-05 in detail and shows the effects of gas inflow prevention on core cooling through the estimation of primary coolant mass and energy balance in the primary system. (author)

  6. Failure Assessment (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn; Nikora, Allen


    Three questions to which software developers want accurate, precise answers are "How can the software system fail?", "mat bad things will happen if the software fails?t', and "How many failures will the software experience?". Numerous techniques have been devised to answer these questions; three of the best known are: 1) Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) 2) Software Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA 3) Software Fault/Failure Modeling. SFTA and SFMECA have been successfully used to analyze the flight software for a number of robotic planetary exploration missions, including Galileo, Cassini, and Deep Space 1. Given the increasing interest in reusing software components from mission to mission, one of us has developed techniques for reusing the corresponding portions of the SFTA and SFMECA, reducing the effort required to conduct these analyses. SFTA has also been shown to be effective in analyzing the security aspects of software systems; intrusion mechanisms and effects can easily be modeled using these techniques. The Bi- Directional Safety Analysis (BDSA) method combines a forward search (similar to SFMECA) from potential failure modes to their effects, with a backward search (similar to SFTA) from feasible hazards to the contributing causes of each hazard. BDSA offers an efficient way to identify latent failures. Recent work has extended BDSA to product-line applications such as flight-instrumentation displays and developed tool support for the reuse of the failure-analysis artifacts within a product line. BDSA has also been streamlined to support those projects having tight cost and/or schedule constraints for their failure analysis efforts. We discuss lessons learned from practice, describe available tools, and identi@ some future directions for the topic. A substantial amount of research has been devoted to estimating the number of failures that a software system will experience during test and operations, as well as the number of

  7. Simulation of Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft (United States)

    Ausman, N. E., Jr.; Simon, N. K.; Rodriguez, C. F.


    Preparation for the Mariner Mars 1971 mission is reported, including an extensive training program for operations personnel during which the primary source of spacecraft data was a computer program simulating the spacecraft. The objectives of a simulation model for training purposes differed from objectives appropriate to a design or analysis model. Model subsystems were designed to provide realistic telemetry data reflecting changes due both to commands and environmental parameters affecting the spacecraft at various times during the mission. The spacecraft is modeled along two separate functional lines. Boolean operations are concentrated in the spacecraft logic model, which determines the spacecraft state or mode, while mathematical operations or algorithms are executed in computational subsystem models. Although logic parameters are interrogated as a part of each computational pass, actual logic model processing occurs only when a change-of-state input is generated by the operations organization. The program design, some of the special characteristics of each of the modeled subsystems, and how the model was used in support of mission operations training are presented.

  8. Structural-Health Aware Failure-Tolerant Engineered to Respond (SAFER) Additively Manufactured Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Structural degradation and failure can cause malfunctions and long-term problems aboard spacecraft, jeopardizing the crew, especially in deep space missions. On...

  9. High-Fiber Diet and Acetate Supplementation Change the Gut Microbiota and Prevent the Development of Hypertension and Heart Failure in Hypertensive Mice. (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Nelson, Erin; Chu, Po-Yin; Horlock, Duncan; Fiedler, April; Ziemann, Mark; Tan, Jian K; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; El-Osta, Assam; Mackay, Charles R; Kaye, David M


    Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effect of a high-fiber diet and supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid acetate on the gut microbiota and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Gut microbiome, cardiorenal structure/function, and blood pressure were examined in sham and mineralocorticoid excess-treated mice with a control diet, high-fiber diet, or acetate supplementation. We also determined the renal and cardiac transcriptome of mice treated with the different diets. We found that high consumption of fiber modified the gut microbiota populations and increased the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria independently of mineralocorticoid excess. Both fiber and acetate decreased gut dysbiosis, measured by the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and increased the prevalence of Bacteroides acidifaciens . Compared with mineralocorticoid-excess mice fed a control diet, both high-fiber diet and acetate supplementation significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures, cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Acetate had similar effects and markedly reduced renal fibrosis. Transcriptome analyses showed that the protective effects of high fiber and acetate were accompanied by the downregulation of cardiac and renal Egr1 , a master cardiovascular regulator involved in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiorenal fibrosis, and inflammation. We also observed the upregulation of a network of genes involved in circadian rhythm in both tissues and downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the heart. A diet high in fiber led to changes in the gut microbiota that played a protective role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The favorable effects of fiber may be explained by the generation and distribution of one of the main metabolites of the gut

  10. Combinatorial analysis of systems with competing failures subject to failure isolation and propagation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Liudong; Levitin, Gregory


    This paper considers the reliability analysis of binary-state systems, subject to propagated failures with global effect, and failure isolation phenomena. Propagated failures with global effect are common-cause failures originated from a component of a system/subsystem causing the failure of the entire system/subsystem. Failure isolation occurs when the failure of one component (referred to as a trigger component) causes other components (referred to as dependent components) within the same system to become isolated from the system. On the one hand, failure isolation makes the isolated dependent components unusable; on the other hand, it prevents the propagation of failures originated from those dependent components. However, the failure isolation effect does not exist if failures originated in the dependent components already propagate globally before the trigger component fails. In other words, there exists a competition in the time domain between the failure of the trigger component that causes failure isolation and propagated failures originated from the dependent components. This paper presents a combinatorial method for the reliability analysis of systems subject to such competing propagated failures and failure isolation effect. Based on the total probability theorem, the proposed method is analytical, exact, and has no limitation on the type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the basics and advantages of the proposed method.

  11. On the concept of survivability, with application to spacecraft and space-based networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.


    Survivability is an important attribute and requirement for military systems. Recently, survivability has become increasingly important for public infrastructure systems as well. In this work, we bring considerations of survivability to bear on space systems. We develop a conceptual framework and quantitative analyses based on stochastic Petri nets (SPN) to characterize and compare the survivability of different space architectures. The architectures here considered are a monolith spacecraft and a space-based network. To build the stochastic Petri net models for the degradations and failures of these two architectures, we conducted statistical analyses of historical multi-state failure data of spacecraft subsystems, and we assembled these subsystems, and their SPN models, in ways to create our monolith and networked systems. Preliminary results indicate, and quantify the extent to which, a space-based network is more survivable than the monolith spacecraft with respect to on-orbit anomalies and failures. For space systems, during the design and acquisition process, different architectures are benchmarked against several metrics; we argue that if survivability is not accounted for, then the evaluation process is likely to be biased in favor of the traditional dominant design, namely the monolith spacecraft. If however in a given context, survivability is a critical requirement for a customer, the survivability framework here proposed, and the stochastic modeling capability developed, can demonstrate the extent to which a networked space architecture may better satisfy this requirement than a monolith spacecraft. These results should be of interest to operators whose space assets require high levels of survivability, especially in the light of emerging threats.

  12. Online attitude determination of a passively magnetically stabilized spacecraft (United States)

    Burton, R.; Rock, S.; Springmann, J.; Cutler, J.


    An online attitude determination filter is developed for a nano satellite that has no onboard attitude sensors or gyros. Specifically, the attitude of NASA Ames Research Center's O/OREOS, a passively magnetically stabilized 3U CubeSat, is determined using only an estimate of the solar vector obtained from solar panel currents. The filter is based upon the existing multiplicative extended Kalman filter (MEKF) but instead of relying on gyros to drive the motion model, the filter instead incorporates a model of the spacecraft's attitude dynamics in the motion model. An attitude determination accuracy of five degrees is demonstrated, a performance verified using flight data from the University of Michigan's RAX-1. Although the filter was designed for the specific problem of a satellite without gyros or attitude determination it could also be used to provide smoothing of noisy gyro signals or to provide a backup in the event of gyro failures.

  13. What Is Threatening the Effectiveness of Insecticide-Treated Bednets? A Case-Control Study of Environmental, Behavioral, and Physical Factors Associated with Prevention Failure. (United States)

    Obala, Andrew A; Mangeni, Judith Nekesa; Platt, Alyssa; Aswa, Daniel; Abel, Lucy; Namae, Jane; Prudhomme O'Meara, Wendy


    Insecticide-treated nets are the cornerstone of global malaria control and have been shown to reduce malaria morbidity by 50-60%. However, some areas are experiencing a resurgence in malaria following successful control. We describe an efficacy decay framework to understand why high malaria burden persists even under high ITN coverage in a community in western Kenya. We enrolled 442 children hospitalized with malaria and paired them with age, time, village and gender-matched controls. We completed comprehensive household and neighborhood assessments including entomological surveillance. The indicators are grouped into five domains in an efficacy decay framework: ITN ownership, compliance, physical integrity, vector susceptibility and facilitating factors. After variable selection, case-control data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models and mosquito data were analyzed using negative binomial regression. Predictive margins were calculated from logistic regression models. Measures of ITN coverage and physical integrity were not correlated with hospitalized malaria in our study. However, consistent ITN use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.23, 95%CI: 0.12-0.43), presence of nearby larval sites (AOR = 1.137, 95%CI: 1.02-1.27), and specific types of crops (AOR (grains) = 0.446, 95%CI: 0.24-0.82) were significantly correlated with malaria amongst children who owned an ITN. The odds of hospitalization for febrile malaria nearly tripled when one other household member had symptomatic malaria infection (AOR-2.76, 95%CI:1.83-4.18). Overall, perfect household adherence could reduce the probability of hospitalization for malaria to less than 30% (95%CI:0.12-0.46) and adjusting environmental factors such as elimination of larval sites and growing grains nearby could reduce the probability of hospitalization for malaria to less than 20% (95%CI:0.04-0.31). Availability of ITNs is not the bottleneck for malaria prevention in this community. Behavior change

  14. Heart failure - tests (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  15. Robust Spacecraft Component Detection in Point Clouds. (United States)

    Wei, Quanmao; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng


    Automatic component detection of spacecraft can assist in on-orbit operation and space situational awareness. Spacecraft are generally composed of solar panels and cuboidal or cylindrical modules. These components can be simply represented by geometric primitives like plane, cuboid and cylinder. Based on this prior, we propose a robust automatic detection scheme to automatically detect such basic components of spacecraft in three-dimensional (3D) point clouds. In the proposed scheme, cylinders are first detected in the iteration of the energy-based geometric model fitting and cylinder parameter estimation. Then, planes are detected by Hough transform and further described as bounded patches with their minimum bounding rectangles. Finally, the cuboids are detected with pair-wise geometry relations from the detected patches. After successive detection of cylinders, planar patches and cuboids, a mid-level geometry representation of the spacecraft can be delivered. We tested the proposed component detection scheme on spacecraft 3D point clouds synthesized by computer-aided design (CAD) models and those recovered by image-based reconstruction, respectively. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed scheme can detect the basic geometric components effectively and has fine robustness against noise and point distribution density.

  16. Spacecraft Attitude Fault-tolerant Control Based on Dynamic Control Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hong-Cheng


    Full Text Available For spacecraft attitude control system, we consider the aircraft's control surface deflection position saturation and rate constraints. Based on the dynamic control allocation method, we put forward redistribution method in the event of actuator stuck and damage failure. Firstly, because of the system modeling error caused by uncertainty and external disturbance, under actuator stuck and damage failure, we put forward the attitude control system mathematical model of angular rate control. We design actuator stuck fault diagnosis device and an adaptive sliding mode observer, respectively. The hidden failures and interference information feedback to the controller and the dynamic control allocation algorithm, in order to realize the fault tolerant control of actuator stuck and damage failure.

  17. Attitude coordination for spacecraft formation with multiple communication delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yaohua


    Full Text Available Communication delays are inherently present in information exchange between spacecraft and have an effect on the control performance of spacecraft formation. In this work, attitude coordination control of spacecraft formation is addressed, which is in the presence of multiple communication delays between spacecraft. Virtual system-based approach is utilized in case that a constant reference attitude is available to only a part of the spacecraft. The feedback from the virtual systems to the spacecraft formation is introduced to maintain the formation. Using backstepping control method, input torque of each spacecraft is designed such that the attitude of each spacecraft converges asymptotically to the states of its corresponding virtual system. Furthermore, the backstepping technique and the Lyapunov–Krasovskii method contribute to the control law design when the reference attitude is time-varying and can be obtained by each spacecraft. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated by the numerical simulations of a spacecraft formation.

  18. Acute kidney failure (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... Symptoms of acute kidney failure may include any of the following: Bloody stools Breath odor and metallic taste in the mouth Bruising easily Changes in ...

  19. Types of Heart Failure (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Heart Failure Updated:May 8,2017 Left-sided heart failure ... This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  20. 8th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference (United States)

    Minor, J. L. (Compiler)


    The 8th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference was held in Huntsville, Alabama, October 20-24, 2003. Hosted by NASA s Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program and co-sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the European Space Agency (ESA), the 2003 conference saw attendance from eleven countries with over 65 oral papers and 18 poster papers. Presentation topics highlighted the latest in spacecraft charging mitigation techniques and on-orbit investigations, including: Plasma Propulsion and Tethers; Ground Testing Techniques; Interactions of Spacecraft and Systems With the Natural and Induced Plasma Environment; Materials Characterizations; Models and Computer Simulations; Environment Specifications; Current Collection and Plasma Probes in Space Plasmas; On-Orbit Investigations. A round-table discussion of international standards regarding electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing was also held with the promise of continued discussions in the off years and an official continuation at the next conference.

  1. Relativistic Spacecraft Propelled by Directed Energy (United States)

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip; Zhang, Qicheng


    Achieving relativistic flight to enable extrasolar exploration is one of the dreams of humanity and the long-term goal of our NASA Starlight program. We derive a relativistic solution for the motion of a spacecraft propelled by radiation pressure from a directed energy (DE) system. Depending on the system parameters, low-mass spacecraft can achieve relativistic speeds, thus enabling interstellar exploration. The diffraction of the DE system plays an important role and limits the maximum speed of the spacecraft. We consider “photon recycling” as a possible method to achieving higher speeds. We also discuss recent claims that our previous work on this topic is incorrect and show that these claims arise from an improper treatment of causality.

  2. Infrared characterized spacecraft contaminants and related compounds (United States)

    Gross, F. C.


    The limits of the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum are discussed, together with an explanation of some of the shortcomings of obtaining data in this range. Similarities and differences in the interest taken by the chemist/spectroscopist and the space/spectroscopist in the IR spectrum are discussed. The chemist uses IR spectra to identify materials and contaminants associated with spacecraft fabrication and testing. The space scientist, using IR spectrometry, can determine atmospheric conditions around planets, stars, and galaxies. He could also determine the temperature profile of the Earth's atmosphere at different altitudes, or even the temperature profile of the Sun. The importance of detecting contamination of spacecraft and the possible results of not taking corrective action are explored. All space experiments contain some contaminants, to a lesser or greater degree; the responsible personnel involved must determine the level of toleration. A collection of IR spectra of known spacecraft contaminants is presented as a guide for cognizant scientists and engineers.

  3. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier


    structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1...... to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examin-ing fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model...... validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being developed by an international topical team that is collaboratively defining the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation...

  4. Spacecraft-produced neutron fluxes on Skylab (United States)

    Quist, T. C.; Furst, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Baum, J. H.; Peacock, C. L., Jr.; Perry, D. G.


    Estimates of neutron fluxes in different energy ranges are reported for the Skylab spacecraft. Detectors composed of uranium, thorium, and bismuth foils with mica as a fission track recorder, as well as boron foils with cellulose acetate as an alpha-particle recorder, were deployed at different positions in the Orbital Workshop. It was found that the Skylab neutron flux was dominated by high energy (greater than 1 MeV) contributions and that there was no significant time variation in the fluxes. Firm upper limits of 7-15 neutrons/sq cm-sec, depending on the detector location in the spacecraft, were established for fluxes above 1 MeV. Below 1 MeV, the neutron fluxes were about an order of magnitude lower. The neutrons are interpreted as originating from the interactions of leakage protons from the radiation belt with the spacecraft.

  5. Multi-Spacecraft Autonomous Positioning System (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan


    As the number of spacecraft in simultaneous operation continues to grow, there is an increased dependency on ground-based navigation support. The current baseline system for deep space navigation utilizes Earth-based radiometric tracking, requiring long-duration observations to perform orbit determination and generate a state update. The age, complexity, and high utilization of the ground assets pose a risk to spacecraft navigation performance. In order to perform complex operations at large distances from Earth, such as extraterrestrial landing and proximity operations, autonomous systems are required. With increasingly complex mission operations, the need for frequent and Earth-independent navigation capabilities is further reinforced. The Multi-spacecraft Autonomous Positioning System (MAPS) takes advantage of the growing interspacecraft communication network and infrastructure to allow for Earth-autonomous state measurements to enable network-based space navigation. A notional concept of operations is given in figure 1. This network is already being implemented and routinely used in Martian communications through the use of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey spacecraft as relays for surface assets. The growth of this communications architecture is continued through MAVEN, and future potential commercial Mars telecom orbiters. This growing network provides an initial Marslocal capability for inter-spacecraft communication and navigation. These navigation updates are enabled by cross-communication between assets in the network, coupled with onboard navigation estimation routines to integrate packet travel time to generate ranging measurements. Inter-spacecraft communication allows for frequent state broadcasts and time updates from trusted references. The architecture is a software-based solution, enabling its implementation on a wide variety of current assets, with the operational constraints and measurement accuracy determined by onboard systems.

  6. A Radiation Hardened Spacecraft Mass Memory System (United States)

    Dennehy, W. J.; Lawton, B.; Stufflebeam, J.

