WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventing skew-induced wear

  1. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  2. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  3. Prevention of erosive/abrasive enamel wear due to orange juice modified with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Fj; Günthart, N; Sener, B; Attin, T

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosive/abrasive enamel wear after contact with orange juices modified with different dietary supplements. A total of 96 bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to eight groups (1-8; n = 12). Samples were eroded (120 s) in 200 ml of the following eight solutions: 1: water (control), 2: orange juice, 3: water + calcium effervescent tablet, 4: orange juice + calcium effervescent tablet, 5: water + 0.75 g acid/base regulating powder (Probase), 6: water + 0.375 g Probase, 7: orange juice + 0.75 g Probase and 8: orange juice + 0.375 g Probase. After erosion, the samples were brushed with 40 brushing strokes (load 2.5 N). Enamel wear was measured using surface profilometry after 20 and 40 cycles of erosion/abrasion respectively. Highest mean enamel wear (± SD) after 20 and 40 cycles of erosion/abrasion was observed for the unmodified orange juice (group 2) (0.605 ± 0.240 μm; 1.375 ± 0.496 μm respectively). The enamel wear in all other groups (3-8) was significantly lower (P abrasive enamel wear induces by orange juice and tooth brushing could be reduced significantly by modification with free available dietary supplements. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Protection during production: Problems due to prevention? Nail and skin condition after prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Wearing of occlusive gloves during the whole working shift is considered a risk factor for developing hand eczema, similar to wet work. Moreover, the increased hydration due to glove occlusion may lead to brittle nails. Two hundred and seventy clean room workers, wearing occlusive gloves for prolonged periods, and 135 administrative employees not using gloves were investigated. This included a dermatological examination of the nails and the hands, using the Hand Eczema ScoRe for Occupational Screening (HEROS), measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and a standardized interview. Of the clean room workers, 39%, mainly women, reported nail problems, mostly brittle nails with onychoschisis. Skin score values showed no significant differences between HEROS values of both groups. TEWL values of exposed subjects were similar to TEWL values of controls 40 min after taking off the occlusive gloves. In a multiple linear regression analysis, male gender and duration of employment in the clean room were associated with a significant increase in TEWL values. The effect of occlusion on TEWL seems to be predominantly transient and not be indicative of a damaged skin barrier. This study confirmed the results of a previous investigation showing no serious adverse effect of wearing of occlusive gloves on skin condition without exposure to additional hazardous substances. However, occlusion leads to softened nails prone to mechanical injury. Therefore, specific prevention instructions are required to pay attention to this side effect of occlusion.

  5. Use of dentifrices to prevent erosive tooth wear: harmful or helpful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissues caused by non-bacterial acids. Due to acid contact, the tooth surface becomes softened and more prone to abrasion from toothbrushing. Dentifrices containing different active agents may be helpful in allowing rehardening or in increasing surface resistance to further acidic or mechanical impacts. However, dentifrices are applied together with brushing and, depending on how and when toothbrushing is performed, as well as the type of dentifrice and toothbrush used, may increase wear. This review focuses on the potential harmful and helpful effects associated with the use of dentifrices with regard to erosive wear. While active ingredients like fluorides or agents with special anti-erosive properties were shown to offer some degree of protection against erosion and combined erosion/abrasion, the abrasive effects of dentifrices may increase the surface loss of eroded teeth. However, most evidence to date comes from in vitro and in situ studies, so clinical trials are necessary for a better understanding of the complex interaction of active ingredients and abrasives and their effects on erosive tooth wear.

