Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia
The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could
Social Security Administration — The Social Security Bulletin (ISSN 1937-4666) is published quarterly by the Social Security Administration. The Bulletin is prepared in the Office of Retirement and...
... a my Social Security account. Newsroom Social Security's Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 Agency Financial Report (AFR) Our ... Us Accessibility FOIA Open Government Glossary Privacy Report Fraud, Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: ...
Westerveld, M.; Pennings, F.; Vonk, G.
Does ‘the’ social security take sufficient account of women? Are its protection schemes sufficiently aimed at safeguarding women’s interests? These are the questions I was invited to answer for this handbook on social security law. At the same time I was asked to adopt an unorthodox approach, one
Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....
Full Text Available The main aim of this work marks the reveling of scientific premises intended to structure the issue of social influence for security. The approach has as aim the identification of those elements that define and characterize the social influence in order to manage conflict, from the perspective of public communication. The proposed approach establishes some synthetic, clear boundaries through the method of research and analysis of the concept of security, social influence, revealing the specifics of public communication in conflict management.
Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M
Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.
Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...... income of different ‘events’ such as illness, unemployment, disability and retirement. Maternity benefits and family allowances are also included. The information is up-dated on an annual basis, that of this 8th edition is for 1998....
Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...... of different "events" such as illness, unemployment, injuries from work and retirement. Maternity benefits and family allowances are also included. The information of the 6th edition is for 1996. The contents are updated on an annual basis....
Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...... of different 'events' such as illness, unemployment, disability and retirement. Maternity benefits and family allowances are also included. The information is up-dated on an annual basis, that of this 7th edition is for 1997....
Jensen, Olaf; Canals, Luisa; Haarløv, Erik
Social security for seafarers globally Background: Social security protection is one of the essential elements of decent work. The issue is complex and no previous epidemiological studies of the coverage among seafarers have yet been performed. Objectives: The aim was to overcome the gap...... of knowledge to promote the discussion and planning of the implementation of social security for all seafarers. Methods: The seafarers completed a short questionnaire concerning their knowledge about their social security status. Results: Significant disparities of coverage of social security were pointed out...... comes from poorer countries without substantial social security systems. The solutions suggested are to implement the minimum requirements as recommended by the ILO 2006 Convention, to survey the implementation and in the long term to struggle for global social equality. Key words: Social security...
A commission studying past, present, and future social stakes ! For many years we have been hearing about the problems of funding of health insurance benefits in our different Member States. At CERN we are not totally immune from this problem. To start with, let us recall that we have a mutual-benefit scheme which covers everyone for the consequences of the uncertainties in life (illness and accidents). The rules of our scheme are established by CERN in the framework of a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee, the CERN Health Insurance Scheme Board (CHISB), which is also in charge of managing the scheme. The work of the “ProtSoc” (Protection Sociale – Social Security) commission, as we like to call it at the Staff Association, is to help your representatives on the CHISB, by preparing together with them the subjects and positions to be put forward and defended. This commission, which groups together the staff delegates who wish to invest their ...
Lee, Sangheon; Torm, Nina
security coverage by 10 per cent experience a revenue gain of 1.4-2.0 per cent per worker and a profit gain of up to 1.8 per cent, depending on the survival time of the firm. However, given the time lag between 'investment' (in social security contributions) and returns (enhanced firm performance...
Social Security Administration — Cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid from...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This report presents the results of a validation study of Social Security numbers (SSNs) in Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) records for the fourth...
No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1). The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pion...
Jensen, Olaf C; Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo; Haarløv, Erik; Sucre, Rimsky; Flores, Agnes; Canals, M Luisa
The social security protection is one of the essential elements of decent work. The issue is complexand no previous epidemiological studies of the coverage among the seafarers have yet been performed. The aim was to overcome the gap of knowledge to promote the further discussion and plan the implementationof the social security for all the seafarers. The seafarers completed a short questionnaire concerning their knowledge abouttheir social security status. The significant disparities in the social security coverage were pointed out among the nationalities.Especially it is worth mentioning that more than half of the respondents believe they are economicallyuncovered for disability from an injury on board and from a work-related disease. The results confirm the ILO (Convention No. 143) statements that the significant part of theseafarers comes from the poorer countries without the substantial social security systems. The solutionssuggested are to implement the minimum requirements as recommended by the ILO 2006 Convention, tosurvey the implementation and - in the long term - to struggle for a global social equality.
.... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...
The purpose of this procedure is to extend and provide specificity to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Security Policy regarding data loss prevention and digital rights management.
Rom-Jensen, Byron Zachary
of Scandinavian achievements were variable in their ideological outlook and sometimes deliberately challenged the existence and goals of New Deal policies. Moreover, this essay explores the usage of Scandinavia in New Deal social legislation by examining the policymaking rhetoric of the Social Security Act...... and its 1939 amendments. The surprising plasticity of the Scandinavian image amongst policymakers ultimately reveals the fluid nature of both New Deal-era politics and the Scandinavian images it appropriated....
In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.
The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...
Full Text Available One of the manifestations of the global crisis of financial capitalism and the policies arising from it was the imposition of austerity measures, which not only resulted in privatization of the commons and general expropriation of the people, but also managed to introduce new mechanisms of discipline and punishment. Debt, being the fundament of relations in society, forced itself into the system of social security: new legislation, regulating welfare benefits, has now shifted to a method for the criminalization of poverty, deepening class differences and transforming social workers (and the system of social security as a whole into a moralizing, bureaucratic machine for disciplining the population. The new legislation also shows a lack of reflection on the changes that need to be made to the welfare state in order to create social services that meet the needs and desires of individuals. Instead of improvements that provide decent living conditions and a new system of social rights (to deal with the problems resulting from precarious working conditions, people are faced with depersonalization, humiliation and increased hate speech and other fascist practices. The effect of austerity measures on the social security system does not end with the devastation of service users’ lives and their communities, which are slowly becoming exhausted, individualized and devoid of solidarity. It also means a big step backwards for the core ethics and principles of social work. Social workers are increasingly alienated from their clients and the communities they live in. They function more in the service of the government and its policies rather than as advocates of people’s rights.
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data at the national level from federal fiscal year 2006 onwards for the accuracy of the assignment of Social Security numbers (SSN) based on...
Social Security Administration — A database that contains client preference information for the SSA initiated Social Security Statement as well as other data including SSN, disposition for paper SS...
Security psychology is considered through social systemic search for reciprocal contiguity and mutual completion of existing advances of psychology and conceptual security understanding. The ability of systemic vision of security and its cognitive and practical specifics are demonstrated. The possibility to investigate safety psychology as social theoretical construct is suggested. Multi-aspect approach to security is substantiated. Methodological challenges of psychological security are disc...
Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J
As a major source of income for retired persons in the United States, Social Security benefits directly influence economic well-being. That fact underscores the importance of measuring Social Security income accurately in household surveys. Using Social Security Administration (SSA) records, we examine Social Security income as reported in two Census Bureau surveys, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). Although SSA usually deducts Medicare premiums from benefit payments, both the CPS and the SIPP aim to collect and record gross Social Security benefit amounts (before Medicare premium deductions). We find that the Social Security benefit recorded in the CPS closely approximates the gross benefit recorded for CPS respondents in SSA's records, but the Social Security benefit recorded in the SIPP more closely approximates SSA's record of net benefit payments (after deducting Medicare premiums).
The paper examines the problem of social exclusion in the provision of social security in Zimbabwe. After sketching a historical perspective of the problem of social exclusion in Zimbabwe, it is argued that social exclusion emanates largely from the orientation of social security which places emphasis on protecting persons ...
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1. The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pioneer Accountable Care Organization, a government health-care plan that Banner serves. Banner generated its mailing list from information it received from the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which is an agency within the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS responsible for administration of several federal health-care programs. Although medical information has been protected by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA since 1996, penalties were recently increased. Civil monetary penalties were increased from a maximum of $100 ...
Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and shall...
This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...
Securing Social Media in the Enterprise is a concise overview of the security threats posed by the use of social media sites and apps in enterprise network environments. Social media sites and apps are now a ubiquitous presence within enterprise systems and networks, and are vulnerable to a wide range of digital systems attacks. This brief volume provides security professionals and network systems administrators a much-needed dive into the most current threats, detection techniques, and defenses for these attacks, and provides a roadmap for best practices to secure and manage social media wi
Serrelis, Emmanouil; Alexandris, Nikolaos
Social Lending is one of the latest trends in Social Networking, offering a communication and financial channel between individual borrowers and lenders. The various Social Lending transaction schemes could be subject to multiple security threats, in both financial and technical terms, which could affect the integrity of the service as well as the trust of citizens. This paper provides an overview of the basic characteristics of Social Lending as well as an analysis the potential security issues suggesting some appropriate corrective measures. The ultimate target is to enforce the Social Lending effort with an information security foundation that could become an appreciable alternative to the "traditional" lending system.
Ekaterina Gennadievna Kondratova
Full Text Available It is defined in the article social networks as a tool in the hands of cyber-criminals to compromise the organization’s data. The author focuses on a list of threats to information security caused by social networks usage, which should be considered in the set up of information security management system of the company.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.
Sponsored by Army Research Institute (ARI) #10086985 Influence of Social Networks on Cyber Security Report...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Influence of Social Networks on Cyber Security 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Study Objective • Examine cadet social
Pieters, Wolter; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Dechesne, Francien
Lessons from previous experiences are often overlooked when deploying security-sensitive technology in the real world. At the same time, security assessments often suffer from a lack of real-world data. This appears similar to general problems in technology assessment, where knowledge about
van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Clasen, J.J.
The provision of social security benefits rests on normative principles of social justice. Most strongly manifest in earnings-related social insurance, the principle of reciprocity has been increasingly questioned on grounds of equity, adequacy and fiscal viability, in the wake of socio-economic
The following social security systems exist in Uganda: formal social security schemes targeting the employed, community groups that serve only group members, kinship-based solidarity groups that serve the extended family and village residents' mutual assistance groups, which are compulsory for all adults in the villages ...
Social Security Administration — SSNVS is a service offered by SSA's Business Services Online (BSO). It is used by employers and certain third-party submitters to verify the accuracy of the names...
Bell, Donald; Hill, Diane
Coordinating the two sources of retirement income--private pensions and Social Security--tends to lower employer costs and result in private pensions that replace a larger percentage of preretirement income for higher-paid workers. (Author/SK)
Michael Dotsey; Wenli Li; Fang Yang
This paper incorporates home production into a dynamic general equilibrium model of overlapping generations with endogenous retirement to study Social Security reforms. As such, the model differentiates both consumption goods and labor effort according to their respective roles in home production and market activities. Using a calibrated model, we find that eliminating the current pay-as-you-go Social Security system has important implications for both labor supply and consumption decisions a...
Torben Andersen; Joydeep Bhattacharya
It has been argued that "paternalistically motivated forced savings constitutes an important, and to some the most important, rationale for social security retirement systems." This paper revisits the role played by myopia in generating a theoretical rationale for pay-as-you-go social security in dynamically efficient economies. If the competing asset is linear storage and myopic agents are allowed to borrow against future pension benefits, there is no welfare-rationale for pay-as-you-go pens...
Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph
Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of per...
Van Dijk, F
"The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy Act... Social Security Number; and whether providing the Social Security Number is voluntary or mandatory. Do...
The growth of Online Social Networking (OSN) sites has created opportunities for consumers to communicate with others as well as partake in many new services. To use OSN features, consumers must create accounts using security technology and processes established by individual OSNs. These protective measures are not consistent among various networks and there is wide variation on how OSNs use various security methods: password strength, verification, password reset requirements and verificatio...
Özyer, Tansel; Rokne, Jon; Khoury, Suheil
Crime, terrorism and security are in the forefront of current societal concerns. This edited volume presents research based on social network techniques showing how data from crime and terror networks can be analyzed and how information can be extracted. The topics covered include crime data mining and visualization; organized crime detection; crime network visualization; computational criminology; aspects of terror network analyses and threat prediction including cyberterrorism and the related area of dark web; privacy issues in social networks; security informatics; graph algorithms for soci
Carminati, Barbara; Viviani, Marco; Viviani, Marco; Carminati, Barbara
The enormous success and diffusion that online social networks (OSNs) are encountering nowadays is vastly apparent. Users' social interactions now occur using online social media as communication channels; personal information and activities are easily exchanged both for recreational and business purposes in order to obtain social or economic advantages. In this scenario, OSNs are considered critical applications with respect to the security of users and their resources, for their characteristics alone: the large amount of personal information they manage, big economic upturn connected to thei
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a student... Security Administration. If the Social Security Administration confirms that number, the Secretary notifies...
Lesotho is a constitutional state. The Constitution of Lesotho came into force on 2 April 1993. It provides for a Bill of Rights as well as principles of state policy. There is, however, no express provision in the Constitution for a right to social security. This is regrettable. Thus, the intersection between constitutional law and social ...
The paper exploits Social Security legislation changes to identify the causal effect of Social Security income on out-of-pocket medical expenditures of the elderly. Using the 1986-1994 Consumer Expenditure Survey and an instrumental variables strategy, the empirical results show that health care expenditures are responsive to changes in Social Security income for elderly individuals with less than a high school education. The estimated income elasticities are between 1.41 and 3.47 depending on the outcome measures and are statistically significant at conventional levels. The findings are in contrast to existing studies that find a small income elasticity at the individual/household level.
Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph
Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of personal information from multiple sources, such as data brokers or profiles on social networking sites. Our results highlight the unexpected privacy consequences of the complex interactions among multiple data sources in modern information economies and quantify privacy risks associated with information revelation in public forums.
Social Security Administration — This report, which is part of a four-volume series, provides a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in 48 countries in Africa. It summarizes the...
Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides a variety of ways to conduct business with the agency. SSA offers members of the public the opportunity to request...
Tim Callan; Brian Nolan
Directing support towards those in employment but on low incomes is one of the most serious challenges facing social security policy, whether based on Beveridge or other models. Beveridge saw family allowances - universal cash transfers for children- as the mechanism for eliminating want for those at work. Means-tested transfers to those in work, tax allowances or exemptions, and minimum wages are other widely-used policy options. Here the links between low pay and poverty and the effectivene...
This volume aims at assessing the current approaches and technologies, as well as to outline the major challenges and future perspectives related to the security and privacy protection of social networks. It provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the art techniques, studies, and approaches as well as outlining future directions in this field. A wide range of interdisciplinary contributions from various research groups ensures for a balanced and complete perspective.
Dehuri, Satchidananda; Wang, Gi-Nam
With the proliferation of social media and on-line communities in networked world a large gamut of data has been collected and stored in databases. The rate at which such data is stored is growing at a phenomenal rate and pushing the classical methods of data analysis to their limits. This book presents an integrated framework of recent empirical and theoretical research on social network analysis based on a wide range of techniques from various disciplines like data mining, social sciences, mathematics, statistics, physics, network science, machine learning with visualization techniques, and security. The book illustrates the potential of multi-disciplinary techniques in various real life problems and intends to motivate researchers in social network analysis to design more effective tools by integrating swarm intelligence and data mining.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is submitted...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law; or...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual or...
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing of social security numbers. 205.52... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.52 Furnishing of social security numbers. The... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right... which is required by Federal statute; or (2) The disclosure of a Social Security number when such...
... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social Security number. 83.9 Section 83.9 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.9 Social Security number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless...
Most people are covered by non-formal arrangements and the family and community still play a critical role in social protection even though poverty has impacted negatively on their ability to do this effectively. Churches are another source of social security. Semi-formal arrangements include burial societies, savings and ...
This paper exploits Social Security law changes to identify the effect of Social Security income on the use of formal and informal home care by the elderly. Results from an instrumental variables estimation strategy show that as retirement income increases, elderly individuals increase their use of formal home care and become less likely to rely on informal home care provided to them by their children. This negative effect on informal home care is most likely driven by male children withdrawing from their caregiving roles. The empirical results also suggest that higher Social Security benefits would encourage the use of formal home care by those who would not have otherwise used any type of home care and would also encourage the use of both types of home care services among elderly individuals. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This paper exploits Social Security law changes to identify the effect of Social Security income on the use of formal and informal home care by the elderly. Results from an instrumental variables estimation strategy show that as retirement income increases, elderly individuals increase their use of formal home care and become less likely to rely on informal home care provided to them by their children. This negative effect on informal home care is most likely driven by male children withdrawing from their caregiving roles. The empirical results also suggest that higher Social Security benefits would encourage the use of formal home care by those who would not have otherwise used any type of home care and would also encourage the use of both types of home care services among elderly individuals. PMID:26184382
Nelissen, J H; Van Den Akker, P A
"On the basis of the existing literature we examined the points at which social security and family demography meet. The main conclusions are: (1) child allowances will only affect fertility if the level of benefit is rather substantial; (2) unemployment provisions may affect fertility; (3) remarriage frequency is probably affected by public assistance benefits; (4) the same possibly holds for the divorce frequency. These conclusions are tentative: the results are contradictory from many viewpoints, some fields have hardly been investigated and it is unclear whether the effects are temporary or lasting." The geographical focus is on developed countries. excerpt
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section 273.6... normally uses the Receipt of Application for a Social Security Number, Form SSA-5028, as evidence that an... security numbers. (a) Requirements for participation. The State agency shall require that a household...
The most comprehensive handbook on critical infrastructures (CI), addressing both logical and physical security from an engineering point of view. The book surveys state-of-the-art methodologies and tools for CI analysis as well as strategies and technologies for CI protection.
The defense of human rights, namely one of the most important duties of the legislature, is a considerable challenge in the day-to-day business of parliament. The opinions and practices of elected representatives reflect the security concerns and fears of society that engender a vast process of social exclusion. In this context, the defense of the right to health of persons deprived of liberty seems an especially difficult task, as shown in the interview of State Congressman Marcelo Freixo, the Coordinator of the Human Rights Commission of the Legislative Assembly in Rio de Janeiro and creator of the State Mechanism for Preventing and Combating Torture.
Electronic Security Systems: Better Ways to Crime Prevention teaches the reader about the application of electronics for security purposes through the use of case histories, analogies, anecdotes, and other related materials. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the concepts behind security systems - its objectives, limitations, and components; the fundamentals of space detection; detection of intruder movement indoors and outdoors; surveillance; and alarm communication and control. Part 2 discusses equipments involved in security systems such as the different types of sensors,
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board transfers jurisdiction (railroad service and compensation credits earned by the employee which the Social...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Consent Based Social Security Number Verification (CBSV) Service AGENCY: Social Security... Security number (SSN) verification services to enrolled private businesses, State and local government...
Social Security Administration — The DATA Act Information Model Schema Reporting Submission Specification File C. File C includes the agency award information from the financial accounting system at...
Nicole Woo; Janelle Jones; John Schmitt
The Social Security payroll tax cap is the earnings level above which no further Social Security taxes are collected. The cap is currently at $110,100, though legislation has been introduced in Congress to apply the Social Security payroll tax to earnings above $250,000 (but not between the current cap and this level). This issue brief updates earlier work, finding that 5.8 percent of workers would be affected if the Social Security cap were eliminated entirely and 1.4 percent would be affect...
... number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees... reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. (a... social security number or with a different employee name or social security number than shown in SSA's...
Mauro da Motta Aguiar
Full Text Available Speeches about the social security “difficult” situation usually adopt as underlying thesis that RGPS funding should be restricted to the revenues from contributions on the payroll. From there came the question of how far would effectively be identifiable, on the brazilian current positive law, wich, among the revenues prescripted to support the Welfare System, could be considered as addressable to Social Security, inquiry wich was the objective of this work. The examination of the subject was initiated by the text of the Higher Law. The charges that are made regarding the “Citizen Constitution” generous content also led to research the situation in legal regulations issued in the previous period. After such a reverse search, the subject treatment was analyzed in the main infraconstitutional instrument about the theme, namely, the 8.212/1991 act. The research ended by showing the impossibility of identifying up support, from the direct reading of the Constitution or the laws that we have on the topic, for the thesis that wants to restrict, among the welfare incomes, the range of those than can be used by Social Security.
Since 1935, Social Security has provided a vital safety net for millions of Americans who cannot work because of age or disability. This safety net has been especially critical for Americans of Latino decent, who number more than 50 million or nearly one out of every six Americans. Social Security is critical to Latinos because it is much more…
The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...
Full Text Available Respecting the prohibitions against forced and arbitrary displacementcould significantly reduce the risk of, or prevent, displacement insituations of armed conflict, as could insisting on accountabilityfor violations of these prohibitions that amount to war crimes orcrimes against humanity. The UN Security Council has only partiallyaddressed these issues.
The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)
Simanis, J G
The data in Social Security Programs Throughout the World, 1979 indicate that new programs and improved benefits continue to be developed in many countries to increase protection against the economic consequences of old age, invalidity, sickness, work injury, unemployment, and death. A comparison with previous reports in the series reveals that payroll contribution rates have generally been raised to pay for the increased costs generated by improved programs coupled with inflation. Financial difficulties have frequently been compounded by a deteriorating ratio of contributions to beneficiaries as the growth of active workers tends to shrink and that of retirees to rise. As a supplement to higher contribution rates, some countries have sought to meet financial requirements by a number of measures, including expansion of the proportion of earnings subject to contributions, cutbacks in certain benefits, tighter controls on eligibility, and a search for ways to reduce expenses, particularly in the health care area. Also noteworthy are the greatly increased efforts being undertaken worldwide to attain equal treatment of men and women.
Cañon Ortegon, Leonardo
Solidarity as a human value, as a philosophical principle of the Social Security and as a duty of the Colombians tightly connects the foundations of the Social Rule of Law with the Social Security Model, whose parameters were set by the Political Constitution of 1991 for the development of the model of social security and social protection. The last adopted by Colombia according to Law 100 of 1993 in its diverse applications: pensions, health, occupational risks, complementary social services...
Full Text Available This article reflects the evolution of the social security system in Romania after accession to the European Union. Social security states its specificity as a basic concept that encompasses all the collective measures established by legislation to maintain individual or family income, to provide income when some or all sources have been lost or exhausted or in cases where the individual must cope with increased expenses. From this perspective, social security is a system that takes into account both the protection of able-bodied people (by the social insurance system and of those who cannot work or are socially disadvantaged. For Romania, the social security system is currently profoundly affected due to the low ratio between the number of productive Romanian citizens, contributors to the public budget and social funds, and the beneficiaries of these funds. The study highlights this issue and focuses primarily on the effect produced on the social security component by the external labor migration, a phenomenon accentuated by Romania’s EU accession. Basically, Romania has registered, according to Eurostat, only after 2007, more than 1 million migrants, most constituting the economically active population, the phenomenon having a major impact on the sustainability of the social security system.
... II of the Social Security Act AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0046] Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR...
While the philosophical foundations of information security have been unexamined, there is an implicit philosophy of what protection of information is. This philosophy is based on the notion of containment, taken from analogies with things that offer physical security (e.g., buildings, safes,
In social-security law, the receipt of more than one social benefit is called "double dipping", whereas in private law the problem of double compensation is addressed by applying the collateral-source rule. In some instances the applicable legislation clearly prescribes the deduction or not of the social benefit, but ...
Social studies education has been embraced by almost all the developed and developing countries to support economic growth and development. Here, we review the current security situation, especially existing social studies policies and highlight the need for social studies as a tool for addressing insecurity.
Social Security Administration — This dataset shows improper payment experience for the Social Security Retirement, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program paid to workers, their dependents, and...
For them, the remaining sources of livelihood now reside in non-formal social security arrangements anchored upon a staggering cultural base being eroded by the fast encroaching tide of neoliberal individualistic ways of life. Regrettably, government has got no institutional framework to promote non-formal security ...
Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong
The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226
Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong
The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders.
Social Security Administration — Report refers to the National total of cases pending at the hearing level and the number and percentages of those cases that were in either electronic format (EF) or...
Waldman, H B
The series of government safety net programs provides economic security primarily to older populations. In this period of competition for limited federal resources, the need to create a public awareness of the continuing and growing poverty of children is emphasized.
Kritzer, B E
The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for
John L. Czajka; Shinu Verghese
This report presents findings from a validation study of Social Security numbers (SSNs) in Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) records for the fourth quarter of federal fiscal year 2009. The study produced results for the nation and the states on how often SSNs were reported in MSIS records and how often the reported SSNs passed a validation test at the U.S. Census Bureau, based on data obtained from the Social Security Administration.
... rescinding SSR 97-2p as obsolete. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 96.001, Social... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2007-0092] Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of rescission of Social Security Ruling...
Pavone, Vincenzo; Ball, Kirstie; Degli Esposti, Sara; Dibb, Sally; Santiago-Gómez, Elvira
This article investigates the normative and procedural criteria adopted by European citizens to assess the acceptability of surveillance-oriented security technologies. It draws on qualitative data gathered at 12 citizen summits in nine European countries. The analysis identifies 10 criteria, generated by citizens themselves, for a socially informed security policy. These criteria not only reveal the conditions, purposes and operation rules that would make current European security policies and technologies more consistent with citizens' priorities. They also cast light on an interesting paradox: although people feel safe in their daily lives, they believe security could, and should, be improved.
In the wake of the current security challenges and social instability in Nigeria today, there is a great need to employ a broad range of measures in dealing with the situation. Since the social instability and insecurity in Nigeria seem to have resisted the police and military guns, a far-reaching solution must be sort to redress ...
Although public support for Social Security remains high, confidence in the viability of the program has declined. The decline in confidence reflects confusion generated by public dialogue about various crises, the most recent being the "entitlement crisis." This article discusses two central ideological themes of the entitlement crisis, that entitlement spending is crowding out funds for other social needs and that current trends are unsustainable. It questions the substantive basis of these themes and then critically evaluates two proposals for the restructuring of Social Security, means-testing and privatization.
Full Text Available In the paper are describing legal aspects of treatment of farming sector in the tax and social security system in Poland. Tax System in Polish Agriculture is an integral part of Polish Tax System. Most taxes paid by farmers are property taxes, which supplied the budget of main local authority in Poland (municipality. In some cases farmers pay also personal income tax and value added tax like those, who run specific agricultural production as well individual farmers who operate through a limited liability company are subject to corporate income tax. The social security fund for farmers (known as KRUS was speared in 1990 from the social security system (ZUS. Farmers receive similar benefits with regard to health care, education, and social welfare although the contributions into the farmers system are lower then under the ZUS system.
...). (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, Program Nos. 96.001 Social Security--Disability Insurance; 96.002... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0058] Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling 05-1(9) AGENCY: Social Security Administration. [[Page 67725
... Social Security number (SSN) verification service to private businesses and other requesters who obtain a... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0073] Consent Based Social Security Number Verification (CBSV) Service AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Revised Transaction Fee...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security numbers...
... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that employees... privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the collection is... provide their social security numbers must be informed of: (1) Whether providing social security numbers...
Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the
Carlos Patrick Alves da Silva
Full Text Available Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government's proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts.
Silva, Carlos Patrick Alves da; Puty, Claudio Alberto Castelo Branco; Silva, Marcelino Silva da; Carvalho, Solon Venâncio de; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa
Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government's proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts.