    The functional design of a Radiation Hardened Spacecraft Mass Memory System (RH/SMMS) is described. This system is configured around a 1 megabit memory device and incorporates various system and circuit design features to achieve radiation hardness. The system is modular and storage capacities of 16 to 32 megabits are achievable within modest size, weight, and power constraints. Estimates of physical characteristics (size, weight, and power) are presented for a 16 Mbit system. The RH/SMMS is organized in a disk-like architecture and offers the spacecraft designer several unique benefits such as: reduced software cost, increased autonomy and survivability, increased functionality and increased fault tolerance.

  7. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward


    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  8. Testing programs for the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (United States)

    Greenwell, T. J.


    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) provides a standard spacecraft bus to a user for a variety of space missions ranging from near-earth to synchronous orbits. The present paper describes the philosophy behind the MMS module test program and discusses the implementation of the test program. It is concluded that the MMS module test program provides an effective and comprehensive customer buy-off at the subsystem contractor's plant, is an optimum approach for checkout of the subsystems prior to use for on-orbit servicing in the Shuttle Cargo Bay, and is a cost-effective technique for environmental testing.

  9. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis (United States)

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H


    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  10. Electrical design for origami solar panels and a small spacecraft test mission (United States)

    Drewelow, James; Straub, Jeremy


    Efficient power generation is crucial to the design of spacecraft. Mass, volume, and other limitations prevent the use of traditional spacecraft support structures from being suitable for the size of solar array required for some missions. Folding solar panel / panel array systems, however, present a number of design challenges. This paper considers the electrical design of an origami system. Specifically, it considers how to provide low impedance, durable channels for the generated power and the electrical aspects of the deployment system and procedure. The ability to dynamically reconfigure the electrical configuration of the solar cells is also discussed. Finally, a small satellite test mission to demonstrate the technology is proposed, before concluding.

  11. Failure Detector for Power-Factor Controller (United States)

    Nola, F. J.


    New protective circuits have been developed for power-factor ac motor controllers. Circuits prevent direct current and consequent motor heating that would normally result from failure of solid-state switch in controller. Single-phase power-factor controller with short detector compensates for short-circuit failure in either direction by applying full power to motor. Controller with open detector compensates for open-circuit failure in either direction by turning off power to motor.

  12. Cable median barrier failure analysis and prevention. (United States)


    Cross-median crashes have been identified as one of the highest injury or fatality risk crash types. Although crossmedian : crashes account for only 2% to 5% of all median crash events, they are disproportionately represented in the number : and freq...

  13. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Education Program (United States)


    A NASA engineer with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center works with students from W.P. Daniels High School in New Albany, Miss., through NASA's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Program. CRSP is teaching students to use remote sensing to locate a potential site for a water reservoir to offset a predicted water shortage in the community's future.

  14. Readiness levels for spacecraft information technologies (United States)

    Mackey, R.; Some, R.; Aljabri, A.


    Presented in this paper is a modified interpretation of the traditional TRLs aimed solely at information technology. The intent of this new set of definitions is twofold: First, to enable a definitive measurement of progress among developing information technologies for spacecraft; and second, to clarify particular challenges and requirements that must be met as these technologies are validated in increasingly realistic environments.

  15. Software for Engineering Simulations of a Spacecraft (United States)

    Shireman, Kirk; McSwain, Gene; McCormick, Bernell; Fardelos, Panayiotis


    Spacecraft Engineering Simulation II (SES II) is a C-language computer program for simulating diverse aspects of operation of a spacecraft characterized by either three or six degrees of freedom. A functional model in SES can include a trajectory flight plan; a submodel of a flight computer running navigational and flight-control software; and submodels of the environment, the dynamics of the spacecraft, and sensor inputs and outputs. SES II features a modular, object-oriented programming style. SES II supports event-based simulations, which, in turn, create an easily adaptable simulation environment in which many different types of trajectories can be simulated by use of the same software. The simulation output consists largely of flight data. SES II can be used to perform optimization and Monte Carlo dispersion simulations. It can also be used to perform simulations for multiple spacecraft. In addition to its generic simulation capabilities, SES offers special capabilities for space-shuttle simulations: for this purpose, it incorporates submodels of the space-shuttle dynamics and a C-language version of the guidance, navigation, and control components of the space-shuttle flight software.

  16. Spacecraft Attitude Control in Hamiltonian Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal


    The objective of this paper is to give a design scheme for attitude control algorithms of a generic spacecraft. Along with the system model formulated in the Hamilton's canonical form the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipative term. The control action...

  17. Rotational Motion Control of a Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...... algorithm is validated for three-axis spacecraft attitude control...

  18. Rotational motion control of a spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...... algorithm is validated for three-axis spacecraft attitude control. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  19. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham


    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  20. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system (United States)

    Detwiler, R. C.; Smith, R. L.


    The Galileo PMAD (power management and distribution system) is described, and the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware are discussed. The spacecraft is powered by two general-purpose heat-source-radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Power bus regulation is provided by a shunt regulator. Galileo PMAD distributes a 570-W beginning of mission (BOM) power source to a user complement of some 137 load elements. Extensive use of pyrotechnics requires two pyro switching subassemblies. They initiate 148 squibs which operate the 47 pyro devices on the spacecraft. Detection and correction of faults in the Galileo PMAD is an autonomous feature dictated by requirements for long life and reliability in the absence of ground-based support. Volatile computer memories in the spacecraft command and data system and attitude control system require a continuous source of backup power during all anticipated power bus fault scenarios. Power for the Jupiter Probe is conditioned, isolated, and controlled by a Probe interface subassembly. Flight performance of the spacecraft and the PMAD has been successful to date, with no major anomalies.

  1. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.


    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  2. Heat capacity mapping radiometer for AEM spacecraft (United States)

    Sonnek, G. E.


    The operation, maintenance, and integration of the applications explorer mission heat capacity mapping radiometer is illustrated in block diagrams and detail schematics of circuit functions. Data format and logic timing diagrams are included along with radiometric and electronic calibration data. Mechanical and electrical configuration is presented to provide interface details for integration of the HCMR instrument to AEM spacecraft.

  3. Spacecraft potential control for Double Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Torkar


    Full Text Available The spacecraft potential of Double Star TC-1 is positive in large parts of the orbits due to the photo-effect from solar EUV irradiation. These positive potentials typically disturb low energy plasma measurements on board. The potential can be reduced, and thereby the particle measurements improved, by emitting a positive ion beam. This method has successfully been applied on several other spacecraft and it has also been chosen for TC-1. The instrument TC-1/ASPOC is a derivative of the Cluster/ASPOC instruments, from which it has inherited many features. The paper describes the adaptations and further developments made for the ion emitters and the electronics. The instrument performs very well and can support higher beam currents than on Cluster. The expected significant improvement of the low energy particle measurements on board was indeed observed. The modifications of the electron distributions are analysed for a one-time interval when the spacecraft was located in the magnetosheath. The change in the potential due to the ion beam was determined, and first studies of the 3-D electron distributions in response to the spacecraft potential control have been performed, which indicate that the method works as expected.

  4. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs


    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re...

  5. Streamlined Modeling for Characterizing Spacecraft Anomalous Behavior (United States)

    Klem, B.; Swann, D.


    Anomalous behavior of on-orbit spacecraft can often be detected using passive, remote sensors which measure electro-optical signatures that vary in time and spectral content. Analysts responsible for assessing spacecraft operational status and detecting detrimental anomalies using non-resolved imaging sensors are often presented with various sensing and identification issues. Modeling and measuring spacecraft self emission and reflected radiant intensity when the radiation patterns exhibit a time varying reflective glint superimposed on an underlying diffuse signal contribute to assessment of spacecraft behavior in two ways: (1) providing information on body component orientation and attitude; and, (2) detecting changes in surface material properties due to the space environment. Simple convex and cube-shaped spacecraft, designed to operate without protruding solar panel appendages, may require an enhanced level of preflight characterization to support interpretation of the various physical effects observed during on-orbit monitoring. This paper describes selected portions of the signature database generated using streamlined signature modeling and simulations of basic geometry shapes apparent to non-imaging sensors. With this database, summarization of key observable features for such shapes as spheres, cylinders, flat plates, cones, and cubes in specific spectral bands that include the visible, mid wave, and long wave infrared provide the analyst with input to the decision process algorithms contained in the overall sensing and identification architectures. The models typically utilize baseline materials such as Kapton, paints, aluminum surface end plates, and radiators, along with solar cell representations covering the cylindrical and side portions of the spacecraft. Multiple space and ground-based sensors are assumed to be located at key locations to describe the comprehensive multi-viewing aspect scenarios that can result in significant specular reflection


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    common reasons were pregnancy induced hypertension, HELLP syndrome and obstetric haemorrhage and resulted in high risk condition for fetal and maternal mortality. The most effective measures still remain the careful prevention and the aggressive management of the obstetric complications. Ideal care for women with acute renal failure in pregnancy or post-partum requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes maternal-fetal medicine, critical care medicine, nephrology and neonatology specialties.

  7. Remote Spacecraft Attitude Control by Coulomb Charging (United States)

    Stevenson, Daan

    The possibility of inter-spacecraft collisions is a serious concern at Geosynchronous altitudes, where many high-value assets operate in proximity to countless debris objects whose orbits experience no natural means of decay. The ability to rendezvous with these derelict satellites would enable active debris removal by servicing or repositioning missions, but docking procedures are generally inhibited by the large rotational momenta of uncontrolled satellites. Therefore, a contactless means of reducing the rotation rate of objects in the space environment is desired. This dissertation investigates the viability of Coulomb charging to achieve such remote spacecraft attitude control. If a servicing craft imposes absolute electric potentials on a nearby nonspherical debris object, it will impart electrostatic torques that can be used to gradually arrest the object's rotation. In order to simulate the relative motion of charged spacecraft with complex geometries, accurate but rapid knowledge of the Coulomb interactions is required. To this end, a new electrostatic force model called the Multi-Sphere Method (MSM) is developed. All aspects of the Coulomb de-spin concept are extensively analyzed and simulated using a system with simplified geometries and one dimensional rotation. First, appropriate control algorithms are developed to ensure that the nonlinear Coulomb torques arrest the rotation with guaranteed stability. Moreover, the complex interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma environment and charge control beams is modeled to determine what hardware requirements are necessary to achieve the desired electric potential levels. Lastly, the attitude dynamics and feedback control development is validated experimentally using a scaled down terrestrial testbed. High voltage power supplies control the potential on two nearby conductors, a stationary sphere and a freely rotating cylinder. The nonlinear feedback control algorithms developed above are implemented to

  8. Can a combined screening/treatment programme prevent premature failure of renal transplants due to chronic rejection in patients with HLA antibodies: study protocol for the multicentre randomised controlled OuTSMART trial (United States)


    Background Renal transplantation is the best treatment for kidney failure, in terms of length and quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However, most transplants fail after 10 to 12 years, consigning patients back onto dialysis. Damage by the immune system accounts for approximately 50% of failing transplants and it is possible to identify patients at risk by screening for the presence of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens. However, it is not clear how best to treat patients with antibodies. This trial will test a combined screening and treatment protocol in renal transplant recipients. Methods/Design Recipients >1 year post-transplantation, aged 18 to 70 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min will be randomly allocated to blinded or unblinded screening arms, before being screened for the presence of antibodies. In the unblinded arm, test results will be revealed. Those with antibodies will have biomarker-led care, consisting of a change in their anti-rejection drugs to prednisone, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. In the blinded arm, screening results will be double blinded and all recruits will remain on current therapy (standard care). In both arms, those without antibodies will be retested every 8 months for 3 years. The primary outcome is the 3-year kidney failure rate for the antibody-positive recruits, as measured by initiation of long-term dialysis or re-transplantation, predicted to be approximately 20% in the standard care group but transplant dysfunction, incidence of infection, cancer and diabetes mellitus, an analysis of adherence with medication and a health economic analysis of the combined screening and treatment protocol. Blood samples will be collected and stored every 4 months and will form the basis of separately funded studies to identify new biomarkers associated with the outcomes. Discussion We have evidence that the biomarker-led care regime will be effective at preventing graft dysfunction and expect this to

  9. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra


    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  10. On the spacecraft attitude stabilization in the orbital frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipov Kirill A.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with spacecraft in the circular near-Earth orbit. The spacecraft interacts with geomagnetic field by the moments of Lorentz and magnetic forces. The octupole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field is accepted. The spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, namely the electrostatic charge moment of the first order and the eigen magnetic moment are the controlled quasiperiodic functions. The control algorithms for the spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, which allows to stabilize the spacecraft attitude position in the orbital frame are obtained. The stability of the spacecraft stabilized orientation is proved both analytically and by PC computations.

  11. Wind Turbine Failures - Tackling current Problems in Failure Data Analysis (United States)

    Reder, M. D.; Gonzalez, E.; Melero, J. J.


    The wind industry has been growing significantly over the past decades, resulting in a remarkable increase in installed wind power capacity. Turbine technologies are rapidly evolving in terms of complexity and size, and there is an urgent need for cost effective operation and maintenance (O&M) strategies. Especially unplanned downtime represents one of the main cost drivers of a modern wind farm. Here, reliability and failure prediction models can enable operators to apply preventive O&M strategies rather than corrective actions. In order to develop these models, the failure rates and downtimes of wind turbine (WT) components have to be understood profoundly. This paper is focused on tackling three of the main issues related to WT failure analyses. These are, the non-uniform data treatment, the scarcity of available failure analyses, and the lack of investigation on alternative data sources. For this, a modernised form of an existing WT taxonomy is introduced. Additionally, an extensive analysis of historical failure and downtime data of more than 4300 turbines is presented. Finally, the possibilities to encounter the lack of available failure data by complementing historical databases with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) alarms are evaluated.

  12. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project. VI - Spacecraft, scientific instruments, and launching rocket. Part 1 - Spacecraft (United States)

    Keating, Thomas; Ihara, Toshio; Miida, Sumio


    A cooperative United States/Japan study was made for one year from 1987 to 1988 regarding the feasibility of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). As part of this study a phase-A-level design of spacecraft for TRMM was developed by NASA/GSFC, and the result was documented in a feasibility study. The phase-A-level design is developed for the TRMM satellite utilizing a multimission spacecraft.

  13. Management of functional Sprint Fidelis leads at cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator generator replacement: a novel option for preventing inappropriate shocks from lead failure in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death. (United States)

    Zhu, Dennis W X; Chu, Matthew M; House, Chad M


    In patients with a functional Sprint Fidelis lead at generator replacement, the manufacturer recommended to either continue to use the existing lead or replace it with a new lead. For those patients who continue to use a functional Fidelis lead, the risk of inappropriate shocks remains present if the lead fails in the future. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative approach at the time of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) generator replacement in patients with a functional bipolar left ventricular (LV) lead for prevention of inappropriate shocks from future Fidelis lead failure. During the procedure, the pace/sense IS-1 connection pin of the functional Fidelis lead was intentionally inserted into the LV port of the new CRT-D generator, while the existing bipolar LV lead IS-1 connection pin was inserted into the right ventricular (RV) pace/sense port. After such switching, the existing bipolar LV lead was used for functional LV pacing/sensing, while the Fidelis lead was used for functional RV pacing and high voltage shock only and could no longer be used for the purpose of sensing and detecting. This approach precluded oversensing and inappropriate shocks should the functional Fidelis lead fail in the future. Six fragile patients, who were not considered suitable candidates for lead replacement, underwent the alternative approach. During a follow-up of 35 ± 23 months, the CRT-D system functioned normally in five patients. The Fidelis lead fractured in one patient 7 months after generator replacement. The malfunction was detected promptly and the defected lead was replaced. No inappropriate detections or shock was triggered. In CRT-D patients with a functional Fidelis lead and a bipolar LV lead, switching of the Fidelis lead pace/sense IS-1 pin with the bipolar LV lead IS-1 pin at generator replacement did not affect normal system function. This novel approach may be valuable in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death for

  14. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement in primary care; magnitude of associations with cardiovascular risk factors and their therapies. Observations from the STOP-HF (St. Vincent's Screening TO Prevent Heart Failure) study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Carmel M


    BACKGROUND: An effective prevention strategy for heart failure in primary care requires a reliable screening tool for asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction. Preliminary data indicate that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) may be suitable for this task. However, for the most effective use of this peptide, the interrelationships between associated risk factors and their therapies on BNP, and in particular their magnitude of effect, needs to be established in a large primary care population. Therefore, the objective of the study was to establish the extent of the association between BNP, cardiovascular risk factors and their therapies. METHODS: BNP measurement and clinical review was preformed on 1122 primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Multivariate analyses identified significant associates of BNP concentrations which were further explored to establish the magnitude of their association. RESULTS: Associates of BNP were age (1.36-fold increase in BNP\\/decade), female (1.28), beta-blockers (1.90), myocardial infarction (1.36), arrhythmia (1.98), diastolic blood pressure; all p<0.01. A novel method was devised that plotted median BNP per sliding decade of age for the various combinations of these principal associates. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented underline the importance of considering several clinical and therapeutic factors when interpreting BNP concentrations. Most of these variables were associated with increased concentrations, which may in part explain the observed false-positive rates for detecting ventricular dysfunction using this peptide. Furthermore, the design of studies or protocols using BNP as an endpoint or a clinical tool should take particular account of these associations. This analysis provides the foundation for age, risk factor and therapy adjusted reference ranges for BNP in this setting.