  6. Evaluating an in-school injury prevention programme's effect on children's helmet wearing habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Gary; Velikonja, Diana; Pepper, Veronica; Jilderda, Irene; Georgiou, Georgia

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Bikes, Blades and Boards (BB&B) programme. It was hypothesized that children who participated in the BB&B programme would demonstrate greater knowledge of how to wear their helmets safely than a control group who did not participate in the programme and retain their skills when assessed 1 year later. Single blind cluster randomized design. Twelve classes of grade 2 students (n = 162) participated; six classes were assigned to an experimental or control group. A blinded research assistant, taking 3-5 minutes per child, completed the Helmet Checklist with each group on two occasions and scores of the experimental group (post-BB&B programme) were compared to the control group. The experimental group was reassessed using the Helmet Checklist, 1 year later. The BB&B programme consisted of a presentation, bicycle helmet checklist, demonstration and individual practice and feedback. Children in the experimental group showed a better knowledge of how to wear their helmets safely compared to the control group (F = 51.84, CI = 9.11-9.71) and retained this knowledge 1 year after participating in the BB&B programme. The BB&B programme is effective in teaching grade 2 children how to wear their helmets correctly, which is knowledge they retain for at least 1 year.

  7. Tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek Ivan

    2014-01-01

    surfaces. Attrition of teeth (attritio dentium represents teeth wear during mastication, friction on the tooth or teeth during parafunctional mandibular movements (bruxism, but without the abrasive effect. Dental erosion (erosio dentium or corrosive wear is a progressive, irreversible loss of dental hard tissue resulting from the effect of acids and /or chelation in the mouth, but without the participation of bacteria. Acids, of either exogenous or endogenous origin (peptic ulcer, gastritis, or bulimia, anoreksia nervosa, that come into the mouth can lead to different clinical manifestations of erosion depending on the time of exposure, the microstructure of teeth, buffering capacity, the amount of saliva and other factors. The changes are visible on the palatal surfaces of upper anterior teeth and, in severe cases, the lingual surfaces of posterior teeth. Occupational dental erosion occurs during exposure to industrial gases that contain hydrochloric or sulfuric acids, as well as the acids used in galvanizing and manufacture of battery and weapons. Due to the multifactorial nature of erosive tooth wear preventive measures must be applied taking into account chemical and biological factors as well as the patient's behavior associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of erosion. It is recommended to consume food and drinks that stimulate the secretion of large amounts of saliva base; to use neutral or alkaline mouthwash, and to chew sugar-free gum; to apply adequate oral hygiene (soft brushes, non-abrasive tooth paste, proper washing technique and not to consume aciding food and carbonated soft drinks and fizzy drinks in a great amount and frequently. It is necessary to apply preparations with high content of fluoride, and lubricant of tooth wear (powder CaF, CaF mixture and olive oil, and asset-based titanium tetrafluoride and casein-calcium phosphate. Commercial tooth paste that contains CPP-ACP (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and calcium phosphate

  8. Prevention of wear particle-induced osteolysis by a novel V-ATPase inhibitor saliphenylhalamide through inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Qin

    Full Text Available Wear particle-induced peri-implant loosening (Aseptic prosthetic loosening is one of the most common causes of total joint arthroplasty. It is well established that extensive bone destruction (osteolysis by osteoclasts is responsible for wear particle-induced peri-implant loosening. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption should prevent wear particle induced osteolysis and may serve as a potential therapeutic avenue for prosthetic loosening. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that saliphenylhalamide, a new V-ATPase inhibitor attenuates wear particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvarial model. In vitro biochemical and morphological assays revealed that the inhibition of osteolysis is partially attributed to a disruption in osteoclast acidification and polarization, both a prerequisite for osteoclast bone resorption. Interestingly, the V-ATPase inhibitor also impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways. In conclusion, we showed that saliphenylhalamide affected multiple physiological processes including osteoclast differentiation, acidification and polarization, leading to inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption in vitro and wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. The results of the study provide proof that the new generation V-ATPase inhibitors, such as saliphenylhalamide, are potential anti-resorptive agents for treatment of peri-implant osteolysis.

  9. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  10. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - ...