Learn to identify the social engineer by non-verbal behavior Unmasking the Social Engineer: The Human Element of Security focuses on combining the science of understanding non-verbal communications with the knowledge of how social engineers, scam artists and con men use these skills to build feelings of trust and rapport in their targets. The author helps readers understand how to identify and detect social engineers and scammers by analyzing their non-verbal behavior. Unmasking the Social Engineer shows how attacks work, explains nonverbal communications, and demonstrates with visuals the c
Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández
Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391
Julius O. Okesola
Full Text Available Background: Ever since social network sites (SNS became a global phenomenon in almost every industry, security has become a major concern to many SNS stakeholders. Several security techniques have been invented towards addressing SNS security, but information security awareness (ISA remains a critical point. Whilst very few users have used social circles and applications because of a lack of users’ awareness, the majority have found it difficult to determine the basis of categorising friends in a meaningful way for privacy and security policies settings. This has confirmed that technical control is just part of the security solutions and not necessarily a total solution. Changing human behaviour on SNSs is essential; hence the need for a privately enhanced ISA SNS. Objective: This article presented sOcialistOnline – a newly developed SNS, duly secured and platform independent with various ISA techniques fully implemented. Method: Following a detailed literature review of the related works, the SNS was developed on the basis of Object Oriented Programming (OOP approach, using PhP as the coding language with the MySQL database engine at the back end. Result: This study addressed the SNS requirements of privacy, security and services, and attributed them as the basis of architectural design for sOcialistOnline. SNS users are more aware of potential risk and the possible consequences of unsecured behaviours. Conclusion: ISA is focussed on the users who are often the greatest security risk on SNSs, regardless of technical securities implemented. Therefore SNSs are required to incorporate effective ISA into their platform and ensure users are motivated to embrace it.
Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva
Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.
Mathias Ashu Tako Nyenti
Full Text Available There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s and processes. There are also various gaps and challenges in the current social security dispute resolution systems, some of these relating to the uncoordinated and fragmented nature of the system; inaccessibility of some social security institutions; inappropriateness of some current appeal institutions; the lack of a systematic approach in establishing appeal institutions; a limited scope of jurisdiction and powers of adjudication institutions; inconsistencies in review and/or appeal provisions in various laws; an unavailability of alternative dispute resolution procedures; and an absence of institutional independence of adjudication institutions or forums. The system is therefore in need of reform. In developing an appropriate system, much can be learned from innovative experiences in comparative South African non-social security jurisdictions on the establishment of effective and efficient dispute resolution frameworks. Dispute resolution systems in the labour relations, business competition regulation and consumer protection jurisdictions have been established to realise the constitutional rights of their users (especially the rights of access to justice, to a fair trial and to just administrative action. They thus provide a benchmark for the development of the South African social security dispute resolution system.
Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040.
Due to its democratized nature, online social media (OSM) attracts millions of users to publish and share their content with friends as well as a wider audience at little cost. Such a vast user base and a wealth of content, however, presents its own challenges. First, the amount of user-generated
Holtmaat, H.M.T.; Kravaritou, Y.
This work is based on papers presented at a conference entitled "The Sex of Labour Law in Europe/Le Sexe du droit du travail en Europe", which was held at the European University Institute in Florence. The contributors argue that law in general, and especially social and labour law, is not asexual,
Sergio García García
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the influence of neoliberal criminological doctrines on the discourses and practices of police management in Madrid. We shall examine in depth what we consider to be the pillars of this security policy: first, the economic procedure that forces a cost and benefit assessment; second, the logic of differentiation of subjects and spaces; third, the relevance given to technical tools to approach both objective and subjective insecurity, and last, the concept of "prevention", which is transverse to all the previous ones, and tries to break away from a repressive approach and manage efficiently any risk of disordering the social order. This analysis is the basis of our thesis: through banal prevention of (insecurity a distributed form of governance is implemented over the social.
Stajić Ljubomir S.
Full Text Available Concern about the security of public spaces has become increasingly important in the last thirty years, both in the public service (police and in private security which is responsible for protection of individual private facilities. It has been concluded that the study of public space design in terms of security is as important as the study of social and other factors of criminal behavior. Modern architectural solutions must take into account a design of space and facilities that prevents and obstructs the exercise of criminal actions to a maximum. Security design should make crime dangerous, less desirable and less justified, i.e. it should change the perception that potential criminals have of the risks of criminal behavior in terms of greater opportunities for its detection and arrest. The paper presents the criteria which should be followed when designing a public space, its effect on the behavior of criminals and notes on how badly designed public space reduces the effects of formal oversight by private security guards and the police. Most of the work is related to the case study of Block 21 in New Belgrade as a typical representative of the public space that has undergone numerous transformations over the past 50 years. There are very important indicators of how design changes of the area affected the state of crime.
Mediaty,; Said, Darwis; Syahrir,; Indrijawati, Aini
- This research aims to analyze the poverty, education, and health in social security system model based on accounting perspective using empirical study on South Sulawesi Province. Issued Law No. 40 for 2004 regarding National Social Security System is one of attentions from government about social welfare. Accounting as a social science deserves to create social security mechanisms. One of the crucial mechanisms is social security system. This research is a grounded exploratory research w...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 1008.22... security numbers. (a) The System Manager of each system of records which utilizes social security numbers... individuals may not be required to furnish social security numbers without statutory authorization, and that...
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... to 1975; and (b) That individuals requested to provide their social security numbers must be informed...
Part 1: Winsborough Award Invited Paper; International audience; Reputation is a concept that we use in many aspects of our social life and as part of our decision making process. We use reputation in our interaction with people or companies we do not know and we use it when we buy merchandize or reserve a room in a hotel. However, reputation plays also an important role in the internet society and enables us to establish trust which is essential for interaction in the virtual world. Reputati...
Gonzalez Eiras, Martin
I refine and extend the Markov perfect equilibrium of the social security policy game in Forni (2005) for the special case of logarithmic utility. Under the restriction that the policy function be continuous, instead of differentiable, the equilibrium is globally well defined and its dynamics alw...
A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...
Gonzalez Eiras, Martin
I refine and extend the Markov perfect equilibrium of the social security policy game in Forni (2005) for the special case of logarithmic utility. Under the restriction that the policy function be continuous, instead of differentiable, the equilibrium is globally well defined and its dynamics...
There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s) and processes. There are also various ...
Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…
... at the Department of Veterans Affairs Regional Office, Manila, Philippines, at any U.S. foreign... not have a social security office; (vi) The Department of Veterans Affairs Regional Office, Manila, Philippines; (vii) Any U.S. foreign service post; and (viii) U.S. military posts outside the U.S. (2) Birth...
Ana Paula Ornellas Mauriel
Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a study about anti-poverty programs in Brazil. The main contribution of the text is that it relates certain characteristics of the anti poverty programs to theoretical categories that have influenced the debate about social policy in the contemporary context. Special attention is given to the relation of these programs with national social assistance policy. The article begins from the hypothesis that the logic that had inspired the construction of social policies was reconsidered, based on a transformation in the theoretical understanding of the social issue and of ways to confront it. This change appears in the texts in the priority given to poverty as a category of analysis, which is understood as an absence of capacities. This theoretically and methodologically configures an individualistic perspective on social issues, the principal theoretical source for which is the thinking of Amartya Sen.
Fatima Badat; Kudzai Chigiji; Johann Söhnge; Krishen Sukdev; Natalie Van Zyl
Social Security in most African countries has evolved significantly in terms of perspectives, motives, governance as well as innovation of benefits and administration. African countries are slowly, one by one, beginning to reassess the role of social security in correcting several social ills. Empowerment programs and grants are increasingly being provided via social security to women and the youth. From the roots of social security, even very low income countries, some of which have recently...
E-commerce is an important information system in the network and digital age. However, the network intrusion, malicious users, virus attack and system security vulnerabilities have continued to threaten the operation of the e-commerce, making e-commerce security encounter serious test. How to improve ecommerce security has become a topic worthy of further exploration. Combining routine security test and security event detection procedures, this paper proposes the Two-Layer Secure ...
Prochaska, Judith J.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lyons, Elizabeth J.
OVERVIEW Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:28561647
Prochaska, Judith J; Coughlin, Steven S; Lyons, Elizabeth J
Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment.
Kumar, Anant; Thomas, Joe; Wadhwa, Sonal S; Mishra, Aprajita; Dasgupta, Smita
A significant number of "marginalized" population groups are denied their health rights, healthcare access, benefits of government health programs, and other health-related social security benefits. These population groups, particularly the rickshaw pullers of India, are vulnerable because of their poor social and economic status, migration history, lack of permanent settlements, lack of social capital, and so on. These reasons, coupled with other social-political reasons, lead to no or limited access to health services and poor health conditions. This study intends to explore and understand the context and health seeking behavior of rickshaw pullers in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand state in India, with special reference to wider social determinants of health such as, access, affordability, and delivery of health services. The data was collected from 1,000 rickshaw pullers from 40 "rickshaw garages" in Ranchi. The findings of the study show that rickshaw pullers can't afford to "attach" much importance to their health due to various reasons and suffer from a variety of occupational and other illnesses. The health conditions of the rickshaw pullers are affected by poverty, negligence, illiteracy, lack of awareness and unavailability of affordable, quality health services. These are only a symptom of the larger structural issues affecting health. The study suggests that rickshaw pullers, being a marginalized and excluded population group, require special health and social security programs that include safe, affordable, and accessible services along with a special focus on health education, behavior change, and promotion of appropriate health-seeking behavior.
Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio
Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...
Conclusion: MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems.
Mutchler, Jan E; Li, Yang; Xu, Ping
Older Americans rely heavily on Social Security benefits (SSBs) to support independent lifestyles, and many have few or no additional sources of income. We establish the extent to which SSBs adequately support economic security, benchmarked by the Elder Economic Security Standard TM Index. We document variability across U.S. counties in the adequacy levels of SSBs among older adults. We find that the average SSB falls short of what is required for economic security in every county in the U.S., but the level of shortfall varies considerably by location. Policy implications relating to strengthening Social Security and other forms of retirement income are discussed.
Sammicheli, Michele; Scaglione, Marcella
We examine, from a medical-legal perspective, the pro and cons of the information technology procedures that the Italian Institute of Social Security (INPS) has implemented to manage the provision of social disability assistance, meaning that separate from the payment of pension contributions, being welfare, anchored to an administrative requirement by way of the compulsory payment of a minimum social security contribution.
Olsen, K A; Salisbury, D L
difficult to administer than employment-based plans, and total administrative expenses would be larger relative to benefits. Credit-based systems such as the current Social Security program are less difficult to administer than cash-based systems, which must account for every dollar. Inherent in the "privatization" debate is generally the presumption that IA benefits would be based on cash contributions and investment returns. The current credit-based system tolerates small errors in wage reporting, because they rarely affect benefits. But every dollar counts in a cash-based IA system. To ensure that benefits are properly provided, an IA system would require more regulation, oversight, and error reconciliation than the current Social Security program. Social Security individual accounts cannot be administered like 401(k) plans without adding significant employer burdens--especially on small businesses. Under the current wage reporting and tax collection process, it would take at least 7-19 months for every dollar contributed to an individual's account to be sorted out from aggregate payments and credited to his or her IA. This 7-19 month "float period" could result in substantial benefit losses over time. Options for preventing such losses involve difficult trade-offs, such as increased government responsibility, increased complexity, greater employer burdens, and/or investment restrictions for beneficiaries. If legally considered personal property, the IAs of married participants could pose significant administrative challenges. Social Security today must obtain proof of marriage only at the time spousal benefits are claimed. But some IA proposals would require contributions to be split between spouses' individual accounts, requiring records on participants' marital status to be continuously update to ensure that contributions are correctly directed. Also, dealing with claims on individual account contributions in divorce cases could place IA record keepers in the middle o
Jaccoud, Luciana de Barros; Mesquita, Ana Cleusa Serra; Paiva, Andrea Barreto de
This paper analyzes the proposed changes in the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC) discussed within the Social Security Reform, both with regard to the Federal Government's original proposal in 2016 and the proposal by the rapporteur's project submitted to Congress in 2017. The proposed changes focus on two aspects: increased minimum age of access and unlinking the BPC amount from the minimum wage amount. The document discusses the justifications for the BPC reform, regarding both disincentives to social security contributions and demographic changes, as well as estimated possible impacts of proposed changes. The study concludes that measures, if approved, tend to reduce coverage and increase income vulnerability of the elderly and the disabled in the country.
This paper examines how politicians influenced social security policy in Germany. Using yearly data from the German Pension Insurance from 1957 to 2005, revenues as well as expenditures are analysed in linear regression models, respectively. In accordance with opportunistic political behaviour, revenues from contributions decreased in pre-election years. Most important, pension expenditures increased in election years. Interestingly, the CDU/FDP governments provided higher subsidies to the so...
The serious privacy and security problems related to online social networks (OSNs) are what fueled two complementary studies as part of this thesis. In the first study, we developed a general algorithm for the mining of data of targeted organizations by using Facebook (currently the most popular OSN) and socialbots. By friending employees in a targeted organization, our active socialbots were able to find new employees and informal organizational links that we could not find by crawling with ...
Samuel T. C. Thompson
Full Text Available Social engineering is the use of nontechnical means to gain unauthorized access to information or computer systems. While this method is recognized as a major security threat in the computer industry, little has been done to address it in the library field. This is of particular concern because libraries increasingly have access to databases of both proprietary and personal information. This tutorial is designed to increase the awareness of library staff in regard to the issue of social engineering.
Svensson, Jorgen S.; Kordelaar, P.J.M.; Kordelaar, P.J.M.; Wassink, J.G.J.; van 't Eind, G.J.; Grütters, C.A.F.M.
Social security legislation plays an important role in the Dutch society. In view of this, the effects of social security legislation have to be analysed carefully before new legislation can be made. Due to the growing complexity of legislation on the social security domain, this analysis has become
... HOME LOANS General § 201.6 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 201.6 Section 201.6 Housing and Urban Development... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0105] Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2011 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2013-0001] Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with...
... § 102.35 Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee... their social security numbers, unless: (1) The collection is authorized either by a statute; or (2) The social security numbers are required under statute or regulation adopted prior to 1975 to verify the...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12 Section... UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number shall provide the...
... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general. An... such individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of... Federal statute, or (2) The disclosure of a social security number to any Federal, State, or local agency...
... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section 5.216 Housing and Urban Development...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining Income Information Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b) VA...
...-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record systems that use the SSNs as a method of... collect Social Security Numbers. (b) In compliance with OMB M-07-16 (Safeguarding Against and Responding...
... provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his or her social security number. (b... which is required by Federal statute, or (2) The disclosure of a social security number to any Federal... identity of an individual. (c) Requests for disclosure of social security number. If the Agency requests an...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number... General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for SSN assignment. We can assign you a social security number if you meet the evidence requirements in § 422.107 and...
... REGULATIONS POWERS AND DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.35 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The use and collection of Social Security numbers shall be in accordance with 28 CFR 16.56. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security...
... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and the...
... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers...
... OPERATIONS PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1204.9 Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers? FHFA collects Social Security numbers only when it is necessary and authorized. At least annually, the Privacy... of refusing to provide their Social Security numbers, unless the collection is authorized either by a...
... numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a method... furnish Social Security numbers without statutory or regulatory authorization and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security numbers voluntarily must be advised that furnishing the number is not...
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hospitals as one of the main institutions providing health care services play an important role in the health system and allocate a high percentage of health sector's budget to them. This study aimed to answer whether social security hospitals efficiency levels are the same for all provinces in Iran? And whether any relationship exists between the human development indexes (HDI of the provinces and technical efficiency levels of the hospitals?Materials & Methods: Data envelopment analysis model has been used to measure technical efficiency of 65 social security hospitals, including small hospitals (working with lower than one hundred active beds and large hospitals (working with over one hundred active beds during the years 2007 to 2009. Further, the relationship between human development index and technical efficiency of hospitals in the provinces has been analyzed.Results: Results show that the average technical efficiency of small and large hospitals working in low and medium HDI provinces (0.912 and 0.937 are more than the average technical efficiency of hospitals in higher HDI provinces (0.870 and 0.887.Conclusion: It is recommended that social security organization concentrated distribute its hospital services in provinces with lower HDI and higher density of population living under the coverage of organization’s insurance. This will eventually puts its positive effects on per capita income of people, as well as more equitable distribution of income. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:32-38
Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter
All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.
Full Text Available Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSN integrated with connected medical sensors and cloud-based health data storage provide preventive and curative health services in smart cities. The fusion of social data together with real-time health data facilitates a novel paradigm of healthcare big data analysis. However, the collaboration of healthcare and social network service providers may pose a series of security and privacy issues. In this paper, we propose a secure health and social data sharing and collaboration scheme in MHSN. To preserve the data privacy, we realize secure and fine-grained health data and social data sharing with attribute-based encryption and identity-based broadcast encryption techniques, respectively, which allows patients to share their private personal data securely. In order to achieve enhanced data collaboration, we allow the healthcare analyzers to access both the reencrypted health data and the social data with authorization from the data owner based on proxy reencryption. Specifically, most of the health data encryption and decryption computations are outsourced from resource-constrained mobile devices to a health cloud, and the decryption of the healthcare analyzer incurs a low cost. The security and performance analysis results show the security and efficiency of our scheme.
Frans van Dijk
The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the `family' and the `community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on so...
Full Text Available In this work, the author shortly exposes Communitarian social security law and remained tasks of the harmonization of Serbian legislation in this field. Recently some amendments of legislation were made in order to strengthen principles of gender equality and prevent discrimination, to regulate employment of persons with disability, as well as to install supervision in Institutions for occupational retirement. Regarding the compulsory social insurance in Serbia it may be concluded that there exists a high degree of compliance with the EU legislation, with an exception of privileged mode of entitlement for old age and disability pensions for women and partial disability caused by work injury where it is necessary to conclude agreements on social security with 10 EU states members. On the other side, occupational retirement provision is partially incompatible with Communitarian social security law, i.e. with Directive 2003/41/EC in the field of technical provision, as well as with Directive 113/2004/EU regarding the obligation of equation of the life expectancy for both sexes.
Full Text Available The Turkish social insurance system has been feverishly debated for years, particularly through its burden on the economy. The most recent reform is an attempt to neutralize the deterioration within the social security system and its effects on the economy. After the recent reform, ‘the way that retirement benefits are calculated’ is changed unfavorably for workers and the minimum age for retirement is increased. In particular, for an agent with 25 years of social security tax payments, the replacement rate is down from 65 percent to 50 percent. On the other hand, retirement age is up from 60 to 65. The aim of this paper is to investigate the macroeconomic effects of these changes using an OLG model. The author’s findings indicate that labor supply, output and capital stock increase when changes above are applied to the benchmark economy calibrated to the Turkish economy data in 2005. A critical change with the current reform is that the marginal benefit of working has become uniform over ages. In a simulation exercise, the marginal retirement benefit in the benchmark economy is changed to be uniform over ages while keeping the size of social security system unchanged. As a result, the benefit of retiring at a later period increases. However, uniform distribution of the marginal benefits itself decreases both the capital stock and output of the economy. Increasing the retirement age, on the other hand, has positive effects on the economy since agents obtain retirement benefits for fewer years and at an older age. Age increase has substantial positive effects on the labor supply, the capital stock, and the output.
Full Text Available The article explains the Russian model of social orphanhood eradicating based on the analysis of the dynamics of the adoption and foster care and social orphanhood prevention, the legislation development and a compari- son with the international experience. The effectiveness of the state policy is depends on focus of the top federal and regional officials, the dynamic legis- lative development, federal financial support and creative accomplishing the tasks of social orphanhood eradicating throughout the country. Author proposes methodology for evaluating the regions performance based on math- ematical models of the continuity equation. The article identifies a number of factors determine the features of the state policy implementation throughout Russia, including ethnic and religious factors, geographical proximity to the international experience, migration flows, climatic conditions, and the health level. It is pointed out that the implementation of the National Strategy for Action on Children plays a key role in forming the Russian model. The main modern challengers are defining the strategy and tactics of the family and foster care of children difficult to place in family, services on interdepartmental basis, and economic crisis, which may lead to an increasing return of children from foster families.
Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and the Nether-lands. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact...... on disposable income of different "events" such as illness, unemployment, injuries from work and retirement. Maternity benefits and family allowances are also included. The information of the 5th edition is for 1995. The contents are updated on an annual basis....
Zhao, Jensen; Zhao, Sherry Y.
While the growing popularity of social media has brought many benefits to society, it has also resulted in privacy and security threats. The authors assessed the security and vulnerability of 50 social media sites. The findings indicate that most sites (a) posted privacy and security policies but only a minority stated clearly their execution of…
... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... security numbers. 200.6 Section 200.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...
Data loss/leakage protection (DLP) technology seeks to improve data security by answering three fundamental questions: > Where are confidential data stored? > Who is accessing the information? > How are data being handled?
Gottwalt, T. J.
Emphasizes the importance of an annual security review of a school facility's door hardware and provides a description of the different types of locking devices typically used on schools and where they are best applied. (EV)
Full Text Available The focus of attention of the authors is the consideration of information security of children and adolescents as the object of social representations. Discusses the need for the theory of social representations to develop prophylactic and preventive programs in the field of information security of children and adolescents, in particular, says that the effectiveness of prevention and preventive programs is determined by how this information is understood by the target group, through what filters it passes. Briefly outlines the main provisions of the theory of social representations, discusses the functions of social representations, the mechanism of action ideas. Analyzed in a few studies, the focus of which was the presentation on new technologies, particularly mobile phones and the Internet. Presents the results of a series of studies devoted to the study of information security of children and adolescents, including the results of the first part of a research project dedicated to the analysis of how parents and teachers understand information security and what strategies to protect children and adolescents from dangerous information they are ready to use.
Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen
Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community's overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one's feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be developed and implemented.
Full Text Available Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terrorism preparedness exists. I argue that protecting tourism destinations is only possible if consideration is given the effectiveness of security guards and understanding that their well-being will impact upon their ability to deliver security. I want to draw attention to the often ignored social role of security guards. On 9/11, 42 security guards died whilst helping save the lives of thousands. They performed their jobs admirably, despite being low-paid, under-appreciated workers. In this paper I explore the social role of security guards in the context of tourism security. By drawing on representations of security guards in popular culture and reports on the state of the security guard industry. I argue that the lack of attention on the quality and well-being of guards is a significant black-spot in tourism security and terrorism preparedness.
Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits from fiscal...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p... Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security Ruling; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document in the Federal Register of January 29, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-01833, on page 6168, in...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p... Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security Ruling; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document in the Federal Register of January 29, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-01833, on page 6168, in...
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p... Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security Ruling; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document in the Federal Register of January 29, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-01833, on page 6171, in...
Diana Elena Şerb
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the importance of safety and socialization in the lives of individuals. The influence of agents of socialization (school, family, friends are manifested as differences in preferences, feelings and thoughts of people. The article is structured in two parts. The first part presents the knowledge in the field, but in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In the second part is carried out an research among Europeans about some aspect of their lives: how they spend their free time, the feeling of attachment to the community, a sense of security and availability to communicate personal matters to their group of friends. The research method was investigating the secondary sources (database obtained from the survey from a site specializing in the analysis of living conditions of Europeans - European Social Survey. After the reception and processing of results in Excel and SPSS we obtained a general conclusion that people need to socialize, to be part of a group and feel safe.
Herlin Karnell, S.E.M.
This paper discusses the current tendency in the EU to promote a criminal justice model focusing on prevention. In doing so, I examine the EU’s internal security agenda with regard to criminal law and assess the extent to which this strategy fits the picture of an European Area of Freedom, Security
The purpose of this article is to examine the impact and implications of the current economic crisis in Africa, with a particular emphasis on social security systems. The overall aim is to develop policy proposals and approaches on how best social security systems in Africa can alleviate the social impact of the current ...
Jonas Albert Schmidt
Full Text Available Social Security in Brazil, as in other countries is one of the largest existing and Social Policy has enormous capacity to create financial reserves for funding and consequently the reduction of social inequalities. However, for that very reason of being able to raise funds by States to become the target of speculation, the market and governments themselves uses maneuvers to dismantle ideological vested and constitutionally guaranteed to transfer in whole or in part, protection that should leave the state to become freely tradable commodity in the global financial market.
Stronach, Erin Pickreign; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante
Thirteen-month-old maltreated infants (n = 137) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI), and community standard (CS). A fourth group of nonmaltreated infants (n =52) and their mothers served as a normative comparison (NC) group. A prior investigation found that the CPP and PPI groups demonstrated substantial increases in secure attachment at post-intervention, whereas this change was not found in the CS and NC groups. The current investigation involved the analysis of data obtained at a follow-up assessment that occurred 12-months after the completion of treatment. At follow-up, children in the CPP group had higher rates of secure and lower rates of disorganized attachment than did children in the PPI or CS groups. Rates of disorganized attachment did not differ between the CPP and NC groups. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) also showed higher rates of secure attachment at follow-up in the CPP group relative to the PPI and CS groups. However, groups did not differ on disorganized attachment. Both primary and ITT analyses demonstrated that maternal reported child behavior problems did not differ among the four groups at the follow-up assessment. This is the first investigation to demonstrate sustained attachment security in maltreated children 12 months after the completion of an attachment theory-informed intervention. Findings also suggest that, while effective in the short term, parenting interventions alone may not be effective in maintaining secure attachment in children over time. PMID:24229539
This paper deals with a case study on the social security system in a transition economy in Ukraine. The severe socioeconomic crisis in Ukraine, including a huge decline of production, hyperinflation, and the informalization of the economy, caused both a substantial reduction of social security contributions and an increase in the number of people who need assistance. The creation of a new sustainable economic system in the country requires the development of a new model of social security su...
Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu
In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.
Maureen S. Hiebert
Full Text Available The case for turning R2P and genocide prevention from principle to practice usually rests on the invocation of moral norms and duties to others. Calls have been made by some analysts to abandon this strategy and “sell” genocide prevention to government by framing it as a matter of our own national interest including our security. Governments’ failure to prevent atrocities abroad, it is argued, imperils western societies at home. If we look at how the genocide prevention-as-national security argument has been made we can see, however, that this position is not entirely convincing. I review two policy reports that make the case for genocide prevention based in part on national security considerations: Preventing Genocide: A Blue Print for U.S. Policymakers (Albright-Cohen Report; and the Will to Intervene Project. I show that both reports are problematic for two reasons: the “widened” traditional security argument advocated by the authors is not fully substantiated by the evidence provided in the reports; and alternate conceptions of security that would seem to support the linking of genocide prevention to western security—securitization and risk and uncertain—do not provide a solid logical foundation for operationalizing R2P. I conclude by considering whether we might appeal instead to another form of self interest, “reputational stakes”, tied to western states’ construction of their own identity as responsible members of the international community.
Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits from fiscal...
Social Security Administration — The DATA Act Information Model Schema Reporting Submission Specification File B. File B includes the agency object class and program activity detail obligation and...
Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits from federal...
Reniers, Genserik; Soudan, Karel
Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces important security risks from neighbouring companies. Investing in reciprocal security preventive measures is therefore necessary to avoid major accidents. These investments do not, however, provide a direct return on investment for the investor-company and thus plants are hesitative to invest. Moreover, there is likelihood that even if a company has fully invested in reciprocal security prevention, its neighbour has not, and as a result the company can experience a major accident caused by an initial (minor or major) accident that occurred in an adjacent chemical enterprise. In this article we employ a game-theoretic approach to interpret and model behaviour of two neighbouring chemical plants while negotiating and deciding on reciprocal security prevention investments.
Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig
Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R
Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fernando Llorca Castro
Full Text Available In 1999 a massive regularization of Central American migrants was realized in Costa Rica and later the whole country population was quantified, the kind of public insurance and the way healthcare services are use among other things, by a population census and home survey during 2000. Based on evidence found in investigations that were realized during those years, about the impact that the immigration has had in the Costa Rican Social Security organization, the author concludes that the immigrant does not contribute unfavorably to the Institutional pension system, that they use the hospital and urgency services less than the natives, they use the preventive medicine more and they has adopted the Costa Rican usual practices of avoidance the obligatory pays to the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, which is the most important public institution of healthcare services in the country. Some international experience and concepts were checked about the topic and a brief explanation of how the Costa Rican Social Security organization works, for the best comprehension of readers who are not use to deal with it
Social engineering is the usage of social manipulation and psychological tricks to make the targets assist oﬀenders in their attack. This practice manifests itself in e.g. phishing emails or cold call telephone scams. The aim of the thesis was to investigate the understanding of social engineering
Full Text Available HIV prevention efforts to date have not explored the potential for persons living with HIV to act as change agents for prevention behaviour in their social networks. Using egocentric social network analysis, this study examined the prevalence and social network correlates of prevention advocacy behaviours (discussing HIV in general; encouraging abstinence or condom use, HIV testing, and seeking HIV care enacted by 39 HIV clients in Uganda. Participants engaged in each prevention advocacy behaviour with roughly 50–70% of the members in their network. The strongest determinant of engaging in prevention advocacy with more of one’s network members was having a greater proportion of network members who knew one’s HIV seropositive status, as this was associated with three of the four advocacy behaviours. These findings highlight the potential for PLHA to be key change agents for HIV prevention within their networks and the importance of HIV disclosure in facilitating prevention advocacy.
... decided to relitigate the issue. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, Program Nos. 96.001 Social... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0046] Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR... Social Security Act AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security...
Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard
This article presents three measures of the distribution of actual and projected net benefits (benefits minus payroll taxes) from Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) for people born between 1931 and 1960. The results are based on simulations with the Social Security Administration's Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT), which projects retirement income through 2020. The base sample for MINT is the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation panels for 1990 to 1993, matched with Social Security administrative records. The study population is grouped into 5-year birth cohorts and then ranked by economic status in three ways. First, the population is divided into five groups on the basis of individual lifetime covered earnings, and their lifetime present values of OASI benefits received and payroll taxes paid are calculated. By this measure, OASI provides much higher benefits to the lowest quintile of earners than to other groups, but it becomes less redistributive toward lower earners in more recent birth cohorts. Second, people are ranked by shared lifetime covered earnings, and the values of shared benefits received and payroll taxes paid are computed. Individuals are assumed to split covered earnings, benefits, and payroll taxes with their spouses in the years they are married. By the shared covered earnings measure, OASI is still much more favorable to persons in the lower income quintiles, although to a lesser degree than when people are ranked by individual covered earnings. OASI becomes more progressive among recent cohorts, even as net lifetime benefits decline for the entire population. Finally, individuals are ranked on the basis of their shared permanent income from age 62, when they become eligible for early retirement benefits, until death. Their annual Social Security benefits are compared with the benefits they would have received if they had saved their payroll taxes in individual accounts and used the
...-AA48 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification... Trade Regulations (FTR) to eliminate the requirement to report a Social Security Number (SSN) as an identification number when registering to file and filing electronic export information in the Automated Export...
N. Taha (Nurulsyahirah); M. Messkoub (Mahmood); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)
textabstractThis paper reviews the literature on the portability of social security entitlements for migrant workers, who moved along North-North, South- North, and South-South migration flows. Portability of social security entitlements is the ability of migrant workers to preserve, maintain, and
... (HIM-10). (13) Home Health Agency Manual (HIM-11). (14) Outpatient Physical Therapy Provider Manual... social security district offices and branch offices: (1) Claims Manual of the Social Security Administration. (2) Department Staff Manual on Organization, Department of Health and Human Services, Part F, CMS...
Wassell, Charles S., Jr.
In 1974, and then again in 1996, Martin Feldstein published studies of the impact of the Social Security system on private saving in the U.S. economy. He found that Social Security depressed personal saving by a substantial amount--up to 50 percent. The author uses the Feldstein data and empirical models in this article to illustrate the steps in…
Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the situation of Maghrebis in France, as far as social security is concerned. The paradoxical situation experienced by these immigrants is related to their eligibility for social security and their discrimination on the labour market. As such, Maghrebis form the precarious layer of French society.
Page, W F; Corey, L
At least two twin registries in the United States have been or are being assembled using the similarity of Social Security Numbers in computerized records to help identify possible twin pairs. While the success of such enterprises depends directly on a high probability of twinness given Social Security Numbers, there are theoretical and practical reasons to study the probability of Social Security Number similarity given twinness. For example, the number of twin pairs with similar Social Security Numbers obviously determines the maximum number of twin pairs that can be discovered by similarity algorithms. To study this issue, we examined the similarity of known Social Security Numbers in twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Registry by age, sex, race, and zygosity of the pair. We found that similarity between the Social Security Numbers of twin pairs varies markedly by age, and MZ twin pairs have significantly more similar Social Security Numbers than DZ pairs at all ages. Among older twins, there are also significant differences by sex and race. For younger twins, algorithms that identify putative twin pairs on the basis of the similarity of their Social Security Numbers hold the promise of being able to identify a large proportion of all true twin pairs. Such algorithms will be substantially less successful, however, in identifying a large proportion of older twin pairs.
This article explores the relationship between crime and social disintegration in South Africa. The article also reviews some of the international evidence that links violent crime to social cohesion, social capital and inequality, and argues that we cannot effectively combat crime and violence in South Africa without addressing ...
Smith, Tosha Woods; Calancie, Larissa; Ammerman, Alice
In recent years, social entrepreneurship has emerged as a new field to address social and public health challenges. Social entrepreneurship, which harnesses traditional business practices and market forces to address social challenges, may produce solutions that are more cost-effective and sustainable than those produced by governmental and nonprofit sectors. In this paper, we discuss whether and how social entrepreneurship can be harnessed for obesity prevention by defining and briefly reviewing the rise of social entrepreneurship in the USA, outlining the threat that obesity poses to US society and offering some examples of how social ventures are addressing the problem of obesity. Additional untapped opportunities are also discussed and recommendations given for how social entrepreneurship might impact obesity prevention in the future.
civil society organizations in: transforming public perception of the military and police, strengthening disarmament, and recruiting women for the... leadership roles for the women in the security sector, as this is a key element to the overall peace and security agenda? 4. New tactics to prevent...Youngman, “The Warrior Ethic,” in Women in Uniform, Perceptions and Pathways, Kathryn Spurling and Elizabeth Greenlaugh, eds. (Canberra: School of
Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Li, Jianhua
Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on “friend” relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems. PMID:28758943
Full Text Available Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on “friend” relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.
Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Wang, Shen; Li, Jianhua
Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on "friend" relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.
S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie
This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited...
Decree No. 84-492 of 22 June 1984 revising and supplementing the tables of occupational diseases annexes to Decree No. 46-2959 of 31 December 1946 made in implementation of Book IV of the Social Security Code concerning prevention and compensation of occupational accidents and diseases
This Decree amends and replaces several tables of occupational diseases annexes to the Decree of 31 December 1946 made under the Social Security Code. In particular it amends Table 6 now entitled: ''Diseases caused by ionizing radiation'' to take account of the latest status of knowledge in this field. (NEA) [fr
Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan
Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.
Salas-Zapata, Leonardo; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Nieto-López, Emmanuel Salvador
To estimate the direct costs related to hospitalizations for diabetes mellitus and its complications in the Mexican Institute of Social Security METHODS: The hospital care costs of patients with diabetes mellitus using diagnosis-related groups in the IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security) and the hospital discharges from the corresponding E10-E14 codes for diabetes mellitus were estimated between 2008-2013. Costs were grouped according to demographic characteristics and main condition, and were estimated in US dollars in 2013. 411,302 diabetes mellitus discharges were recorded, representing a cost of $1,563 million. 52.44% of hospital discharges were men and 77.26% were for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The biggest cost was attributed to peripheral circulatory complications (34.84%) and people from 45-64 years of age (47.1%). Discharges decreased by 3.84% and total costs by 1.75% in the period analysed. The complications that caused the biggest cost variations were ketoacidosis (50.7%), ophthalmic (22.6%) and circulatory (18.81%). Hospital care for diabetes mellitus represents an important financial challenge for the IMSS. The increase in the frequency of hospitalisations in the productive age group, which affects society as a whole, is an even bigger challenge, and suggests the need to strengthen monitoring of diabetics in order to prevent complications that require hospital care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In Serbia the inactivity rate of the working-age population is close to 40%, among the highest in Europe. The country also faces a high informal employment rate of 24%. Previous research has argued that high levels of informality and inactivity are mostly due to a high effective tax wedge at low wage levels caused by a minimum base for calculation of social security contributions (SSC, sudden withdrawal of means-tested benefits once formal income is earned, and low progressivity of income tax. This paper evaluates the impact of the minimum SSC base reform scenarios on labour supply and employment formalization using tax and benefit micro-simulation models together with the structural discrete choice labour supply model based on the Survey on Income and Living Conditions Data. Although we do not find positive employment effects of the reform, it would be premature to deduce that abolishment of the minimum SSC base is not needed. At this stage in our research, until alternative labour-supply modelling is applied, with both sector and hours of work choice alternatives, it is only safe to conclude that the proposed reform will not significantly contribute to the transformation of informal full-time to formal full-time jobs.
Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda
Full Text Available Social security has remarkable relevance in the general context of Spanish economy. This system is viable if the volume of active population increases at a higher rate than the number of pensioners does and if, in addition, active population is employed by the productive system. The reports of the National Institute of Statistics about Spanish demography demonstrate how these conditions are not met as of today, because our society has one of the highest aging rates and also a remarkable increase in the dependency rate. Through various techniques of time series analysis, this paper reveals the current economic trends in Spain to demonstrate the need for structural reforms of the system so as to make it more sustainable in the long term. To achieve this, it is necessary to change the financing model to a mixed one where the capitalization method plays a significant role, and also to implement urgent measures in order to reduce the barriers to business and employment development.
Zesiewicz, T A; Patel-Larson, A; Hauser, R A; Sullivan, K L
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes significant economic burden for patients and caregivers. Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) provides insurance to workers in the United States who have been gainfully employed, but who are no longer able to work due to a medical condition. We performed a descriptive pilot study that examined PD patients' experience with SSDI. PD patients who were diagnosed with PD prior to age 60 and were followed at an academic movement disorders center were consecutively invited to participate in a survey concerning their employment history and experience with SSDI. All 68 invited patients participated in the study (mean age 58 years, mean disease duration 9.5 years). Eighty-two percent of patients felt that they were too disabled to work full time at a mean of 3.4 years after PD diagnosis. Patients applied for SSDI at a mean of 5 years after diagnosis, and two-thirds of PD patients who applied for SSDI obtained it on their first attempt. The primary debilitating symptom that subjectively contributed to work disability was fatigue (49% of patients). Patients who successfully acquired SSDI had extensive documentation of physician visits, and the aid of a disability lawyer. Patients felt they were too disabled to work full time at a mean of 3.4 years after diagnosis. Those who applied for SSDI did so at a mean of 5 years after diagnosis. Patients who obtained SSDI awards had extensive documentation of medical records or the help of a disability lawyer.
Cummings, E Mark; Schatz, Julie N
The social problem posed by family conflict to the physical and psychological health and well-being of children, parents, and underlying family relationships is a cause for concern. Inter-parental and parent-child conflict are linked with children's behavioral, emotional, social, academic, and health problems, with children's risk particularly elevated in distressed marriages. Supported by the promise of brief psycho-educational programs (e.g., Halford et al. in Journal of Family Psychology 22:497-505, 2008; Sanders in Journal of Family Psychology 22:506-517, 2008), the present paper presents the development and evaluation of a prevention program for community families with children, concerned with family-wide conflict and relationships, and building on Emotional Security Theory (Davies and Cummings in Psychological Bulletin 116:387-411, 1994). This program uniquely focuses on translating research and theory in this area into brief, engaging programs for community families to improve conflict and emotional security for the sake of the children. Evaluation is based on multi-domain and multi-method assessments of family-wide and child outcomes in the context of a randomized control design. A series of studies are briefly described in the programmatic development of a prevention program for conflict and emotional security for community families, culminating in a program for family-wide conflict and emotional security for families with adolescents. With regard to this ongoing program, evidence is presented at the post-test for improvements in family-wide functioning, consideration of the relative benefits for different groups within the community, and preliminary support for the theoretical bases for program outcomes.
This is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention from 1984 to the present day. It demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission. HIV prevention requires social transformation which is produced via changes in social practices and norms of communities and networks rather than by changes in behaviours of individuals. My colleagues and I developed a 'social health' model of social transformation that involves enabling communities to modify their social practices by building on emergent community responses, responses that were identified by the use of a reflexive research methodology.
Among the systems in place in different countries for the protection of the population against the long-term contingencies of old-age (or retirement), disability and death (or survivorship), defined-benefit social security pension schemes, i.e. social insurance pension schemes, by far predominate, despite the recent trend towards defined-contribution arrangements in social security reforms. Actuarial valuations of these schemes, unlike other branches of insurance, continue to be carried out a...
Robinson, Jo; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Herrman, Helen
Social media platforms are commonly used for the expression of suicidal thoughts and feelings, particularly by young people. Despite this, little is known about the ways in which social media can be used for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to identify current evidence pertaining to the ways in which social media are currently used as a tool for suicide prevention. Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1991 and April 2014. English language articles with a focus on suicide-related behaviour and social media were included. No exclusion was placed on study design. Thirty studies were included; 4 described the development of social media sites designed for suicide prevention, 6 examined the potential of social media in terms of its ability to reach or identify people at risk of suicide, 15 examined the ways in which people used social media for suicide prevention-related purposes, and 5 examined the experiences of people who had used social media sites for suicide prevention purposes. No intervention studies were identified. Social media platforms can reach large numbers of otherwise hard-to-engage individuals, may allow others to intervene following an expression of suicidal ideation online, and provide an anonymous, accessible and non-judgmental forum for sharing experiences. Challenges include difficulties controlling user behaviour and accurately assessing risk, issues relating to privacy and confidentiality and the possibility of contagion. Social media appears to hold significant potential for suicide prevention; however, additional research into its safety and efficacy is required. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volume of the Social Security Disability initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 shown two ways—we base one...
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides quarterly volumes of the Social Security Disability initial claims at the national level for federal fiscal year 2016 with quarter 4 shown two...
Edwards, Keith E.
The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…
Full Text Available In this paper, we will examine the causes behind the higher level of compliance with social security contributions in comparison with other tax categories in the case of Slovenia. The results of econometric models suggest that the activities of the Tax Administration of the Republic of Slovenia, which were more stringently performed in the area of social security contributions in the most recent period, are an important – but not the only factor – behind the higher level of compliance in connection with social security contributions. At the same time, the decrease in tax compliance with other taxes (income tax, corporate income tax, and VAT did not essentially influence the higher level of compliance with social security contributions. The more consistent treatment of unpaid social security contributions as a criminal offence and the higher public awareness about the importance of paying social security contributions in the latest period are recognized as important factors which simultaneously constitute the main difference between social security contributions and other taxes. The higher level of public awareness about the benefits that result from public services financed with taxes is recognized as a possible way to more optimally collect taxes in Slovenia.
Full Text Available Growing attention to sustainable development in academic discourse fosters discussions on how energy security affects society. In most cases the discussions consider the political and economic consequences, which affect or may affect the society. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania. To achieve this aim the interrelations between energy security, energy economics and social cohesion are discussed. The theoretical framework of social cohesion (introduced by J. Jenson and P. Bernard is presented and applied in empirical analysis. The operationalization of empirical variables is based on economic, political and socio-cultural - activity areas, which are analyzed to verify the dichotomies between public attitudes and the actual behavior of society. These dichotomies help to distinguish six analytical dimensions, on the basis of which we created 17 empirical indicators, which analysis allows for describing the impact of Lithuanian energy security economics on social cohesion in quantitative data. The statistical analyses showed that the impact of attitudinal dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has an almost neutral effect: 3.05 (1-very negative; 3-neutral, 5-very positive. Whereas, the impact of behavioural dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion has a negative effect: 2.47. The aggregated average of the overall impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has a negative effect: 2.76.
Mattsson, Christer; Säljö, Roger
Currently, threats to societal security from extremist groups are high on the political agenda in many countries. Politicians, policymakers at various levels and communities are searching for methods to counteract recruitment to violent organizations. These efforts are often referred to as Prevention of Violent Extremism (PVE-programmes). One of…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or... Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1363 Treatment of social security benefits or payments where... Membership in a Uniformed Service ...
... not furnished or applied for a Social Security number. 404.469 Section 404.469 Employees' Benefits... or applied for a Social Security number. No monthly benefits will be paid to an entitled individual... or her Social Security number, or, if the individual has not been assigned a number, he or she makes...
... and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.218 Section 5.218 Housing and Urban... REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining Income Information Disclosure and Verification of Social Security...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Social security numbers of... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and... provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and Certain Sole Proprietors and...
In many parts of the world, the food security of households and the nutrition security of individual household members, in particular that of children, are still at risk, in spite of the progress made in combatting hunger at the global level. The prevailing opinion among scientists and development
Rosen, Marc I; McMahon, Thomas J; Lin, HaiQun; Rosenheck, Robert A
To determine whether receipt of social supplemental security income (SSI) or Social Security disability income (SSDI) disability payments is associated with increased drug and alcohol use. Secondary analysis of data from 6,199 participants in the Access to Community Care and Effective Social Supports and Services demonstration for the homeless mentally ill. Observational, 12-month, cohort study completed over 4 years. Substance abuse and other outcomes were compared between the participants who did not receive SSI or SSDI during the 12-month study, those newly awarded benefits, and those without benefits throughout the 12 months. Social Security administrative records were used to corroborate Social Security benefit status. Drug and alcohol use were measured by self-report and clinician ratings. Participants who did not receive benefits significantly reduced their substance use over time. In generalized estimating equations models that adjusted for potentially confounding covariates, participants who newly received Social Security benefits showed no greater drug use than those without benefits but had significantly more days housed and fewer days employed. Participants whose benefits antedated the demonstration and continued during the 12 months had more clinician-rated drug use over time than those without benefits. In this vulnerable population, participants with newly awarded benefits did not have any different drug use changes than those without benefits, and had relatively more days housed. The hypothesis that Social Security benefits facilitate drug use was not supported by longitudinal data in this high-risk population.
N А Tkacheva
Full Text Available National security protection emerges as an indispensable factor for the development of personality, society, and state amid the increasing complexity of international migration processes. The article touches upon the peculiarities of ethnic and social relations between migrants and members of the host country providing insight into the novel category of "migration security".
Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits from federal fiscal year...
Tamborini, Christopher R; Cupito, Emily; Shoffner, Dave
Using a rich dataset that links the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation calendar-year 2004 file with Social Security benefit records, this article provides a portrait of the sociodemographic and economic characteristics of Social Security child beneficiaries. We find that the incidence ofbenefit receipt in the child population differs substantially across individual and family-level characteristics. Average benefit amounts also vary across subgroups and benefit types. The findings provide a better understanding of the importance of Social Security to families with beneficiary children. Social Security is a major source of family income for many child beneficiaries, particularly among those with low income or family heads with lower education and labor earnings.
Wang, Fuhmei; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Yu-Xiu
Countries with limited resources in economic downturns often reduce government expenditures, of which spending on preventive healthcare with no apparent immediate health impact might be cut down first. This research aims to find the optimum share of preventive health expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) and investigate the implications of preventive health services on economic performance and the population's wellbeing. We develop the economic growth model to undertake health-economic analyses and parameterize for Taiwan setting. Based on the US experiences over the period from 1975 to 2013, this research further examines the model's predictions on the relationship between preventive health expenditure and economic performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that an inverse U-shaped relationship exists between the proportion of GDP spent on prevention and social welfare, as well as between the proportion spent on prevention and economic growth. Empirical analysis shows an under-investment in prevention in Taiwan. The spending of preventive healthcare in Taiwan government was 0.0027 GDP in 2014, while the optimization levels for economic development and social welfare would be 0 · 0119 and 0 · 0203, respectively. There is a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between health expenditure on prevention and the estimated real impact of economic performance from US experiences. The welfare-maximizing proportion of preventive expenditure is usually greater than the proportion maximizing economic growth, indicating a conflict between economic growth and welfare after a marginal share. Our findings indicate that it is worthwhile increasing investment on prevention up until an optimization level for economic development and social welfare. Such levels could also be estimated in other economies.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…
Nissen, Thomas Elkjer
The importance of cyber-security is growing. With the continued digitization of our everyday life we become increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks – also personally. Therefore, it is an issue to be taken extremely seriously.......The importance of cyber-security is growing. With the continued digitization of our everyday life we become increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks – also personally. Therefore, it is an issue to be taken extremely seriously....
Barbara A. Butrica; Karen E. Smith; Eric Toder
Income tax provisions affect the buildup of retirement assets during workers’ careers and after-tax income following retirement. This paper uses the Urban Institute’s DYNASIM model to simulate how potential changes in the tax treatment of retirement saving, Social Security benefits, and income from assets outside of retirement accounts may affect boomers’ retirement incomes. Results show that changes in the income thresholds for taxing Social Security benefits have the largest impact on middl...
One of a series of reports examining issues related to equality for women in employment. Provides an overview of the treatment of women in social security programmes in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Sub- Saharan Africa. Calls attention to four separate aspects of gender bias. Also traces the evolution of social security programmes and highlights specific aspects of gender bias in current provisions. Makes recommendations for specific policy changes. Bibliography and statistical tables.
Parente, Rafael Machado
Population ageing is a problem that countries will have to cope with within a few years. How would changes in the social security system affect individual behaviour? We develop a multi-sectoral life-cycle model with both retirement and occupational choices to evaluate what are the macroeconomic impacts of social security reforms. We calibrate the model to match 2011 Brazilian economy and perform a counterfactual exercise of the long-run impacts of a recently adopted reform. In 2013, the Brazi...
Edgar Dener Rodrigues
Full Text Available This article is a study on the theory of Fundamental Rights and the Social Security System currently existing in this country, with the objective to approach the classification of the fundamental rights in its main dimensions and characteristics, assigning Social Security among those named second dimension. This is because the pension system consists in a set of principles that imposes a duty of material rendering to the State in the face of its beneficiaries, when exposed to certain social risks, which subject the person to a situation of social vulnerability. Social Security presents itself, thus as a genuine right of legal personality, for tries to confer means of livelihood upon a human being. Along these lines it tried, from theoretical and legislative research, to identify the concepts of fundamental rights, social security and social risk, combining with its foresight in the legal system, in order to identify the appropriate legal protection that the institute of Social Security must have in light of the theory of fundamental rights.
Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter
Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…
Suglia, Shakira F; Shelton, Rachel C; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G
The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment. The neighborhood social environment, particularly constructs of social capital, collective efficacy, and crime, is associated with obesity among both adults and children. Several studies have identified physical activity as a potential pathway of the neighborhood social environment and obesity association. Further work on social networks and norms and residential segregation, as well as the examination of dietary behaviors and mental health as potential mediating pathways, is necessary. Given the existing evidence, intervening on the neighborhood social environment may prove to be an effective target for the prevention on obesity. Intervention studies that promote healthy behaviors and prevent obesity while addressing aspects of the neighborhood social environment are necessary to better identify targets for obesity prevention.
Messias, Alexandre Augusto; Reichelt, Angela J; Dos Santos, Edson F; Albuquerque, Galton C; Kramer, José S P; Hirakata, Vania N; Garcia, Valter D
Return to work is an objective parameter used worldwide to evaluate the success of organ transplantation and is especially feasible after renal transplantation. This study sought to describe the frequency of return to work after renal transplantation and related characteristics. Retrospective cohort of 511 isolated kidney transplant recipients was recruited from a Brazilian referral center from January 2005 to December 2009; all were matched to the public social security database to determine inclusion and benefit awards, as well as the rate of resumption of contributions to the public social security system, a surrogate marker of work rehabilitation. Characteristics associated with work return were analyzed. No social security records were found for 28 subjects. The remaining 483 subjects had a mean age of 45±13 years; 62% were male; 401 (83%) received some public social security benefit; 298 were paying dues and could, therefore, receive temporary or permanent disability benefits. Of these, 78 subjects made social security payments after transplantation, resulting in a work return rate of 26% (95% confidence interval, 21-32). Younger age, living donor graft, and chronic glomerulonephritis were significantly associated with return to work. In Brazil, most renal transplant recipients are on social security benefits, but only a small proportion return to work after surgery. Clinical characteristics may help define work resumption trends.
International migration has long been considered the preserve of working-age adults. However, the rapid diversification of the elderly population calls for increased attention to the migration patterns of this group and its possible motivations. This study examines whether Latin American immigrants who are primary Social Security beneficiaries are more likely to return to their home countries during later life if they receive lower Social Security benefits. Using a regression discontinuity approach on restricted data from the U.S. Social Security Administration (N=1,515), this study presents the results of a natural experiment whereby the Social Security Administration unexpectedly lowered the Social Security benefits of the 1917-1921 birth cohorts due to a miscalculation in the benefit-calculation formula. Results suggest that approximately 10% of primary Social Security beneficiaries from Latin America born close to these dates return migrated, the probability of which was not affected by Social Security benefit levels.
This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in t...
Full Text Available Social capital is the basis for the definition of the future concept of rural areas management. Therefore, one of the most important tasks is to determine the various factors of existence, development, and formation of social capital. One of these factors is the security of rural areas and the definition of how social capital affects it. The analysis of the available scientific works in various areas reveals the lack of consensus in the definition of the category “socio-economic security of rural areas”. This is due to the fact that the definition of social and economic security of rural areas is identified with such concepts as the ability to provide resistance to various internal and external environmental influences. The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of social capital, as well as to study its impact on the socio-economic security of the state. The methodology of the research is based on the monographic method, the method of dialectic cognition, the scenario methods used to find the optimal scenario implementation option; SWOT-analysis is used to assess the positive or negative impact of social capital on the socio-economic security of rural areas. Understanding the essence of socio-economic security has led to the conclusion that it consists of economic, social, environmental and other types of security. The term “social security” in the understanding of researchers usually has two interpretations: traditional (absence of threats to the society and alternative (absence of threats from the society. It is proved that the social security of the region should be focused on ensuring primarily human rights and freedoms, namely, personal, political, social, economic, cultural, environmental, and family ones. Social and economic security should also provide social standards and guarantees, as well as norms. The economic basis of the security of rural areas is manifested in the development of market relations, infrastructure
B. McKay (Ben)
markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching
Grossklags, Jens; Barradale, Nigel J.
. The method of investigation used is experimental, with 146 subjects interacting in high- or low-status assignments and the subsequent change in the demand for security and privacy being related to status assignment with a significant t-statistic up to 2.9, depending on the specification. We find that a high...
The focus in this article is on the trainers, trainees, and training methods of human security. Case examples are drawn from different regions around the globe, with particular though not exclusive, emphasis on Africa. The aim is to explore the scope of training, national and regional approaches, the choice of training methods ...
Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...