  15. Reassessing guidelines for heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Drexler


    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the last few years in the management of heart failure. In particular several trials have given significant results. It has become apparent that heart failure may be prevented in some patients by treatment of risk factors such as coronary artery disease. Experience with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors has shown that the survival and symptomatic benefits do last in the long term, and confirm that they are the first-line treatment in heart failure. The results of a number of trials using the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs candesartan, valsartan and losartan are presented and discussed. There is also some experience now in the use of candesartan for patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular systolic function. The COMET trial compared the β-blockers carvedilol and metoprolol tartrate, and suggests that there may be differences in clinical effect between β-blockers. The selective aldosterone receptor blocker eplerenone was evaluated in the EPHESUS trial in post-MI patients with signs of heart failure. Based on these clinical trials, heart failure guidelines are now being updated.

  16. Modeling Laser Effects on Imaging Spacecraft using the SSM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buehler, Patrick; Smith, Joshua


    ...) engagement of spacecraft components. For laser engagements, the user creates a spacecraft, its optical system, any protection techniques used by the optical system, a laser threat, and an atmosphere through which the laser will pass...

  17. Printable Spacecraft: Flexible Electronic Platforms for NASA Missions (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Is it possible to print a spacecraft on a sheet of paper? This study fuses several existing technologies to enable printable spacecraft, including printable...

  18. Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference, P 78-2, overview (United States)

    Shane, D. F.


    Spacecraft charging technology is presented, including specifications and design. Mission objectives for launching the SAMSO 402 spacecraft are given to determine and analyze payload requirements. Engineering payloads, energy range of particle detectors, and orbital parameters are represented in graphical form.

  19. Effects of Solar UV on Spacecraft Charging in Sunlight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lai, Shu T; Tautz, Maurice; Tobiska, Kent


    Spacecraft surface charging is determined by the balance of currents. Photoelectron currents from spacecraft surfaces greatly exceed the ambient electron or ion currents and therefore are often of prime importance for charging in sunlight...

  20. High-Performance Fire Detector for Spacecraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The danger from fire aboard spacecraft is immediate with only moments for detection and suppression. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where the cost of...

  1. Nanocomposites in Multifuntional Structures for Spacecraft Platforms (United States)

    Marcos, J.; Mendizabal, M.; Elizetxea, C.; Florez, S.; Atxaga, G.; Del Olmo, E.


    The integration of functionalities as electrical, thermal, power or radiation shielding inside carrier electronic boxes, solar panels or platform structures allows reducing weight, volume, and harness for spacecraft. The multifunctional structures represent an advanced design approach for space components and subsystems. The development of such multifunctional structures aims the re-engineering traditional metallic structures by composites in space, which request to provide specific solutions for thermal conductivity, EMI-EMC, radiation shielding and integration. The use of nanomaterials as CNF and nano-adds to reinforce composite structures allows obtaining local solutions for improving electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and radiation shielding. The paper summarises the results obtained in of three investigations conducted by Tecnalia based on carbon nanofillers for improving electro-thermal characteristics of spacecraft platform, electronic substrates and electronics boxes respectively.

  2. FORTE spacecraft vibration mitigation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, J.R.


    This report documents work that was performed by CSA Engineering, Inc., for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to reduce vibrations of the FORTE spacecraft by retrofitting damped structural components into the spacecraft structure. The technical objective of the work was reduction of response at the location of payload components when the structure is subjected to the dynamic loading associated with launch and proto-qualification testing. FORTE is a small satellite that will be placed in orbit in 1996. The structure weighs approximately 425 lb, and is roughly 80 inches high and 40 inches in diameter. It was developed and built by LANL in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque for the United States Department of Energy. The FORTE primary structure was fabricated primarily with graphite epoxy, using aluminum honeycomb core material for equipment decks and solar panel substrates. Equipment decks were bonded and bolted through aluminum mounting blocks to adjoining structure

  3. The Anomalous Acceleration of the Pioneer Spacecrafts (United States)

    de Diego, J. A.


    Radiometric data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts have revealed an unexplained constant acceleration of a_A = (8.74+/-1.33)×10^{-10}m s^{-2} towards the Sun, also known as the Pioneer anomaly. Different groups have analyzed the Pioneer data and have got the same results, which rules out computer programming and data handling errors. Attempts to explain this phenomenon arguing intrinsic causes on-board the spacecrafts failed or have led to inconclusive results. Therefore, the Pioneer anomalous acceleration has motivated the interest of researchers to find explanations that could bring insight upon the forces acting in the outer Solar Systems or a hint to discover new natural laws.

  4. Fault analysis of multichannel spacecraft power systems (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Lollar, Louis F.


    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement computer-controlled fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Elements under study include the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power system faults is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study will be applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS) breadboard. The results of the power system fault study and the planned implementation of these faults into the LASEPS breadboard are described.

  5. Fundamentals of spacecraft attitude determination and control

    CERN Document Server

    Markley, F Landis


    This book explores topics that are central to the field of spacecraft attitude determination and control. The authors provide rigorous theoretical derivations of significant algorithms accompanied by a generous amount of qualitative discussions of the subject matter. The book documents the development of the important concepts and methods in a manner accessible to practicing engineers, graduate-level engineering students and applied mathematicians. It includes detailed examples from actual mission designs to help ease the transition from theory to practice, and also provides prototype algorithms that are readily available on the author’s website. Subject matter includes both theoretical derivations and practical implementation of spacecraft attitude determination and control systems. It provides detailed derivations for attitude kinematics and dynamics, and provides detailed description of the most widely used attitude parameterization, the quaternion. This title also provides a thorough treatise of attitu...

  6. Failure Effects Evaluation for ATC Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li


    Full Text Available ATC (air traffic control automation system is a complex system, which helps maintain the air traffic order, guarantee the flight interval, and prevent aircraft collision. It is essential to ensure the safety of air traffic. Failure effects evaluation is an important part of ATC automation system reliability engineering. The failure effects evaluation of ATC automation system is aimed at the effects of modules or components which affect the performance and functionality of the system. By analyzing and evaluating the failure modes and their causes and effects, some reasonable improvement measures and preventive maintenance plans can be established. In this paper, the failure effects evaluation framework considering performance and functionality of the system is established on the basis of reliability theory. Some algorithms for the quantitative evaluation of failure effects on performance of ATC automation system are proposed. According to the algorithms, the quantitative evaluation of reliability, availability, maintainability, and other assessment indicators can be calculated.

  7. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems (United States)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.


    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  8. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy


    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  9. Corrosion induced failure analysis of subsea pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Khan, Faisal; Thodi, Premkumar; Abbassi, Rouzbeh


    Pipeline corrosion is one of the main causes of subsea pipeline failure. It is necessary to monitor and analyze pipeline condition to effectively predict likely failure. This paper presents an approach to analyze the observed abnormal events to assess the condition of subsea pipelines. First, it focuses on establishing a systematic corrosion failure model by Bow-Tie (BT) analysis, and subsequently the BT model is mapped into a Bayesian Network (BN) model. The BN model facilitates the modelling of interdependency of identified corrosion causes, as well as the updating of failure probabilities depending on the arrival of new information. Furthermore, an Object-Oriented Bayesian Network (OOBN) has been developed to better structure the network and to provide an efficient updating algorithm. Based on this OOBN model, probability updating and probability adaptation are performed at regular intervals to estimate the failure probabilities due to corrosion and potential consequences. This results in an interval-based condition assessment of subsea pipeline subjected to corrosion. The estimated failure probabilities would help prioritize action to prevent and control failures. Practical application of the developed model is demonstrated using a case study. - Highlights: • A Bow-Tie (BT) based corrosion failure model linking causation with the potential losses. • A novel Object-Oriented Bayesian Network (OOBN) based corrosion failure risk model. • Probability of failure updating and adaptation with respect to time using OOBN model. • Application of the proposed model to develop and test strategies to minimize failure risk.

  10. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Katsaros, Panagiotis; Mokos, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas; Postma, Bart; Roveri, Marco


    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space missions, we developed – with challenging requirements from the European space industry – a novel modeling language and toolset for a (semi-)automated validation approach. Our modeling language is a dialect of AADL and enables engineers to express the system, the software, and their reliability aspects. The COMPASS toolset utilizes state-of-the-art model checking techniques, both qualitative and probabilistic, for the analysis of requirements related to functional correctness, safety, dependability and performance. Several pilot projects have been performed by industry, with two of them having focused on the system-level of a satellite platform in development. Our efforts resulted in a significant advancement of validating spacecraft designs from several perspectives, using a single integrated system model. The associated technology readiness level increased from level 1 (basic concepts and ideas) to early level 4 (laboratory-tested)

  11. Stability analysis of spacecraft power systems (United States)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.; Sheble, G. B.; Nelms, R. M.


    The problems in applying standard electric utility models, analyses, and algorithms to the study of the stability of spacecraft power conditioning and distribution systems are discussed. Both single-phase and three-phase systems are considered. Of particular concern are the load and generator models that are used in terrestrial power system studies, as well as the standard assumptions of load and topological balance that lead to the use of the positive sequence network. The standard assumptions regarding relative speeds of subsystem dynamic responses that are made in the classical transient stability algorithm, which forms the backbone of utility-based studies, are examined. The applicability of these assumptions to a spacecraft power system stability study is discussed in detail. In addition to the classical indirect method, the applicability of Liapunov's direct methods to the stability determination of spacecraft power systems is discussed. It is pointed out that while the proposed method uses a solution process similar to the classical algorithm, the models used for the sources, loads, and networks are, in general, more accurate. Some preliminary results are given for a linear-graph, state-variable-based modeling approach to the study of the stability of space-based power distribution networks.

  12. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David


    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  13. Reporting Differences Between Spacecraft Sequence Files (United States)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.; Fisher, Forest W.


    A suite of computer programs, called seq diff suite, reports differences between the products of other computer programs involved in the generation of sequences of commands for spacecraft. These products consist of files of several types: replacement sequence of events (RSOE), DSN keyword file [DKF (wherein DSN signifies Deep Space Network)], spacecraft activities sequence file (SASF), spacecraft sequence file (SSF), and station allocation file (SAF). These products can include line numbers, request identifications, and other pieces of information that are not relevant when generating command sequence products, though these fields can result in the appearance of many changes to the files, particularly when using the UNIX diff command to inspect file differences. The outputs of prior software tools for reporting differences between such products include differences in these non-relevant pieces of information. In contrast, seq diff suite removes the fields containing the irrelevant pieces of information before processing to extract differences, so that only relevant differences are reported. Thus, seq diff suite is especially useful for reporting changes between successive versions of the various products and in particular flagging difference in fields relevant to the sequence command generation and review process.

  14. Modeling Meteor Flares for Spacecraft Safety (United States)

    Ehlert, Steven


    NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) is tasked with assisting spacecraft operators and engineers in quantifying the threat the meteoroid environment poses to their individual missions. A more complete understanding of the meteoroid environment for this application requires extensive observations. One manner by which the MEO observes meteors is with dedicated video camera systems that operate nightly. Connecting the observational data from these video cameras to the relevant physical properties of the ablating meteoroids, however, is subject to sizable observational and theoretical uncertainties. Arguably the most troublesome theoretical uncertainty in ablation is a model for the structure of meteoroids, as observations clearly show behaviors wholly inconsistent with meteoroids being homogeneous spheres. Further complicating the interpretation of the observations in the context of spacecraft risk is the ubiquitous process of fragmentation and the flares it can produce, which greatly muddles any attempts to estimating initial meteoroid masses. In this talk a method of estimating the mass distribution of fragments in flaring meteors using high resolution video observations will be dis- cussed. Such measurements provide an important step in better understanding of the structure and fragmentation process of the parent meteoroids producing these flares, which in turn may lead to better constraints on meteoroid masses and reduced uncertainties in spacecraft risk.

  15. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs


    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re-sup...... validation experiment are crucial to the ultimate goal of the project, which is the development of predictive tools that should be capable of selecting an adaptive response to fire spread in any manned spacecraft.......As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re...... spread, and thus also the modeling thereof, in realistic conditions is described. Some of the parameters governing the flame spread are also identified and their scaling against the dimensions of the test specimen is briefly questioned. Then several of the current and scheduled efforts are presented...

  16. Effectiveness and predictors of failure of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure. (United States)

    Martín-González, F; González-Robledo, J; Sánchez-Hernández, F; Moreno-García, M N; Barreda-Mellado, I


    To assess the effectiveness and identify predictors of failure of noninvasive ventilation. A retrospective, longitudinal descriptive study was made. Adult patients with acute respiratory failure. A total of 410 consecutive patients with noninvasive ventilation treated in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary university hospital from 2006 to 2011. Noninvasive ventilation. Demographic variables and clinical and laboratory test parameters at the start and two hours after the start of noninvasive ventilation. Evolution during admission to the Unit and until hospital discharge. The failure rate was 50%, with an overall mortality rate of 33%. A total of 156 patients had hypoxemic respiratory failure, 87 postextubation respiratory failure, 78 exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 61 hypercapnic respiratory failure without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 28 had acute pulmonary edema. The failure rates were 74%, 54%, 27%, 31% and 21%, respectively. The etiology of respiratory failure, serum bilirubin at the start, APACHEII score, radiological findings, the need for sedation to tolerate noninvasive ventilation, changes in level of consciousness, PaO2/FIO2 ratio, respiratory rate and heart rate from the start and two hours after the start of noninvasive ventilation were independently associated to failure. The effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation varies according to the etiology of respiratory failure. Its use in hypoxemic respiratory failure and postextubation respiratory failure should be assessed individually. Predictors of failure could be useful to prevent delayed intubation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Illustration of relative sizes of Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft (United States)


    Artist concept illustrating the relative sizes of the one-man Mercury spacecraft, the two-man Gemini spacecraft, and the three-man Apollo spacecraft. Also shows line drawing of launch vehichles to show their relative size in relation to each other.

  18. Wireless Communication onboard Spacecraft : Draadloze Communicatie aan boord van Ruimtevaartuigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amini, R.


    This dissertation focuses on intra-spacecraft wireless communication as a solution for reducing the spacecraft onboard harness. Despite outstanding advances in aerospace industry, the cost of accessing space is still very high and the amount of engineering work required for spacecraft design and

  19. Heart failure - medicines (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken once ...

  20. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  1. Intestinal failure: a review (United States)

    Allan, Philip; Lal, Simon


    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the gut to absorb necessary water, macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat), micronutrients, and electrolytes sufficient to sustain life and requiring intravenous supplementation or replacement. Acute IF (types 1 and 2) is the initial phase of the illness and may last for weeks to a few months, and chronic IF (type 3) from months to years. The challenge of caring for patients with IF is not merely the management of the underlying condition leading to IF or the correct provision of appropriate nutrition or both but also the prevention of complications, whether thromboembolic phenomenon (for example, venous occlusion), central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection, IF-associated liver disease, or metabolic bone disease. This review looks at recent questions regarding chronic IF (type 3), its diagnosis and management, the role of the multidisciplinary team, and novel therapies, including hormonal treatment for short bowel syndrome but also surgical options for intestinal lengthening and intestinal transplant. PMID:29399329

  2. Multi-Spacecraft Turbulence Analysis Methods (United States)

    Horbury, Tim S.; Osman, Kareem T.

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in space plasmas, from the solar wind to supernova remnants, and on scales from the electron gyroradius to interstellar separations. Turbulence is responsible for transporting energy across space and between scales and plays a key role in plasma heating, particle acceleration and thermalisation downstream of shocks. Just as with other plasma processes such as shocks or reconnection, turbulence results in complex, structured and time-varying behaviour which is hard to measure with a single spacecraft. However, turbulence is a particularly hard phenomenon to study because it is usually broadband in nature: it covers many scales simultaneously. One must therefore use techniques to extract information on multiple scales in order to quantify plasma turbulence and its effects. The Cluster orbit takes the spacecraft through turbulent regions with a range of characteristics: the solar wind, magnetosheath, cusp and magnetosphere. In each, the nature of the turbulence (strongly driven or fully evolved; dominated by kinetic effects or largely on fluid scales), as well as characteristics of the medium (thermalised or not; high or low plasma sub- or super-Alfvenic) mean that particular techniques are better suited to the analysis of Cluster data in different locations. In this chapter, we consider a range of methods and how they are best applied to these different regions. Perhaps the most studied turbulent space plasma environment is the solar wind, see Bruno and Carbone [2005]; Goldstein et al. [2005] for recent reviews. This is the case for a number of reasons: it is scientifically important for cosmic ray and solar energetic particle scattering and propagation, for example. However, perhaps the most significant motivations for studying solar wind turbulence are pragmatic: large volumes of high quality measurements are available; the stability of the solar wind on the scales of hours makes it possible to identify statistically stationary intervals to

  3. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks. (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra


    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  4. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva


    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  5. A methodology for secure recovery of spacecrafts based on a trusted hardware platform (United States)

    Juliato, Marcio; Gebotys, Catherine


    This paper proposes a methodology for the secure recovery of spacecrafts and the recovery of its cryptographic capabilities in emergency scenarios recurring from major unintentional failures and malicious attacks. The proposed approach employs trusted modules to achieve higher reliability and security levels in space missions due to the presence of integrity check capabilities as well as secure recovery mechanisms. Additionally, several recovery protocols are thoroughly discussed and analyzed against a wide variety of attacks. Exhaustive search attacks are shown in a wide variety of contexts and are shown to be infeasible and totally independent of the computational power of attackers. Experimental results have shown that the proposed methodology allows for the fast and secure recovery of spacecrafts, demanding minimum implementation area, power consumption and bandwidth.