  11. Ceramic wear maps: Zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Hsu, S.M.; Shen, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The wear characteristics of an yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) are represented by a set of three-dimensional wear maps under dry and lubricated conditions. Water, paraffin oil, and a formulated oil were used as lubricants. Different wear regions were identified as a function of load, speed, and lubrication environment. Sudden increases in wear, identified as ear transitions, were found at certain loads and speeds. The onset of wear transitions was moderated by the presence of a lubricant. Below the wear transitions, the wear was mild and the wear mechanism was predominantly plastic deformation and microfracture. Above the wear transitions, the wear was severe, dominated by brittle fracture and third-body abrasion. Different fluids had different effects on wear. Water had a deleterious effect on wear for this material. The presence of oil lubricants effectively reduced friction and moderated wear. Under high load and high speed, additional stress induced by a thermal gradient within a small area contributed significantly to wear. A critical velocity model was found to describe the locations of the wear transition zones successfully

  12. The interactions between attrition, abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellis, R Peter; Addy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Knowledge of these tooth wear processes and their interactions is reviewed. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence is insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear, especially through formation of pellicle, but cannot prevent it. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The role of fluoride and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate in the prevention of erosive/abrasive wear in an in vitro model using hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Attin, T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of various fluoride compounds and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on the reduction of erosive/abrasive tooth wear. Forty enamel samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors, stratified and allocated to 4 groups (1-4). Samples in group 1 remained untreated and served as negative controls. The test samples were treated for 2 min/day as follows: group 2 amine/sodium fluoride gel (pH 4.8; 12,500 ppm), group 3 sodium fluoride gel (pH 7.1; 12,500 ppm) and group 4 CPP-ACP-containing mousse. De- and remineralization cycling was performed for 20 days with 6 erosive attacks for 20 s with HCl (pH 3.0) per day. Samples were stored in artificial saliva between cycles and overnight. Toothbrushing (15 s; 60 strokes/min; load 2.5 N) with a toothpaste slurry was performed each day before the first and 1 h after the last erosive exposure. Tooth wear was measured by comparing baseline surface profiles with the corresponding posttreatment profiles. Tooth wear was significantly reduced in groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1, while the enamel loss of group 4 was not significantly lower compared to the negative control group 1. Between the fluoride groups 2 and 3, no significant difference in tooth wear was recorded. Erosive/abrasive tooth wear under the conditions used could be reduced significantly by the daily application of fluoride gels, irrespective of the fluoride compound, while the application of CPP-ACP-containing mousse was less effective. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pin-on-disc tests of tungsten carbide pins against silicon carbide discs were performed and wear rate, mechanism and friction maps constructed. Correlations were observed between the wear mode and the friction of the pin-disc interface, and between the qualitative incidence of disruptive wear mec...

  15. Abrasive wear of intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.A.; Alman, D.E.; Wilson, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the wear behavior of a variety of advanced materials. Among the many materials under evaluation are intermetallic alloys based on the compounds: Fe 3 Al, Ti 3 Al, TiAl, Al 3 Ti, NiAl and MoSi 2 . The high hardness, high modulus, low density, and superior environmental stability of these compounds make them attractive for wear materials. This paper reports on the abrasive wear of alloys and composites based on the above compounds. The abrasive wear behavior of these alloys and composites are compared to other engineering materials used in wear applications

  16. Polymer wear evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerbon, Mikkel; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wear plays an increasing role in manufacturing of machine parts for e.g. medical devices. Some of these have an expected lifetime of five to eight years during which very little wear of the components is acceptable. Too much wear compromises the dosage accuracy of the device and thereby...... the safety of the patients. Prediction of the wear of polymers is complicated by the low thermal conductivity of this kind of material. It implies that any acceleration of testing conditions by increased contact pressure and/or sliding velocity will make the polymer fail due to exaggerated heat buildup....... This is not the kind of wear observed in medical devices. In the present work a method was developed capable of evaluating the wear progression in polymer-polymer contacts. The configuration of the setup is injection moulded specimens consisting of an upper part having a toroid shape and a lower flat part. The sliding...