Building Food Security and Social Resilience to HIV/AIDS in Malawi. In Malawi, small farmers face many challenges in sustaining a viable food system and are therefore highly vulnerable to climate change. Previous work in Ekwendi and Kasungu (projects 100670 and 101829) identified knowledge gaps and social equity ...
In this study, an analytical review was done on the historical process and contexts of welfare system and social security in order to analyze and evaluate the main features of this act especially in the area of medical services. It was also attempted to study the executive barriers of the appropriate implementation of social ...
Second contribution in the series INT-AR papers. This paper is dedicated to an overview of the coordination of social security rules in the EU, to the existing loopholes and to the question whether there is any social welfare tourism.
Full Text Available The principle of symmetry in enterprise resource planning (ERP systems implementation holds that the researcher should deploy impartial explanation in cases of success as in cases of failure. This article examines the symmetry intrinsic in social construction within the various stages of the ERP development life cycle, from initiation to implementation. Discourse on symmetry focuses on whether social constructs are able to influence ERP implementation positively (success or negatively (failure and whether this exposes ERP systems to information security risk. The theoretical lens of social construction of technology (SCOT theory, a theory premised on social interaction between agents and technology artefacts, is applied for this purpose. The research was quantitative with a survey having been conducted on information technology (IT and information security (IS practitioners. Results of the study highlight the significant role social construction plays because of the direct linkage it has with the implementation of information security controls in ERP systems. The research delineated five social constructs, namely positional influence, reward influence, coercive influence, expert influence and referent influence. For purposes of this research and on the sampling criteria applied, the construct ‘expert influence’, a typology of social construction, is shown to be more domineering than other typologies of social construction and is seen as providing symmetrical balance between governing ERP security (success and risk (failure. Implications of these results for theory and practice are discussed in the main article.
Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M
Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide.
Wang, Gunawan; Fitriani, Novi; Nurul Fajar, Ahmad
Indonesian Social Security is the one of the government agencies that is trusted to organize social security. With help of Information technology that growing these day, Indonesian Social Security is also developing E-Balance application, where previously all activities for checking balance is done by giving their slip details through the nearest branch to be distributed to each company. So far there is no research that reviewing e-Balance. Hence, the authors is interested to do research related factors that influence the behavior of the use of E-Balance Indonesian Social Security in the Jakarta area and model that can describe those factors Authors distributing questioners to 193 respondents and perform data processing. The result of this study is to know the factors that influence the behavior of use Personal Service E-Balance Indonesian Social Security and model that can describe those factors. The result shows that UTAUT 2 model is not match with this research and need to be enhanced. After enhancement, there are 3 factors that being significant. Such as Behavioral Intention, Effort Expectancy and Social Influence while the others are not supported and need to be customize.
Ruffolo, Mary C.; Evans, Mary E.; Lukens, Ellen P.
This paper presents the prevalence and incidence of children in need of social services due to child maltreatment, child poverty, parental incarceration, parental substance abuse problems, and homelessness. Examines early childhood family education and family support approaches in primary prevention designed to meet the needs of these children.…
Levitt, Aaron J.; Lorenzo, Julie; Yu, Van; Wean, Caren; Miller-Solarino, Sophie
Social workers and paraprofessionals serve psychiatric populations at high risk for suicide, but may receive little training related to suicidality. This study evaluated a suicide awareness and prevention training workshop for providers working with mentally ill homeless and previously homeless adults. Trainees attended a half day of training, and…
Evaluations of the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of HIV prevention interventions rely on self-reported sexual behaviour data. The accuracy of such data has sometimes been questioned. The absence of a so-called objective measure of sexual behaviour complicates this. Social desirability bias (SDB) is a key factor ...
Aguila, Emma; Vega, Alma
For decades, scholars have studied the effects of immigration on the U.S. social security system. To date, this research has been primarily limited to migrants within the United States and does not consider those who return to their countries of origin. We estimate the proportion of male Mexican return migrants who contributed to the U.S. social security system and analyze their socioeconomic characteristics and migration histories. We also estimate the proportion that receive or expect to receive U.S. social security benefits. Using probit regression on the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), we describe the predictors of having contributed to the U.S. social security system among Mexican males in Mexico aged 50 years and older who at some point lived in the United States. We find that 32% of male return migrants reported having contributed to the U.S. social security system, but only 5% of those who contributed, received or expected to receive benefits. Those who reported having contributed spent more years in the United States and were more likely to be U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents than those who did not contribute. Immigrants often pay Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance taxes using legitimate or illegitimate social security numbers and return to their home countries without collecting U.S. social security benefits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the
Full Text Available In recent years, the big news in Social Security reform has been the program’s fiscal concerns. In light of concerns about both program costs and benefit adequacy, we propose an effective and relatively inexpensive targeted program to provide a minimally adequate floor to old-age income through the Social Security system. This minimum benefit plan would provide a cost-effective method for reducing elder poverty to very low levels. A key element is that the benefit would not count toward income eligibility thresholds for other social programs. Other aspects include an income-tested benefit that would bring beneficiaries to 100 percent of the poverty threshold; application by filing of a 1040 income tax return; and setting of benefit levels and distribution through the Social Security Administration.
DEDUCTING SOCIAL GRANTS FROM CLAIMS FOR LOSS OF SUPPORT. 2011 VOLUME 14 No 4 ..... answered whether or not the financial benefits received from the two Swiss social- insurance schemes should be ..... funds, insurances and institutions such as the Road Accident Fund pay out sometime in the future only.
The aim of the essay is to show the SHIELD methodology for helping the firm management to improve the risks prevention policy. It has been tested in the field with positive results. SHIELD is a cost-benefit analysis application to compare prevention and non-prevention costs, which arise from non-market risks. In the economic perspective safety risks (which include psycho-social risks) are non-market ones as they cause injures to workers during the job. SHIELD (Social Health Indicators for Economic Labour Decisions), is the original method proposed by the author. It is a cost benefits analysis application, which compares safety prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison allow stop management to evaluate the efficiency of the current safety prevention policy as it helps top management to answer to the policy question: how much to invest in prevention costs? The costs comparison is obtained through the reclassification of safety costs between prevention and non-prevention costs (which are composed by claim damages and penalty sanction costs). SHIELD has been tested empirically in four companies operating in the agribusiness sector during a research financed by the Assessorato all'Agricoltura and INAI Regionale of Emilia Romagna Region. Results are postive: it has been found that the increase of prevention costs causes the cut of non-prevention costs in all companies looked into, as assumed by the high reliability organization theory. SHIELD can be applied to all companies which must have an accounting system by law, no matter of the industry they act. Its application has limited costs as SHIELD doesn't need changes in the accounting system. Safety costs sustained by the company are simply reclassified in prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison of these two costs categories has been appreciated by top management of companies investigated as a useful support to decide the risks prevention policy for the company. The SHIELD original feature compared
... used to pay the Social Security taxes for the period of the qualifying retirement coverage error if I was erroneously placed in CSRS and did not pay Social Security taxes? 839.902 Section 839.902... Social Security Taxes § 839.902 Will my CSRS retirement deductions be used to pay the Social Security...
markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty. The dominant model of agricultural development practised by many countries today is based on chemical-intensive agr...
Osteen, Philip J.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sharpe, Tanya L.
The prevalence of suicide suggests social workers will encounter clients at risk for suicide, but research shows social workers receive little to no training on suicide and suicide prevention and feel unprepared to work effectively with clients at risk. Baseline results from a randomized intervention study of the Question, Persuade, and Refer…
This paper identifies several positive synergies between social protection programmes and food security outcomes. One function of social protection is to manage and reduce vulnerability, and several instruments are reviewed – weather-indexed insurance, public works programmes, emergency food aid and buffer stock management – which all contribute to stabilising income and access to food across good and bad years, or between the harvest and the hungry season. Other social protection instruments...
Mental health is a key component of overall wellbeing and mental disorders are relatively common, including among older adults. Yet the causal effect of income on mental health status among older adults is poorly understood. This paper considers the effects of a major source of transfer income, Social Security retirement benefits, on the mental health of older adults. The Social Security benefit "Notch" is as a large, permanent, and exogenous shock to Social Security income in retirement. The "Notch" is used to identify the causal effect of Social Security income on mental health among older ages using data from the AHEAD cohort of the Health and Retirement Study. We find that increases in Social Security income significantly improve mental health status and the likelihood of a psychiatric diagnosis for women, but not for men. The effects of income on mental health for older women are statistically significant and meaningful in magnitude. While this is one of the only studies to use plausibly exogenous variation in household income to identify the effect of income on mental health, a limitation of this work is that the results only directly pertain to lower-education households. Public policy proposals that alter retirement benefits for the elderly may have important effects on the mental health of older adults.
Counsel 5.11.2 Personnel, Readiness, Training, and Education 5.11.3 Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics 5.11.4 Intelligence 5.11.5 Networks...Tim O’Reilly, the social technology publisher and evangelist who coined the term Web 2.0, stated in his Obama for President endorsement that, “there...different from the social software evangelist or developer. Retaining quality employees, particularly those from the collaborative, creative class
Full Text Available Emotions importance increases even more in the context of the national security agencies. Since their mission is to protect and defend the citizens against attacks and also to provide leadership and justice services to other agencies and partners, the aim of the information they post on social media should be twofold: on the one hand, it should reflect the attitudes, values and beliefs, supported by the institution, and on the other hand, it should have an impact on citizens feeling of security. But, do they manage to meet these demands? Are they focusing on impressing the audience or they concentrate on sharing specific emotions? Is it a marketing strategy or a knowledge strategy? Starting from these, the purpose of this research is to set a nexus between emotions and the use of social media by the national security organizations. In other words, we aim (i to determine the main types of emotions, (ii to establish whether these are shared within the social media platforms, (iii to identify the purpose for which the national security organizations use social media, (iv to determine whether social media could serve as Ba for the national security organizations. In order to achieve these objectives, we employ an ethic approach and develop a longitudinal study based on quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The results prove that social media platforms may serve as Ba since they appear as a shared space which fosters individual and collective knowledge creation and sharing. The national security agencies use social media platforms for combining the classical four types of Ba: originating Ba (it shares its emotions, feelings and thoughts through its posts, interacting Ba (through the generated reactions and comments, it ensures the development of shared models and the conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, cyber Ba (by fostering the virtual interaction among its followers and exercising Ba (by facilitating the creation of
Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmael; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Ardalan, Gelayol; Djalalinia, Shirin
Undoubtedly, one of the vital needs of man is security. Determinants and related factors to sense of social security is one of the most important research priorities, especially in adolescents and young people. To identify the factors affecting the social security of the youth. In 2017, using conventional content analysis, and benefiting from semi-structured in-depth interviews, we conducted a qualitative study exploring the opinions of young people about their feelings regarding social security. First, a targeted sampling method was determined to collect the data. Participants were young volunteers aged 18 to 30 who were selected from Tehran, the capital of Iran. Inclusion criteria for participants were willingness to participate in the study and ability to express their experiences. Data was extracted from 21 participants. The participants consisted of 21 young people who met the study inclusion criteria, of whom 12 participants were male. Their mean age was 24.4±0.41 years and their education varied from primary school to master's degree. Under two main categories of the need for economic and financial security and the need for a safe society, we extracted 11 subcategories following 32 codes. According to the findings, most participants agreed on the important role that sense of social security has in their lives and their health. The important role of sense of social security in participant's lives and health was the main important point of our findings, emphasized by most of participants. Based on the results; the assessment of the specific needs of different target groups, the design, development and implementation of health programs led to more effective interventions.
Full Text Available Race and ethnicity, typically defined as how individuals self-identify, are complex social constructs. Self-identified racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to receive preventive care and more likely to report healthcare discrimination than self-identified non-Hispanic whites. However, beyond self-identification, these outcomes may vary depending on whether racial/ethnic minorities are perceived by others as being minority or white; this perception is referred to as socially-assigned race.To examine the associations between socially-assigned race and healthcare discrimination and receipt of selected preventive services.Cross-sectional analysis of the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System "Reactions to Race" module. Respondents from seven states and the District of Columbia were categorized into 3 groups, defined by a composite of self-identified race/socially-assigned race: Minority/Minority (M/M, n = 6,837, Minority/White (M/W, n = 929, and White/White (W/W, n = 25,913. Respondents were 18 years or older, with 61.7% under age 60; 51.8% of respondents were female. Measures included reported healthcare discrimination and receipt of vaccinations and cancer screenings.Racial/ethnic minorities who reported being socially-assigned as minority (M/M were more likely to report healthcare discrimination compared with those who reported being socially-assigned as white (M/W (8.9% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.002. Those reporting being socially-assigned as white (M/W and W/W had similar rates for past-year influenza (73.1% vs. 74.3% and pneumococcal (69.3% vs. 58.6% vaccinations; however, rates were significantly lower among M/M respondents (56.2% and 47.6%, respectively, p-values<0.05. There were no significant differences between the M/M and M/W groups in the receipt of cancer screenings.Racial/ethnic minorities who reported being socially-assigned as white are more likely to receive preventive vaccinations and less likely to report
Full Text Available This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in the scope of the discussed phenomenon.
Williams, B C; Demitrack, L B; Fries, B E
This study analyzed the accuracy of the National Death Index when personal identifiers were used that included or excluded Social Security number. Computerized records of the Department of Veterans Affairs were used for comparison. Different combinations of identifiers other than Social Security number correctly identified from 83 to 92 percent of dead and 92 to 99 percent of living persons. These results should prove useful in ascertaining the mortality status of patient populations without information on Social Security numbers.
The Paris and Vienna Conventions internationally agreeded that health care and hospitalization guarantee and disability pension or death due to victim's outside the nuclear installations, as well as the organization funds contributions should be fixed by the internal rights of each Signatory Part. The present study, applicable to nine countries (Germany, Belgium, Brazil, France, Italy, Low Countries, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland) sets up that the social security levels are more or less high and that the charges contributions could be important in countries under subrogation, even reduced or null in countries under imputation. In cases of transfrontier accidents, the contributions extension relies on harmonized rights with the social security organizations of victim's countries. Each indenominity victim's dossier could take a long time. The study concludes that the regulatory services of the social security organizations and their responsible operators or substitutes insurers should coordinate their interventions by using the information system
Ennis, Andrew; Cleland, Ian; Patterson, Timothy; Nugent, Chris D; Cruciani, Federico; Paggetti, Cristiano; Morrison, Gareth; Taylor, Richard
Safety and security rank highly in the priorities of older people on both an individual and policy level. Older people are commonly targeted as victims of doorstep crime, as they can be perceived as being vulnerable. As a result, this can have a major effect on the victim's health and wellbeing. There have been numerous prevention strategies implemented in an attempt to combat and reduce the number of doorstep crimes. There is, however, little information available detailing the effectiveness of these strategies and how they impact on the fear of crime, particularly with repeat victims. There is therefore clear merit in the creation and piloting of a technology based solution to combat doorstep crime. This paper presents a developed solution to provide increased security for older people within their home.
Full Text Available A properly configured firewall is a good starting point in securing a computer network. However, complex network environments that involve higher number of participants and endpoints require better security infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, proposed as a solution to perimeter defense, have many open problems and it is clear that better solutions must be found. Due to many unsolved problems associated with IDS, Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS are introduced. The main idea in IPS is to be proactive. This paper gives an insight of Cobrador Bouncer IPS implementation. System architecture is given and three different Bouncer IPS deployment modes are presented. The Bouncer IPS as a proactive honeypot is also discussed.
Madsen, Per Kongshøj
assistance for non-members. The first tier is basically state-run system, while the second tier is administered by the municipalities. As for the performance of the Danish labour market, participation rates are quite high and although unemployment rates are relatively high and differentiated across groups......It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...... of national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...
Computer Security Team
Do you blog frequently? Send tweets about what you've done? Keep a lively Facebook profile? Comment regularly on interactive forums? Many of us do. "Social media", i.e. Twitter, Facebook, public blogs, interactive forums and public commenting functions on websites, are widely used for sharing information, outreach and contact with the world. While you can make use of social media for many different purposes, the lines between private and public, personal and professional are often blurred. Consequently, it is often difficult to get the balance right. As a social animal, you want to be frank, open and communicative and share your knowledge, experiences, opinions, feelings and life with your peers. On the other hand, while working at or for CERN, you cannot act in the void but have to respect CERN’s Code of Conduct, CERN’s Computing Rules and, for CERN personnel, the Staff Rules and Regulations. Therefore, if your posts include mention ...
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Disability insurance benefits for federal...
Full Text Available Using a cross-section of OECD countries, this paper examines the relationship between globalization and the change and convergence of social security transfer. Globalization has arguably had a profound impact on the use of social protection in states, since it is normally accompanied with increases in income inequality, polarization, and unemployment. In addition, globalization may lead to socio- economic policy harmonization across countries. The empirical results show that there exists a significant and positive relationship between social security transfer in GDP and the globalization index based on political, economic, and social integrations. Also, we found the convergence phenomenon of social security transfer in OECD countries, applying the traditional methodology of convergence and convergence. Therefore, there is evidence in OECD countries that globalization indirectly affects the convergence of social security transfer in addition to direct relation to social security transfer in GDP.
Hubener, Andreas; Maurer, Raimond; Mitchell, Olivia S
We show how optimal household decisions regarding work, retirement, saving, portfolio allocations, and life insurance are shaped by the complex financial options embedded in U.S. Social Security rules and uncertain family transitions. Our life cycle model predicts sharp consumption drops on retirement, an age-62 peak in claiming rates, and earlier claiming by wives versus husbands and single women. Moreover, life insurance is mainly purchased on men's lives. Our model, which takes Social Security rules seriously, generates wealth and retirement outcomes that are more consistent with the data, in contrast to earlier and less realistic models.
The humanities give a real sense of understanding and interpretation to the social, cultural, economic as well as the interpersonal relationships in societies both at the level of individuals and institutions. Because human beings are dynamic and complex in nature, their perceptive actions must be examined under a ...
UPGRADING LEBANON’ S ECONOMIC ANALYTICAL CAPACITY PROJECT 105541
The government of Lebanon has repeatedly indicated its intention to improve social and welfare services. In particular, the ... to abuse and don't necessarily have a significant impact on poverty alleviation as such benefits are not targeted and are temporary ..... These universities also purchase health insurance from private ...
Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…
... identity of the applicant; and (3) Either send the application to SSA or, if there is evidence that the... number to an applicant who, because of well established religious objections, refuses to obtain a Social... applicant's behalf or another unique identifier. (2) The term well established religious objections means...
Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J
Although children's security in the context of the interparental relationship has been identified as a key explanatory mechanism in pathways between family discord and child psychopathology, little is known about the inner workings of emotional security as a goal system. Thus, the objective of this paper is to describe how our reformulation of emotional security theory within an ethological and evolutionary framework may advance the characterization of the architecture and operation of emotional security and, in the process, cultivate sustainable growing points in developmental psychopathology. The first section of the paper describes how children's security in the interparental relationship is organized around a distinctive behavioral system designed to defend against interpersonal threat. Building on this evolutionary foundation for emotional security, the paper offers an innovative taxonomy for identifying qualitatively different ways children try to preserve their security and its innovative implications for more precisely informing understanding of the mechanisms in pathways between family and developmental precursors and children's trajectories of mental health. In the final section, the paper highlights the potential of the reformulation of emotional security theory to stimulate new generations of research on understanding how children defend against social threats in ecologies beyond the interparental dyad, including both familial and extrafamilial settings.
Laskowski Piotr Paweł
Full Text Available The article describes selected issues related to user safety on the Internet. This safety consists of a number of factors such as the technology that we use to communicate and to browse the Internet, and habits and behaviors that we have acquired and through which we can identify at least some typical hazards encountered on the Web. Knowledge of software and the ability to use it and to configure it properly as well as checking regularly for security updates reduces the risk of data loss or identity theft. Public awareness of threats continues to grow, but there are also new, previously unknown threats; that is why it is so important to inform of the dangers by all available channels of communication.
Barth, R P; Fetro, J V; Leland, N; Volkan, K
A 15-session sex education program was delivered by teachers to 586 10th graders using techniques based on social learning theory, including modeling, in-class and out-of-class practice of skills for abstaining from sexual intercourse, and for contraception. Knowledge about reproduction and birth control, intentions to use skills to avoid pregnancy, and communication with parents about pregnancy prevention were significantly greater at posttest and 6-month follow-up for the trained group than for the control group. Members of the trained group tended to use birth control more often, especially those who started to have sexual intercourse subsequent to the program. No differences in the frequency of sexual intercourse, pregnancy scares, or pregnancies were found. Satisfaction with the program was high. Although skill training by itself may not be sufficient to significantly prevent pregnancies, this program offers promise of being a useful component of combined school, home, and community activities to prevent pregnancy.
Malcolm David Brown
Full Text Available The growth of social enterprise within development NGO work might lead one to suspect it has been irredeemably corrupted by neo-liberal capitalism. However, using the tools of capitalism is not the same as subscribing to the values of capitalism. This paper is situated at the intersection of five fields: human security, international development, social enterprise, social franchising, and left-wing anti-capitalist thought. It examines the relevance of social enterprise to human security and to development, the relationship between social enterprise and the anti-capitalist values of the left, and it then focuses on social franchising—a subset of social enterprise that highlights the importance of cooperation—suggesting that it may be a useful methodology for NGOs carrying out educational work in parts of the developing world. It synthesises and extends ideas that I have presented elsewhere [1-3], it draws on ethnographic fieldwork on the Thai-Burma border, and it puts forward an agenda for further applied research that is rooted in a sociological analysis of civil society and contributes to the human security paradigm.
Ma, Xianlei; Zhou, Yuepeng; Shi, Xiaoping
In China, land rental transactions have increased considerably since the 1990s, but there exists a high degree of segmentation and informal features. The rental transactions between partners with close social relations and the use of informal contracts remain a common phenomenon in many regions, which strongly reduce the potential of the land rental market to enhance productivity and equity. The current literature postulates that the insecurity of land property rights may restrict land transactions between members of same social relations. Studies conducted in China show that the land rentals between partners with closer social relations prefer informal contracts because these contracts are self-enforced based on trust and reputation. However, little literature has jointly examined the effect of land tenure security and social relations on joint decisions of partner and contract choice in the Chinese land rental market. Based on household data collected in Jiangxi and Liaoning provinces in 2015, this paper aims to examine the relationship between land tenure security perceptions, social relation and land rental contract choices in China. We differentiate between formal and informal contracts of land rental activities because they have different enforcement mechanisms and thus different risk-sharing strategy. With regards to social relations, we differ among relatives, villagers living in the same village and strangers according to social distance. In order to reduce estimation bias without accounting for endogenous matching between landlords and tenants, we investigate the joint partner and contract choices in the land rental market using a nested logit framework. The paper contributes to the literature on the effect of tenure security and social relations on land rental contracts by (i) taking into account endogenous matching between landlords and tenants, and estimating the joint decisions of partner and contract choice, and (ii) examining the effect of perceived
Masanet, Erika; Centro de Investigação e Estudos de Sociologia (CIES), Lisboa, Portugal; Baeninger, Rosana; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)
The Brazilian migration to Spain has increased in recent years, contributing to the diversification of migration flows to the country. Since 2008 Spain has undergone a profound economic crisis. This paper aims to give an overview of the employment situation of recent Brazilian immigrant population in Spain and the changes associated with economic crisis. The analysis focuses on the insertion of Brazilians in the Spanish labor market and in the Spanish social protection system, as well as the ...
Trout, B. Thomas; And Others
This conference report addresses education on national security and international relations in secondary school courses in the social studies. Main conclusions of the conference are: (1) Topics on national security should be added to the secondary school curriculum. (2) Current institutional and instructional settings are open to inclusion of…
S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie
This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited and inade......This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited...... arrangements, positive research evidence and civil society advocacy and litigation. Moreover, the introduction of a health insurance scheme is relatively more complex (politically, institutionally and technically), compared to expanding an already existing social cash transfer programme. In our analysis, we...... of health insurance, ideological narratives are pitted against each other: the concept of health as a common good against health as a commodity, and market-oriented strategies for delivery against state-centric approaches....
Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen
To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.
Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel; García-Peña, Carmen
Objective: To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. Results: In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as “Edentulous” (15.2%), “Class 1 = Unfavorable” (13.7%), “Class 2 = Somewhat favorable” (10.4%), and “Class 3 = Favorable” (60.7%). Using “Class 3 = Favorable” as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. Conclusion: The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico. PMID:24596632
Pierre, Joseph D.
Information security systems (ISS) have been designed to protect assets from damages and from unauthorized access internally as well as externally. This research is promising similar protection from ISS methods that could prevent intoxicated individuals under the influence of alcohol from driving. However, previous research has shown significant…
The proliferation of gated residential communities in the United States has generated social criticism, but research to assess the expected crime prevention effect of the perimeter security systems...
The situation of radiation protection should be put in the more general perspective of risk governance where new patterns of risk governance necessitate periodic updating of social trust within open decision making processes. This trend also affects the traditional risk governance patterns in the sense that their legitimacy is grounded on social delegation and no more on authority or scientific evidence. Whatever is the dominant pattern of risk governance there is consequently a real challenge for radiation protection to explicit and share with society the rationales of its expertise. This is why the spreading of a radiation protection culture is a key challenge for a better integration of radiation protection in modern societies. Standards and norms should no more be prepared in the darkness of internalized decision making processes limited to Public Authorities, experts and operators. The use of standards should also be clearly linked with the acquisition and maintenance of a radiation protection culture. Radiation protection cannot remain in the hand of a few specialists. It should become a concern for all the exposed categories of actors in the relevant contexts. (author)
-, Č. 318 (2007), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : social security * political risk * pension reform Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp318.pdf
Kitty Malherbe and Lorenzo Wakefield show how roles traditionally allotted to women may obstruct their access to the right to social security. There are instances where women's care-giving role provides them with benefits they otherwise would not have had, such as child support grants. On the other hand, care-giving can ...
Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.
-, 9/2008 (2008), s. 1-34 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/8361
van Groezen, B.J.A.M.; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.
This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security in a closed economy that consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.It is shown that if old agents mainly demand labour intensive services, a modest decrease of the pay-as-you-go pension scheme still raises long-run
Apr 19, 2011 ... National security has been defined to include not only safety devices implored by government for the safety of lives and property in the country but it also includes developmental strategies put forward to actualize effective social, political, economic, technological reforms that will bring about improvement in ...
Boháček, Radim; Belush, Volha
-, č. 381 (2009), s. 1-51 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : fertility * social security * fiscal policy * public expenditures * taxation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp381.pdf
The coordination of the national social security is one of the crucial fields of cooperation between EU Member States. The coordination is based on the principle of application of one legislation at a time in cases of employment being executed in one or more than one Member State. Persons moving
Groezen, Bas van; Meijdam, L.; Verbon, H.
This paper analyses the e¤ects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy. The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector. Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector
van Groezen, B.J.A.M.; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.
This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy.The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector and
We develop an overlapping-generations model for a closed economy with uncertainty on labor income and mortality risk to show that unfunded social security programs may increase welfare in economies where agents are affected by self-control problems à la Gul and Pesendorfer (2001, Econometrica 69,
... passport numbers. (a) Policy. Ex-Im Bank recognizes the importance of assessing, to the extent reasonably... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport numbers. 404.21 Section 404.21 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION...
Oct 22, 2010 ... nisance of the limits of the State and the limits of self-provision, and address ..... teeth: The minimum core and its importance' (2002) 118 SALJ 484; Rawls J A theory of justice (rev ed. 1999). .... states, but absent from international development aid (Townsend P 'The right to social security and national ...
Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Freeman, Harry
Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, fathers' involvement (i.e. parenting behaviors and consistency) and fathering context (i.e. fathers' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a subsample of 102 fathers, taken from a larger sample of 235 culturally diverse US families. The authors predicted…
Full Text Available The recent developments in the ICT sector have opened the way to transforming the industrial economy into a digital - based one. The present paper offers a perspective on the impact of the new informational technologies on the society in general and on the organization and functioning of the fiscal and social security systems in Romania in particular.
Okyireh, Rexford Owusu; Okyireh, Marijke Akua Adobea
How useful is social media and training programs to the development of professionals in the security sector? In this study the researchers examined three key issues pertaining to training programs. These were marketing of training programs, participant experiences of training content and work proficiency. A sample of ten participants of a forensic…
Since the early 1990s in the Netherlands a process of restructuring social security has been going on. A central element is the introduction of regional Centres of Work and Income, stimulating people living on benefits to return to paid work and making services more client–oriented. In these
Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…
Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry
Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…
In this paper a method is developed to calculate a wealth variable accounting for the existence of the basic old-age provisions in The Netherlands (AOW). In line with Feldstein's extended life-cycle model, consumption functions with (gross) social security wealth are estimated for The Netherlands
... provide your social security number (SSN), he or she will ensure that the disclosure is required by... provide your SSN, the NARA employee or contractor must first inform you: (1) Whether the disclosure is mandatory or voluntary; (2) The statute or authority under which your SSN is solicited; and (3) How your SSN...
Block, G; Matanoski, G M; Seltser, R S
A method for estimating year of birth using only Social Security number is described. The method relies on estimating the year of issue of the Social Security number, using either precise information from a Social Security Administration table (for numbers issued since 1950) or extrapolation (for numbers issued before 1951). Age at issue was estimated using data from individuals in an occupationally defined population for whom both birth date and Social Security number were known. Year of birth is then year of issue minus age at issue. A highly statistically significant correlation of 0.91 for known vs. estimated year of birth was observed. Predictions correct within +/- 5 years were achieved for 78 per cent of the entire study population. For individuals born after approximately 1934, predictions within +/- 5 years of the correct year were achieved 95 per cent of the time, and within +/- 2 years 77 per cent of the time. The method may be useful in epidemiologic research in situations in which date of birth is missing. Some applications are discussed.
Erickson, Richard C.; Brauchle, Paul E.
The purposes of this article are (1) to present a method by which social security numbers may be used to draw cluster samples of a predetermined size and (2) to describe procedures used to validate this method of drawing random samples. (JOW)
Technology & Learning, 2008
Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…
Rodríguez Salazar Oscar
Full Text Available Este articulo analiza la forma en que el Plan de Desarrollo "Cambio para contruir la Paz" trata el sistema de seguridad social y su interpretacion sobre las causas de la exclusion social. El plan carece de una vision de conjunto del sistema por cuanto no aborda los aspectos reisgos profesionles y pensiones; articula el concepto de solidaridad a las relaciones interpersonales y, asi, subestima el papel del Estado en el logro de esa meta. Por otra parte, las politicas laborales esbozadas en el Plan conducen en forma inexorable a una mayor exclusion social. En cuanto al sistema de seguridad social en salud, dado que la cobertura se ha extendido mediante el regimen subsidiado, la ausencia de una politica que promueva el control social puede acentuar la clientelizacion que Estado manifiesta querer combatir.This article analyzes the way that the Development Plan "Changeto Build Peace" treats the social security system and its interpretation of the causes of social exclusion. The Plan lacks a vision of the system as a whole as it does not address the aspects of professional risks and pensions; it articula tes the concept of solidarity to interpersonal relations and thus underestimates the role of the State in achieving that goal. Moreover, the labor policies outlined in the Plan lead inexorably to greater social exclusion. As far as the social security system for health, given that coverage has been extended by meansof the subsidized regime, the absence of a policy that promotes social control may accentuate the clientelization of the State which the Plan claims to want to combato.
... World War II Veterans.) Dated: February 12, 2013. Michael J. Astrue, Commissioner of Social Security....1590, 404.1593, and 404.1594. Pertinent History: Section 223(f) of the Social Security Act (Act) sets... decision regarding the beneficiary's medical cessation and possible reentitlement, thereby eliminating the...
The International Labour Organisation (ILO) has a long tradition of developing minimum social security standards. However, the value of these instruments is increasingly criticised. A central point in this criticism is that the standards are not based upon the notion of a right to social security
Full Text Available Social Security in most African countries has evolved significantly in terms of perspectives, motives, governance as well as innovation of benefits and administration. African countries are slowly, one by one, beginning to reassess the role of social security in correcting several social ills. Empowerment programs and grants are increasingly being provided via social security to women and the youth. From the roots of social security, even very low income countries, some of which have recently experienced several years of civil war and extreme economic hardships, have begun to improve benefit structures and amounts, which include national medical benefits. The attention being provided to social security and how it fits into a nation’s plans to lift itself out of poverty is increasingly involving the actuarial profession from international organisations such as ILO and ISSA as well as consulting actuaries and academics. Assessing and ensuring sustainability of social security benefits requires actuarial valuations to take long-term consequences involving demographic changes into account in the face of providing the benefits in the short term; asset liability modelling to ensure adequate resources are held; ensuring that results are appropriately reported and communicated to key stakeholders; as well as developing long-term strategic plans and dynamic systems surrounding all of these issues. In this paper, the role of actuaries is brought to the centre of the increasingly changing face and evolving culture of social security in taking Africa closer to poverty alleviation. La Seguridad Social en la mayoría de los países africanos ha evolucionado significativamente en cuanto a perspectivas, motivos, gobernanza, así como en innovación en las prestaciones y la adminsitración. Los países africanos están comenzando a reevaluar el papel de la Seguridad Social en la eliminación de determinados problemas sociales. Los programas de acción y los
Killen, Joel D.
Discusses the need for smoking prevention programs that help adolescents resist social pressure and that use the results of current smoking prevention research. Theoretical foundations of current smoking prevention programs are also provided. (AS)
Dluhopolska Tetiana I.
Full Text Available The world-wide globalization processes and the political-military conflicts have exacerbated the problem of social security of the people of various world countries, which is usually seen from the perspective of both the State and the individual citizen. The article is aimed at analyzing the existing conceptions of social security from different perspectives – political, economic efficiency, and narrative. An analysis of political theories of social security (majority rational voting; pressure groups has determined that they are based on the redistribution processes, and winning of the individual economic agents is achieved in the political struggle for various «social prizes». An analysis of theories of efficiency (optimal redistribution; optimal retirement insurance; prodigal father; misguided Keynesian; longevity insurance; government economizes on administration costs; return on human capital investment has determined that they rely on market «fiasco» and can help in understanding which from the social protection programs minimize market failures. An analysis of the descriptive (narrative theories (chain letters; lump of labor; monopoly capitalism; nearly rational policy has determined that they are difficult subject to the mathematical interpretation and partially repeat ideas of the previous concepts.
Crano, William D; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Tan, Cara N; Siegel, Jason T
Social commentary about prevention messages may affect their likelihood of acceptance. To investigate this possibility, student participants (N = 663) viewed 3 antimarijuana advertisements, each followed immediately by videotaped discussions involving 4 adults or 4 adolescents using either extreme or moderate language in their positive commentaries. The commentaries were expected to affect participants' perceptions of the extent to which the ads were designed to control their behavior (perceived control), which was hypothesized to inhibit persuasion. Two indirect effects analyses were conducted. Marijuana attitudes and usage intentions were the outcome variables. Both analyses revealed statistically significant source by language interactions on participants' perceived control (both p persuasion, and the impact of interpersonal communication variations on acceptance of media-transmitted prevention messages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina
To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.
This paper argues that security belongs to a specific category of commodities: “contested commodities” around which there is an ongoing and unsettled symbolic struggle over whether or not they can and should be though of as commodities (section 1). The contested nature of commodification has implications for how markets function; market practices tend to be defined and organized in ways that minimize their contentiousness and obfuscate their expansion. The paper looks at the implications of t...
Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca
Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…
Fatna Elmendili, Nisrine Maqran
Full Text Available In the recent years, the fast development and the exponential utilization of social networks have prompted an expansion of social Computing. In social networks users are interconnected by edges or links, where Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn are most popular social networks websites. Due to the growing popularity of these sites they serve as a target for cyber criminality and attacks. It is mostly based on how users are using these sites like Twitter and others. Attackers can easily access and gather personal and sensitive user’s information. Users are less aware and least concerned about the security setting. And they easily become victim of identity breach. To detect malicious users or fake profiles different techniques have been proposed like our approach which is based on the use of social honeypots to discover malicious profiles in it. Inspired by security researchers who used honeypots to observe and analyze malicious activity in the networks, this method uses social honeypots to trap malicious users. The two key elements of the approach are: (1 The deployment of social honeypots for harvesting information of malicious profiles. (2 Analysis of the characteristics of these malicious profiles and those of deployed honeypots for creating classifiers that allow to filter the existing profiles and monitor the new profiles.
Karremans, Johan C; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; van Dillen, Lotte F; Van Lange, Paul A M
Research has shown that social exclusion has devastating psychological, physiological, and behavioral consequences. However, little is known about possible ways to shield individuals from the detrimental effects of social exclusion. The present study, in which participants were excluded during a ball-tossing game, examined whether (reminders of) secure attachment relationships could attenuate neurophysiological pain- and stress-related responses to social exclusion. Social exclusion was associated with activation in brain areas implicated in the regulation and experience of social distress, including areas in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and hypothalamus. However, less activation in these areas was found to the extent that participants felt more securely attached to their attachment figure. Moreover, the psychological presence (i.e., salience) of an attachment figure attenuated hypothalamus activation during episodes of social exclusion, thereby providing insight into the neural mechanisms by which attachment relationships may help in coping with social stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Isabel Cristina BENTO
Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.
Kjaerulf, Finn; Barahona, Rodrigo
This article explores the violence reduction potential in the intersection between health, criminal justice, and development. It emphasizes public health, rule of law, and equality-driven socioeconomic development as principal concerns in preventing violence. In parts of Latin America, violence has become a serious public health and security problem. Prior studies have explored the risk factors associated with violence as well as experiences in its prevention. These studies and existing approaches to violence prevention provide evidence on where to direct attention and build prevention efforts. This article argues for integrated community-driven and national interventions to create cooperative national- local linkages and embed international human rights law at the national and local levels. Nations struggling with violence should be encouraged to apply an integrated framework to prevent violence and reinforce human security.
Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Robles-Pérez, Eduardo; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Rico-Méndez, Flavio Gerardo; Javier, Kelly-García
Environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos in Mexico in the past has been a cause of deaths and health damages. Its magnitude is unknown to date. Our objective was to identify the proportion of cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) that can be attributed to and occupational exposure to asbestos. We carried out a case-control study of MPM in 472 workers insured by the Mexican Institute of Social Security, all Valley of Mexico residents, with 119 incident cases and 353 controls. Cases were histologically confirmed. Participants were questioned concerning their occupational history and sociodemographic data. Assignment to one of the four exposures was performed qualitatively by an expert hygienist. Odds ratios (ORs) and attributable risks (ARs) were calculated using a non-conditional logistic regression model. A total of 80.6% of cases and 31.5% of controls had occupational exposure to asbestos. ORs were adjusted for age and gender and by exposure category, and exhibited an increase with probability of exposure as follows: 3.7(95% CI 1.3-10.4) for the likely category and 14.3(95% CI 8-26) for the certain category; AR in the group occupationally exposed to asbestos was 83.2%, and the population AR was 44%. Our results show that the relationship between industrial uses of all forms of asbestos is generating an increase in mesothelioma-related diseases and deaths among Mexican workers. As a public health policy, Mexico should prohibit the use of asbestos in all production processes with the aim of controlling the epidemic and preventing the occurrence of new cases of MPM. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Duygu Demirsat KÖLEOĞLU
Full Text Available Flexicurity is a fact that synchronically interests and impresses employee and employer. Flexicurity fact becomes concrete with some genuine provisions. This provision is appropriate law framework, active labour market policies, lifelong learning and social security system. In this study, it is aimed to analyze flexicurity fact in the context of social security systems. In this reasons, income security and combination security are explicated through social security systems.
Duygu Demirsat KÖLEOĞLU
Flexicurity is a fact that synchronically interests and impresses employee and employer. Flexicurity fact becomes concrete with some genuine provisions. This provision is appropriate law framework, active labour market policies, lifelong learning and social security system. In this study, it is aimed to analyze flexicurity fact in the context of social security systems. In this reasons, income security and combination security are explicated through social security systems.
The author considers the impact of demographic aging in Japan on the social security system and on economic growth. It is argued that "First of all, as the cost of social security (including social services) increases remarkably at the earlier stage of ageing, the disposable (after tax) income and private consumption of the present labour force generation tend to increase at a lower growth rate than that of the GNP....Secondly if pension systems are based on terminal funding schemes, the ageing of the population increases savings (net increase of the amount of the pension funds) at the earlier stage of the ageing of the population. Thirdly, there is a time lag between the increase of social security benefits and the decrease in the personal savings ratio. The high ratio of savings and the shortage of aggregate demand as well as the high pressure for export in...recent Japan can partly be attributed to the above factors." Possible future economic scenarios as demographic ageing in Japan proceeds are described, and policies to avert anticipated problems are outlined. (SUMMARY IN JPN) excerpt
Liu, Leo; Sun, Kai; Rather, Zakir Hussain
system simulations. Fed with real-time wide-area measurements, one DT of measurable variables is employed for online DSA to identify potential security issues, and the other DT of controllable variables provides online decision support on preventive control strategies against those issues. A cost......This paper proposes a decision tree (DT)-based systematic approach for cooperative online power system dynamic security assessment (DSA) and preventive control. This approach adopts a new methodology that trains two contingency-oriented DTs on a daily basis by the databases generated from power...
Juan Carlos Morales Peña
Full Text Available The objective of this academic paper is to demonstrate an unconventional proposition for analytical interpretation of the way in which any effort to regenerate social fabric is followed by another process of social deconstruction. This study’s approach is based on the interdependent relationship between security and development, which exposes the collision of two forms of logic; that is, one regarding their interconnected nature, where there is a significant degree of social cohesion and regeneration that is indispensible to strengthen community organization, and is part of the content of the violence prevention strategies, and other citizen security and coexistence policies. Additionally, there is another destructuring logic, with the capacity to amass new social input at present to undertake future deconstruction. In this regard, the proposal is the existence of a phenomenon of legitimate summation that is unconscious of the future risk, and its empowerment of adverse effects on society, and its development in the matrix comprised of cooperation-cooptation-conflict.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1389
Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C
This article takes stock of how promoting health (PH) (promoción de la salud - PS) has been understood within an international setting and gives three meanings for promotion: as general policy orientation, as a set of actions and as a special dimension of sanitary work. Interest expressed in giving it a specific basis distinguishing it from prevention, transcending educational work, has emerged from the subtle differences established from such different ways of coming to terms with PH. After recognising the challenge posed by PH in the field of health, the text succinctly describes how discourse regarding PH has been introduced in Colombia and discusses how an attempt has been made to be more precise regarding its place in the general health-related social security system. Efforts currently being made in Colombia regarding making PH become a reality within the Colombian health system are then mentioned.
The rampant urbanization and medical marketization in China have resulted in increased vulnerabilities to health and socioeconomic disparities among the rural migrant workers in urban China. In the Chinese context, the socioeconomic characteristics of rural migrant workers have attracted considerable research attention in the recent past years. However, to date, no previous studies have explored the association between the socioeconomic factors and social security among the rural migrant workers in urban China. This study aims to explore the association between socioeconomic inequity and social security inequity and the subsequent associations with medical inequity and reimbursement rejection. Data from a regionally representative sample of 2009 Survey of Migrant Workers in Pearl River Delta in China were used for analyses. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze the impacts of socioeconomic factors on the eight dimensions of social security (sick pay, paid leave, maternity pay, medical insurance, pension insurance, occupational injury insurance, unemployment insurance, and maternity insurance) and the impacts of social security on medical reimbursement rejection. The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB regression) was adopted to explore the relationship between socioeconomic factors and hospital visits among the rural migrant workers with social security. The study population consisted of 848 rural migrant workers with high income who were young and middle-aged, low-educated, and covered by social security. Reimbursement rejection and abusive supervision for the rural migrant workers were observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that there were significant associations between socioeconomic factors and social security. ZINB regression showed that there were significant associations between socioeconomic factors and hospital visits among the rural migrant workers. Also, several dimensions of social security had significant
Seidel, H J; Schochat, T
The special subject "sociomedicine", as defined for medical students in "items to which the written examination in the second part of the medical examination can relate" has been taught by this department for 25 years as part of the course on medical ecology. There are 4 lectures (structure of the health care system; preventive care by doctors in the community and at the place of work; introduction to health economy; introduction to epidemiology) and the following seminars in small groups: social security systems; health insurance; excursion to a rehabilitation hospital; health reporting; epidemiology. The topics are presented and taught with emphasis on didactically useful and local examples. To ensure student participation "personal data" were introduced: Students give short reports on topics presented to them or they have to formulate questions to the topic of the seminar, questions or subjects to be dealt with. The questions concerning "social security systems" and "health insurance", collected over a 6 year period, were analyzed. Initially, the subject "sociomedicine" is not much appreciated by the students. The analysis shows what students think when they are challenged. The spectrum of questions mainly reflects the discussion in the media: Finance and benefits predominate, also budget and misuse, especially with reference to old-age pension and health insurance. Questions related to specific medical functions as e. g. medical expert opinion, are less often raised. However, topics such as "expansion of preventive measures", "chip card and utilisation" and "unconventional methods" are often addressed. A special demand for personal advice is seen during small talk discussions in intermissions (health insurance). The topics "medical expert opinion" and "comparison of public and private health insurance" have become positive knowledge required for the examination and for practising the medical profession. With these subjects as a starting point it appears easier
With the popularity of social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc. we find our selves more connected to cyberspace than at any previous time in history. This constant connectiveness and sharing of daily lives in almost realtime, has some serious implications for cyber security and privacy. The talk will discuss the very real threat of our ever growing digital footprint, and what if anything we can do to mitigate the risks.
Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.
Roč. 58, 7-8 (2008), s. 329-358 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1137_dusek-kopecsni_-_329-358-opravené.pdf
Müthing, Jannis; Jäschke, Thomas; Friedrich, Christoph M
Mobile health (mHealth) apps show a growing importance for patients and health care professionals. Apps in this category are diverse. Some display important information (ie, drug interactions), whereas others help patients to keep track of their health. However, insufficient transport security can lead to confidentiality issues for patients and medical professionals, as well as safety issues regarding data integrity. mHealth apps should therefore deploy intensified vigilance to protect their data and integrity. This paper analyzes the state of security in mHealth apps. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) identification of relevant transport issues in mHealth apps, (2) development of a platform for test purposes, and (3) recommendation of practices to mitigate them. Security characteristics relevant to the transport security of mHealth apps were assessed, presented, and discussed. These characteristics were used in the development of a prototypical platform facilitating streamlined tests of apps. For the tests, six lists of the 10 most downloaded free apps from three countries and two stores were selected. As some apps were part of these top 10 lists in more than one country, 53 unique apps were tested. Out of the 53 apps tested from three European App Stores for Android and iOS, 21/53 (40%) showed critical results. All 21 apps failed to guarantee the integrity of data displayed. A total of 18 apps leaked private data or were observable in a way that compromised confidentiality between apps and their servers; 17 apps used unprotected connections; and two apps failed to validate certificates correctly. None of the apps tested utilized certificate pinning. Many apps employed analytics or ad providers, undermining user privacy. The tests show that many mHealth apps do not apply sufficient transport security measures. The most common security issue was the use of any kind of unprotected connection. Some apps used secure connections only for selected tasks
Edicta Gregoria González-Leal
Full Text Available This article bases the need for a new conception in the training approaches in the training institutions of citizen security professionals, due to the present changes in the 21st century at the state, regional and local level, where the protagonism of the same lies In responding to the new challenges, trends and challenges present in society. It also analyzes the significance of the university's social connection with the communities, so that the praxis of the students goes beyond the understanding of the problems to the search for possible alternatives for their solution, with the consequent social transformations that this bring along.
Full text of publication follows: this study explores the connection between the perception of different societal risk, health concerns and behavioral attitudes of people in condition of social security threat. Two small and two big industrial towns were chosen in order to observe the social and psychological price of the structural changes in the industry such as unemployment and its reflection on the households and the individuals' social attitudes. Key stakeholders were interviewed and questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed high level of risk sensitivity and health concerns when people felt threatened by lack of social and economic security. The pollution was found to be important problem when it caused direct and obvious risk to human health and the environment. In the same time reverse environmental behavior like insensitiveness and neglectful attitude was observed in cases when the health consequences of the pollution were perceived to be unclear and with delayed effect. In situation of a great socio-economic threat noninvolvement helped the individuals to adapt. The research proved the influence of several risk characteristics on risk perception. It was found a connection between the risk perception and risk controllability, voluntariness of exposure and cost/benefits distribution. In the study areas respondents' judgments on these characteristics reflected directly their social status and material state. The study presented here is in progress - it i's supported by research grant from Open Society Foundation. (author)
... Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during my qualifying retirement coverage error and my corrected coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section 839.901 Administrative... pay Social Security taxes? (a) If you are in CSRS by mistake and belong in CSRS Offset, FERS, or...
... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: We Need the Social Security Number of the Person Named Below, RI 38-45... the Social Security Number of the Person Named Below, RI 38-45. As required by the Paperwork Reduction... Operations, Retirement Services, Office of Personnel Management. Title: We Need the Social Security Number of...
Duran, Xavier; Vanroelen, Christophe; Deboosere, Patrick; Benavides, Fernando G
To assess differences in mortality rates between social security statuses in two independent samples of Belgian and Spanish male workers. Study of two retrospective cohorts (Belgium, n=23,607; Spain, n=44,385) of 50-60 year old male employees with 4 years of follow-up. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Mortality for subjects with permanent disability was higher than for the employed, for both Belgium [MRR=4.56 (95% CI: 2.88-7.21)] and Spain [MRR=7.15 (95% CI: 5.37-9.51)]. For the unemployed/early retirees, mortality was higher in Spain [MRR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.24-2.17)] than in Belgium [MRR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.46-1.71)]. MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.
Jane D. Woody
Full Text Available Although need, opportunity, and funding for prevention programs are currently increasing, social workers do not appear to be leaders in this area of practice. Their lack of initiative in prevention will not likely change until social work education incorporates concepts from prevention science into the curriculum. This article: identifies and explains major prevention concepts and principles; discusses their congruence with social work's historical roots and current curriculum policy; and offers thoughts on integrating prevention values and content into both generalist and advanced courses. An appendix of resources is included to encourage faculties to consider how prevention could fit in the overall design of their programs.
Full Text Available This article attempts to highlight the potential danger in applying private-law principles to social-security law in deciding whether or not social grants should be deducted from awards for damages. Typically, this issue comes to the fore where a damage-causing event, such as death, sets into motion a system that provides for the payment of social benefits, damages or both. In social-security law, the receipt of more than one social benefit is called "double dipping", whereas in private law the problem of double compensation is addressed by applying the collateral-source rule. In some instances the applicable legislation clearly prescribes the deduction or not of the social benefit, but unfortunately our legislation is not always clear on this issue and this can best be illustrated by two recent conflicting decisions in Makhuvela (SGHC and Timis (SCA. In Makhuvela the court held that a foster-care grant should be disregarded in calculating the award for damages, inter alia because the child will never have a claim to the grant. In Timis the SCA distinguished the facts from Makhuvela and held that the child-support grants received by the mother after the father's death are directly linked to the death of the father and should therefore be deducted from her claim for loss of support. It is submitted that although the outcome of the Timis decision is correct, the court should have incorporated the means test into the process of deciding if the grant should be deducted from the compensation. A two-phase approach is suggested: first determine if the receipt of the grant is directly linked to the death of the breadwinner, and secondly determine how the grant and the subsequent settlement paid by a wrongdoer will affect the circumstances of a particular individual or family. The objectives in social-security law differ from the objectives in the law of damages and therefore the principles applied in cases of double dipping cannot be equated with those
Sivaram, Sudha; Zelaya, Carla; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Latkin, Carl; Go, V. F.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David
Stigma against persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is a barrier to seeking prevention education, HIV testing, and care. Social capital has been reported as an important factor influencing HIV prevention and social support upon infection. In the study, we explored the associations between social capital and stigma among men and women who are…
Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D
Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics.
Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Albuquerque-Oliveira, Paulo Rogério
To determine the prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease granted to employees, as well as the number of lost workdays and costs resulting from those in Brazil between 2003 and 2004. Cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Unified System of Benefits of the Brazilian Institute of Social Security (INSS, Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social) and the Brazilian Social Registry Database. Data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and type of economic activity, as well as type, duration and cost of benefits, were compiled. Respiratory diseases accounted for 1.3% of the total number of temporary social security benefits granted by INSS, with a prevalence rate of 9.92 (per 10,000 employment contracts). Females and individuals older than 50 years of age were the most affected. Non-work-related benefits were more common than were work-related benefits. The most prevalent diseases were pneumonia, asthma and COPD, followed by laryngeal and vocal cord diseases. The most prevalent types of economic activity were auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities. The mean duration of benefits was 209.68 days, with a mean cost of R$ 4,495.30 per occurrence. Respiratory diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leave (mean, 296.72 days) and greater cost (mean, R$ 7,105.74). The most prevalent diseases were airway diseases and pneumonia. Workers from auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities were the most affected. Diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leaves and resulted in greater costs.
Peng, Yu-I; Lin, Tsui-Fang
The National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan provides free annual preventive care services and other disease-specific preventive care services under low copayments to people aged 65 and older, yet their utilization rates remain low ever since implementation. This study investigates whether social capital is associated with preventive care use among people aged 65 and older. Using the 2009 National Health Interview Study, this study measures social capital by the elderly's social network and social participation, and employs the logistic regressions to estimate the association between social capital and the odds of using a variety of preventive care services. The results show that social capital in terms of social network and social participation is significantly associated with the use of NHI general preventive care services. For disease-specific preventive care, it is social participation, rather than social network, that is related to the utilization rate. The associations between social capital and different types of preventive care use found in our study could be considered as an important factor when making policies to promote the utilization of preventive care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the household registration system of China’s planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China’s economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China’s government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.
Giovanni Zurlini; Irene Petrosillo; Nicola Zaccarelli; Kurt Riitters
Environmental security, as the opposite of environmental fragility (vulnerability), is multilayered, multi-scale and complex, existing in both the objective realm of biophysics and society, and the subjective realm of individual human perception. For ecological risk assessments (ERAs), the relevant objects of environmental security are social-ecological landscapes (...