  6. Heart failure - surgeries and devices (United States)

    CHF - surgery; Congestive heart failure - surgery; Cardiomyopathy - surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure

  7. Electrical failure analysis for root-cause determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, J.


    This paper outlines a practical failure analysis sequence. Several technical definitions are required. A failure is defined as a component that was operating in a system where the system malfunctioned and the replacement of the device restored system functionality. The failure mode is the malfunctioning behavior of the device. The failure mechanism is the underlying cause or source of the failure mode. The failure mechanism is the root cause of the failure mode. The failure analysis procedure needs to be adequately refined to result in the determination of the cause of failure to the degree that corrective action or design changes will prevent recurrence of the failure mode or mechanism. An example of a root-cause determination analysis performed for a nuclear power industry customer serves to illustrate the analysis methodology

  8. The research and practice of spacecraft software engineering (United States)

    Chen, Chengxin; Wang, Jinghua; Xu, Xiaoguang


    In order to ensure the safety and reliability of spacecraft software products, it is necessary to execute engineering management. Firstly, the paper introduces the problems of unsystematic planning, uncertain classified management and uncontinuous improved mechanism in domestic and foreign spacecraft software engineering management. Then, it proposes a solution for software engineering management based on system-integrated ideology in the perspective of spacecraft system. Finally, a application result of spacecraft is given as an example. The research can provides a reference for executing spacecraft software engineering management and improving software product quality.

  9. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation (United States)

    Edwards, Dave


    Spacecraft are growing in complexity and sensitivity to environmental effects. The spacecraft engineer must understand and take these effects into account in building reliable, survivable, and affordable spacecraft. Too much protections, however, means unnecessary expense while too little will potentially lead to early mission loss. The ability to balance cost and risk necessitates an understanding of how the environment impacts the spacecraft and is a critical factor in its design. This presentation is intended to address both the space environment and its effects with the intent of introducing the influence of the environment on spacecraft performance.

  10. Contemporary state of spacecraft/environment interaction research

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, L S


    Various space environment effects on spacecraft materials and equipment, and the reverse effects of spacecrafts and rockets on space environment are considered. The necessity of permanent updating and perfection of our knowledge on spacecraft/environment interaction processes is noted. Requirements imposed on models of space environment in theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the spacecraft/environment interaction problem are formulated. In this field, main problems which need to be solved today and in the nearest future are specified. The conclusion is made that the joint analysis of both aspects of spacecraft/environment interaction problem promotes the most effective solution of the problem.

  11. Modeling Temporal Processes in Early Spacecraft Design: Application of Discrete-Event Simulations for Darpa's F6 Program (United States)

    Dubos, Gregory F.; Cornford, Steven


    While the ability to model the state of a space system over time is essential during spacecraft operations, the use of time-based simulations remains rare in preliminary design. The absence of the time dimension in most traditional early design tools can however become a hurdle when designing complex systems whose development and operations can be disrupted by various events, such as delays or failures. As the value delivered by a space system is highly affected by such events, exploring the trade space for designs that yield the maximum value calls for the explicit modeling of time.This paper discusses the use of discrete-event models to simulate spacecraft development schedule as well as operational scenarios and on-orbit resources in the presence of uncertainty. It illustrates how such simulations can be utilized to support trade studies, through the example of a tool developed for DARPA's F6 program to assist the design of "fractionated spacecraft".

  12. Statistical reliability analysis of satellites by mass category: Does spacecraft size matter? (United States)

    Dubos, Gregory F.; Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.


    Reliability has long been recognized as a critical attribute for space systems, and potential causes of on-orbit failures are carefully sought for identification and elimination through various types of testing prior to launch. From a statistical or actuarial perspective, several parameters or characteristics of the spacecraft, such as mission type, orbit, or spacecraft complexity, can potentially affect the probability of failure of satellites. In this paper, we explore the correlation between satellite mass, considered here as a proxy for size, and satellite reliability, and we investigate whether different classes of satellites, defined in terms of mass, exhibit different reliability profiles. To this end, we first conduct nonparametric analysis of satellite reliability based on a sample of 1394 recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites. The satellites are organized in three main categories defined by satellite mass (Small-Medium-Large). Three nonparametric reliability curves are thus derived and different reliability behaviors for the various satellite mass categories are identified. We then provide parametric fits of the reliability curves using the maximum likelihood estimation method as well as mixtures of Weibull distributions. Finally, we discuss possible structural and causal reasons for these trends and failure differences, in particular with respect to design, testing and procurement practices.

  13. SHARP - Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. G.


    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  14. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius


    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  15. Advanced Heart Failure (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:May 9,2017 When heart failure (HF) ... Making This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  16. Cluster PEACE observations of electrons of spacecraft origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szita


    Full Text Available The two PEACE (Plasma Electron And Current Experiment sensors on board each Cluster spacecraft sample the electron velocity distribution across the full 4 solid angle and the energy range 0.7 eV to 26 keV with a time resolution of 4 s. We present high energy and angular resolution 3D observations of electrons of spacecraft origin in the various environments encountered by the Cluster constellation, including a lunar eclipse interval where the spacecraft potential was reduced but remained positive, and periods of ASPOC (Active Spacecraft POtential Control operation which reduced the spacecraft potential. We demonstrate how the spacecraft potential may be found from a gradient change in the PEACE low energy spectrum, and show how the observed spacecraft electrons are confined by the spacecraft potential. We identify an intense component of the spacecraft electrons with energies equivalent to the spacecraft potential, the arrival direction of which is seen to change when ASPOC is switched on. Another spacecraft electron component, observed in the sunward direction, is reduced in the eclipse but unaffected by ASPOC, and we believe this component is produced in the analyser by solar UV. We find that PEACE anodes with a look direction along the spacecraft surfaces are more susceptible to spacecraft electron contamination than those which look perpendicular to the surface, which justifies the decision to mount PEACE with its field-of-view radially outward rather than tangentially.Key words. Magnetosheric physics (general or miscellaneous Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging

  17. Spacecraft computer technology at Southwest Research Institute (United States)

    Shirley, D. J.


    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed and delivered spacecraft computers for a number of different near-Earth-orbit spacecraft including shuttle experiments and SDIO free-flyer experiments. We describe the evolution of the basic SwRI spacecraft computer design from those weighing in at 20 to 25 lb and using 20 to 30 W to newer models weighing less than 5 lb and using only about 5 W, yet delivering twice the processing throughput. Because of their reduced size, weight, and power, these newer designs are especially applicable to planetary instrument requirements. The basis of our design evolution has been the availability of more powerful processor chip sets and the development of higher density packaging technology, coupled with more aggressive design strategies in incorporating high-density FPGA technology and use of high-density memory chips. In addition to reductions in size, weight, and power, the newer designs also address the necessity of survival in the harsh radiation environment of space. Spurred by participation in such programs as MSTI, LACE, RME, Delta 181, Delta Star, and RADARSAT, our designs have evolved in response to program demands to be small, low-powered units, radiation tolerant enough to be suitable for both Earth-orbit microsats and for planetary instruments. Present designs already include MIL-STD-1750 and Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology with near-term plans to include RISC processors and higher-density MCM's. Long term plans include development of whole-core processors on one or two MCM's.

  18. Electromagnetic Dissociation and Spacecraft Electronics Damage (United States)

    Norbury, John W.


    When protons or heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or solar particle events (SPE) interact with target nuclei in spacecraft, there can be two different types of interactions. The more familiar strong nuclear interaction often dominates and is responsible for nuclear fragmentation in either the GCR or SPE projectile nucleus or the spacecraft target nucleus. (Of course, the proton does not break up, except possibly to produce pions or other hadrons.) The less familiar, second type of interaction is due to the very strong electromagnetic fields that exist when two charged nuclei pass very close to each other. This process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) and primarily results in the emission of neutrons, protons and light ions (isotopes of hydrogen and helium). The cross section for particle production is approximately defined as the number of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions or other types of reactions. (There are various kinematic and other factors which multiply the particle number to arrive at the cross section.) Strong, nuclear interactions usually dominate the nuclear reactions of most interest that occur between GCR and target nuclei. However, for heavy nuclei (near Fe and beyond) at high energy the EMD cross section can be much larger than the strong nuclear interaction cross section. This paper poses a question: Are there projectile or target nuclei combinations in the interaction of GCR or SPE where the EMD reaction cross section plays a dominant role? If the answer is affirmative, then EMD mechanisms should be an integral part of codes that are used to predict damage to spacecraft electronics. The question can become more fine-tuned and one can ask about total reaction cross sections as compared to double differential cross sections. These issues will be addressed in the present paper.

  19. Spacecraft fabrication and test MODIL. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.T.


    This report covers the period from October 1992 through the close of the project. FY 92 closed out with the successful briefing to industry and with many potential and important initiatives in the spacecraft arena. Due to the funding uncertainties, we were directed to proceed as if our funding would be approximately the same as FY 92 ($2M), but not to make any major new commitments. However, the MODIL`s FY 93 funding was reduced to $810K and we were directed to concentrate on the cryocooler area. The cryocooler effort completed its demonstration project. The final meetings with the cryocooler fabricators were very encouraging as we witnessed the enthusiastic reception of technology to help them reduce fabrication uncertainties. Support of the USAF Phillips Laboratory cryocooler program was continued including kick-off meetings for the Prototype Spacecraft Cryocooler (PSC). Under Phillips Laboratory support, Gill Cruz visited British Aerospace and Lucas Aerospace in the United Kingdom to assess their manufacturing capabilities. In the Automated Spacecraft & Assembly Project (ASAP), contracts were pursued for the analysis by four Brilliant Eyes prime contractors to provide a proprietary snap shot of their current status of Integrated Product Development. In the materials and structure thrust the final analysis was completed of the samples made under the contract (``Partial Automation of Matched Metal Net Shape Molding of Continuous Fiber Composites``) to SPARTA. The Precision Technologies thrust funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to prepare a plan to develop a Computer Aided Alignment capability to significantly reduce the time for alignment and even possibly provide real time and remote alignment capability of systems in flight.

  20. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs


    -supply vehicle like the ATV or Orbital’s Cygnus, a series of supporting experiments are being planned and conducted by the team members. In order to answer the appropriate scientific and engineering problems relevant for spacecraft fire safety, a canonical scenario that can improve the understanding of flame...... spread, and thus also the modeling thereof, in realistic conditions is described. Some of the parameters governing the flame spread are also identified and their scaling against the dimensions of the test specimen is briefly questioned. Then several of the current and scheduled efforts are presented...

  1. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics...... of the satellite. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach to achieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithms are discussed....

  2. Concurrent rendezvous control of underactuated spacecraft (United States)

    Muralidharan, Vijay; Reza Emami, M.


    The concurrent control of spacecraft equipped with one-axis unilateral thruster and three-axis attitude actuator is considered in this paper. The proposed control law utilizes attitude control channels along with the single thrust force concurrently, for three-dimensional trajectory tracking and rendezvous with a target object. The concurrent controller also achieves orbital transfer to low Earth orbits with long range separation. To demonstrate the orbit transfer capabilities of the concurrent controller, a smooth elliptical orbit transfer trajectory for co-planar circular orbits is designed. The velocity change and energy consumption of the designed orbit transfer trajectory is observed to be equivalent to that of Hohmann transfer.

  3. Immune mediated liver failure


    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin


    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capac...

  4. Processing Images of Craters for Spacecraft Navigation (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Johnson, Andrew E.; Matthies, Larry H.


    A crater-detection algorithm has been conceived to enable automation of what, heretofore, have been manual processes for utilizing images of craters on a celestial body as landmarks for navigating a spacecraft flying near or landing on that body. The images are acquired by an electronic camera aboard the spacecraft, then digitized, then processed by the algorithm, which consists mainly of the following steps: 1. Edges in an image detected and placed in a database. 2. Crater rim edges are selected from the edge database. 3. Edges that belong to the same crater are grouped together. 4. An ellipse is fitted to each group of crater edges. 5. Ellipses are refined directly in the image domain to reduce errors introduced in the detection of edges and fitting of ellipses. 6. The quality of each detected crater is evaluated. It is planned to utilize this algorithm as the basis of a computer program for automated, real-time, onboard processing of crater-image data. Experimental studies have led to the conclusion that this algorithm is capable of a detection rate >93 percent, a false-alarm rate <5 percent, a geometric error <0.5 pixel, and a position error <0.3 pixel.

  5. Angiotensin inhibition in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John JV Mcmurray


    Full Text Available Survival in patients with heart failure remains very poor, and is worse than that for most common cancers, including bowel cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is not completely blocked by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Blockade of the RAAS at the AT1-receptor has the theoretical benefit of more effective blockade of the actions of angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors (ACE-Is prevent the breakdown of bradykinin: this has been blamed for some of the unwanted effects of ACE-Is although bradykinin may have advantageous effects in heart failure. Consequently, ACE-Is and ARBs might be complementary or even additive treatments; recent trials have tested these hypotheses. The Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM programme compared the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB candesartan (target dose 32 mg once daily to placebo in three distinct but complementary populations of patients with symptomatic heart failure. These were: patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF who were ACE-I-intolerant (CHARM-Alternative; patients with reduced LVEF who were being treated with ACE-Is (CHARM-Added; and patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function (CHARM-Preserved. There were substantial and statistically significant reductions in the primary composite end point (risk of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure in CHARM-Alternative. This was also the case in CHARM-Added, supporting and extending the findings of Val-HeFT. In CHARM-Preserved, the effect of candesartan on the primary end point did not reach conventional statistical significance though hospital admission for heart failure was reduced significantly with candesartan. In the CHARM-Overall programme there was a statistically borderline reduction in all-cause mortality with a clear reduction in cardiovascular mortality. All-cause mortality was

  6. Angiotensin inhibition in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John JV McMurray


    Full Text Available Survival in patients with heart failure remains very poor, and is worse than that for most common cancers, including bowel cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is not completely blocked by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Blockade of the RAAS at the AT1-receptor has the theoretical benefit of more effective blockade of the actions of angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors (ACE-Is prevent the breakdown of bradykinin: this has been blamed for some of the unwanted effects of ACE-Is although bradykinin may have advantageous effects in heart failure. Consequently, ACE-Is and ARBs might be complementary or even additive treatments; recent trials have tested these hypotheses.The Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM programme compared the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB candesartan (target dose 32 mg once daily to placebo in three distinct but complementary populations of patients with symptomatic heart failure. These were: patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF who were ACE-I-intolerant (CHARM-Alternative; patients with reduced LVEF who were being treated with ACE-Is (CHARM-Added; and patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function (CHARM-Preserved.There were substantial and statistically significant reductions in the primary composite end point (risk of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure in CHARM-Alternative. This was also the case in CHARM-Added, supporting and extending the findings of Val-HeFT. In CHARM-Preserved, the effect of candesartan on the primary end point did not reach conventional statistical significance though hospital admission for heart failure was reduced significantly with candesartan. In the CHARM-Overall programme there was a statistically borderline reduction in all-cause mortality with a clear reduction in cardiovascular mortality. All-cause mortality was

  7. Optimizing service failure and damage control


    Halbheer, D; Gartner, D; Gerstner, E; Koenigsberg, O


    Should a provider deliver a reliable service or should it allow for occasional service failures? This paper derives conditions under which randomizing service quality can\\ud benefit the provider and society. In addition to cost considerations, heterogeneity in customer damages from service failures allows the provider to generate profit\\ud from selling damage prevention services or offering compensation to high-damage customers. This strategy is viable even when reputation counts and markets ...

  8. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana


    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  9. Spacecraft Dynamics Should be Considered in Kalman Filter Attitude Estimation (United States)

    Yang, Yaguang; Zhou, Zhiqiang


    Kalman filter based spacecraft attitude estimation has been used in some high-profile missions and has been widely discussed in literature. While some models in spacecraft attitude estimation include spacecraft dynamics, most do not. To our best knowledge, there is no comparison on which model is a better choice. In this paper, we discuss the reasons why spacecraft dynamics should be considered in the Kalman filter based spacecraft attitude estimation problem. We also propose a reduced quaternion spacecraft dynamics model which admits additive noise. Geometry of the reduced quaternion model and the additive noise are discussed. This treatment is more elegant in mathematics and easier in computation. We use some simulation example to verify our claims.

  10. Electromagnetic Forces on a Relativistic Spacecraft in the Interstellar Medium (United States)

    Hoang, Thiem; Loeb, Abraham


    A relativistic spacecraft of the type envisioned by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative will inevitably become charged through collisions with interstellar particles and UV photons. Interstellar magnetic fields would therefore deflect the trajectory of the spacecraft. We calculate the expected deflection for typical interstellar conditions. We also find that the charge distribution of the spacecraft is asymmetric, producing an electric dipole moment. The interaction between the moving electric dipole and the interstellar magnetic field is found to produce a large torque, which can result in fast oscillation of the spacecraft around the axis perpendicular to the direction of motion, with a period of ˜0.5 hr. We then study the spacecraft rotation arising from impulsive torques by dust bombardment. Finally, we discuss the effect of the spacecraft rotation and suggest several methods to mitigate it.

  11. 3D Display of Spacecraft Dynamics Using Real Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguk Lee


    Full Text Available 3D display of spacecraft motion by using telemetry data received from satellite in real-time is described. Telemetry data are converted to the appropriate form for 3-D display by the real-time preprocessor. Stored playback telemetry data also can be processed for the display. 3D display of spacecraft motion by using real telemetry data provides intuitive comprehension of spacecraft dynamics.