  17. [Patients' reaction to pharmacists wearing a mask during their consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Eri; Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2013-01-01

      This study sought to determine the effect of pharmacists wearing a mask on the consultation intention of patients who do not have a trusting relationship with the pharmacists. We conducted a questionnaire survey of customers at a Tokyo drugstore in August 2012. Subjects answered a questionnaire after watching two medical teaching videos, one in which the pharmacist was wearing a mask and the other in which the pharmacist was not wearing a mask. Data analysis was performed using a paired t-test and multiple logistic regression. The paired t-test revealed a significant difference in 'Maintenance Problem' between the two pharmacist situations. After excluding factors not associated with wearing a mask, multiple logistic regression analysis identified three independent variables with a significant effect on participants not wanting to consult with a pharmacist wearing a mask. Positive factors were 'active-inactive' and 'frequency mask use', a negative factor was 'age'. Our study has shown that pharmacists wearing a mask may be a factor that prevents patients from consulting with pharmacist. Those patients whose intention to consult might be affected by the pharmacists wearing a mask tended to be younger, to have no habit of wearing masks preventively themselves, and to form a negative opinion of such pharmacists. Therefore, it was estimated that pharmacists who wear masks need to provide medical education by asking questions more positively than when they do not wear a mask in order to prevent the patient worrying about oneself.

  18. Sliding wear of cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, H.; Ederyd, S.; Uhrenius, B.; Hogmark, S.

    2001-01-01

    Cemented carbides are known to be very hard and wear resistant and are therefor often used in applications involving surface damage and wear. The wear rate of cemented carbides is often measured in abrasion. In such tests it has been shown that the wear rate is inversely dependent on the material hardness. The sliding wear is even more of a surface phenomenon than a abrasion, making it difficult to predict friction and wear from bulk properties. This paper concentrates on the sliding wear of cemented carbides and elucidates some wear mechanisms. It is especially shown that a fragmenting wear mechanism of WC is very important for the description of wear of cemented carbides. (author)

  19. Theory of powdery rubber wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2009-12-02

    Rubber wear typically involves the removal of small rubber particles from the rubber surface. On surfaces with not too sharp roughness, e.g. most road surfaces, this involves (slow) crack propagation. In this paper I shall present a theory of mild rubber wear. I shall derive the distribution of wear particle sizes Φ(D), which is in excellent agreement with experiment. I shall also show that the calculated wear rate is consistent with experimental data for tire tread block wear.

  20. Theory of powdery rubber wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, B N J [IFF, FZ-Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-12-02

    Rubber wear typically involves the removal of small rubber particles from the rubber surface. On surfaces with not too sharp roughness, e.g. most road surfaces, this involves (slow) crack propagation. In this paper I shall present a theory of mild rubber wear. I shall derive the distribution of wear particle sizes PHI(D), which is in excellent agreement with experiment. I shall also show that the calculated wear rate is consistent with experimental data for tire tread block wear.

  1. Investigating the influence of sand particle properties on abrasive wear behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; van der Heide, Emile; Schipper, Dirk J.; Tinga, Tiedo; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Abrasion by sand particles is an important factor causing excessive wear in machines operating in sandy environments. To prevent such machines from failing, knowledge about the abrasive wear process is required. This work focuses on the relation between abrasive particle properties and the wear they

  2. Delamination wear mechanism in gray cast irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, M.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of the friction and sliding wear of gray cast iron against chromium plated cast irons was carried out on a newly constructed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The tests were the first to be done on the test rig under dry conditions and at the speed of 170 cm/min, and variable loads of 20-260 N for a duration of 15 min. to 3 hours. The gray cast iron surfaces worn by a process of plastic deformation at the subsurface, crack nucleation, and crack growth leading to formation of plate like debris and therefore the delamination theory applies. No evidence of adhesion was observed. This could be due to formation of oxides on the wear surface which prevent adhesion. channel type chromium plating ''picked'' up cast iron from the counter-body surfaces by mechanically trapping cast iron debris on and within the cracks. The removal of the plated chromium left a pitted surface on the cast iron