Woo, Tae Ho; Kwak, Sang Man
Highlights: • The cyber terror modeling is made by the social networking algorithm. • This is applicable by the social networking service (SNS). • Security of nuclear industry could be controlled by the network theory. • Newly developed complex algorithm can be introduced. • Simplified graphics show the operator easily. - Abstract: Nuclear energy has been studied for the secure power productions, which is based on the simulation study following the incident of nuclear cyber terror attack on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). The social networking is used for the terror incident modeling and its prevention strategies. The nuclear industry could be investigated in the aspect of minimizing the dangerous situations caused by possible terror attacks which are considered by the society oriented connectivity among the related people or groups. The social networking circle by system dynamics diagram (SNCSD) is constructed, where the configuration of a model social networking example by system dynamics (SD) is applied. From A to H regions, the values are obtained by the random numbers incorporated with the designed algorithms. The results show the comparative values of terror possibilities which are based on the proposed social networking algorithm. It is possible to prepare for potential terrorism in the nuclear industry
Loli Ponce, Amalia; Departamento de Enfermería Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú
OBJECTIVES: To know and compare the main characteristics of work environment (WE) and health status (HS) through nurses opinions in the three classes of health care centers (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional study. 3259 nurses frorri social security, private entities and army hospitals were selected randomly and interviewed. RESULTS: Laboral regimens of nurses working at army hospitals or social security, consist of about 30 to 40 hours/week in which they h...
Katuk, Norliza; Fong, Choo Sok; Chun, Koo Lee
Social login (SL) has recently emerged as a solution for single sign-on (SSO) within the web and mobile environments. It allows users to use their existing social network credentials (SNC) to login to third party web applications without the need to create a new identity in the intended applications' database. Although it has been used by many web application providers, its' applicability in accessing learning materials is not yet fully investigated. Hence, this research aims to explore users' (i.e., instructors' and students') perception and experience on the security of SL for accessing learning contents. A course portal was developed for students at a higher learning institution and it provides two types of user authentications (i) traditional user authentication, and (ii) SL facility. Users comprised instructors and students evaluated the login facility of the course portal through a controlled lab experimental study following the within-subject design. The participants provided their feedback in terms of the security of SL for accessing learning contents. The study revealed that users preferred to use SL over the traditional authentication, however, they concerned on the security of SL and their privacy.
Julius O. Okesola
Full Text Available Background: Social networks (SNs offer new and exciting opportunities for interaction among people, cutting across different stratum of the society and providing a ubiquitous mechanism that supports a wide variety of activities. They are at the same time being exploited by criminals to fraudulently obtain information from unsuspecting users. Unfortunately, the seamless communication and semblance of safety assumed by most users make them oblivious to the potential online dangers. Objective: Using quantitative methods on selected social sites, this study empirically examined the information security awareness of SN users in south western Nigeria. Method: A self-designed research instrument was administered for data collection while descriptive and inferential statistics were employed using chi-square, cross-tabulation and t-test for data analysis and result interpretation. Result: Findings from the analysed data suggest that the risk perception vary among male and female SN users and that the general perception of risks regarding SN usage is also very low. Conclusion: Adequate security awareness coupled with detailed legal measures are required to keep SNs secured. However, an individual is duly responsible for the habit of ignoring potential risks posed by the networks.
Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov
Full Text Available Summarizes theoretical approaches to the definition of psychosocial well-being. It shows the relationship of psychosocial well-being, social tension, social security and social health. As the methodology of research used the environmental approach. Actualized the problem of psychosocial well-being of students in modern conditions. It shows the results of the study of subjective well-being of the students using the technique of «Scale of subjective well-being» (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelssohn and Chiche, adaptation VM Sokolova. The findings relate to the need to include indicators of psychosocial well-being of the person in the system of corresponding psycho-pedagogical and socio-psychological support of the university.
Branco, Anadergh Barbosa de Abreu; Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart
To determine the prevalence and duration of social security benefits (SSBs) claims to registered workers with asthma in Brazil by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security in 2008. This was a retrospective, descriptive study, based on information obtained from the Brazilian Unified Benefit System database, on the number of SSB claims granted to registered workers with asthma in 2008. The reference population was the monthly mean number of workers registered in the Brazilian Social Registry Database in 2008. The variables studied were type of economic activity, gender, age, and type/duration of the SSB claim. The relationship between work and asthma was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR) between work-related and non-work-related SSB claims for asthma. In 2008, 2,483 SSB claims were granted for asthma, with a prevalence of 7.5 allowances per 100,000 registered workers. The prevalence was higher among females than among males (PR = 2.1 between the sexes). Workers > 40 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to be granted an SSB claim for asthma than were younger workers. The prevalence was highest among workers engaged in the following types of economic activity: sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing (78.8, 22.4, and 22.2 claims/100,000 registered workers, respectively). The median (interquartile range) duration of SSB claims for asthma was 49 (28-87) days. Asthma is a major cause of sick leave, and its etiology has a strong occupational component. This has a major impact on employers, employees, and the social security system. Being female, being > 40 years of age, and working in the areas of urban sanitation/sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing increase the chance of sick leave due to asthma.
The main theme of the degree paper is preventive discipline, which is essential for the pedagogic work of a teacher. Especially set out is the question of the connection between single aspects of preventive discipline and social games. The idea of the connection between these fields is derived from the preventive concept Oratorij, where Giovanni don Bosco stressed games as the key part of preventive work. Recently professional writings have been frequently setting out social games as importan...
Milsom, Sophia A; Freestone, Mark; Duller, Rachel; Bouman, Marisa; Taylor, Celia
Social climate has an influence on a number of treatment-related factors, including service users' behaviour, staff morale and treatment outcomes. Reliable assessment of social climate is, therefore, beneficial within forensic mental health settings. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) has been validated in forensic mental health services in the UK and Germany. Preliminary normative data have been produced for UK high-security national health services and German medium-security and high-security services. We aim to validate the use of the EssenCES scale (English version) and provide preliminary normative data in UK medium-security hospital settings. The EssenCES scale was completed in a medium-security mental health service as part of a service-wide audit. A total of 89 patients and 112 staff completed the EssenCES. The three-factor structure of the EssenCES and its internal construct validity were maintained within the sample. Scores from this medium-security hospital sample were significantly higher than those from earlier high-security hospital data, with three exceptions--'patient cohesion' according to the patients and 'therapeutic hold' according to staff and patients. Our data support the use of the EssenCES scale as a valid measure for assessing social climate within medium-security hospital settings. Significant differences between the means of high-security and medium-security service samples imply that degree of security is a relevant factor affecting the ward climate and that in monitoring quality of secure services, it is likely to be important to apply different scores to reflect standards. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Calogero Massimo Cammalleri
Full Text Available Was not the labour problem the same everywhere? The paper attempts to answer this question by proposing a re-interpretation of flexicurity through the comparison with the economic concepts of externalities and distortion of competition. After a methodological and epistemological premise, based on a multidisciplinary literature, the paper - critically addresses the origins of flexicurity and argues that it lacks an archetypical definition, especially in the formulation of the EU Commission. Hence, the paper considers flexicurity as any balance between flexibility and security and, therefore, proposes ordering any set of contracts, providing the same balance and with the same regulatory framework, in “communities”. It is assumed, therefore, that communities can differ either in terms of a “protective” trade-off, where the differential is not a surrogate measure of security, or in terms of an economic trade-off, where it is met by the provision of social insurance or security. One of these sets is called community 0 and it corresponds to undeclared work, not only illegal, but also completely devoid of security and fully flexible. After identifying from ILO, EU and constitutional sources the foundation of the “incompressibility” of rights which guarantee decent work, the paper likens decent work to a public good of general interest, in the same way as laws generally recognize the natural environment. On the basis of this comparative axiom, the paper proposes considering the dispersion of security produced by undeclared work as “un-decent” work and, therefore, as a form of “pollution”. The paper proposes, conversely, to define as a “total secure” environment one where there is no loss of security and, therefore, a non-polluted environment. Because an environment can be little or very polluted, the paper proposes considering as social pollution any form, even legal, of security leakage - such as that induced by the
Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...
Dunfield, Kristen A; Johnson, Susan C
Over the last half decade there has been a growing move to apply the methods and theory of cognitive development to questions regarding infants' social understanding. Though this combination has afforded exciting opportunities to better understand our species' unique social cognitive abilities, the resulting findings do not always lead to the same conclusions. For example, a growing body of research has found support for both universal similarity and individual differences in infants' social reasoning about others' responses to incomplete goals. The present research examines this apparent contradiction by assessing the influence of attachment security on the ability of university undergraduates to represent instrumental needs versus social-emotional distress. When the two varieties of goals were clearly differentiated, we observed a universally similar pattern of results (Experiments 1A/B). However, when the goals were combined, and both instrumental need and social-emotional distress were presented together, individual differences emerged (Experiments 2 and 3). Taken together, these results demonstrate that by integrating the two perspectives of shared universals and individual differences, important points of contact can be revealed supporting a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the nature of human social reasoning.
Kristen A Dunfield
Full Text Available Over the last half decade there has been a growing move to apply the methods and theory of cognitive development to questions regarding infants’ social understanding. Though this combination has afforded exciting opportunities to better understand our species’ unique social cognitive abilities, the resulting findings do not always lead to the same conclusions. For example, a growing body of research has found support for both universal similarity and individual differences in infants’ social reasoning about others’ responses to incomplete goals. The present research examines this apparent contradiction by assessing the influence of attachment security on the ability of university undergraduates to represent instrumental needs versus social-emotional distress. When the two varieties of goals were clearly differentiated, we observed a universally similar pattern of results (Expt. 1a/b. However, when the goals were combined, and both instrumental need and social-emotional distress were presented together, individual differences emerged (Expt. 2, 3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that by integrating the two perspectives of shared universals and individual differences, important points of contact can be revealed supporting a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the nature of human social reasoning.
Howard, Larry L
Recent findings indicate that household food insecurity affects children's social skill development in the early years of elementary school. It is important to assess the persistency of developmental consequences and investigate whether all categories of social skills are equally affected by food insecurity experiences. The present paper estimates population-averaged and subject-specific models for children's social skill scores reported by school teachers using longitudinal data on 2310 boys and 2400 girls in the USA enrolled in the 1st (aged 6-9 years), 3rd (aged 8-11 years) and 5th (aged 10-13 years) grades (1999-2003) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten. The main findings are, first, significantly (P insecurity experiences and children's social skill scores are evident. Estimates based on sex-stratified samples indicate that the contemporaneous association is strongest among girls, while the association of an early transition from food insecurity in the 1st grade to food security in the 3rd grade is strongest among boys. Second, food insecurity experiences predict children's social skill scores emphasising self-control, attentiveness and task persistence, rather than interpersonal relationships or externalising behaviour. Overall, the findings underscore the multifaceted effect that household food insecurity has on children's social skills and provide the strongest empirical evidence to date that the experiences are linked with non-nutritional developmental consequences for children over a time horizon spanning several years.
Richmond, Jonathan Y; Nesby-O'Dell, Shanna L
In recent years, concern has increased regarding use of biologic materials as agents of terrorism, but these same agents are often necessary tools in clinical and research microbiology laboratories. Traditional biosafety guidelines for laboratories have emphasized use of optimal work practices, appropriate containment equipment, well-designed facilities, and administrative controls to minimize risk of worker injury and to ensure safeguards against laboratory contamination. The guidelines discussed in this report were first published in 1999 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/CDC and National Institutes of Health. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories [BMBL]. Richmond JY, McKinney RW, eds. 4th ed. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1999 [Appendix F]). In that report, physical security concerns were addressed, and efforts were focused on preventing unauthorized entry to laboratory areas and preventing unauthorized removal of dangerous biologic agents from the laboratory. Appendix F of BMBL is now being revised to include additional information regarding personnel risk assessments, and inventory controls. The guidelines contained in this report are intended for laboratories working with select agents under biosafety-level 2, 3, or 4 conditions as described in Sections II and III of BMBL. These recommendations include conducting facility risk assessments and developing comprehensive security plans to minimize the probability of misuse of select agents. Risk assessments should include systematic, site-specific reviews of 1) physical security; 2) security of data and electronic technology systems; 3) employee security; 4) access controls to laboratory and animal areas; 5) procedures for agent inventory and accountability; 6) shipping/transfer and receiving of select agents; 7) unintentional incident and injury policies; 8) emergency response plans; and 9) policies that address breaches in security. The security plan
Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong
The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.
Full Text Available The study's objectives were to: 1 use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV prevention strategies, and 2 to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.
Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina
Objective. To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. Methods. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. Results. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Conclusions. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy. PMID:22171105
Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? A study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life.
Liang, Ying; Lu, Wanyi; Wu, Wei
The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL. This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities produce the greatest influence
Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi
Full Text Available Objectives: The present paper attempts to appraise the quality of life of the elderly people in Tehran city with special reference to their social security and pathology. In this research, different dimensions of material, social, well-being and food conditions of the elderly people are assessed. While the universe of research is the elderly people of Tehran city, in that, the human rights, the elderly dignity, and the gradual decline of their social security are studied. Similarly, seeking various dimensions of the lives of the elderly is one of the main aims of the study, i.e. The age groups who gradually lose their physical and mental self-reliance, and as a result, their dependency on others and various services enhances. Methods & Materials: The universe of study in this research is the city if Tehran. In that, in an empirical method, 500 elderly people have randomly been selected and referred to, and in the process of which the intended data have been collected through questionnaires. Results: Findings indicate that ageing pyramid shrinks and narrows at the age of 60 and over, and from that age on, only 60 percent of the elderly have their spouses. Similarly, another research finding reflects the economic, social, and remedial conditions of these people. Findings also show the amount of emotional and material supports that the elderly receive from their children. Conclusion: Research reached the conclusion that the young elderly or those born in 1320/1942 and beyond, under the current social, economic and cultural conditions, i.e. with new needs and expectations, are highly different from those of previous generations with special reference to Tehran. To meet such needs, relevant resources must intervene.
Kohli, Charu; Gupta, Kalika; Banerjee, Bratati; Ingle, Gopal Krishna
World population of elderly is increasing at a fast pace. The number of elderly in India has increased by 54.77% in the last 15 years. A number of social security measures have been taken by Indian government. To assess awareness, utilization and barriers faced while utilizing social security schemes by elderly in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 individuals aged 60 years and above in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi. A pre-tested, semi-structured schedule prepared in local language was used. Data was analysed using SPSS software (version 17.0). Chi-square test was used to observe any statistical association between categorical variables. The results were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 0.05. A majority of study subjects were females (54.2%), Hindu (89.7%), married (60.3%) and were not engaged in any occupation (82.8%). Awareness about Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) was present among 286 (79.4%) and Annapurna scheme in 193 (53.6%) subjects. Among 223 subjects who were below poverty line, 179 (80.3%) were aware of IGNOAPS; while, 112 (50.2%) were utilizing the scheme. There was no association of awareness with education status, occupation, religion, family type, marital status and caste (p>0.05). Corruption and tedious administrative formalities were major barriers reported. Awareness generation, provision of information on how to approach the concerned authority for utilizing the scheme and ease of administrative procedures should be an integral part of any social security scheme or measure. In the present study, about 79.4% of elderly were aware and 45% of the eligible subjects were utilizing pension scheme. Major barriers reported in utilization of schemes were corruption and tedious administrative procedures.
Buitrago Echeverri, María Teresa; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Granja Palacios, Consuelo
The impacts of neoliberal or market-based social security reforms in health have been extensively studied. How such reforms transformed employment-related insurance and entitlements, however, has received significantly less attention. This study aims to understand how the employment insurance system operates in Colombia and to assess how the experience of workers seeking social security entitlements relates to the system's structure. We conducted an ethnographic study of the Colombian Occupational Risk System between May 2014 and March 2016, with two main components: 1) analysis of the system itself through in-depth interviews with 32 people working in leadership positions and a systematic review of the system's most important legislation, and 2) a study of people who experienced problems receiving entitlements and were challenging the assessment of their work-related illness or accident. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people, followed up with half of them, and reviewed their case files. We found that difficulties accessing health care services, payments for medical leave, job reassignments, severance packages, and filing for pension benefits were common to all cases and resulted from overwhelming bureaucratic and administrative demands. Regional and national evaluation bodies dictate whether a given illness or accident is work-related, and establish a percentage of Loss of Wage Earning Capacity (LWEC). People's disabled bodies rarely reached the threshold of 50% LWEC to qualify for disability pensions. The lengthy process that workers were forced to endure to obtain work-related entitlements always involved the judiciary. The three competing for-profit financial sectors (health insurance, pension funds, and Occupational Risk Administrators) actively challenged workers' demands in order to increase their profits. We conclude that these for-profit sectors work contrary to the principles that sustain social security. Indeed, they push sick and disabled
El’vina Stepanovna Kuratova
Full Text Available The formation of a rational transport network and the development of vehicles should be marked by the achievement of socio-territorial justice, which is understood as a guarantee of transport accessibility of social services, increase and economy of man’s free time, reduction in the degree of uncertainty of economic activity in the part that depends on transport factors. According to the author, the priorities of the assessment of transport security include the duration of the trip from the settlements to the centers of social services and year-round transportation. Each type of social services has normative values of transport accessibility, corresponding to the needs of a particular region, and they are the basis for strategic planning in the services sector. For instance, the standard time for provision of emergency medical aid is 40 minutes. The level of transport discrimination is defined as the proportion of the population living outside the standard time. The author proposes a formula for determining the weighted average costs of time that a transport user needs for reaching a certain destination (e.g., hospital, school, etc. from any other departure point. Transport security is assessed on the example of the Komi Republic; the calculation includes all its settlements, considers the distance to the regional centers, condition of roads, obstacles to year-round road communications, transport vehicles, including animal-drawn transport, and going on foot, the speed of movement and other factors. The results of the developed differentiation methodology can be used for interbudgetary control and distribution of resources of the Fund of financial support of municipal formations according to the rate of transport increase in the cost of public services through the coefficients of transport security
Söderholm, Anna; Söderberg, Anna; Nordin, Steven
Odor intolerance is a frequently reported problem, predominantly among women. Our purpose was to illuminate how individuals living with sensory hyperreactivity (SHR; a form of odor intolerance) experience its impact on accessibility, financial security, and social relationships. Data were collected by having 12 women with SHR write descriptive texts. These texts were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Six themes were identified: Being limited in participating in society, being forced to behave incompatibly with one's personality, experiencing lack of understanding and respect from others, experiencing insecurity, being dependent on others, and being forced to choose between the plague and cholera.
Brown, Jeffrey R.; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S.
This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a “breakeven analysis” encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others. PMID:28579641
.... Such environmental security related disasters hinder economic progress displace populations and facilitate the growth of undesirable elements and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction...
Myklebust, Jon Olav
This article, by Jon Olav Myklebust from Volda University, Norway, presents analyses of social security dependence among students with special educational needs in Norway who at the start of upper secondary school had various disabilities--of a somatic, psychological and/or social nature. They were all educated in ordinary schools, in special or…
Maar, Michael C.
This study investigates information protection for professional users of online social networks. It addresses management's desire to motivate their employees to adopt protective measures while accessing online social networks and to help their employees improve their proficiency in information security and ability to detect deceptive…
Von Hielmcrone, Nina
The Danish social security legislation has been distinguished in recent years by an intense growth in rules and regulations. Numerous laws and ordinances have been promulgated, which make it extremely difficult for both citizens and authorities to come to grips with the laws, much less to gain...... to a vast growth in very detailed and complex rules and thereby lack of transparency for citizens and social workers. The fact that benefits are administered with the aid of computers means that neither administrators nor politicians find the abundance of rules to be a problem, and no limits are thereby set...... for the accretion of new special rules. They merely have to be coded into the system. The government’s modernisation programme has been carried out at the expense of transparency and the legal rights of the citizens. This article deals with Danish legislation; the mechanisms in question are common not only...
Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan
In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.
Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe
and adopts a methodology of importance sampling to maximize the information contained in the database so as to increase the accuracy of DT. Further, this paper also studies the effectiveness of DT by implementing its corresponding preventive control schemes. These approaches are tested on the detailed model......Decision Trees (DT) based security assessment helps Power System Operators (PSO) by providing them with the most significant system attributes and guiding them in implementing the corresponding emergency control actions to prevent system insecurity and blackouts. DT is obtained offline from time...
Mehrabi, F; Nasiripour, A; Delgoshaei, B
The key factor for the success of total quality management programs in an organization is focusing on the customer. The purpose of this paper is to assess customer focus level following implementation of a quality improvement model in social security hospitals in Tehran Province. This research was descriptive-comparative in nature. The study population consisted of the implementers of quality improvement model in four Tehran social security hospitals. The data were gathered through a checklist addressing customer knowledge and customer satisfaction. The research findings indicated that the average scores on customer knowledge in Shahriar, Alborz, Milad, and Varamin hospitals were 64.1, 61.2, 54.1, and 46.6, respectively. The average scores on customer satisfaction in Shahriar, Alborz, Milad, and Varamin hospitals were 67.7, 65, 59.4, and 50, respectively. The customer focus average scores in Shahriar, Alborz, Milad, and Varamin hospitals were 66.3, 63.3, 57.3, and 48.6, respectively. The total average scores on customer knowledge, satisfaction and customer focus in the investigated hospitals proved to be 56.4, 60.5, and 58.9, respectively. The paper is of value in showing that implementation of the quality improvement model could considerably improve customer focus level.
Chafetz, Michael D
This article is about Social Security Administration (SSA) policy with regard to the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability, particularly with respect to validation of the responses and findings. First, the nature of the consultation and the importance of understanding the boundaries and ethics of the psychologist's role are described. Issues particular to working with low-functioning claimants usually form a large part of these examinations. The psychologist must understand various forms of non-credible behavior during the PCE, and how malingering might be considered among other non-credible presentations. Issues pertaining to symptom validity testing in low-functioning claimants are further explored. SSA policy with respect to symptom validity testing is carefully examined, with an attempt to answer specific concerns and show how psychological science can be of assistance, particularly with evidence-based practice. Additionally, the nature and importance of techniques to avoid the mislabeling of claimants as malingerers are examined. SSA requires the use of accepted diagnostic techniques with which to establish impairment, and this article describes the implementation of that requirement, particularly with respect to validating the findings.
Full Text Available Patient safety is regarded as prevention and damage adjustment due to elimination of errors related to mentioned hygienic care which decreases the mistakes by the help of applying practical methods and causes not occurrence of events. So this study was conducted aimed at specifying the experiences of nurses as a challenge to patient safety in social security hospital of Zahedan in 2015. This study is a qualitative research with a phenomenological approach. Participants of this study have been selected from nurse population on the basis of purposeful sampling. The sampling continued until the completeness of the data. 14 participants of this study consist of 2 supervisors, 1 head nurse and 11 nurses aged from 22-45 years old and all married. Data collection developed through deep, nonstructural interviews which were tape recorded and transcribed word by word. The data were then analyzed in Collaizzi’s7 step method. At the end of interview analysis, 130 codes were elicited and two themes were drawn named risk management and human resources management. Risk management consists of sub concepts; the policy of punishments of managers, inefficient management of medical errors and human resources management include sub concepts; The shortage of nurse forces, inefficient selection of nurses and increase in authenticity requirements. inefficient risk management is one of the most important patient safety challenges related to medical errors which should be specifically taken into account and intensify the encouragement system and the policy of not punishing nurses should be used in order to remove the mentioned challenges related to establishment of patient safety system.
Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling
In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents.
Full Text Available The presented text is the last part of the article that reported the results of the study about the information security of children and adolescents in groups of teachers. The study was based on the ideas of the social representations theory, in particular, it concerned with the relations in between social practices and social representations. The object of the study was teachers of secondary schools, the sample included 102 people aged from 22 to 65 years, (M = 39.36 years, SD = 11.12 years, 91 women and 11 men. As a matter of the experience with schoolchildren the sample was divided into three groups: teachers of children, teachers of adolescents, and teachers of children and adolescents. To test the assumption concerning the specificity of the social representations as a matter of practice, a questionnaire was developed, it consisted of 6 parts: In the first part, respondents were asked to evaluate information, in terms of the threat it poses to the safety of children and adolescents. In the next four parts of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to answer questions concerning the hypothetical situations, in each case it was necessary to propose a plan of action in the situation. The last part contained socio-demographic issues. The results about last two situations out of four were discussed.
Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants.Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationshipmanagement. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerablepopulations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. Thisvariability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injuryprevention ...
Delavande, Adeline; Rohwedder, Susann
We investigate how individuals in the U.S. expect to adjust their labor force participation and savings if Social Security benefits were cut by 30 percent. Respondents were asked directly what they would do under this scenario. Using the resulting stated choice data we find that respondents would on average reduce spending by 18.2 percent before retirement and 20.4 percent after retirement. About 34.1% of respondents state they would definitely work longer and they would postpone claiming Social Security by 1.1 years. We investigate how working longer and claiming Social Security later would compensate partially for the loss in benefits among the individuals who are currently working, under the assumption that individuals retire and claim at the same time. Individuals would increase their Social Security benefits from the post-reform level due to additional earnings entering the benefit calculation and a smaller early claiming penalty (or higher delayed claiming credit). As a result, the Social Security benefit people would receive would drop on average by 21 rather than 30 percent. Still, the net financial loss, even after accounting for additional earnings, is sizeable for individuals in the lowest wealth tertile.
Lerner, Justin E; Hawkins, Robert L
When adolescents delay (meaning they wait until after middle school) engaging in sexual intercourse, they use condoms at higher rates and have fewer sexual partners than those who have sex earlier, thus resulting in a lower risk for unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. The 1996 Section 510 of Title V of the Social Security Act (often referred to as A-H) is a policy that promotes abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOE) within public schools. Using Stone's (2012) policy analysis framework, this article explores how A-H limits welfare, liberty, and security among adolescents due to the poor empirical outcomes of AOE policy. We recommend incorporating theory-informed comprehensive sex education in addition to theory-informed abstinence education that utilizes Fishbein and Ajzen's (2010) reasoned action model within schools in order to begin to address adolescent welfare, liberty, and security.
Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna
A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age eight. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS. The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident.
Seyed Hossein Mohagheghi Kamal
Full Text Available Objectives: In recent years, due to the progress in medical sciences, we have encountered increasing life expectancy and population growth rate. Recognition of the elder’s real needs is prerequisite to planning in order to deliver services for them. The purpose of the present study was to assess requirements of the elder’s social security organization and national retirement fund. Methods & Materials: This research was a cross-sectional study. Participants were 150 elder pensioners who randomly selected. Need assessment check list, and LEIPAD elderly quality of life questionnaire were used for date collection. T-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data using SPSS. Results: there were no significant associations between the two groups in terms of total quality of life were found (P=0.103. All of dimensions of quality of life except subjective and mental function were not difference between the groups. The most important need of the elder was related to their incomes (51.7%. Cardiovascular, skeletal-muscular (33.3% & hearing-optical (19.3% problems comprised the most frequent health requirements. Also, the most aid instrument of the elders were artificial teeth (67.3%, glasses (52%, aid toilet (21.3%. Conclusion: In this study, many elderly mentioned health problems more than any other need Low economical status of the elderly in this study shows this group need more support from social security organizations. Generally, the most older people expressed many health problems which need more attention from policy makers in the field of health and social sectors.