  12. Propellant-free Spacecraft Relative Maneuvering via Atmospheric Differential Drag (United States)


    vectorized form Rp Pearson correlation coefficient Re Earth mean radius S Spacecraft cross- wind section area for chaser and target spacecraft...trajectories are modeled using Simulink in the initialization part of the simulation (prior to running STK). The simulation architecture can be seen in...F., Romano, M., and Bevilacqua, R., “Lyapunov-Based Thrusters’ Selection for Spacecraft Control: Analysis and Experimentation,” AIAA Journal of

  13. An analysis of spacecraft dynamic testing at the vehicle level


    Scott, Alan D.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The US space industry has accumulated a vast amount of expertise in the testing of spacecraft to ensure these vehicles can endure the harsh environments associated with launch and on-orbit operations. Even with this corporate experience, there remains a wide variation in the techniques utilized to test spacecraft during the development and manufacturing process, particularly with regard to spacecraft level dynamics testing. This study ...

  14. Spacecraft Charging Analysis of a CubeSat (United States)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard


    Spacecraft charging occurs when charged particles from the surrounding space plasma environment contact a spacecraft and unequal charging currents result in a net charge density accumulation on or in spacecraft materials. Charging becomes a threat when differential potentials between two points on the spacecraft or between the spacecraft and the ambient space environment build to the level that electric fields associated with the potentials exceed the electric breakdown strength of the spacecraft materials and electrostatic discharge arcs are generated. Electrostatic discharges resulting from spacecraft charging can adversely affect telemetry and cause irreparable damage to electronics. Other spacecraft charging effects include damage of solar arrays and thermal protection, enhancement of contamination of surfaces, and degradation of optics. Typically, the large government and commercial space programs include spacecraft charging analysis as part of the design process. CubeSat projects, however, usually do not have the time or funding to include a spacecraft charging analysis due to their low budget and quick-turnaround requirements. CubeSat projects also tend to rely heavily on commercial "off-the-shelf" products, many of which are not qualified for use in space, and are particularly vulnerable to the effects of the space environment. As the demand for longer and more complex CubeSat missions increases, it is becoming more and more important to consider the effects of spacecraft charging in the design process. Results of surface charging analysis using Nascap-2k on a typical CubeSat design for a polar orbit scenario are illustrated. These results show that for a polar orbiting CubeSat, spacecraft charging could be an issue and steps should be taken to mitigate the effects for these small satellites.

  15. Failure analysis for WWER-fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmert, J.; Huettig, W.


    If the fuel defect rate proves significantly high, failure analysis has to be performed in order to trace down the defect causes, to implement corrective actions, and to take measures of failure prevention. Such analyses are work-consuming and very skill-demanding technical tasks, which require examination methods and devices excellently developed and a rich stock of experience in evaluation of features of damage. For that this work specifies the procedure of failure analyses in detail. Moreover prerequisites and experimental equipment for the investigation of WWER-type fuel elements are described. (author)

  16. Hydriding failure in water reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, D.N.; Ramadasan, E.; Unnikrishnan, K.


    Hydriding of the zircaloy cladding has been one of the important causes of failure in water reactor fuel elements. This report reviews the causes, the mechanisms and the methods for prevention of hydriding failure in zircaloy clad water reactor fuel elements. The different types of hydriding of zircaloy cladding have been classified. Various factors influencing zircaloy hydriding from internal and external sources in an operating fuel element have been brought out. The findings of post-irradiation examination of fuel elements from Indian reactors, with respect to clad hydriding and features of hydriding failure are included. (author)

  17. High temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (United States)

    Chazen, Melvin L. (Inventor); Mueller, Thomas J. (Inventor); Kruse, William D. (Inventor)


    A high temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (20) is provided herein. The high temperature thrust chamber comprises a hollow body member (12) having an outer surface and an internal surface (16) defining the high temperature chamber (10). The body member (12) is made substantially of rhenium. An alloy (18) consisting of iridium and at least alloying metal selected of the group consisting of rhodium, platinum and palladium is deposited on at least a portion of the internal surface (16) of the body member (12). The iridium and the alloying metal are electrodeposited onto the body member (12). A HIP cycle is performed upon the body member (12) to cause the coating of iridium and the alloying metal to form the alloy (18) which protects the body member (12) from oxidation.

  18. Cometary dust size distributions from flyby spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, N.


    Pior to the Halley flybys in 1986, the distribution of cometary dust grains with particle size were approximated using models which provided reasonable fits to the dynamics of dust tails, anti-tails, and infrared spectra. These distributions have since been improved using fluence data (i.e., particle fluxes integrated over time along the flyby trajectory) from three spacecraft. The fluence derived distributions are appropriate for comparison with simultaneous infrared photometry (from Earth) because they sample the particles in the same way as the IR data do (along the line of sight) and because they are directly proportional to the concentration distribution in that region of the coma which dominates the IR emission

  19. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.


    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  20. NASA Thermal Control Technologies for Robotic Spacecraft (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D.; Birur, Gajanana C.


    Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a basic plan to help guide and focus such an effort. Although this plan will be a living document that changes with time to reflect technological developments, perceived needs, perceived opportunities, and the ever-changing funding environment, it is still a very useful tool. This presentation summarizes the current efforts at NASA/Goddard and NASA/JPL to develop new thermal control technology for future robotic NASA missions.

  1. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how these devices have been used to accomplish two recent space missions. The microwave thruster is then described and it is explained how the thrust and specific impulse of the thruster can be measured. Calculations of the gas temperature and plasma properties in the microwave thruster are discussed. In addition a potential mission for the microwave thruster involving the orbit raising of a space station is explored.

  2. Electromagnetic fields produced by simulated spacecraft discharges (United States)

    Nonevicz, J. E.; Adamo, R. C.; Beers, B. L.; Delmer, T. N.


    The initial phase of a broader, more complete program for the characterization of electrical breakdowns on spacecraft insulating materials is described which consisted of the development of a discharge simulator and characterization facility and the performance of a limited number of discharge measurements to verify the operation of the laboratory setup and to provide preliminary discharge transient field data. A preliminary model of the electromagnetic characteristics of the discharge was developed. It is based upon the "blow off" current model of discharges, with the underlying assumption of a propagating discharge. The laboratory test facility and discharge characterization instrumentation are discussed and the general results of the "quick look" tests are described on quartz solar reflectors aluminized Kapton and silver coated Teflon are described.

  3. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft (United States)

    Cooke, William J.


    Many programs/projects use a simple meteoroid environment based on Grun's 1985 paper or the old NASA space station spec in their design and risk assessments. These models, which are omni directional and mono-­velocity, bear little resemblance to the actual meteoroid environment, which is sun-fixed, very directional, and which has a complex speed distribution varying by source and particle size. As a result, the simple meteoroid models lead to estimates that underestimate the spacecraft/vehicle risk by a factor of 2 or more. In addition, programs often over-emphasize the risk posed by meteor showers, which typically account for less than ten percent of the meteoroid risk over the vehicle lifetime. Fueled by popular media, the emphasis on meteor showers (the risks from which can usually be mitigated operationally) can lead to ambivalence to the real risk driver, which is the sporadic background.

  4. Meteor Shower Forecasting for Spacecraft Operations (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Cooke, William J.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.


    Although sporadic meteoroids are a much greater hazard to spacecraft than shower meteoroids in general, meteor showers can significantly increase the risk of damage over short time periods. Because showers are brief, it is sometimes possible to mitigate the risk operationally, which requires accurate predictions of shower activity. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office generates an annual meteor shower forecast that describes the variations in the near-Earth meteoroid flux produced by meteor showers, which presents the shower flux both in absolute terms and relative to the sporadic ux. The shower forecast incorporates model predictions of annual variations in shower activity and quotes fluxes to several limiting particle kinetic energies. In this work, we describe our forecasting methods, compare them to actual observations, and highlight recent improvements to the temporal pro les based on flux measurements from the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR).

  5. A corrector for spacecraft calculated electron moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Geach


    Full Text Available We present the application of a numerical method to correct electron moments calculated on-board spacecraft from the effects of potential broadening and energy range truncation. Assuming a shape for the natural distribution of the ambient plasma and employing the scalar approximation, the on-board moments can be represented as non-linear integral functions of the underlying distribution. We have implemented an algorithm which inverts this system successfully over a wide range of parameters for an assumed underlying drifting Maxwellian distribution. The outputs of the solver are the corrected electron plasma temperature Te, density Ne and velocity vector Ve. We also make an estimation of the temperature anisotropy A of the distribution. We present corrected moment data from Cluster's PEACE experiment for a range of plasma environments and make comparisons with electron and ion data from other Cluster instruments, as well as the equivalent ground-based calculations using full 3-D distribution PEACE telemetry.

  6. Computer aided radiation analysis for manned spacecraft (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Griffin, Brand N.; Tanner, Ernest R., II; Pogue, William R.; Golightly, Michael J.


    In order to assist in the design of radiation shielding an analytical tool is presented that can be employed in combination with CAD facilities and NASA transport codes. The nature of radiation in space is described, and the operational requirements for protection are listed as background information for the use of the technique. The method is based on the Boeing radiation exposure model (BREM) for combining NASA radiation transport codes and CAD facilities, and the output is given as contour maps of the radiation-shield distribution so that dangerous areas can be identified. Computational models are used to solve the 1D Boltzmann transport equation and determine the shielding needs for the worst-case scenario. BREM can be employed directly with the radiation computations to assess radiation protection during all phases of design which saves time and ultimately spacecraft weight.

  7. The Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (gensaa): a Tool for Developing Graphical Expert Systems (United States)

    Hughes, Peter M.


    During numerous contacts with a satellite each day, spacecraft analysts must closely monitor real-time data. The analysts must watch for combinations of telemetry parameter values, trends, and other indications that may signify a problem or failure. As the satellites become more complex and the number of data items increases, this task is becoming increasingly difficult for humans to perform at acceptable performance levels. At NASA GSFC, fault-isolation expert systems are in operation supporting this data monitoring task. Based on the lessons learned during these initial efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) is being developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although initially domain-specific in nature, this powerful tool will readily support the development of highly graphical expert systems for data monitoring purposes throughout the space and commercial industry.

  8. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference: Executive Summary (United States)

    Pike, C. P.; Whipple, E. C., Jr.; Stevens, N. J.; Minges, M. L.; Lehn, W. L.; Bunn, M. H.


    Aerospace environments are reviewed in reference to spacecraft charging. Modelling, a theoretical scheme which can be used to describe the structure of the sheath around the spacecraft and to calculate the charging currents within, is discussed. Materials characterization is considered for experimental determination of the behavior of typical spacecraft materials when exposed to simulated geomagnetic substorm conditions. Materials development is also examined for controlling and minimizing spacecraft charging or at least for distributing the charge in an equipotential manner, using electrical conductive surfaces for materials exposed to space environment.

  9. Nuclear radiation problems, unmanned thermionic reactor ion propulsion spacecraft (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Sawyer, C. D.; Nakashima, A.


    A nuclear thermionic reactor as the electric power source for an electric propulsion spacecraft introduces a nuclear radiation environment that affects the spacecraft configuration, the use and location of electrical insulators and the science experiments. The spacecraft is conceptually configured to minimize the nuclear shield weight by: (1) a large length to diameter spacecraft; (2) eliminating piping penetrations through the shield; and (3) using the mercury propellant as gamma shield. Since the alumina material is damaged by the high nuclear radiation environment in the reactor it is desirable to locate the alumina insulator outside the reflector or develop a more radiation resistant insulator.

  10. Radiation shielding calculations for the vista spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Suemer; Sahin, Haci Mehmet; Acir, Adem


    The VISTA spacecraft design concept has been proposed for manned or heavy cargo deep space missions beyond earth orbit with inertial fusion energy propulsion. Rocket propulsion is provided by fusion power deposited in the inertial confined fuel pellet debris and with the help of a magnetic nozzle. The calculations for the radiation shielding have been revised under the fact that the highest jet efficiency of the vehicle could be attained only if the propelling plasma would have a narrow temperature distribution. The shield mass could be reduced from 600 tons in the original design to 62 tons. Natural and enriched lithium were the principle shielding materials. The allowable nuclear heating in the superconducting magnet coils (up to 5 mW/cm 3 ) is taken as the crucial criterion for dimensioning the radiation shielding structure of the spacecraft. The space craft mass is 6000 tons. Total peak nuclear power density in the coils is calculated as ∼5.0 mW/cm 3 for a fusion power output of 17 500 MW. The peak neutron heating density is ∼2.0 mW/cm 3 , and the peak γ-ray heating density is ∼3.0 mW/cm 3 (on different points) using natural lithium in the shielding. However, the volume averaged heat generation in the coils is much lower, namely 0.21, 0.71 and 0.92 mW/cm 3 for the neutron, γ-ray and total nuclear heating, respectively. The coil heating will be slightly lower if highly enriched 6 Li (90%) is used instead of natural lithium. Peak values are then calculated as 2.05, 2.15 and 4.2 mW/cm 3 for the neutron, γ-ray and total nuclear heating, respectively. The corresponding volume averaged heat generation in the coils became 0.19, 0.58 and 0.77 mW/cm 3

  11. Insulin Signaling and Heart Failure (United States)

    Riehle, Christian; Abel, E. Dale


    Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead (FOXO) transcriptional signaling or glucose transport which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed. PMID:27034277

  12. Heart failure - home monitoring (United States)

    ... page: // Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is ...

  13. Real System Failures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This resource area contains descriptions of actual electronic systems failure scenarios with an emphasis on the diversity of failure modes and effects that can...

  14. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen


    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  15. De-Trending K2 Exoplanet Targets for High Spacecraft Motion (United States)

    Saunders, Nicholas; Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory


    After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler space telescope lost its fine pointing ability and entered a new phase of observation, K2. Targets observed by K2 have high motion relative to the detector and K2 light curves have higher noise than Kepler observations. Despite the increased noise, systematics removal pipelines such as K2SFF and EVEREST have enabled continued high-precision transiting planet science with the telescope, resulting in the detection of hundreds of new exoplanets. However, as the spacecraft begins to run out of fuel, sputtering will drive large and random variations in pointing that can prevent detection of exoplanets during the remaining 5 campaigns. In general, higher motion will spread the stellar point spread function (PSF) across more pixels during a campaign, which increases the number of degrees of freedom in the noise component and significantly reduces the de-trending power of traditional systematics removal methods. We use a model of the Kepler CCD combined with pixel-level information of a large number of stars across the detector to improve the performance of the EVEREST pipeline at high motion. We also consider the problem of increased crowding for static apertures in the high-motion regime and develop pixel response function (PRF)-fitting techniques to mitigate contamination and maximize the de-trending power. We assess the performance of our code by simulating sputtering events and assessing exoplanet detection efficiency with transit injection/recovery tests. We find that targets with roll amplitudes of up to 8 pixels, approximately 15 times K2 roll, can be de-trended within 2 to 3 factors of current K2 photometric precision for stars up to 14th magnitude. Achieved recovery precision allows detection of small planets around 11th and 12th magnitude stars. These methods can be applied to the light curves of K2 targets for existing and future campaigns to ensure that precision exoplanet science can still be performed

  16. In Support of Failure (United States)

    Carr, Allison


    In this essay, I propose a concerted effort to begin devising a theory and pedagogy of failure. I review the discourse of failure in Western culture as well as in composition pedagogy, ultimately suggesting that failure is not simply a judgement or indication of rank but is a relational, affect-bearing concept with tremendous relevance to…

  17. Acute Liver Failure (United States)

    ... begins in or spreads to your liver can cause your liver to fail. Shock. Overwhelming infection (sepsis) and shock can severely impair blood flow to the liver, causing liver failure. Many cases of acute liver failure have no apparent ... liver failure often causes complications, including: ...

  18. Spacecraft occupant protection requirements: a review of the recent changes. (United States)

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Gohmert, Dustin M; Brinkley, James W


    NASA has recently updated spacecraft design requirements for protecting crewmembers during dynamic spaceflight phases. The details of the update are available in a NASA publication (NASA TM-2013-217380) and are summarized here. Previously, NASA's occupant protection requirements relied primarily on the multiaxial dynamic response criterion, which NASA refers to as the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria (BDRC). Although simple to implement, there are several important ground rules that must be met for the injury predictions to be applicable. These include proper restraint, flail controls, proper seating support, pressure suit considerations, head protection including consideration of helmet mass, and spaceflight deconditioning. Even if these ground rules are met, there are limitations to the model that must be addressed, including: model validation, sex differences, age effects, anthropometry effects, and differences between the physical fitness of military test subjects and future crewmembers. To address these limitations, new injury assessment reference values (IARV) have been prescribed for the 5(th) percentile female and 95(th) percentile male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). These metrics are head-injury criterion, head-rotational acceleration, neck injury criterion, neck-axial-force limits, flail prevention, and lumbar-axial compression force. Using these new ATD IARVs, NASA can have increased confidence that vehicle designs mitigate the risk of injury during dynamic phases of flight.

  19. Failure Prediction And Detection In Cloud Datacenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvil Bambharolia


    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel technology in the field of distributed computing. Usage of Cloud computing is increasing rapidly day by day. In order to serve the customers and businesses satisfactorily fault occurring in datacenters and servers must be detected and predicted efficiently in order to launch mechanisms to tolerate the failures occurred. Failure in one of the hosted datacenters may propagate to other datacenters and make the situation worse. In order to prevent such situations one can predict a failure proliferating throughout the cloud computing system and launch mechanisms to deal with it proactively. One of the ways to predict failures is to train a machine to predict failure on the basis of messages or logs passed between various components of the cloud. In the training session the machine can identify certain message patterns relating to failure of data centers. Later on the machine can be used to check whether a certain group of message logs follow such patterns or not. Moreover each cloud server can be defined by a state which indicates whether the cloud is running properly or is facing some failure. Parameters such as CPU usage memory usage etc. can be maintained for each of the servers. Using this parameters we can add a layer of detection where in we develop a decision tree based on these parameters which can classify whether the passed in parameters to the decision tree indicate failure state or proper state.