  3. Pressurized water reactor vessel internals guide tube guide card wear aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    In order for the pressurized water reactors to qualify for life extension, they have to meet the requirements of MRP-277 (Reference 1). MRP-227 lists the various reactor internals components that need to be inspected in order for a plant to qualify for life extension; the upper internals guide tube guide cards are one such component. Aggressive guide card wear in a plant can lead to violation of plant technical specifications, safety issues in the event of insertion, failure of one or more rod cluster control assemblies, or even result in plant shutdown or outage extensions. Owing to the criticality of the guide card wear, as discussed above, the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) initiated a guide card wear measurement project, led by Westinghouse. Under this program, wear of the guide cards at three identified lead plants was observed and measured, and, an engineering review of the wear data was completed, and plant specific recommendations based on the engineering reviews was provided. To support this program, Westinghouse also developed criteria to prevent or mitigate guide card wear, which governs the guide card wear measurement. In addition, preliminary root cause analysis was performed for one of the aggressively wearing plants, where some wear aggravating causes and mitigating techniques were determined. Therefore, this paper will discuss Westinghouse's guide card wear criteria and measurement technique, guide card wear trends obtained from measurements conducted in the guide card wear program, possible guide card wear aggravating causes and guide card wear mitigating techniques. (author)

  4. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pin surfaces were analysed by laser profilometry. Two roughness parameters, R(a) and the fractal dimension, were investigated as a first step towards methods of quantitative wear mechanism mapping. Both parameters were analysed for their relationship to the severity and prevalence of a mechanism....

  5. Assessment of wear facets produced by the ACTA wear machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana R; Larsen, Liselotte; Dowling, Adam H

    2016-01-01

    the 2D profile technique ranks RBC materials in terms of in-vitro wear performance. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Confidence in the wear volume measurements can only be achieved if the wear facet is analysed with sufficient resolution using a 3D digital measurement technique. However, the employment of 2D....... The mean wear depth was measured using the traditionally employed 2D and compared with the 3D profilometric (digital) techniques. Data were submitted to analyses of variance, Tukey's post hoc tests and Independent Samples Student's t-tests (where appropriate) at p... for mean wear depth calculations were similar whether the 2D or 3D techniques were employed. However, the mean wear depth values obtained from the 3D digital technique were significantly increased for two of the five RBC materials compared with the 2D methodology. The total volumetric wear data provided...

  6. Millisecond bearing wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchley, C.; Sioshansi, P.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides have been widely used for many purposes in medicine, metals, transportation, manufacturing and research. Approximately 200 artificially produced nuclides are commercially available from reactors or accelerator sources. Another 400 or so have properties which may make them useful if satisfactory methods of production can be developed. One of the most economically important industrial applications of radionuclides has been in wear measurement and condition monitoring in reciprocating engines. The general techniques developed for this purpose have also been applied in a number of other areas besides engine or lubrication studies. The wear of floor wax applied to linoleum, for example, has been measured by mixing shortlived radionuclides in the wax. In those applications where the material is tagged and then followed, the radionuclides are termed ''tracers,'' similar to the medical tracer materials used to measure uptake or metabolism of biologically active chemicals in the body. The alternate function for the radionuclides is to act as ''markers'' which indicate the amount of material which is remaining at the location of the original activation. Both approaches require that the debris removed from the surface must be carried away from the original site. The first application of radioactive tracers as a diagnostic tool in engines was in 1949. In this technique, an entire wearing part such as a piston ring or gear was first exposed to neutrons in a nuclear reactor. This caused the entire volume of the part to become radioactive. The part was next installed and exposed to wear in the operating engine. Detectors placed near the oil line, an oil filter or a sediment trap then determined the amount of debris from the part by counting the gamma rays escaping from the debris