Lúcia Cortes Costa
Full Text Available O artigo apresenta reflexão sobre a seguridade social como direito do cidadão. Discute o impacto das transferências de renda da seguridade social na redução da pobreza no Brasil. Apresenta as medidas de ajustes recessivos promovidas pelo Governo federal a partir de 2015 em relação à seguridade social. O texto organiza-se em 04 itens, parte da discussão sobre a seguridade social como direito de cidadania, apresenta o contexto neoliberal da década de 1990, a experiência de ampliação da proteção social no período de 2003-2015 e, para finalizar a discussão das medidas adotadas pela EC 095/2016 e da PEC 287/16. O objetivo é apresentar argumentos em defesa da seguridade social como instrumento importante para a redução da pobreza no país. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, documental e dados de sites oficiais do governo federal.Palavras-chave: Seguridade social, transferência de rendas, pobreza, cidadaniaAbstract: The article presents a reflection on social security as a citizen’s right. It discusses the impact of social security income transfers on poverty reduction in Brazil. It presents the measures of recessive adjustments promoted by the FederalGovernment from 2015 on social security. The text is organized in 04 sessions, part of the discussion on social security as a right of citizenship, presents the neoliberal context of the 1990s, the experience of expanding social protection in the period 2003-2015 and, to finalize the discussion of the measures adopted by EC 095/2016 and PEC 287/16. The objective is to present arguments in defense of social security as an important instrument for the reduction of poverty in the country. The data were obtained through bibliographical research, documentary and data from official websites of the federal government.Key words: Social security, income transfer, poverty, citizenship
José Antonio Pena
Full Text Available Este artículo examina el movimiento pacifista desde una doble vertiente: por un lado, se discuten los logros alcanzados por el movimiento pacifista en relación con los temas de seguridad y, por otro lado, se analiza si las nuevas protestas sociales en Europa, Estados Unidos y el mundo arabo-musulmán han revitalizado las demandas del pacifismo. De tal forma, estamos interesados en el papel que las protestas ciudadanas desempeñan en dar forma a las relaciones internacionales, especialmente cuando se trata de ejercer control democrático sobre los gobiernos nacionales y concienciar a la población sobre los riesgos internacionales. Llegamos a la conclusión de que las actuales protestas no han asumido las reivindicaciones pacifistas en tanto que sus principales demandas son de corte económico (en Europa y Estados Unidos o pretenden erradicar dictaduras incluso con medios violentos (mundo arabo-musulmán.
Niu, Tao; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin
Cascading trip faults in large-scale wind power centralized integration areas bring new challenges to the secure operation of power systems. In order to deal with the complexity of voltage security regions and the computation difficulty, this paper proposes an autonomous voltage security region...... wind farm, an AVSR is determined to guarantee the normal operation of each wind turbine generator (WTG), while in the control center, each region is designed in order to guarantee secure operation both under normal conditions and after an N-1 contingency. A real system in Northern China was used...... (AVSR) for each wind farm and the point of common coupling (PCC) substation, whose voltage can be controlled in a decoupled way. The computation of the AVSR can be completed using a stepwise search method exchanging voltage and power information between the control center and the wind farms. At each...
Mueller, Karl P; Castillo, Jasen J; Morgan, Forrest E; Pegahi, Negeen; Rosen, Brian
.... U.S. leaders recast the national security strategy to place greater emphasis on the threats posed by violent nonstate actors and by states from which they might acquire nuclear, biological, or chemical...
With a growing number of healthcare security requirements from states as well as regulators like FEMA, CMS, and DHS, the need to conduct comprehensive Security Risk Assessments has become essential, according to the author. In this article, she provides the basic elements of such assessments as well as guidance on how to apply them to a facility report and how to present the report to management.
PORCEDDA, Maria Grazia
(This working paper is a revised version of Ms. Porcedda's EUI LL.M. thesis, 2012.) Cybercrime and cyber-security are attracting increasing attention, both for the relevance of Critical Information Infrastructure to the national economy and security, and the interplay of the policies tackling them with ‘ICT sensitive’ liberties, such as privacy and data protection. This study addresses the subject in two ways. On the one hand, it aims to cast light on the (legal substantive) nature of, ...
Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terr...
Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Koscik, Rebecca L; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Peppard, Paul E; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Engelman, Corinne D
Social activity is associated with healthy aging and preserved cognition. Such activity includes a confluence of social support and verbal interaction, each influencing cognition through rarely parsed, mechanistically distinct pathways. We created a novel verbal interaction measure for the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) and assessed reliability of resultant data, a first step toward mechanism-driven examination of social activity as a modifiable predictor of cognitive health. Two WRAP subsamples completed a test-retest study to determine 8-week stability ( n = 107) and 2-year stability ( n = 136) of verbal interaction, and 2-year stability of perceived social support. Reliability was determined using quadratic-weighted kappa, percent agreement, or correlation coefficients. Reliability was fair to almost perfect. The association between social support and interaction quantity decreased with age. Social activity data demonstrate moderate to excellent temporal stability. Moreover, in older individuals, social support and verbal interaction represent two distinct dimensions of social activity.
Parkhurst, Justin O
The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Making normative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well.
Ham Chande, R
The demographic transition is leading to demographic aging in Mexico, as lower fertility and greater life expectancy combine to produce absolute and percentage increases in the elderly population. Concern is growing about satisfying the material needs of the elderly population. Only a few developed countries are able to furnish adequate pensions to their retired workers through social security systems. In Mexico, class inequity is a greater determinant of the level of pension coverage than is generational solidarity. Mexico's 1990 census showed that the population of 81,250,000 was comprised of 24,517,000 economically active and 56,733,000 inactive persons. Of the 24,517,000 economically active, 7,282,000 mostly lower level employees and laborers were affiliated only with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). 2,308,000 were covered by the IMSS and one of the complementary pension systems sponsored by the largest and most organized private companies. 2,629,000 were entitled to pensions through public sector employment and 584,000 through quasipublic employment. The remaining 11,571,000 had no rights to a pension. In other words, 47% of the labor force was not covered by any retirement pension system. 375,000 of the 5,007,000 persons over age 60 in the economically inactive population had some sort of pension from the IMSS. In 1990, 92% received the minimum pension, equivalent to 70% of the minimum salary. 229,000 had an IMSS pension and a complementary private pension. 196,000 pensioners in the public sector received an average pension of 1.5 times the minimum salary. 66,000 retired workers in quasipublic enterprises received pensions with automatic adjustments for inflation that frequently equaled 20 times the minimum salary. The total number of recipients of pensions of all types was 888,000,leaving 4,119,000 persons over 60 with no pension. Because of the deficiencies of the social security system, families must continue to be the institution that aids
Ramallo, Jorge; Kidder, Thomas; Albritton, Tashuna; Blick, Gary; Pachankis, John; Grandelski, Valen; Grandeleski, Valen; Kershaw, Trace
Social networking technologies are influential among men who have sex with men (MSM) and may be an important strategy for HIV prevention. We conducted focus groups with HIV positive and negative participants. Almost all participants used social networking sites to meet new friends and sexual partners. The main obstacle to effective HIV prevention campaigns in social networking platforms was stigmatization based on homosexuality as well as HIV status. Persistent stigma associated with HIV status and disclosure was cited as a top reason for avoiding HIV-related conversations while meeting new partners using social technologies. Further, social networking sites have different social etiquettes and rules that may increase HIV risk by discouraging HIV status disclosure. Overall, successful interventions for MSM using social networking technologies must consider aspects of privacy, stigma, and social norms in order to enact HIV reduction among MSM.
Full Text Available The decrease of personal interactions, caused by the development of modern communication instruments (e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, Skype, Dropbox, LinkedIn, Lync etc. has allowed the evolution of new methods of social engineering attacks, which, under certain conditions, may become a very dangerous weapon. The aim of the present paper is to offer an overall presentation of possible attacks based on social engineering. The paper aims at identifying the specific methods of social engineering, as well as at displaying the defensive techniques in case of social engineering attacks. In the present-day society, based on Internet communication, it has been observed that the art of social engineering represents a phenomenon which continues to grow, because of the low costs of the attacks.
Davies, Paul S; Fisher, T Lynn
Researchers using survey data matched with administrative data benefit from the rich demographic and economic detail available from survey data combined with detailed programmatic data from administrative records. The research benefits of using these matched data are too numerous to mention. But there are drawbacks as well, and those drawbacks have received less systematic attention from researchers. We focus on survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration and address the strengths and weaknesses of each in four specific areas: (1) program participation and benefits, (2) disability and health information, (3) earnings, and (4) deferred compensation. We discuss the implications of these strengths and weaknesses for decisions that researchers must make regarding the appropriate data source and definition for the concepts in question. From this discussion, some general conclusions are drawn about measurement issues associated with using matched survey and administrative data for research, policy evaluation, and statistics.
Full Text Available Our paper aims to assess the resilience of the European social model (ESM against recent challenges. Resilience depends on effectively managing the contradictions of the ESM. Flexicurity is an example of managing contradictions between security and flexibility. The contribution of flexicurity to the resilience of the ESM is determined by the development of the abilities necessary for resilience. Our research evaluates the performance of these abilities using statistical and document analyses. The results show that flexicurity policies perform satisfactorily relative to their resilience abilities. Still, the ability to respond is less effective due to significant differences among the Member States (regarding the implementation of flexicurity policies and to insufficient openness and functionality of the European labour market. Nevertheless, the European flexicurity policies redefine the ESM by adding a touch of a more mobile, autonomous and free-spirited approach, thus representing a solution to both preserve valuable tradition and modernise the ESM.
Laitner, John; Silverman, Dan
This paper proposes and analyzes a Social Security reform in which individuals no longer face the OASI payroll tax after, say, age 54 or a career of 34 years, and their subsequent earnings have no bearing on their benefits. We first estimate parameters of a life-cycle model. Our specification includes non-separable preferences and possible disability. It predicts a consumption-expenditure change at retirement. We use the magnitude of the expenditure change, together with households' retirement-age decisions, to identify key structural parameters. The estimated magnitude of the change in consumption-expenditure depends importantly on the treatment of consumption by adult children of the household. Simulations indicate that the reform could increase retirement ages one year or more, equivalent variations could average more than $4,000 per household, and income tax revenues per household could increase by more than $14,000.
Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
Studies of Europeanization have demonstrated that the impact of European integration differs between Member States and across policies. Although Europeanization research has been expanded and clarified in recent years, we still know relatively little about the factors mediating the national...... processes of change that thus condition impact. This article examines the impact of European social security integration on national welfare institutions in Denmark and Germany, and it traces the Europeanization process, which may explain the diverging impact of a common input in these two Member States....... In order to understand how the same process of integration may cause a diverging impact on national institutions, two sets of mediating factors are examined: firstly, the institutional and de facto exposedness to European integration; and, secondly, the national political, administrative and legal...
Han, Claire Jungyoun; Lee, Young Ji; Demiris, George
Regarding cancer awareness, social media effectively promotes health and supports self-management. Given the diverse study designs, methodologies, and approaches of social media interventions in oncology, it is difficult to determine the effects of social media on cancer prevention and management. We aim to systematically review intervention studies using social media for cancer care. A systematic search, using 7 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), was conducted to identify surveys and interventions using contemporary social media tools with a focus on cancer. Of the 18 selected studies, 7 were randomized controlled trials. Most studies were conducted for all types of cancer, and some were conducted for breast cancer in the United States, with mostly white female participants. Facebook was the most frequently used platform. Most studies targeted healthy participants providing cancer prevention education. With social media platforms as part of a larger intervention, or the main component of interventions, interventions were overall feasible and showed a significant improvement in cancer prevention and management. Social media tools have the potential to be effective in delivering interventions for cancer prevention and management. However, there was a dearth of studies with rigorous study methodologies to test social media effects on various cancer-related clinical outcomes. Social media use in cancer care will facilitate improved communication and support among patients, caregivers, and clinicians and, ultimately, improved patient care. Clinicians need to carefully harness social media to enhance patient care and clinical outcomes.
Abbott, Kenneth; Ho, Yen-Yi; Erickson, Jennifer
Every year, thousands of patients die waiting for disability benefits from the Social Security Administration. Some qualify for expedited service under the Compassionate Allowance (CAL) initiative, but CAL software focuses exclusively on information from a single form field. This paper describes the development of a supplemental process for identifying some overlooked but gravely ill applicants, through automatic annotation of health records accompanying new claims. We explore improved prioritization instead of fully autonomous claims approval. We developed a sample of claims containing medical records at the moment of arrival in a single office. A series of tools annotated both patient records and public Web page descriptions of CAL medical conditions. We trained random forests to identify CAL patients and validated each model with 10-fold cross validation. Our main model, a general CAL classifier, had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.915. Combining this classifier with existing software improved sensitivity from 0.960 to 0.994, detecting every deceased patient, but reducing positive predictive value to 0.216. True positive CAL identification is a priority, given CAL patient mortality. Mere prioritization of the false positives would not create a meaningful burden in terms of manual review. Death certificate data suggest the presence of truly ill patients among putative false positives. To a limited extent, it is possible to identify gravely ill Social Security disability applicants by analyzing annotations of unstructured electronic health records, and the level of identification is sufficient to be useful in prioritizing case reviews. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available Background. The noncommunicable disease (NCDs are very common among population around the world. They are the main cause of preventable mortality, cause temporary and permanent disability. NCDs are the major reason for attending for medical care and lead to economic losses. The implementations of preventive strategy, increasing the role of preventive measures are general tasks for all health care system. The analysis of trends of preventive measure for NCD nowadays is the aim of this research. Materials and methods. The study included the result of analysis of science publication and WHO database about NCD and preventive measure used as well as the results of the analysis of data of the Center for Statistics in Medicine of MoH of Ukraine. Results. Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases are the major NCDs. The base factors which lead to NCD are behavioral risk factors, namely tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and alcohol abuse. The WHO prepared a lot of documents, among which the most significant are the strategies on noncommunicable diseases prevention, convention against smoking, strategy on diet and physical activity, global strategy on reducing alcohol abusing and so on. Nowadays the world population follows Global Action Plan for Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases for 2013–2020. The documents emphasize the importance of state support, the use of scientific potential and intersectoral interaction to effectively combat noncommunicable diseases. The major of scientific direction are NCD monitoring, detection of the determinant of NCD development and making strategy for usage it in conditions of limited resources. The role of Digital marketing today increases that leads to the acquisition and consolidation of the habits and behavior of modern youth. Internet marketing is very effective to form unhealthy food behavior in children and adolescents that requires adequate and urgent actions. The
Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K
Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.
Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.
A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…
Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, Wout; Soudan, Karel
Two aspects are important when it comes to guaranteeing an effective and efficient security policy in a chemical industrial cluster. The first issue involves obtaining an acceptable level of collaboration between the different enterprises forming the cluster. The second topic is to ensure that an
Most developing countries suffer serious “imperfections “in their labour, capital and product markets; a high level of informality (lack of connection with the state, e.g. non-registration, non-compliance with tax and labour regulations, etc.); and attempts to improve the welfare of specified groups through social security (SS) systems in the formal sector and (increasingly in recent years) through social protection systems (SP) designed to achieve greater overall coverage, e.g. to reach info...
Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the disease burden of cancer in theaffiliate population of the Mexican Social Security Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS in 2010 by delegation. Materials and methods. The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs, Years of Life Lost (YLL due to premature mortality and Years Lived with Disability/Disease (YLD for 21 specific cancers and a subgroup of other malignant neoplasms were calculated based on the methodology of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD for each of the 35 delegations of the IMSS. Results. In 2010, cancer represented the fifth overall leading cause of disease burden in IMSS affiliates (16.72 DALYs/1000 affiliates. A total of 75% of the cancer disease burden in each delegation is due to ten specific cancers, particularly breast cancer, which ranks first in 82% of the delegations. Prostate cancer; tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers; leukemia, and colorectal and stomach cancers occupy the second to fourth positions in each delegation. With the exception of breast and prostate cancer, for which the contribution of YLD to the DALYs was higher than 50%, the greatest contribution to the DALYs of the other cancers was premature mortality, which accounted for more than 90% of the DALYs in some cases. Conclusion. The results obtained in this study allow for the identification of intervention priorities with regard to cancer at the institutional level and also for the focus at the delegation level to be placed on cancers ranking in the top positions for disease burden.
Calogero Massimo Cammalleri
Full Text Available The poses the empiric bases to introduces kind of 'social security tax' to fight undeclared work, to reduce externalities, to substitute trust in the market with true and strong financial social protection. Therefore this paper tries to give a little contribution to break link between work and security's financing. It aims to demonstrate (also but not only, according to economics perspective as flexicurity-balance can work in accordance with art. 31 and art. 34 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, social justice, worker security, whether the externalities inside flexicurity's trade-off will be charged to flexibility. One considers universal like widespread, as well as flexicurity studies consider it. One considers not to change anything about subjective and objective assumptions in benefits, as well as in contribution over workers' wages. - on the contrary one considers must not change (except possibles little adjustments. The effect of the hybrids is the one way. It should introduce a virtuous cycle to reduce the gap in competitiveness between local production and extra E.U.
Full Text Available In recent years the UN Secretary-General has promoted mass atrocity prevention as the priority agenda for the Responsibility to Protect (R2P at the UN, redirecting debates on R2P away from military interventionism towards improved state capacity to prevent atrocity crimes and protect populations. This focus has been illustrated in the UNSG’s annual reports on R2P since 2009, and the 2014 “Framework of Analysis for Atrocity Crimes”, that emphasise state institutional capacity and the identification of atrocity-risk indicators. Through a case-study of Pakistan, this article problematizes the relationship between internal security and the UN agenda on atrocity prevention to evaluate the viability of promoting atrocity prevention as currently conceived by the Office of the UNSG in high-risk contexts. It argues that an atrocity prevention agenda informed by a responsive regulation framework would be more effective in taking into account the relational dynamics of atrocity crimes. This includes accounting for the interaction between the micro-dynamics of political violence with macro-dynamics created by lengthy historical conflicts and strategic repertoires.
Garland, A F; Zigler, E
The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.
Alejandro Bernal Rodríguez
Full Text Available La prestación de los servicios de salud en colombia ha evolucionado a través del tiempo pasando de un sistema higienista sectorial y autoritario a uno de seguridad social amplio, generalizado, estatal y participativo. Las realidades que se vivieron en épocas remotas de la historia del país así como las normas que permitieron los primeros avances en la creación del actual sistema sirven de marco introductorio a los cambios que en el siglo XX vivió la república en esta materia. Se mencionan y describen en forma cronológica la legislación y características principales que actualmente rigen la prestación de los servicios de salud en el país. Por último, el artículo presenta las recientes modificaciones a las leyes vigentes e invita a la reflexión acerca de la necesidad por parte de los funcionarios de la salud de mayores conocimientos en otros campos del saber que influyen en la prestación de dichos servicios. Health attention in Colombia has evolved from a hygienist, sectarian and authoritative system to a general, governmental, wide and participating social security system. Realities lived in the history of the country as well as the first rules in the present system creation are exposed as an introductory reference for the description of changes related to this subject during the past century in this republic. The main laws concerning Colombian health services are described in a chronological order. The article also presents the new laws‘modifications and invites to a reflection by health officers about the need for greater knowledge in other subjects that influence health attention
Antonio Megías Bas
Full Text Available This document contains a legal analysis of the agencies involved in the fight against irregular employment and Social Security fraud in Spain (Security Forces, Prosecutor´s Office and Labor and Social Security Inspectorate, as well as the plan designed by the Spanish Government for fighting such problems, including inter ministerial cooperation agreements and existing labor and criminal legislation. This analysis takes into account the globalization process that society is experiencing and how such process has an effect on labor trafficking. In order to carry out this investigation, the documentary research methodology was used. The techniques implemented for the analysis were: first, a content analysis for the comparison of the aforementioned agreements and, second, the analysis of scientific documents and legislation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1755
Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.
Although children’s security in the context of the interparental relationship has been identified as a key explanatory mechanism in pathways between family discord and child psychopathology, little is known about the inner workings of emotional security as a goal system. Accordingly, the objective of this paper is to describe how our reformulation of emotional security theory (EST-R) within an ethological and evolutionary framework may advance the characterization of the architecture and operation of emotional security and, in the process, cultivate sustainable growing points in developmental psychopathology. The first section of the paper describes how children’s security in the interparental relationship is organized around a distinctive behavioral system designed to defend against interpersonal threat. Building on this evolutionary foundation for emotional security, the paper offers an innovative taxonomy for identifying qualitatively different ways children try to preserve their security and its innovative implications for more precisely informing understanding of the mechanisms in pathways between family and developmental precursors and children’s trajectories of mental health. In the final section, the paper highlights the potential of EST-R to stimulate new generations of research on understanding how children defend against social threats in ecologies beyond the interparental dyad, including both familial and extrafamilial settings. PMID:24342849
Nunes, Miguel Baptista; McPherson, Maggie; Whiteside, Amy
This paper focuses on aspects of e-government with emphasis on how local authorities are coping with the transition into the Information Society. E-government is reviewed in the flight of such topics as a social inclusion, security and e-democracy. The challenge has been set in the United Kingdom for local authorities to deliver 100% of services…
Skjong, Gerd; Myklebust, Jon Olav
Individuals in their mid-thirties are expected to be employed and economically independent. However, people with disabilities and health problems--for example, former students with special educational needs (SEN)--may have problems in this domain of adult life. In Norway, individuals with SEN frequently rely on social security and support measures…
Hessels, J.; van Gelderen, M.W.; Thurik, A.R.
This paper investigates whether various start-up motivations and a country's level of social security can explain the prevalence of entrepreneurial aspirations. For entrepreneurial aspirations and motivations we use country-level data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the year 2005.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a child's disability determination is... child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. (a) In order to receive an annuity based upon disability, a child of a deceased employee must be...
Bruijn, de M.E.
This paper examines how poor members of Fulbe society, a group of agropastoralists in the Sahel, central Mali, are surviving after two decades of environmental disaster. The focus is on the Jalloube of the Hayre in central Mali. Social security relations and institutions based on Islam seem to be
Vonk, G.J.; Tollenaar, A.
Our social security systems face many challenges. Economic crises, the ageing of the population and changing employment patterns call for a reorientation of policies. In the last few decades the introduction of private elements has often been advocated as a way forward. This privatisation gives rise
Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.
Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…
La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…
The first chapter deals with keystroke dynamics, the study of human typing behavior, as a means to prevent crime. The remaining chapters focus on so-called small crimes (e.g., taking a bundle of printing paper from the office for private use, littering in a public place, or fare dodging). More
Adolescents are the only age group with growing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa, making HIV prevention research among this population an urgent priority. Structural deprivations are key drivers of adolescent HIV infection in this region. Biomedical interventions must be combined with ...
National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.
This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…
Hagenhoff, Carol; And Others
The review provides a social learning model for explaining adolescent sexual behavior and use/nonuse of contraceptives. The model explains behavior patterns responsible for epidemic rates of teenage pregnancies, suggests research that will result in prevention of teenage pregnancies, and incorporates a range of social/cultural factors. (DB)
This study examined the factors that are related to collaboration between high school social workers and substance abuse prevention/intervention counselors in New York State high schools (except for New York City high schools). Constructs that were analyzed were high school social workers' perceived adequacy in working with high school students'…
A relationship was found between the degree to which a shop exhibited aspects of social influence and the degree to which it was established in terms of infrastructure, income and experience of personnel. It was concluded that shopkeepers might be an important group to target early in ~ programme, because they might ...
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…
The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and economic divides. Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long consequences and is a serious problem on individuals, families and societies. Social workers by nature of their work, intervene at the individual, family and societal level. This paper will explore the ...
Marsh, Nicole; Webster, Joan; Mihala, Gabor; Rickard, Claire M
A peripheral venous catheter (PVC) is typically used for short-term delivery of intravascular fluids and medications. It is an essential element of modern medicine and the most frequent invasive procedure performed in hospitals. However, PVCs often fail before intravenous treatment is completed: this can occur because the device is not adequately attached to the skin, allowing the PVC to fall out, leading to complications such as phlebitis (irritation or inflammation to the vein wall), infiltration (fluid leaking into surrounding tissues) or occlusion (blockage). An inadequately secured PVC also increases the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), as the pistoning action (moving back and forth in the vein) of the catheter can allow migration of organisms along the catheter and into the bloodstream. Despite the many dressings and securement devices available, the impact of different securement techniques for increasing PVC dwell time is still unclear; there is a need to provide guidance for clinicians by reviewing current studies systematically. To assess the effects of PVC dressings and securement devices on the incidence of PVC failure. We searched the following electronic databases to identify reports of relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs): the Cochrane Wounds Group Register (searched 08 April 2015): The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to March 7 2015); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, March 7 2015); Ovid EMBASE (1974 to March 7 2015); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to March 8 2015). RCTs or cluster RCTs comparing different dressings or securement devices for the stabilisation of PVCs. Cross-over trials were ineligible for inclusion, unless data for the first treatment period could be obtained. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for missing information. We used standard
Full Text Available Cloud computing is a resource pool which offers boundless services by the form of resources to its end users whoever heavily depends on cloud service providers. Cloud is providing the service access across the geographic locations in an efficient way. However it is offering numerous services, client end system is not having adequate methods, security policies and other protocols for using the cloud customer secret level transactions and other privacy related information. So, this proposed model brings the solution for securing the cloud user confidential data, Application deployment and also identifying the genuineness of the user by applying the scheme which is referred as fuzzy data array computation. Fuzzy data array computation provides an effective system is called signature retrieval and evaluation system through which customer’s data can be safeguarded along with their application. This signature system can be implemented on the cloud environment using the cloud sim 3.0 simulator tools. It facilitates the security operation over the data centre and cloud vendor locations in an effective manner.
David Alejandro Cabrera-Gaytán
Full Text Available Tuberculosis and HIV remain a public health problem in developed countries. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence trends of pulmonary TB and HIV comorbidity and treatment outcomes according to HIV during the period 2006 to 2014 in the Mexican Institute of Social Security.Analyzed data from this registry including pulmonary tuberculosis patients aged 15 years and older who had been diagnosed during the years 2006 to 2014 in the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The outcomes that we use were incidents rate, failure to treatment and death. Regression models were used to quantify associations between pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV mortality.During the study period, 31,352 patients were registered with pulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence rate observed during 2014 was 11.6 case of PTB per 100,000. The incidence rate for PTB and HIV was 0.345 per 100,000. The PTB incidence rate decreased by 0.07%, differences found in the PTB incidence rate by sex since in women decreased by 5.52% and in man increase by 3.62%. The pulmonary TB with HIV incidence rate decreased by 16.3% during the study period (In women increase 4.81% and in man decrease 21.6%. Analysis of PTB associated with HIV by age groups revealed that the highest incidence rates were observed for the 30 to 44 years old group. Meanwhile, the highest incidence rates of PTB without HIV occurred among the 60 and more years old individuals. We did not find statistically significant differences between treatment failure and PTB patients with HIV and without HIV. The treatment failure was associated with sex and the region of the patient. We found a strong association between HIV and the probability of dying during treatment. Our data suggested that patients suffering from both conditions (PTB and HIV have no difference in the probability of failure of treatment contrary to other reports. Hypotheses to this is adherence to tuberculosis treatment with people living with HIV
Evron, Lotte; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Egerod, Ingrid
such as rehabilitation plans were handled at the site. We analyse our interpretations from the meeting with people in the field using the so-called social analytic cartography. The maps allowed us to navigate in the field observing the world from different perspectives. Conflict structures were placed under a microscope......We explored the modernization of the health care system by using social-analytic contemporary diagnosis to explain new tendencies in the health care system such as empowerment and self-care. A falls clinic situated in a Danish hospital was studied. We were interested in how new legal obligations...... and discussed as different forms of conflicts. The falls clinic seemed to focus on theoretical knowledge and to privilege people who were already able to take care of themselves and motivated for lifestyle changes. One way of dealing with the downsides of the modernization and radical individualization would...