  20. Heart failure in children - overview (United States)

    Congestive heart failure - children; Cor pulmonale - children; Cardiomyopathy - children; CHF - children; Congenital heart defect - heart failure in children; Cyanotic heart disease - heart failure in children; Birth ...

  1. An Investigation of Digital Instrumentation and Control System Failure Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, Kofi; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; Muhlheim, Michael David; Poore, Willis P. III


    A study sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission study was conducted to investigate digital instrumentation and control (DI and C) systems and module-level failure modes using a number of databases both in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries. The objectives of the study were to obtain relevant operational experience data to identify generic DI and C system failure modes and failure mechanisms, and to obtain generic insights, with the intent of using results to establish a unified framework for categorizing failure modes and mechanisms. Of the seven databases studied, the Equipment Performance Information Exchange database was found to contain the most useful data relevant to the study. Even so, the general lack of quality relative to the objectives of the study did not allow the development of a unified framework for failure modes and mechanisms of nuclear I and C systems. However, an attempt was made to characterize all the failure modes observed (i.e., without regard to the type of I and C equipment under consideration) into common categories. It was found that all the failure modes identified could be characterized as (a) detectable/preventable before failures, (b) age-related failures, (c) random failures, (d) random/sudden failures, or (e) intermittent failures. The percentage of failure modes characterized as (a) was significant, implying that a significant reduction in system failures could be achieved through improved online monitoring, exhaustive testing prior to installation, adequate configuration control or verification and validation, etc.

  2. Precise Relative Positioning of Formation Flying Spacecraft using GPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, R.


    Spacecraft formation flying is considered as a key technology for advanced space missions. Compared to large individual spacecraft, the distribution of sensor systems amongst multiple platforms offers improved flexibility, shorter times to mission, and the prospect of being more cost effective.

  3. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1 (United States)

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  4. Spacecraft charging - Progress in the study of dielectrics and plasmas (United States)

    Robinson, P. A., Jr.; Coakley, P.


    The progress in spacecraft charging is reviewed with particular attention given to the interactions of plasma and penetrating radiation with dielectrics. Topics discussed include the charging environments, elementary charging theory, the anomalies attributed to charging or discharging phenomena, and spacecraft engineering.

  5. Rockets and spacecraft: Sine qua non of space science (United States)


    The evolution of the national launch vehicle stable is presented along with lists of launch vehicles used in NASA programs. A partial list of spacecraft used throughout the world is also given. Scientific spacecraft costs are presented along with an historial overview of project development and funding in NASA.

  6. Left atrial appendage occlusion with Amplatzer Cardio Plug is an acceptable therapeutic option for prevention of stroke recurrence in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindication or failure of oral anticoagulation with acenocumarol


    Hawkes, Maximiliano A.; Pertierra, Lucía; Rodriguez-Lucci, Federico; Pujol-Lereis, Virginia A.; Ameriso, Sebastián F.


    ABSTRACT Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) appears as a therapeutic option for some atrial fibrillation patients not suitable for oral anticoagulation because an increased hemorrhagic risk or recurrent ischemic events despite anticoagulant treatment. Methods Report of consecutive atrial fibrillation patients treated with LAAO with Amplatzer Cardio Plug because contraindication or failure of oral anticoagulation with acenocumarol. CHA2DS2VASC, HAS-BLED, NIHSS, mRS, procedural complicati...

  7. Historical Mass, Power, Schedule, and Cost Growth for NASA Spacecraft (United States)

    Hayhurst, Marc R.; Bitten, Robert E.; Shinn, Stephen A.; Judnick, Daniel C.; Hallgrimson, Ingrid E.; Youngs, Megan A.


    Although spacecraft developers have been moving towards standardized product lines as the aerospace industry has matured, NASA's continual need to push the cutting edge of science to accomplish unique, challenging missions can still lead to spacecraft resource growth over time. This paper assesses historical mass, power, cost, and schedule growth for multiple NASA spacecraft from the last twenty years and compares to industry reserve guidelines to understand where the guidelines may fall short. Growth is assessed from project start to launch, from the time of the preliminary design review (PDR) to launch and from the time of the critical design review (CDR) to launch. Data is also assessed not just at the spacecraft bus level, but also at the subsystem level wherever possible, to help obtain further insight into possible drivers of growth. Potential recommendations to minimize spacecraft mass, power, cost, and schedule growth for future missions are also discussed.

  8. Humidity Testing for Human Rated Spacecraft (United States)

    Johnson, Gary B.


    Determination that equipment can operate in and survive exposure to the humidity environments unique to human rated spacecraft presents widely varying challenges. Equipment may need to operate in habitable volumes where the atmosphere contains perspiration, exhalation, and residual moisture. Equipment located outside the pressurized volumes may be exposed to repetitive diurnal cycles that may result in moisture absorption and/or condensation. Equipment may be thermally affected by conduction to coldplate or structure, by forced or ambient air convection (hot/cold or wet/dry), or by radiation to space through windows or hatches. The equipment s on/off state also contributes to the equipment s susceptibility to humidity. Like-equipment is sometimes used in more than one location and under varying operational modes. Due to these challenges, developing a test scenario that bounds all physical, environmental and operational modes for both pressurized and unpressurized volumes requires an integrated assessment to determine the "worst-case combined conditions." Such an assessment was performed for the Constellation program, considering all of the aforementioned variables; and a test profile was developed based on approximately 300 variable combinations. The test profile has been vetted by several subject matter experts and partially validated by testing. Final testing to determine the efficacy of the test profile on actual space hardware is in the planning stages. When validation is completed, the test profile will be formally incorporated into NASA document CxP 30036, "Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Testing Requirements (CEQATR)."


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Sutton


    Full Text Available Mechanical oscillations or vibrations on spacecraft, also called pointing jitter, cause geometric distortions and/or smear in high resolution digital images acquired from orbit. Geometric distortion is especially a problem with pushbroom type sensors, such as the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO. Geometric distortions occur at a range of frequencies that may not be obvious in the image products, but can cause problems with stereo image correlation in the production of digital elevation models, and in measuring surface changes over time in orthorectified images. The HiRISE focal plane comprises a staggered array of fourteen charge-coupled devices (CCDs with pixel IFOV of 1 microradian. The high spatial resolution of HiRISE makes it both sensitive to, and an excellent recorder of jitter. We present an algorithm using Fourier analysis to resolve the jitter function for a HiRISE image that is then used to update instrument pointing information to remove geometric distortions from the image. Implementation of the jitter analysis and image correction is performed on selected HiRISE images. Resulting corrected images and updated pointing information are made available to the public. Results show marked reduction of geometric distortions. This work has applications to similar cameras operating now, and to the design of future instruments (such as the Europa Imaging System.

  10. Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.


    This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

  11. Spacecraft with gradual acceleration of solar panels (United States)

    Merhav, Tamir R. (Inventor); Festa, Michael T. (Inventor); Stetson, Jr., John B. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft (8) includes a movable appendage such as solar panels (12) operated by a stepping motor (28) driven by pulses (311). In order to reduce vibration andor attitude error, the drive pulses are generated by a clock down-counter (312) with variable count ratio. Predetermined desired clock ratios are stored in selectable memories (314a-d), and the selected ratio (R) is coupled to a comparator (330) together with the current ratio (C). An up-down counter (340) establishes the current count-down ratio by counting toward the desired ratio under the control of the comparator; thus, a step change of solar panel speed never occurs. When a direction change is commanded, a flag signal generator (350) disables the selectable memories, and enables a further store (360), which generates a count ratio representing a very slow solar panel rotational rate, so that the rotational rate always slows to a low value before direction is changed. The principles of the invention are applicable to any movable appendage.

  12. A Technology Program that Rescues Spacecraft (United States)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Lesh, J. R.


    There has never been a long-duration deep space mission that did not have unexpected problems during operations. JPL's Interplanetary Network Directorate (IND) Technology Program was created to develop new and improved methods of communication, navigation, and operations. A side benefit of the program is that it maintains a cadre of human talent and experimental systems that can be brought to bear on unexpected problems that may occur during mission operations. Solutions fall into four categories: applying new technology during operations to enhance science performance, developing new operational strategies, providing domain experts to help find solutions, and providing special facilities to trouble-shoot problems. These are illustrated here using five specific examples of spacecraft anomalies that have been solved using, at least in part, expertise or facilities from the IND Technology Program: Mariner 10, Voyager, Galileo, SOHO, and Cassini/Huygens. In this era of careful cost management, and emphasis on returns-on-investment, it is important to recognize this crucial additional benefit from such technology program investments.

  13. Spacecraft attitude and velocity control system (United States)

    Paluszek, Michael A. (Inventor); Piper, Jr., George E. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft attitude and/or velocity control system includes a controller which responds to at least attitude errors to produce command signals representing a force vector F and a torque vector T, each having three orthogonal components, which represent the forces and torques which are to be generated by the thrusters. The thrusters may include magnetic torquer or reaction wheels. Six difference equations are generated, three having the form ##EQU1## where a.sub.j is the maximum torque which the thruster can produce, b.sub.j is the maximum force which the thruster can produce, and .alpha..sub.j is a variable representing the throttling factor of the thruster, which may range from zero to unity. The six equations are summed to produce a single scalar equation relating variables .alpha..sub.j to a performance index Z: ##EQU2## Those values of .alpha. which maximize the value of Z are determined by a method for solving linear equations, such as a linear programming method. The Simplex method may be used. The values of .alpha..sub.j are applied to control the corresponding thrusters.

  14. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.


    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  15. Analysis of spacecraft battery charger systems (United States)

    Kim, Seong J.; Cho, Bo H.

    In spacecraft battery charger systems, switching regulators are widely used for bus voltage regulation, charge current regulation, and peak power tracking. Small-signal dynamic characteristics of the battery charging subsystem of direct energy transfer (DET) and peak power tracking (PPT) systems are analyzed to facilitate design of the control loop for optimum performance and stability. Control loop designs of the charger in various modes of operation are discussed. Analyses are verified through simulations. It is shown that when the charger operates in the bus voltage regulation mode, the control-to-voltage transfer function has a negative DC gain and two LHP zeros in both the DET and PPT systems. The control-to-inductor current transfer function also has a negative DC gain and a RHP zero. Thus, in the current-mode control, the current loop can no longer be used to stabilize the system. When the system operates in the charge current regulation mode, the charger operates with a fixed duty cycle which is determined by the regulated bus voltage and the battery voltage. Without an input filter, the converter becomes a first-order system. When the peak power tracker is inactive, the operating point of the solar array output moves to the voltage source region. Thus, the solar array behaves as a stiff voltage source to a constant power load.

  16. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome) (United States)

    Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome) What is intestinal failure? Intestinal failure occurs when a significant portion of the small ... intestine does. Who is at risk for intestinal failure? N Babies (usually premature) who have had surgery ...

  17. Single event upsets in spacecraft digital systems (United States)

    Leukowicz, P. E.; Richter, L. J.

    This paper describes the physical environments that can result in random bit changes in spaceborne memory systems. The impact of bit flips in digital telemetry systems is emphasized, with special attention paid to software requirements for protection from single event upset (SEU) effects. Some observations on incidence rates are presented along with an outline of hardware and software methods that can be taken to prevent future SEU problems. Several conclusions are drawn about strategies for preventing data corruption on the next generation of satellites in the presence of SEU-inducing particles.

  18. Dopamine in heart failure and critical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, AJ

    Dopamine is widely used in critical care to prevent renal function loss. Nevertheless sufficient evidence is still lacking of reduction in end points like mortality or renal replacement therapy. Dopaminergic treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF) has provided an example of unexpected adverse

  19. Definition of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.


    Core meltdown accidents of the types considered in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's) have been predicted to lead to pressures that will challenge the integrity of containment structures. Review of a number of PRA's indicates considerable variation in the predicted probability of containment failure as a function of pressure. Since the results of PRA's are sensitive to the prediction of the occurrence and the timing of containment failure, better understanding of realistic containment capabilities and a more consistent approach to the definition of containment failure pressures are required. Additionally, since the size and location of the failure can also significantly influence the prediction of reactor accident risk, further understanding of likely failure modes is required. The thresholds and modes of containment failure may not be independent

  20. Management of Arrhythmias in Heart Failure (United States)

    Masarone, Daniele; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Rubino, Marta; Valente, Fabio; Vastarella, Rossella; Ammendola, Ernesto; Gravino, Rita; Verrengia, Marina; Salerno, Gemma; Pacileo, Giuseppe


    Heart failure patients are predisposed to develop arrhythmias. Supraventricular arrhythmias can exacerbate the heart failure symptoms by decreasing the effective cardiac output and their control require pharmacological, electrical, or catheter-based intervention. In the setting of atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation becomes paramount to prevent systemic or cerebral embolism. Patients with heart failure are also prone to develop ventricular arrhythmias that can present a challenge to the managing clinician. The management strategy depends on the type of arrhythmia, the underlying structural heart disease, the severity of heart failure, and the range from optimization of heart failure therapy to catheter ablation. Patients with heart failure, irrespective of ejection fraction are at high risk for developing sudden cardiac death, however risk stratification is a clinical challenge and requires a multiparametric evaluation for identification of patients who should undergo implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator. Finally, patients with heart failure can also develop symptomatic bradycardia, caused by sinus node dysfunction or atrio-ventricular block. The treatment of bradycardia in these patients with pacing is usually straightforward but needs some specific issue. PMID:29367535

  1. An Educational Multimedia Presentation on the Introduction to Spacecraft Charging (United States)

    Lin, E.; dePayrebrune, M.


    Over the last few decades, significant knowledge has been gained in how to protect spacecraft from charging; however, the continuing technical advancement in the design and build of satellites requires on-going effort in the study of spacecraft charging. A situation that we have encountered is that not all satellite designers and builders are familiar with the problem of spacecraft charging. The design of a satellite involves many talented people with diverse backgrounds, ranging from manufacturing and assembly to engineering and program management. The complex design and build of a satellite system requires people with highly specialized skills such that cross-specialization is often not achievable. As a result, designers and builders of satellites are not usually familiar with the problems outside their specialization. This is also true for spacecraft charging. Not everyone is familiar with the definition of spacecraft charging and the damage that spacecraft charging can cause. Understanding the problem is an important first step in getting everyone involved in addressing the appropriate spacecraft charging issues during the satellite design and build phases. To address this important first step, an educational multimedia presentation has been created to inform the general engineering community about the basics of spacecraft charging. The content of this educational presentation is based on relevant published technical papers. The presentation was developed using Macromedia Flash. This software produces a more dynamic learning environment than a typical slide show , resulting in a more effective learning experience. The end result is that the viewer will have learned about the basics of spacecraft charging. This presentation is available to the public through our website,, free of charge. Viewers are encouraged to pass this presentation to colleagues within their own work environment. This paper describes the content of the multimedia

  2. Cooper-Harper Experience Report for Spacecraft Handling Qualities Applications (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Frost, Chad R.; Alderete, Thomas S.


    A synopsis of experience from the fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft communities in handling qualities development and the use of the Cooper-Harper pilot rating scale is presented as background for spacecraft handling qualities research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). In addition, handling qualities experiences and lessons-learned from previous United States (US) spacecraft developments are reviewed. This report is intended to provide a central location for references, best practices, and lessons-learned to guide current and future spacecraft handling qualities RDT&E.

  3. Ad hoc laser networks component technology for modular spacecraft (United States)

    Huang, Xiujun; Shi, Dele; Shen, Jingshi


    Distributed reconfigurable satellite is a new kind of spacecraft system, which is based on a flexible platform of modularization and standardization. Based on the module data flow analysis of the spacecraft, this paper proposes a network component of ad hoc Laser networks architecture. Low speed control network with high speed load network of Microwave-Laser communication mode, no mesh network mode, to improve the flexibility of the network. Ad hoc Laser networks component technology was developed, and carried out the related performance testing and experiment. The results showed that ad hoc Laser networks components can meet the demand of future networking between the module of spacecraft.

  4. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  5. Trajectory Design for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment Spacecraft (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Loucks, Michel E.; Yang, Fan Yang; Lee, Pascal


    The presented trajectory design and analysis was performed for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME) mission concept as part of a NASA proposal submission managed by NASA Ames Research Center in the 2014-2015 timeframe. The PADME spacecraft would be a derivative of the successfully flown Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. While LADEE was designed to enter low-lunar orbit, the PADME spacecraft would instead enter an elliptical Mars orbit of 2-week period. This Mars orbit would pass by Phobos near periapsis on successive orbits and then raise periapsis to yield close approaches of Deimos every orbit thereafter.

  6. Choking Prevention (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  7. NASA-STD-(I)-6016, Standard Materials and Processes Requirements for Spacecraft (United States)

    Pedley, Michael; Griffin, Dennis


    This document is directed toward Materials and Processes (M&P) used in the design, fabrication, and testing of flight components for all NASA manned, unmanned, robotic, launch vehicle, lander, in-space and surface systems, and spacecraft program/project hardware elements. All flight hardware is covered by the M&P requirements of this document, including vendor designed, off-the-shelf, and vendor furnished items. Materials and processes used in interfacing ground support equipment (GSE); test equipment; hardware processing equipment; hardware packaging; and hardware shipment shall be controlled to prevent damage to or contamination of flight hardware.