  7. Tooth wear: when to treat, why, and how. Part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Thomas D

    2009-01-01

    Tooth wear has been described in the literature as physiologic--that is, normal, expected over the life span of an individual, and not creating a pathologic condition. It has also been described in pathologic terms as caused by stress, corrosion, and friction, utilizing a variety of mechanisms and affected by a host of endogenous and exogenous factors. From a clinician's point of view, when should we decide to restore a tooth or change the conditions in the mouth to protect the teeth; and what should we consider using to either prevent or restore abnormal--i.e, pathologic--tooth wear? This review in Part One (Northwest Dentistry, September-October 2009) looked at what is normal, non-pathologic tooth wear and etiologies associated with all forms of tooth wear. Part Two will discuss the effects of tooth wear in enamel and dentin, when it may be advisable to intervene in the wear processes diagnosed on specific patients, and what methods of prevention and restoration can be utilized to restore or maintain the dentition. This review will not look at the need for full mouth reconstruction due to wear.

  8. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  9. Wear of polymers and composites

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelbary, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In the field of tribology, the wear behaviour of polymers and composite materials is considered a highly non-linear phenomenon. Wear of Polymers and Composites introduces fundamentals of polymers and composites tribology. The book suggests a new approach to explore the effect of applied load and surface defects on the fatigue wear behaviour of polymers, using a new tribometer and thorough experiments. It discusses effects of surface cracks, under different static and cyclic loading parameters on wear, and presents an intelligent algorithm, in the form of a neural network, to map the relations

  10. Pure mechanical wear loss measurement in corrosive wear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Jiang Xiaoxia 1992 Metall. Sinica 28 B57. Jiang Xiaoxia and Li Sizuo 1991 Chemical Machinery 18 150. (in Chinese). Madson B W 1988 Wear 123 127. Pitt C H 1986 Corrosion 42 312. Schumacher W 1985 Wear of Materials 558. Tomlison W J 1991 Tribo. Inter. 2 67. Yue Zhongying 1987 Solid Lubrication 7 65 (in Chinese).

  11. Pure mechanical wear loss measurement in corrosive wear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The method for the measurement of the pure mechanical wear loss for 321 stainless steel, 1045 steel and pure iron in the study of the synergy between corrosion and wear was studied. The methods studied included the measurement in distilled water, by cathodic protection and by adding inhibitor KI, and all were ...

  12. [Infants wearing teething necklaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, A; Casasoprana, A; Cascarigny, F; Claudet, I

    2012-10-01

    Numerous infants wear teething necklaces, a quack remedy with a real risk of strangulation or aspiration of small beads. Evaluate parental perceptions and beliefs about the use of teething necklaces and analyze parental knowledge about the associated dangers. Between March and July 2011, in three different pediatric units of a tertiary children's hospital and a general hospital in Toulouse and Montauban (southwest France), voluntary parents were invited to be interviewed about their child wearing a teething necklace. The interviews were conducted following an anthropological approach: they were recorded and then fully transcribed and analyzed. Parents were informed that the conversation was recorded. During the study period, 48 children were eligible. Eleven families refused to participate, 29 parents were interviewed face to face. The children's mean age was 14 years ± 7 months, the male:female ratio was equal to 0.8 (12 boys, 15 girls). The mean age of children when necklace wearing was started was equal to 4 ± 2 months. The mean mother's age was 31 ± 5 years and 33 ± 4 years for fathers. The parents' religion was mostly Catholic (60%). Teething necklaces were mainly made of amber (n=23). Sales information about the risks associated with the necklaces was for the most part absent (92%). The most frequent positive parental perceptions were analgesic properties and a soothing remedy (73%); a birth accessory and memory (64%); an esthetic accessory (60%); a protective amulet (60%); and an alternative or additional element to other traditional therapeutics (55%). The negative parental perceptions (n=4) were an unnecessary accessory, costume jewelry, a pure commercial abuse of a popular belief, a dangerous item with a risk of strangulation, and the absence of proof of its efficacy. Although parents concede that teeth eruption is benign, they fear its related symptoms. To a natural phenomenon a natural response: they use a necklace to satisfy the analogy. The