Suglia, Shakira F.; Shelton, Rachel C.; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G.
The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has b...
Full Text Available Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.
Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan
Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178
Choi, Hye Jeong; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Rachel A
Interpersonal communication among participants plays an important role in the impact and effectiveness of prevention programs (Southwell & Yzer, Communication Theory 19:1-8, 2009). This study focused on adolescents' informal conversations about a prevention program, referred to as social talk, from a social network perspective. We provide both a conceptualization of social talk in relation to prevention programs and an operationalization of it by examining adolescents' social networks. Participants (N = 185) were eighth-grade students attending a middle school substance-abuse prevention program called keepin' it REAL (kiR). Participants engaged in both positive and negative social talk about kiR. Students with higher friendship indegree centrality were more likely to have greater positive social talk indegree centrality (r = .23 p social talkers by their peers appeared to have less personal anti-substance injunctive norms (b = -0.92, p < .05). Furthermore, youth who were more likely to talk negatively about kiR were less likely to perceive that their best friends (b = -1.66, p < .05) or most youth in their age (b = -1.49, p < .05) disapprove of substance use.
Salkever, David S; Gibbons, Brent; Drake, Robert E; Frey, William D; Hale, Thomas W; Karakus, Mustafa
Persons with severe and persistent mental disorders (SPMD) have extremely low earnings levels and account for 29.1 percent of all U.S. Social Security Disability Income (SSDI) disabled worker beneficiaries under age 50. Social insurance and disability policy experts pointed to several factors that may contribute to this situation, including disincentives and obstacles in the SSDI program, as well as lack of access to evidence-based behavioral-health interventions. In response, the Social Security Administration (SSA) funded the Mental Health Treatment Study (MHTS) demonstration that included 2,238 beneficiaries of SSDI whose primary reason for disability is SPMD. The demonstration, implemented in 23 different localities, consisted of two evidence-based services (individual placement and support supported employment (IPS-SE), systematic medication management (SMM)), and provision or coverage of additional behavioral-health services (OBH). This study focused on estimating MHTS intervention effects on earnings in the intervention period (two-years). The main outcome variable was self-reported average monthly earnings. Subjects were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Data were drawn from the baseline survey, seven follow-up quarterly surveys, a final follow-up survey, and SSA administrative data. In all surveys, respondents were asked about earnings prior to the interview. Dependent variables were average past-30-days earnings reported in all follow-up surveys, similar averages for the first four follow-ups and for the last four follow-ups, fraction of surveys with prior earnings above SSA's substantial gainful activity (SGA) threshold, and final-follow-up earnings for the past 90 days. Regression analyses compared earnings of intervention vs. control group subjects. Covariates included baseline values of: (i) beneficiary demographic and social characteristics; (ii) beneficiary physical and mental health indicators; (iii) beneficiary recipiency
Diego A. Restrepo
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the evolution of the Capitation Payment (UPC for its Spanish name “unidad de pago por capitación” as well as the methodologies and variables for defining it that have existed in the Colombian Social Security System in Health since its implementation between 1995 and 2011. Methodology: An observational, longitudinal descriptive study. The reference population was made up of all the papers reviewed, including books, journal articles, databases, and official presentations containing the key concepts. Results: It was found that the Capitation Payment (UPC is valued as an essential element to maintain the financial balance of the health system. From 1995 to 2011 there were a number of methodologies for defining this payment. They ranged from a definition based only on the financial balance and the availability of resources, to a technical study using statistical tools to annually adjust the value of the UPC. Conclusions: The origin of the UPC can be attributed to the system’s orientation toward a market scheme and to the convergence of three basic theories. The variations in the value of the UPC have always resulted in a similar value year after year; this is why even if the methodology for defining it changed, the proportions will be the same when compared to previous years
Espiritu R, R.
The perspective of patient protection at the Radio neurosurgery National Service of the Social Security Mexican Institute is divided into three parts: the testing program for equipment acceptance, an assurance quality program based on periodic tests, an also other assurance quality based on tests during the application. Among the technical aspects that influence in the equipment acceptance tests, it is the collimation type, the characteristics of the lineal accelerator, the platform for planning and the network type. In the case of the collimation system and the accelerator characteristics, we consider the manufacturer's specifications and requirements of Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-NUCL-1999, T echnical Specifications for the Teletherapy Units Operation, Linear Accelerators . Planning for the platform takes into account the manufacturer's specifications. In the case of computed tomography as well as review the calibration according to manufacturer's specifications should be considered the standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002. In the case of the linear accelerator must be the radiological characterization of radiation beam as part of this, the absolute dose determination. As for the periodic tests is verified the dose constancy, as well as the flattening and symmetry of X-rays beam. There are also tests battery with daily, monthly and yearly frequencies, which make up the assurance quality program. (Author)
Gerrit Van Der Waldt
Full Text Available Public institutions, such as the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA increasingly function in multi-project environments to translate strategies successfully into service-delivery initiatives. However, this ‘projectification’ often causes projects to be designed and executed haphazardly. This can lead to budget and schedule overruns, and the general wastage of an organisation’s resources. Project failures often occur where organisations do not ensure that specific projects are aligned with their core strategies. The purpose of this article is to combine the theories and principles of organisation, management, strategic management, and project management in an effort to pinpoint core determinants that can help establish the extent to which an organisation manages the alignment of its strategic projects. In the present study, the author applied the principles of interdisciplinarity, systems thinking, and organisational integration. The combined core determinants that were uncovered were then used in an empirical investigation of SASSA. The purpose of this investigation is to identify particular challenges the organisation faces in aligning their strategies and projects successfully. Thereafter, a number of recommendations follow to address these challenges.
Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Campos-Esparza, Maribel; Garza-Elizondo, María E; Martínez-González, Lidia; Núñez-Rocha, Georgina M; Romero-Islas, Nestor R
Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, Mexico. A study of costs (in US dollars) was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs were estimated per department and adjusted for one year's productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from 34.8 US dollars, 32,2 US dollars to US 34 US dollars, pap smear screening test costs were 7,2 US dollars, 8,7 US dollars and 7,3 US dollars and dental treatment 27 US dollars, 33 US dollars, 6 and 28,7 US dollars. Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.
Quiroz, María Esther; Flores, Yvonne N; Aracena, Belkis; Granados-García, Víctor; Salmerón, Jorge; Pérez, Ruth; Cabrera, Guillermo; Bastani, Roshan
To estimate the annual cost of treating patients with cirrhosis at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in Spanish). The annual cost of treating three stages of cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A, Child-Pugh B and Child-Pugh C) was estimated using micro-costing techniques and medical experts. These results were compared and contrasted with prices reported by IMSS. The annual cost of treatment, in USA dollars, by Child-Pugh stage was: a) micro-costing results: $1110.17 stage A, $549.55 stage B and $348.16 stage C; b) opinion of medical experts: $1 633.64, $6564.04 and $19660.35, respectively; and c) IMSS costs: $4269.00, $16949.63 and $30249.25, respectively. The cost of treating patients with cirrhosis is considerable, and costs increase as the disease worsens. Cost estimates vary depending on the source of information, and the methodology used. There are discrepancies between the procedures reported in medical records and treatment recommendations by IMSS liver experts.
Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Velázquez, Enrique; Dorantes, Javier; Méndez, Oscar; Avila-Burgos, Leticia
We studied the cost of health care for women with breast cancer treated at the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, per its abbreviation in Spanish). Using the Medical and Operative Information Systems of the IMSS, we constructed a cohort of patients diagnosed in 2002 and followed these patients to the end of 2006, identifying the use of resources and imputing the IMSS-specific cost structure. Only 14% of women were diagnosed in stage 1 and 48% were diagnosed in stages III-IV. The average cost of their medical care per patient-year was $MX110,459. Costs for stage 1 were $MX74,522 compared to $102,042 for stage II, and were $MX154,018 for stage III and $MX199,274 for stage IV. Breast cancer accounts for a significant part of the IMSS health budget. Later stage at diagnosis is associated with higher economic costs per patient-year of treatment and lower probability of five-year survival.
Mejia Restrepo, Samuel; Velez Arango, Alba Lucía; Buritica Arboleda, Olga Clemencia; Arango Mejia, María Cristina; Rio Gomez, Jaime Alberto del
Based on the new social security system in Colombia (1993), which establishes equity and mandatory care as the basis for public health care provision, the authors analyze whether the formulation and implementation of pharmaceutical policy promote accessibility, availability, and rational use of medicines, thereby contributing to equity in health. Two approaches were used: a macro approach centered on the legal framework and various actors in the reform process and a micro approach related to the processes and results in the drug supply system. The authors studied the legal instruments backing the country's pharmaceutical policy and evaluated their application, using indicators and a specific disease (diabetes mellitus) as a marker. Although there is a legal framework providing the people's right to access health care services and essential medicines, the country lacks a comprehensive pharmaceuticals policy. Most of the institutions experience problems in distributing the medicines listed under the Mandatory Health Plan, a low percentage of medicines is dispensed at zero cost, and a major portion of patients purchase medicines through associations of diabetics or rely on alternative medicine. The study unveiled several obstacles to equity in health care coverage and access to essential medicines.
Asteria, Donna; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.
This study is about experience of women's role in environmental management to raise environmental security and form of women's emancipation movement. Environmental concerns conducted by residents of urban women who become environmental activists based on environmental literacy. Because of that, women's experience in interacting with both physic and social environment have differences in managing the environment including managing household waste by applying the principles of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) and their persuasive efforts on their communities. This is the key to achieving sustainable development by anticipating environmental problem and preserving the environment. This study is conducted qualitative research method and its type is descriptive-explanative. The result of this study is environmental literacy of women activist on pro-environment action in their community that has achieved spiritual environmental literacy. Environmental literacy may differ due to internal and external condition of each individual. Pro-environment activities conducted as a form of responsibility of environmental concern such as eco-management, educational, and economic action, by persuading residents to proactively and consistently continue to do environmental management and develop a sense of community in shaping the networks of environmental concern in local context for global effect.
Burdick, Clark; Fisher, Lynn
OASDI benefits are indexed for inflation to protect beneficiaries from the loss of purchasing power implied by inflation. In the absence of such indexing, the purchasing power of Social Security benefits would be eroded as rising prices raise the cost of living. By statute, cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for Social Security benefits are calculated using the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). Some argue that this index does not accurately reflect the inflation experienced by the elderly population and should be changed to an elderly-specific price index such as the Experimental Consumer Price Index for Americans 62 Years of Age and Older, often referred to as the Consumer Price Index for the Elderly (CPI-E). Others argue that the measure of inflation underlying the COLA is technically biased, causing it to overestimate changes in the cost of living. This argument implies that current COLAs tend to increase, rather than merely maintain, the purchasing power of benefits over time. Potential bias in the CPI as a cost-of-living index arises from a number of sources, including incomplete accounting for the ability of consumers to substitute goods or change purchasing outlets in response to relative price changes. The BLS has constructed a new index called the Chained Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U) that better accounts for those consumer adjustments. Price indexes are not true cost-of-living indexes, but approximations of cost-of-living indexes (COLI). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006a) explains the difference between the two: As it pertains to the CPI, the COLI for the current month is based on the answer to the following question: "What is the cost, at this month ' market prices, of achieving the standard of living actually attained in the base period?" This cost is a hypothetical expenditure-the lowest expenditure level necessary at this month's prices to achieve the
Full Text Available Objective. To identify the cancer incidence and mortality in Mexican Social Security Institute beneficiary (MSSI-B chil- dren during 1996-2013. Materials and methods. Both cancer cases (n=4 728 and deaths (n=2 378 were analyzed in MSSI-B children who were registered in five states of the Mexican Republic. The incidence and mortality trends and the incidences (rate x 1 000 000 children / year of the type of cancer, age, sex, and place of residence were obtained. Results. For both indicators (incidence and mortality, there was a downward trend for the period of 1996-2001 and a stable trend for 2002-2013. This occurred in the over- all mortality and incidence trends of the Estado de México and Chiapas and in the leukemia and the acute lymphoid subgroups. The annual overall incidence was 128 cases per 1 000 000 children. Leukemia, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors were the principal cancer groups. Conclusions. Cancer mortality for the period of 2002-2013 did not diminish. Interinstitutional and/or international research should be designed to improve the care of these children.
Valdez-Martínez, E; Garduño-Espinosa, J; Gómez-Delgado, A; Dante Amato-Martínez, J; Morales-Mori, L; Blanco-Favela, F; Muñoz-Hernández, O
To describe and analyze the general characteristics and methodology of indexed publications by the health staff of the Mexican Social Security Institute in 1997. Original articles were evaluated. The primary sources included Index Medicus, Current Contents and the Mexican National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) index. The following information was gathered for each article: affiliation and chief activity of the first author; impact factor of the journal; research type; field of study; topic of study, and methodological conduction. This latter point included congruence between design and objective, reproducibility of methods, applicability of the analysis, and pertinence of the conclusions. A total of 300 original articles was published of which 212 (71%) were available for the present study: full-time investigators (FTI) generated 109 articles and investigators with clinical activities (CAI) wrote 103 articles. The median impact factor of the journals in which FTI published was 1.337 (0.341 to 37.297) and for CAI publications, 0.707 (0.400 to 4.237). Biomedical research predominated in the first group (41%) and clinical investigation in the second (66%). Statistically significant differences were identified for the methodological conduction between groups of investigators. Descriptive studies and publications in journals without impact factor predominated. The FTI group had the highest bibliographic production of original articles in indexed journals with an impact factor.
Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine
Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can "cash plus care" social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (psocial protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=-0.08, psocial protection has the greatest prevention effects for the most vulnerable. Social protection comprising unconditional cash plus care was associated with reduced risk pathways through moderation and main effects, respectively. Our findings suggest the importance of social protection within a combination package of HIV-prevention
Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L
The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to
Yevtyshenko Hanna I.
Full Text Available The article characterizes the importance of formation of the new paradigm for improving the system of management in the context of ensuring economic development and social security. At the same time, the publication specifies that the current social policy in our country is not of a systemic nature, that it has insufficient focus on social security. It is emphasized that efforts to overcome negative results should contribute to formation of the socio-economic stability in the country. There is a need to create a new paradigm for the development of education, whereby the contents and basic orientation of training the personnel, in particular managers, must be subordinated to the worldwide trends of socio-economic, scientific, and cultural development. The basic requirements for managers who, in the opinion of the authors, should have a high level of education, culture and communication, have been disclosed. It has been substantiated that, for this purpose, every educational institution must develop the higher education management. This should be facilitated by intellectualization of the educational environment and transition to the educational standards of a new type. The authors have suggested ways for further improving the system of training the personnel, in particular managers, whose activities would contribute not only to economic growth in the country but to social security as well.
Arias-Flores, Rafael; Rosado-Quiab, Ulises; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción
The prevention and control of the nosocomial infections involve the knowledge of the most frequent type of microorganism isolated. In Mexico there are not national statistics to identify the main microorganisms that cause a nosocomial infection. It was conducted an analysis of all the culture results of the nosocomial infections reported by the Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica Hospitalaria (Epidemiological Surveillance System) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social during the year 2013. The most frequent and relevant microorganisms were reported. 48 377 results from cultures of nosocomial infections were studied. Of these 13 207 (27.3 %) were from 25 high specialty medical units and 35 170 (72.6 %) from 197 second level medical units. The most frequently isolated microorganism was Escherichia coli with 8192 results (16.9 %), followed by the group of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci with 6771 cultures (14 %) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 5275 results (19.9 %). Slight differences between levels of care and specialized hospitals were observed. This study identifies the Escherichia coli, the group of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the main microorganisms to prevent.
Robert J. Cramer
Full Text Available The juxtaposition of increasing suicide rates with continued calls for suicide prevention efforts begs for new approaches. Grounded in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC framework for tackling health issues, this personal views work integrates relevant suicide risk/protective factor, assessment, and intervention/prevention literatures. Based on these components of suicide risk, we articulate a Social-Ecological Suicide Prevention Model (SESPM which provides an integration of general and population-specific risk and protective factors. We also use this multi-level perspective to provide a structured approach to understanding current theories and intervention/prevention efforts concerning suicide. Following similar multi-level prevention efforts in interpersonal violence and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV domains, we offer recommendations for social-ecologically informed suicide prevention theory, training, research, assessment, and intervention programming. Although the SESPM calls for further empirical testing, it provides a suitable backdrop for tailoring of current prevention and intervention programs to population-specific needs. Moreover, the multi-level model shows promise to move suicide risk assessment forward (e.g., development of multi-level suicide risk algorithms or structured professional judgments instruments to overcome current limitations in the field. Finally, we articulate a set of characteristics of social-ecologically based suicide prevention programs. These include the need to address risk and protective factors with the strongest degree of empirical support at each multi-level layer, incorporate a comprehensive program evaluation strategy, and use a variety of prevention techniques across levels of prevention.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate the pension costs incurred for patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MDs and specifi cally with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and ankylosing spondylitis (AS in Italy between 2009 and 2012. We analyzed the database of the Italian National Social Security Institute (Istituto Nazionale Previdenza Sociale i.e. INPS to estimate the total costs of three types of social security benefi ts granted to patients with MDs, RA and AS: disability benefi ts (for people with reduced working ability, disability pensions (for people who cannot qualify as workers and incapacity pensions (for people without working ability. We developed a probabilistic model with a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the total costs for each type of benefi t associated with MDs, RA and AS. We also estimated the productivity loss resulting from RA in 2013. From 2009 to 2012 about 393 thousand treatments were paid for a total of approximately €2.7 billion. The annual number of treatments was on average 98 thousand and cost in total €674 million per year. In particular, the total pension burden was about €99 million for RA and €26 million for AS. The productivity loss for AR in 2013 was equal to €707,425,191 due to 9,174,221 working days lost. Our study is the fi rst to estimate the burden of social security pensions for MDs based on data of both approved claims and benefi ts paid by the national security system. From 2009 to 2012, in Italy, the highest indirect costs were associated with disability pensions (54% of the total indirect cost, followed by disability benefi ts (44.1% of cost and incapacity pensions (1.8% of cost. In conclusion, MDs are chronic and highly debilitating diseases with a strong female predominance and very signifi cant economic and social costs that are set to increase due to the aging of the population.
The report emphasizes the need for national regulatory authorities to include in the regulatory systems, measures to control and protect nuclear materials from being used in illegal activities, as well as aspects of relevance for detecting and responding to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The report will give an overview of the international treaties and agreements that underpin the establishment of a regulatory structure necessary for States to meet their non-proliferation policy and undertakings. Ongoing work to strengthen the protection of nuclear material and to detect and respond to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive material will be included. The focus of the paper is on the need for standards and national regulation in the nuclear security area. (author)
Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E
In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to
Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian
Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Maya Padmi, Made Fitri
Human Security notion is emphasizing on human as the central of security studies, challenging the position of state as the core of security. Some studies are tried to separate the state security and human security, however there are strong connection between these two notions. State has important role in establishing and maintaining the security of its own citizens. Through social contract and social security protection, state are oblige to set the security of its own people as their security...
Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire
Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Secure. Secure. Server – Intruder prevention/detection; Network – Encryption, PKI; Client - Secure. Fraud detection based on audit trails. Automatic alerts like credit-card alerts based on suspicious patterns.
Lei, Peng; Feng, Zhixin; Wu, Zhuochun
China is experiencing increasing pressure from issues relating to an ageing population. The rationality of different eligibility criteria of the benefits within the social security system has been widely challenged; however, to date, no previous study has explored its association with the availability and affordability of long-term care (LTC). This study evaluates the availability and affordability of Long-Term Care (LTC) services for disabled older people (aged 65 and above) in China, with special attention to the differences among groups in receipt of specific social security benefits. The data of availability and affordability of LTC services for disabled older people is from a nationally representative sample Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Three different social security benefits were identified and their effects on the long-term care services for disabled older people were explored. The overall proportions of disabled older people who have only limited or no available or affordable LTC services were remarkably high, especially for those who have moderate or no social security benefits. Compared to those who are entitled to generous social security benefits, older people who have no social security benefits are 18.45 times more likely to be unable to afford health care expenses. The findings imply that policy makers in China could focus on the LTC needs for the social security and socioeconomically disadvantaged (who have limited or no social security benefits and in low household income) disabled older people which could reduce the gap between them and those who are entitled to generous social security benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A
The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign.
This bachelor thesis deals with addiction on the internet and social networks of 10-12 years old children and subsequent prevention and treatment of this addiction. My goal was to determine whether there are children in this age addicted to the Internet and social networks and if so, are there any prevention programs and in worse cases, follow-up treatments. The first chapter is a theoretical part about the definition of addiction, particularly non-substance addiction to the internet and soci...
Falzone, Ashley E; Brindis, Claire D; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Junn, Alexandra; Pagoto, Sherry; Wehner, Mackenzie; Linos, Eleni
The incidence of skin cancer is rising in the U.S., and melanoma, the deadliest form, is increasing disproportionately among young white women. Indoor tanning is a modifiable risk factor for all skin cancers and continues to be used at the highest rates in young white women. Adolescents and young adults report personal appearance-based reasons for using indoor tanning. Previous research has explored the influences on tanning bed use, including individual factors as well as relationships with peers, family, schools, media influences, legislation, and societal beauty norms. Adolescents and young adults also have high rates of social media usage, and research is emerging on how best to utilize these platforms for prevention. Social media has the potential to be a cost-effective way to reach large numbers of young people and target messages at characteristics of specific audiences. Recent prevention efforts have shown that comprehensive prevention campaigns that include technology and social media are promising in reducing rates of indoor tanning among young adults. This review examines the literature on psychosocial influences on indoor tanning among adolescents and young adults, and highlights ways in which technology and social media can be used for prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Justine S. Hastings; Ali Hortaçsu; Chad Syverson
This paper examines how sales force impact competition and equilibrium prices in the context of a privatized pension market. We use detailed administrative data on fund manager choices and worker characteristics at the inception of Mexico’s privatized social security system, where fund managers had to set prices (management fees) at the national level, but could select sales force levels by local geographic areas. We develop and estimate a model of fund manager choice where sales force can in...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging population poses a challenge to Mexican health services. The aim of this study is to describe recent oral health services utilization and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and co-morbidity in Mexican Social Security beneficiaries 60 years and older. Methods A sample of 700 individuals aged 60+ years was randomly chosen from the databases of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. These participants resided in the southwest of Mexico City and made up the final sample of a cohort study for identifying risk factors for root caries in elderly patients. Sociodemographic variables, presence of cognitive decline, depression, morbidity, medication consumption, and utilization of as well as reasons for seeking oral health services within the past 12 months were collected through a questionnaire. Clinical oral assessments were carried out to determine coronal and root caries experience. Results The sample consisted of 698 individuals aged 71.6 years on average, of whom 68.3% were women. 374 participants (53.6% had made use of oral health services within the past 12 months. 81% of those who used oral health services sought private medical care, 12.8% sought social security services, and 6.2% public health services. 99.7% had experienced coronal caries and 44.0% root caries. Female sex (OR = 2.0, 6 years' schooling or less (OR = 1.4, and caries experience in more than 22 teeth (OR = 0.6 are factors associated with the utilization of these services. Conclusion About half the elderly beneficiaries of social security have made use of oral health services within the past 12 months, and many of them have to use private services. Being a woman, having little schooling, and low caries experience are factors associated with the use of these services.
Kritzer, B E
After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique
Neuhaus, Mathias; Wolff, Jörg; Zisky, Norbert
This paper describes a technology solution for preventing tax fraud in electronic cash registers (ECR) and point of sale (POS) systems. The solution is based on electronic signatures, and as a result, any alterations to protected data will be detected. The signed transaction data can be stored on various electronic memory devices. Technical provisions enable the estimation of transaction volumes, even after tampering or loss of data. In this way the solution presented here differs significantly from other fiscal solutions where a pattern of approvals for ECRs and permanent technical supervision of the market is necessary. This paper is focused on the architecture, the protocols and the usability of the proposed system.
Gabrielle Ota Longo
Full Text Available This research was intended to investigate the treatment given to psychological harassment by Social Security, from the analysis of data extracted from its Statistical Yearbooks, and to situate it as contemporary factor of precarious work, seeking to expand the view of occupational accident. As psychological harassment is a serious problem to challenge an urgent solution to the effective protection of worker’s mental health, among the proposals based on the legal and social impact of the phenomenon, it was evidenced, through critical analysis of Bill n. 7.202/2010, the suitability of equalization of psychological harassment in employment context to accident work (FAPESP.
Rispoli, Kristin M; McGoey, Kara E; Koziol, Natalie A; Schreiber, James B
A wealth of research demonstrates the importance of early parent-child interactions on children's social functioning. However, less is known about the interrelations between child and parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in early childhood. Moreover, few studies have broadly examined the longitudinal relations between these constructs and social competence. This study is an examination of the relations between parent responsiveness, negativity, and emotional supportiveness, attachment security, and child temperament, and their impact on children's social competence from infancy to kindergarten entry. The sample was derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort and included 6850 parent-child dyads. Observational and rating scale data were used. The proposed model was nearly fully supported by path analysis, and it provides insight into the complex relations between early parenting behaviors, child characteristics, and parent-child interactions in the development of social competence. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this paper I take up the quest for an integrated approach to health promotion and prevention that incorporates the social context. I suggest that an integrated theory of public health has to rethink the individual society relationships and move beyond the dominance of socialization theory and individual level analysis. A theoretical analysis of key issues in an integrated theory of public health. I maintain that we must shift the attention away from the individual to the social organization and the embeddedness of the social actor in the ongoing social networks and relationships; we must pay attention to the definition of levels of analysis and the relationships between them; we must emphasize the social mechanisms that influence people in social relationships and networks and connect various levels; we must reconsider some of the epistemological and methodological ideas that have been taken for granted and pay attention to issues of emergence and reductionism and the use of multiple methods. I conclude by suggesting that if public health is to move forward and develop better theories, and more efficient ways of prevention and health promotion, it needs to move beyond reductionist models of social behaviour and develop a transdisciplinary approach that integrates various elements from different disciplines and different levels of analysis.
Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L
Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More
Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Mathiew-Quiros, Alvaro; Núñez-Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Garza-Elizondo, María Eugenia
One of the biggest challenges of the Mexican Health System is to get results of the treatment goals in diabetic patients, which can be frustrated by physician and patient's attitudes. The present study evaluates divergence of attitude of health providers and diabetic patients according to health sectors: private, social security or State medical services. They contributed 255 physicians and 255 diabetic patients in ambulatory care from three health sectors: private, social security and welfare (employees and patients were exclusive providers and patients of corresponding institutions). The Diabetes Attitude Scale 3 (DAS-3) was applied, a self-administered instrument used to compare attitudes between health care professionals and patients. Discrepancies were analyzed with t-tests, chi2, one-way ANOVA and post hoc multiple comparisons for observed means based on the Tukey test. Physician and patient's attitudes differed in all scales except for psychosocial impact of diabetes, which was independent of the health sector. Attitudes were not alike with respect to severity of the disease, value of tight control of glucose levels and patient autonomy, with no distinction of health sector. Discrepancy of need for special training was the only attitude that varied by health sector (F = 4.1; p = 0.02); it was similar for the private and social security sector but different for the welfare sector. All health sectors should recognize attitude discrepancies between doctors and patients to favor collaborative strategies that benefit a better control of the disease.