  8. A quantitative method for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, A. J. J.; Meesters, A. J.; Klingenberg, W.; Hicks, C.


    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is commonly used for designing maintenance routines by analysing potential failures, predicting their effect and facilitating preventive action. It is used to make decisions on operational and capital expenditure. The literature has reported that despite its

  9. Civil Liability for Failure to Train to Standard. (United States)

    Sample, John


    Reviews the legal concept of "failure to train to standard" from the context of law enforcement. Responsibility for training is discussed, case examples and examples of monetary judgments are given, and recommendations for preventing and limiting liability for failure to train to standard are presented. (16 references) (LRW)

  10. Evaluation and Management of The Child with Failure to Thrive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review article, the definition, aetiology, evaluation, differential diagnoses, management, prevention and prognosis of failure to thrive are discussed. Failure to thrive (FTT) is a common problem in paediatric practice, affecting 5-10% of under-fives in developed countries with a higher incidence in developing countries.

  11. Adhesion Between Volcanic Glass and Spacecraft Materials in an Airless Body Environment (United States)

    Berkebile, Stephen; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Gaier, James R.


    The successful exploration of airless bodies, such as the Earth s moon, many smaller moons of the outer planets (including those of Mars) and asteroids, will depend on the development and implementation of effective dust mitigation strategies. The ultrahigh vacuum environment (UHV) on the surfaces of these bodies, coupled with constant ion and photon bombardment from the Sun and micrometeorite impacts (space weathering), makes dust adhesion to critical spacecraft systems a severe problem. As a result, the performance of thermal control surfaces, photovoltaics and mechanical systems can be seriously degraded even to the point of failure. The severe dust adhesion experienced in these environments is thought to be primarily due to two physical mechanisms, electrostatic attraction and high surface energies, but the dominant of these has yet to be determined. The experiments presented here aim to address which of these two mechanisms is dominant by quantifying the adhesion between common spacecraft materials (polycarbonate, FEP and PTFE Teflon, (DuPont) Ti-6-4) and a synthetic noritic volcanic glass, as a function of surface cleanliness and triboelectric charge transfer in a UHV environment. Adhesion force has been measured between pins of spacecraft materials and a plate of synthetic volcanic glass by determining the pull-off force with a torsion balance. Although no significant adhesion is observed directly as a result of high surface energies, the adhesion due to induced electrostatic charge is observed to increase with spacecraft material cleanliness, in some cases by over a factor of 10, although the increase is dependent on the particular material pair. The knowledge gained by these studies is envisioned to aid the development of new dust mitigation strategies and improve existing strategies by helping to identify and characterize mechanisms of glass to spacecraft adhesion for norite volcanic glass particles. Furthermore, the experience of the Apollo missions

  12. A Failure Locus for Hydrogen Assisted Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuentes-Alonso, Sandra; Harris, Zach D.; Burns, James T.


    important insight into the failure process, enabling to identify critical values of hydrogen concentration and remote stresses that trigger cracking. The work builds upon previous works by the authors and brings important insight into the technologically important problem of hydrogen assisted cracking....

  13. Bone Marrow Failure Secondary to Cytokinesis Failure (United States)


    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human genetic disease characterized by a progressive bone marrow failure and heightened...L. Tian, M. Kahkonen, J. Schwartzentruber, M. Kircher, G. University of Washington Centre for Mendelian , F.C. Consortium, J. Majewski, D.A. Dyment

  14. RFP to work on formation flying capabilities for spacecrafts for the GRACE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Thuesen, Gøsta; Kilsgaard, Søren


    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency of USA, NASA, are working on formation flying capabilities for spacecrafts, GRACE Project. IAU and JPL are developing the inter spacecraft attitude link to be used on the two spacecrafts.......The National Aeronautics and Space Agency of USA, NASA, are working on formation flying capabilities for spacecrafts, GRACE Project. IAU and JPL are developing the inter spacecraft attitude link to be used on the two spacecrafts....

  15. New perspective on functional capabilities of microbiome associated with spacecraft assembly facilities (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Parag


    In compliance with Planetary Protection policy, NASA monitors the total microbial burden of spacecraft and associated environments as a means for minimizing forward contamination. Despite numerous characterizations of microbial populations in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms, understanding the metabolic traits responsible for their persistence and survival remains a significant challenge. The principal objective of this study is to establish functional traits by exploring the entire gene content (metagenome) of the cleanroom microbial community. DNA-based techniques are incapable of distinguishing viable microorganisms from dead microbial cells in samples. Consequently, metagenomic analyses based on total environmental DNA extracts do not render a meaningful understanding of the metabolic and/or functional characteristics of living microorganisms in cleanrooms. A molecular viability marker was applied to samples collected from a cleanroom facility, and subsequent metagenomic sequencing experiments showed considerable differences between the resulting viable-only and total microbiomes. Nevertheless, analyses of sequence abundance suggested that the viable microbiome was influenced by both the human microbiome and the ambient ecosystem external to the facility, which resulted in a complex community profile. Also detected were the first viral signatures ever retrieved from a cleanroom facility: the genomes of human cyclovirus 7078A and Propionibacterium phage P14.4. We also wanted to evaluate if the strict cleaning and decontamination procedures selectively favor survival and growth of hardy microrganisms, such as pathogens. Three geographically distinct cleanrooms were sampled during the assembly of three NASA spacecraft: Dawn, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory. Potential pathogens and their corresponding virulence factors were present in all the samples. Decreased microbial and pathogenic diversity during spacecraft assembly, compared to before and after, indicates

  16. Immune mediated liver failure. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin


    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  17. Acute heart failure syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heart failure can be defined as a clinical syndrome in which a structural or functional cardiac abnormality impairs the capacity of the ventricle to fill or eject enough blood for the requirements of the body. Acute heart failure syndrome represents a complex, heterogeneous set of clinical conditions, all with the common.

  18. Chronic heart failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with a reduction in morbidity and mortality.3. Clinical picture. The symptoms of heart failure are ... crepitations and a third heart sound gallop, are more predictive, but none of them are 100% diagnostic. Therefore ... some abnormality) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. A normal ECG should prompt an ...

  19. Success by Failure (United States)

    Andrews, Benjamin D.


    By taking the step to talk openly about his failure, the author stumbled upon one of several important lessons that he learned from this experience. The author recognized that he did not have to pretend anymore. In this article, the author shares his story of developing a "growth mindset" to overcome his own failure and support his…

  20. Modeling Epidemic Network Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova


    This paper presents the implementation of a failure propagation model for transport networks when multiple failures occur resulting in an epidemic. We model the Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model and validate it by comparing it to analytical solutions. Furthermore, we evaluate...... to evaluate multiple epidemic scenarios in various network types....

  1. Spacecraft Environment May Reduce Resistance To Infection (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Castro, V. A.; Leal, Melanie; Mehta, Satish K.


    Living and working in a spacecraft exposes the crew to a unique environment. This environment includes microgravity, increased radiation, chemical and biological contamination, and a variety of stressors. Disturbances in this balance are often manifested by diminished immunity in astronauts/cosmonauts. Reactivation of Epstein- Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been used as an indicator of immune status. Reactivation of EBV and VZV were detected and quantified in saliva. CMV was measured in urine. The DNA was extracted using a Qiagen Inc. kit and viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay with Taqman 7700 (PE Biosystems). Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies/mL from samples taken during the flights was 417, ten-fold greater (p In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight. Similarly, CMV and VZV reactivation increased in response to space flight conditions. Data indicates that space flight is a unique stress environment that may produce stress-induced changes in the host

  2. NASA Spacecraft Fault Management Workshop Results (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn; McDougal, John; Barley, Bryan; Fesq, Lorraine; Stephens, Karen


    tools that have not kept pace with the increasing complexity of mission requirements and spacecraft systems. This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations from that workshop, as well as opportunities identified for future investment in tools, processes, and products to facilitate the development of space flight fault management capabilities.

  3. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence with Splunk (United States)

    Hwang, Victor


    So what is Splunk? Instead of giving the technical details, which you can find online, I'll tell you what it did for me. Splunk slapped everything into one place, with one uniform format, and gave me the ability to forget about all these annoying details of where it is, how to parse it, and all that. Instead, I only need to interact with Splunk to find the data I need. This sounds simple and obvious, but it's surprising what you can do once you all of your data is indexed in one place. By having your data organized, querying becomes much easier. Let's say that I want to search telemetry for a sensor_name gtemp_1 h and to return all data that is at most five minutes old. And because Splunk can hook into a real ]time stream, this data will always be up-to-date. Extending the previous example, I can now aggregate all types of data into one view based in time. In this picture, I've got transaction logs, telemetry, and downlinked files all in one page, organized by time. Even though the raw data looks completely than this, I've defined interfaces that transform it into this uniform format. This gives me a more complete picture for the question what was the spacecraft doing at this particular time? And because querying data is simple, I can start with a big block of data and whiddle it down to what I need, rather than hunting around for the individual pieces of data that I need. When we have all the data we need, we can begin widdling down the data with Splunk's Unix-like search syntax. These three examples highlights my trial-and-error attempts to find large temperature changes. I begin by showing the first 5 temperatures, only to find that they're sorted chronologically, rather than from highest temperatures to lowest temperatures. The next line shows sorting temperatures by their values, but I find that that fs not really what I want either. I want to know the delta temperatures between readings. Looking through Splunk's user manual, I find the delta function, which

  4. Radiology of renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.


    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis

  5. Spacecraft Water Regeneration by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop advanced catalysts for a volatile removal assembly used to purify spacecraft water. The innovation of the proposed...

  6. Wireless Data and Power Transfer on Small Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achieving low-cost space missions implies lowering all phases of mission development, including spacecraft design, assembly, integration and test. The concept of the...

  7. Triple3 Redundant Spacecraft Subsystems (T3RSS), Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Redefine Technologies, along with researchers at the University of Colorado, will use three redundancy methods to decrease the susceptibility of a spacecraft, on a...

  8. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek is developing a high throughput nominal 100-W Hall Effect Thruster. This device is well sized for spacecraft ranging in size from several tens of kilograms to...

  9. Modeling Vacuum Arcs On Spacecraft Solar Panel Arrays, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft charging and subsequent vacuum arcing poses a significant threat to satellites in LEO and GEO plasma conditions. Localized arc discharges can cause a...

  10. Conceptual definition of Automated Power Systems Management. [for planetary spacecraft (United States)

    Imamura, M. S.; Skelly, L.; Weiner, H.


    Automated Power Systems Management (APSM) is defined as the capability of a spacecraft power system to automatically perform monitoring, computational, command, and control functions without ground intervention. Power systems for future planetary spacecraft must have this capability because they must perform up to 10 years, and accommodate real-time changes in mission execution autonomously. Specific APSM functions include fault detection, isolation, and correction; system performance and load profile prediction; power system optimization; system checkout; and data storage and transmission control. This paper describes the basic method of implementing these specific functions. The APSM hardware includes a central power system computer and a processor dedicated to each major power system subassembly along with digital interface circuitry. The major payoffs anticipated are in enhancement of spacecraft reliability and life and reduction of overall spacecraft program cost.

  11. Interactive modeling, design and analysis of large spacecraft (United States)

    Garrett, L. B.


    An efficient computer aided design and analysis capability applicable to large space structures was developed to relieve the engineer of much of the effort required in the past. The automated capabilities can be used to rapidly synthesize, evaluate, and determine performance characteristics and costs for future large spacecraft concepts. The interactive design and evaluation of advanced spacecraft program (IDEAS) is used to illustrate the power, efficiency, and versatility of the approach. The coupling of space environment modeling algorithms with simplified analysis and design modules in the IDEAS program permits rapid evaluation of completing spacecraft and mission designs. The approach is particularly useful in the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of concepts must be considered before a limited set can be selected or more detailed analysis. Integrated spacecraft systems level data and data files are generated or subsystems and mission reexamination and/or refinement and for more rigorous analyses.

  12. Fractionated spacecraft : The new sprout in distributed space systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.


    This paper provides a survey of current state-of-the-art technologies of fractionated spacecraft, a new architecture for distributed space systems. The survey covers six aspects: architecture, networking, wireless communication, wireless power transfer, distributed computing, and planned missions

  13. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  14. High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate...

  15. LP MOON SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Prospector attitude data set consists of values for the spacecraft spin rate and spin axis orientation (attitude) as a function of time. These values are...

  16. Spacecraft charging investigation - A joint research and technology program (United States)

    Lovell, R. R.; Stevens, N. J.; Schober, W.; Pike, C. P.; Lehn, W.


    A jointly planned U.S. Air Force-NASA program has been established to investigate the spacecraft charging phenomenon that has caused electronic anomalies in satellites in geosynchronous orbits. The objectives of this program are to provide design criteria, techniques, and test methods to insure control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces. These objectives will be updated continuously over the next four years as data become available from the combined contractual and in-house programs. The geosynchronous altitude environment will be defined, ground and flight tests will be conducted, and materials and charge control techniques will be developed as required. The ultimate output of the program will be a spacecraft charging design criteria and test specification document. The program will be coordinated by a spacecraft charging program review group which has both Air Force and NASA representation.

  17. Autonomous Supervisory Engine for Multi-Spacecraft Formation Flying Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to develop an onboard, autonomous Multi-spacecraft Supervisory Engine (MSE) for formation-flying guidance, navigation and control...

  18. A Data Abstraction Architecture for Spacecraft Autonomy, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft generate huge amounts of data. A significant challenge for both human operators and autonomous control systems is ensuring that the right data (and...

  19. Passive Wireless Sensors for Spacecraft Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New classes of sensors are needed on spacecraft that can be interrogated remotely using RF signals and respond with the sensor's identity as well as the...

  20. Effect of the Mars Environment on Spacecraft Materials (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal is to develop a test methodology for spacecraft material corrosion resistance; evaluate aerospace materials and surface treatments. This data will support...

  1. High precision relative position sensing system for formation flying spacecraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test an optical sensing system that provides high precision relative position sensing for formation flying spacecraft.  A high precision...

  2. Distributed Control Architectures for Precision Spacecraft Formations, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc. (LaunchPoint) proposes to develop synthesis methods and design architectures for distributed control systems in precision spacecraft...

  3. A Self-Regulating Freezable Heat Exchanger for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A spacecraft thermal control system must keep the vehicle, avionics and atmosphere (if crewed) within a defined temperature range. Since water is non-toxic and good...

  4. Internal Mass Motion for Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Christopher D


    We present a detailed description of the application of a noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamics of gyrostat spacecraft with internal mass motion...

  5. Spacecraft Thermal Control System Not Requiring Power, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The thermal management of spacecraft would be enhanced by dynamic control over surface emissivity in the mid-infrared. In this SBIR program, Triton Systems proposes...

  6. Nuclear radiation environment analysis for thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft (United States)

    Davis, H. S.; Koprowski, E. F.


    Neutron and gamma ray transport calculations were performed using Monte Carlo methods and a three-dimensional geometric model of the spacecraft. The results are compared with similar calculations performed for an earlier design.

  7. A Sustainable Spacecraft Component Database Solution, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous spacecraft component databases have been developed to support NASA, DoD, and contractor design centers and design tools. Despite the clear utility of...

  8. Passive Devices for Advanced Fluid Management aboard Spacecraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acute challenges are faced by the designers of fluid systems for spacecraft because of the persistently unfamiliar and unforgiving low-g environment. For example,...

  9. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high throughput, nominal 100 W Hall Effect Thruster (HET). This HET will be sized for small spacecraft (< 180 kg), including...

  10. Stability Analysis of Spacecraft Motion in the Vicinity of Asteroids (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of my proposal is to determine the stability of a spacecraft when in the vicinity of an asteroid. Orbiting an asteroid is a difficult task. The unique...

  11. The Impact of Autonomy Technology on Spacecraft Software Architecture (United States)

    Gamble, E. B., Jr.


    Autonomy technology for high-level, closed-loop control of spacecraft offers considerable benefits to space-flight projects. Those benefits can enable whole new classes of missions; however, they are not without cost.

  12. Novel Metal Organic Framework Synthesis for Spacecraft Oxygen Capture Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek and University of Utah propose to develop novel metal organic framework (MOF) material to efficiently capture oxygen in spacecraft cabin environment. The...

  13. Integrating Standard Operating Procedures with Spacecraft Automation, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation can be used to greatly reduce the demands on crew member and flight controllers time and attention. Automation can monitor critical resources,...

  14. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  15. A small spacecraft for multipoint measurement of ionospheric plasma (United States)

    Roberts, T. M.; Lynch, K. A.; Clayton, R. E.; Weiss, J.; Hampton, D. L.


    Measurement of ionospheric plasma is often performed by a single in situ device or remotely using cameras and radar. This article describes a small, low-resource, deployed spacecraft used as part of a local, multipoint measurement network. A B-field aligned sounding rocket ejects four of these spin-stabilized spacecraft in a cross pattern. In this application, each spacecraft carries two retarding potential analyzers which are used to determine plasma density, flow, and ion temperature. An inertial measurement unit and a light-emitting diode array are used to determine the position and orientation of the devices after deployment. The design of this spacecraft is first described, and then results from a recent test flight are discussed. This flight demonstrated the successful operation of the deployment mechanism and telemetry systems, provided some preliminary plasma measurements in a simple mid-latitude environment, and revealed several design issues.

  16. Miniature Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Spacecraft and Missile Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uy, O


    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) have been used for over 20 years as contamination monitors in spacecraft to measure film deposition on sensitive surfaces such as optical mirrors, thermal radiators, and solar arrays...