  13. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  14. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  15. Prolonging contact lens wear and making contact lens wear safer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N

    2006-02-01

    To summarize the present status of safety and efficacy of contact lens wear. Literature review. Ovid Medline searches were performed on records from 1966 through 2005 using keywords: keratitis, contact lens complications, extended-wear contact lenses, and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Patients desire comfort, clarity of vision, and prolonged contact lens wear when contact lenses are used to correct refractive error. Practitioners desire patient satisfaction but also require maintenance of the integrity of the eye and no complications that jeopardize vision or health of the eye. Improvements in the oxygen permeability of the contact lens materials, design of the contact lens and its surface, and solutions for the maintenance of the lens have reduced but not eliminated the risks of infection, inflammation, and conjunctival papillary reaction associated with contact lens wear. The lessons of past and recent history suggest that patient education and practitioner participation in the management of contact lens wear continue to be critical factors for patient satisfaction and safety in the extended wear of contact lenses. The availability of highly oxygen permeable contact lenses has increased the tolerance and safety of extended contact lens wear, but patient instruction and education in proper use and care of lenses is required and caution is advised.

  16. Rubber glove wearing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takada, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    Rubber groves are attached each to an upper end of a glove putting vessel having an air-sucking hole on the bottom by enlarging an opening end of the rubber glove and turning back the inside to the outside. When the sucking device is operated, air in the glove putting device is sucked and the rubber glove is expanded by an atmospheric pressure. After expansion of the rubber glove to some extent, the sucking device is stopped, and presence or absence of failures of the rubber glove is confirmed by shrinkage of the rubber glove and by an indication value of a pressure gauge for detecting the pressure change in the vessel. Then, a hand is inserted to the expanded rubber glove, and a detaching switch in the vessel is pushed by a finger tip. A detaching piece at the upper end of the vessel is protruded outwardly to enlarge the turned-back portion of the rubber glove to easily release the rubber glove from the putting vessel, and the rubber glove is put on. This enables to wear the rubber glove and conduct failure test simultaneously. Further, a user can put on the rubber glove without touching the outside of the rubber glove. (I.N.)

  17. Nanoscale friction and wear maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Nikhil S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-04-28

    Friction and wear are part and parcel of all walks of life, and for interfaces that are in close or near contact, tribology and mechanics are supremely important. They can critically influence the efficient functioning of devices and components. Nanoscale friction force follows a complex nonlinear dependence on multiple, often interdependent, interfacial and material properties. Various studies indicate that nanoscale devices may behave in ways that cannot be predicted from their larger counterparts. Nanoscale friction and wear mapping can help identify some 'sweet spots' that would give ultralow friction and near-zero wear. Mapping nanoscale friction and wear as a function of operating conditions and interface properties is a valuable tool and has the potential to impact the very way in which we design and select materials for nanotechnology applications.

  18. Erosive tooth wear in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, T.S.; Lussi, A.; Jaeggi, T.; Gambon, D.L.; Lussi, A.; Ganss, C.

    2014-01-01

    Erosive tooth wear in children is a common condition. Besides the anatomical differences between deciduous and permanent teeth, additional histological differences may influence their susceptibility to dissolution. Considering laboratory studies alone, it is not clear whether deciduous teeth are

  19. Wear mechanisms of coated hardmetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, V.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper several aspects of the wear mechanisms of coated hardmetals, ceramics and super-hard materials (CBN) in machining cast iron are discussed, with particular attention being given to high-speed machining of different cast iron grades. The influence of machining parameters, microstructure, composition and mechanical and chemical properties of the cutting tool and the work-piece material on wear are considered. (author)