  17. Odor Control in Spacecraft Waste Management, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft and lunar bases generate a variety of wastes containing water, including food wastes, feces, and brines. Disposal of these wastes, as well as recovery of...

  18. Modeling Cable-Harness Effects on Spacecraft Structures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research involves modeling the effects of cable-harnesses and wiring on the dynamics of spacecraft structures. As space structure mass decreases due to...

  19. Nuclear-powered Hysat spacecraft: comparative design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.


    The study shows that the all-nuclear spacecraft can have a substantial weight advantage over a hybrid (nuclear/solar) or all-solar spacecraft, owing to a further reduction in power requirement, and to the elimination of such equipment as the sensor gimbal and rotating joint assemblies. Because the need for a sun-oriented section is eliminated, the all-nuclear spacecraft can be designed as a monolithic structure, with the sensor and other payload firmly secured in a fixed position on the structure. This enhances attitude stability while minimizing structural weight and eliminating the need for flexible fluid lines. Sensor motion can be produced, varied, and controlled within the limits specified by the study contractors by moving the entire spacecraft in the prescribed pattern. A simple attitude control system using available hardware suffices to meet all requirements

  20. Charge Dissipating Transparent Conformal Coatings for Spacecraft Electronics, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space environment poses significant challenges to spacecraft electronics in the form of electrostatic discharge (ESD) as a result of exposure to highly charged...

  1. Variable Gas-Conductance Radiator: Lightweight, High Turndown Spacecraft Radiator, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft thermal control is a critical element to maintaining spacecraft, manned, unmanned or robotic, at proper temperatures for humans, instruments and...

  2. Passive Plasma Contact Mechanisms for Small-Scale Spacecraft (United States)

    McTernan, Jesse K.

    Small-scale spacecraft represent a paradigm shift in how entities such as academia, industry, engineering firms, and the scientific community operate in space. However, although the paradigm shift produces unique opportunities to build satellites in unique ways for novel missions, there are also significant challenges that must be addressed. This research addresses two of the challenges associated with small-scale spacecraft: 1) the miniaturization of spacecraft and associated instrumentation and 2) the need to transport charge across the spacecraft-environment boundary. As spacecraft decrease in size, constraints on the size, weight, and power of on-board instrumentation increase--potentially limiting the instrument's functionality or ability to integrate with the spacecraft. These constraints drive research into mechanisms or techniques that use little or no power and efficiently utilize existing resources. One limited resource on small-scale spacecraft is outer surface area, which is often covered with solar panels to meet tight power budgets. This same surface area could also be needed for passive neutralization of spacecraft charging. This research explores the use of a transparent, conductive layer on the solar cell coverglass that is electrically connected to spacecraft ground potential. This dual-purpose material facilitates the use of outer surfaces for both energy harvesting of solar photons as well as passive ion collection. Mission capabilities such as in-situ plasma measurements that were previously infeasible on small-scale platforms become feasible with the use of indium tin oxide-coated solar panel coverglass. We developed test facilities that simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit to test the dual-purpose material and the various application of this approach. Particularly, this research is in support of two upcoming missions: OSIRIS-3U, by Penn State's Student Space Programs Lab, and MiTEE, by the University of Michigan. The purpose of

  3. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hideo


    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Study for prevention of sucker rods failures though NiCr coating; Estudo para prevencao de falhas de hastes de bombeio de petroleo atraves de aplicacao de revestimento NiCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Brunno S.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Paulo M.M. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Figueiredo, Renan T.; Cavalcanti, Eliane B. [Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE (Brazil)


    The use of common materials, as carbon steel, in sucker rods motivated by its low cost, in mature oil wells located on Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia and Rio Grande do Norte states, which are subjected to tractive-compressive-abrasive like combined loads, added to aggressive environment (oil production in the presence of water, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, salinity, etc..), leads to the materials drastic degeneration and even its rupture. The substitution of common materials by those which have better resistance o failure is, therefore, limited by high cost. A much cheaper alternative is to modify the surface of common materials used in the subsurface equipment, by applying a protective coating in order to assure the system's performance, durability or better economic viability. In the present work it was studied the use of thermal sprayed NiCr coating in sucker rods. It was studied three thermal spray processes: flame spray, arc spray and HVOF (high velocity oxy fuel). (author)

  5. Protecting Spacecraft Fragments from Exposure to Small Debris


    V. V. Zelentsov


    Since the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite a large amount of space debris has been accumulated in near-earth space. This debris comprises the exhausted spacecrafts, final stages of rocket-carriers and boosters, technological space junk, consisting of the structure elements, which are separated when deploying the solar arrays, antennas etc., as well as when undocking a booster and a spacecraft. All the debris is divided into observable one of over 100 mm in size and unobservable ...

  6. An assessment of spacecraft target mode selection methods (United States)

    Mercer, J. F.; Aglietti, G. S.; Remedia, M.; Kiley, A.


    Coupled Loads Analyses (CLAs), using finite element models (FEMs) of the spacecraft and launch vehicle to simulate critical flight events, are performed in order to determine the dynamic loadings that will be experienced by spacecraft during launch. A validation process is carried out on the spacecraft FEM beforehand to ensure that the dynamics of the analytical model sufficiently represent the behavior of the physical hardware. One aspect of concern is the containment of the FEM correlation and update effort to focus on the vibration modes which are most likely to be excited under test and CLA conditions. This study therefore provides new insight into the prioritization of spacecraft FEM modes for correlation to base-shake vibration test data. The work involved example application to large, unique, scientific spacecraft, with modern FEMs comprising over a million degrees of freedom. This comprehensive investigation explores: the modes inherently important to the spacecraft structures, irrespective of excitation; the particular 'critical modes' which produce peak responses to CLA level excitation; an assessment of several traditional target mode selection methods in terms of ability to predict these 'critical modes'; and an indication of the level of correlation these FEM modes achieve compared to corresponding test data. Findings indicate that, although the traditional methods of target mode selection have merit and are able to identify many of the modes of significance to the spacecraft, there are 'critical modes' which may be missed by conventional application of these methods. The use of different thresholds to select potential target modes from these parameters would enable identification of many of these missed modes. Ultimately, some consideration of the expected excitations is required to predict all modes likely to contribute to the response of the spacecraft in operation.

  7. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob


    A control synthesis for a spacecraft equipped with a set of magnetorquer coils is addressed. The electromagnetic actuation is particularly attractive for small low-cost spacecraft missions, due to their relatively low price, high reliability, light weight, and low power consumption. The interacti....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation....

  8. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Controlling Spacecraft Power System


    Hanaa T. El-Madany; Faten H. Fahmy; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Hassen T. Dorrah


    Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) made during this decade have forever changed the way we look at automating spacecraft subsystems including the electrical power system. AI have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper, a mathematical modeling and MATLAB–SIMULINK model for the different components of the spacecraft power system is presented. Also, a control sys...

  9. Dynamics and control of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft relative motion

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Ye; Yang, Yueneng


    This book develops a dynamical model of the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in both unperturbed and J2-perturbed environments. It explicitly discusses three kinds of typical space missions involving relative orbital control: spacecraft hovering, rendezvous, and formation flying. Subsequently, it puts forward designs for both open-loop and closed-loop control schemes propelled or augmented by the geomagnetic Lorentz force. These control schemes are entirely novel and represent a significantly departure from previous approaches.

  10. Spacecraft Angular Velocity Estimation Algorithm Based on Orientation Quaternion Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Li


    Full Text Available The spacecraft (SC mission involves providing the appropriate orientation and stabilization of the associated axes in space. One of the main sources of information for the attitude control system is the angular rate sensor blocks. One way to improve a reliability of the system is to provide a back up of the control algorithms in case of failure of these blocks. To solve the problem of estimation of SP angular velocity vector in the inertial system of coordinates with a lack of information from the angular rate sensors is supposed the use of orientation data from the star sensors; in this case at each clock of the onboard digital computer. The equations in quaternions are used to describe the kinematics of rotary motion. Their approximate solution is used to estimate the angular velocity vector. Methods of modal control and multi-dimensional decomposition of a control object are used to solve the problem of observation and identification of the angular rates. These methods enabled us to synthesize the SP angular velocity vector estimation algorithm and obtain the equations, which relate the error quaternion with the calculated estimate of the angular velocity. Mathematical modeling was carried out to test the algorithm. Cases of different initial conditions were simulated. Time between orientation quaternion measurements and angular velocity of the model was varied. The algorithm was compared with a more accurate algorithm, built on more complete equations. Graphs of difference in angular velocity estimation depending on the number of iterations are presented. The difference in angular velocity estimation is calculated from results of the synthesized algorithm and the algorithm for more accurate equations. Graphs of error distribution for angular velocity estimation with initial conditions being changed are also presented, and standard deviations of estimation errors are calculated. The synthesized algorithm is inferior in accuracy assessment to

  11. Extreme Spacecraft Charging in Polar Low Earth Orbit (United States)

    Colson, Andrew D.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, L. Neergaard


    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun -synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth fs land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems episodically charge to frame potentials in the kilovolt range when exposed to space weather environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (approx.10 fs kilovolt) electrons in regions of low background plasma density. Auroral charging conditions are similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. We first review the physics of space environment interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments. Finally, a set of extreme DMSP charging events are described varying in maximum negative frame potential from approx.0.6 kV to approx.2 kV, focusing on the characteristics of the charging events that are of importance both to the space system designer and to spacecraft operators. The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between scientific studies of auroral charging and the need for engineering teams to understand how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  12. Multiple spacecraft formation reconfiguration using solar radiation pressure (United States)

    Shahid, Kamran; Kumar, Krishna Dev


    In this paper the use of solar radiation pressure for spacecraft formation reconfiguration at the L2 Sun-Earth/Moon collinear libration point is presented. The system consisting of a leader and three follower spacecraft is considered. The leader spacecraft is assumed to be in a fixed halo trajectory and the follower spacecraft position relative to the leader satellite is controlled using two angles and area; these are varied based on a variable structure model reference adaptive control technique to achieve the desired formation reconfiguration. This approach ensures that all follower spacecraft complete the required maneuver in the same time. An intertially fixed circular trajectory, which is suitable for interferometer missions, is used in this paper. The stability of the proposed controller is established using Lyapunov theory. The performance of the proposed controller is tested through numerical simulation of the governing nonlinear equations of motion and is applied for formation initialization, resizing, retargeting, and rotation. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control technique for spacecraft formation reconfiguration using solar radiation pressure at the L2 libration point. Furthermore, control inputs on the order of 15 degrees and 2 m2 for area change are sufficient to execute the maneuvers.

  13. Enabling Advanced Automation in Spacecraft Operations with the Spacecraft Emergency Response System (United States)

    Breed, Julie; Fox, Jeffrey A.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)


    True autonomy is the Holy Grail of spacecraft mission operations. The goal of launching a satellite and letting it manage itself throughout its useful life is a worthy one. With true autonomy, the cost of mission operations would be reduced to a negligible amount. Under full autonomy, any problems (no matter the severity or type) that may arise with the spacecraft would be handled without any human intervention via some combination of smart sensors, on-board intelligence, and/or smart automated ground system. Until the day that complete autonomy is practical and affordable to deploy, incremental steps of deploying ever-increasing levels of automation (computerization of once manual tasks) on the ground and on the spacecraft are gradually decreasing the cost of mission operations. For example, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) has been flying spacecraft with low cost operations for several years. NASA-GSFC's SMEX (Small Explorer) and MIDEX (Middle Explorer) missions have effectively deployed significant amounts of automation to enable the missions to fly predominately in 'light-out' mode. Under light-out operations the ground system is run without human intervention. Various tools perform many of the tasks previously performed by the human operators. One of the major issues in reducing human staff in favor of automation is the perceived increased in risk of losing data, or even losing a spacecraft, because of anomalous conditions that may occur when there is no one in the control center. When things go wrong, missions deploying advanced automation need to be sure that anomalous conditions are detected and that key personal are notified in a timely manner so that on-call team members can react to those conditions. To ensure the health and safety of its lights-out missions, NASA-GSFC's Advanced Automation and Autonomy branch (Code 588) developed the Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS). The SERS is a Web-based collaborative environment that enables

  14. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  15. Magnet failure workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, P.G.; Desportes, H.; Morpurgo, M.; Komarek, P.; Van Hulst, K.; Hackley, D.; Young, J.L.; Kibbe, K.


    The dictionary defines failure as nonperformance or an unacceptable want of success. (The definition implies that the results should have been avoided). In an emerging technology such as ours, the boundaries of expectations and ''unacceptable success'' are often ill defined. Failures are often touted as hugh successes (occasionally rightfully so) and exceptional technological achievement can become dismal failure (if expectations are too high). We all, however, have experienced problems of one sort or another and the basic purpose of the workshop was simply to communicate these so that new or future workers don't make the same mistakes

  16. Differential and Active Charging Results from the ATS Spacecraft. (United States)

    Olsen, Richard Christopher


    This study of spacecraft charging concentrates on the differential charging and artificial particle emission experiments on ATS-5 and ATS-6. It was found that differential charging of spacecraft surfaces generated large electrostatic barriers to spacecraft generated electrons, from photoemission, secondary emission, and thermal emitters. The electrostatic barrier is a potential minimum outside the charged spacecraft which causes low energy electrons to be trapped near the spacecraft. The large dish antenna on ATS-6 was identified as the source of the electrostatic barrier around the Environmental Measurements Experiment package. Daylight charging on ATS-6 was shown to have behavior suggesting the dominance of differential charging on the absolute potential of the mainframe. Electron emission experiments on ATS-5 in eclipse charging environments showed that the electron emitter could partially or totally discharge the satellite, but the mainframe recharged negatively in a few 10's of seconds. The equilibrium emitter current was found to be .3 microamps, substantially below the milliamp capability of the emitter. The limiting of the current and the time dependence seen in the ATS-5 potential during these operations were explained as the result of differential charging of the insulating surfaces on the spacecraft, and the creation of an electrostatic barrier by the differential potential. This barrier limited the artificially generated electron current to the point that the net flux to the spacecraft was again negative. Both the daylight charging events of ATS-6 and the eclipse electron emission experiments of ATS-5 were further analyzed with a simple time dependent model which showed that the barrier height quickly reached an equilibrium value which limited but did not completely stop electron emission. Average and differential potentials developed in time subject to the constraint that the barrier height remain constant. Ion engine operations and plasma emission

  17. Fast, Safe, Propellant-Efficient Spacecraft Motion Planning Under Clohessy-Wiltshire-Hill Dynamics (United States)

    Starek, Joseph A.; Schmerling, Edward; Maher, Gabriel D.; Barbee, Brent W.; Pavone, Marco


    This paper presents a sampling-based motion planning algorithm for real-time and propellant-optimized autonomous spacecraft trajectory generation in near-circular orbits. Specifically, this paper leverages recent algorithmic advances in the field of robot motion planning to the problem of impulsively actuated, propellant- optimized rendezvous and proximity operations under the Clohessy-Wiltshire-Hill dynamics model. The approach calls upon a modified version of the FMT* algorithm to grow a set of feasible trajectories over a deterministic, low-dispersion set of sample points covering the free state space. To enforce safety, the tree is only grown over the subset of actively safe samples, from which there exists a feasible one-burn collision-avoidance maneuver that can safely circularize the spacecraft orbit along its coasting arc under a given set of potential thruster failures. Key features of the proposed algorithm include 1) theoretical guarantees in terms of trajectory safety and performance, 2) amenability to real-time implementation, and 3) generality, in the sense that a large class of constraints can be handled directly. As a result, the proposed algorithm offers the potential for widespread application, ranging from on-orbit satellite servicing to orbital debris removal and autonomous inspection missions.

  18. Relative Attitude Estimation for a Uniform Motion and Slowly Rotating Noncooperative Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel relative attitude estimation approach for a uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative spacecraft. It is assumed that the uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative chief spacecraft is in failure or out of control and there is no a priori rotation rate information. We utilize a very fast binary descriptor based on binary robust independent elementary features (BRIEF to obtain the features of the target, which are rotational invariance and resistance to noise. And then, we propose a novel combination of single candidate random sample consensus (RANSAC with extended Kalman filter (EKF that makes use of the available prior probabilistic information from the EKF in the RANSAC model hypothesis stage. The advantage of this combination obviously reduces the sample size to only one, which results in large computational savings without the loss of accuracy. Experimental results from real image sequence of a real model target show that the relative angular error is about 3.5% and the mean angular velocity error is about 0.1 deg/s.

  19. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management (United States)

    Wu, G. Gordon


    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  20. Contraceptive failure in the United States. (United States)

    Ryder, N B


    Data obtained from the 1970 National Fertility Study are analyzed to determine the incidence of contraceptive failure according to intent, social background, and method. Analyzed by life-table procedures, the data indicate that 40% of contraceptive users fail to achieve their goal of either delaying (26%) or preventing (14%) pregnancy. Those women who are relatively young at the beginning of their exposure to risk are much more likely to fail than older women. Pregnancy order and educational attainment do not affect contraceptive failure rates when intent and age are held constant. Blacks are much less successful than whites in delaying and preventing pregnancy, and white Catholics are less successful in delaying, but just as successful in preventing pregnancy as white non-Catholics. Attempts to prevent or delay pregnancy were much more successful in 1970 than 1955, partially because of the use of oral contraceptives, but also because of greater care taken no matter which method was used. Failure rates by method with intent and age constant are as follows: pill--6%, IUD--12%, condom--18%, diaphragm--23%, foam--31%, rhythm--33%, and douche--39%. These figures reflect the characteristics of those who use each method as well as the method itself. Methodological problems with this analysis are discussed along with their implications.