  20. Wear behaviour of Al 261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mathan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al 2618 matrix material was mixed with the Silicon Nitride (Si3N4, Aluminium Nitride (AlN and Zirconium Boride (ZrB2 reinforced particles. AMC was synthesized successfully by the stir casting method with the various X-wt.% of reinforcements (X = 0,2,4,6,8. Tribological behaviour was studied in this composite with various temperature conditions. The working conditions were Temperature (°C, Load (N, Velocity (m/s and Sliding Distances (m. Before wear testing the mechanical behaviour has been analysed. EDAX was confirmed by the matrix material composition. The Al 2618 alloy and the reinforcement mixers were confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction analysis. Wear rate (mm3/m, Wear resistance (m/mm3, Specific Wear rate (m/Nm and Co-efficient of friction (μ were analysed with various conditions. The worn surfaces were analysed before and after wear testing by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Influence of process parameters and Percentage of contribution were analysed by Taguchi and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA methods. Genetic Algorithm (GA was adopted for optimizing the best and mean of the wear rate and to identify the exact influence of input parameters.

  1. Wear resistance properties of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, Y.S. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States); Kingsbury, G.R. [Kingsbury (G.R.), Lyndhurst, OH (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A detailed review of wear resistance properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) was undertaken to examine the potential applications of this material for wear parts, as an alternative to steels, alloyed and white irons, bronzes, and other competitive materials. Two modes of wear were studied: adhesive (frictional) dry sliding and abrasive wear. In the rotating dry sliding tests, wear behavior of the base material (a stationary block) was considered in relationship to countersurface (steel shaft) wear. In this wear mode, the wear rate of ADI was only one-fourth that of pearlitic ductile iron (DI) grade 100-70-03; the wear rates of aluminum bronze and leaded-tin bronze, respectively, were 3.7 and 3.3 times greater than that of ADI. Only quenched DI with a fully martensitic matrix slightly outperformed ADI. No significant difference was observed in the wear of steel shafts running against ADI and quenched DI. The excellent wear performance of ADI and its countersurface, combined with their relatively low friction coefficient, indicate potential for dry sliding wear applications. In the abrasive wear mode, the wear rate of ADI was comparable to that of alloyed hardened AISI 4340 steel, and approximately one-half that of hardened medium-carbon AISI 1050 steel and of white and alloyed cast irons. The excellent wear resistance of ADI may be attributed to the strain-affected transformation of high-carbon austenite to martensite that takes place in the surface layer during the wear tests.

  2. Preparation, characterization and wear behavior of carbon coated magnesium alloy with electroless plating nickel interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Yan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Academician Expert Office Workstation (Jiansheng Pan), Lin’an, Zhejiang Province (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Academician Expert Office Workstation (Jiansheng Pan), Lin’an, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Xingwu [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming (LAF), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhou, Zhifeng [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Dong, Jie [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming (LAF), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Academician Expert Office Workstation (Jiansheng Pan), Lin’an, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • The carbon film with nickel interlayer (Ni + C coating) is deposited on GW83. • In Ni + C composite coating the carbon coating has good adhesion with the nickel interlayer. • The wear track of Ni + C coating is narrower compared to the bare one. • The wear resistance of GW83 is greatly improved by the Ni + C coating. - Abstract: Poor wear resistance of rare earth magnesium alloys has prevented them from wider application. In this study, composite coating (PVD carbon coating deposited on electroless plating nickel interlayer) is prepared to protect GW83 magnesium alloys against wear. The Ni + C composite coating has a dense microstructure, improved adhesion strength and hardness due to the effective support of Ni interlayer. The wear test result shows that the Ni + C composite coating can greatly prolong the wear life of the magnesium alloy. The wear track of the Ni + C coated magnesium alloy is obviously narrower and shows less abrasive particles as compared with the bare one. Abrasive wear is the wear mechanism of the coatings at the room temperature. In conclusion, the wear resistance of the GW83 magnesium alloy can be greatly improved by the Ni + C composite coating.

  3. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  4. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A

    2011-01-01

    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  5. Attitude and Beliefs of Nigerian Undergraduates to Spectacle Wear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uncorrected refractive error is a common cause of preventable visual impairment. Glasses are the cheapest and commonest form of correction of refractive errors. To achieve this, patients must exhibit good compliance to spectacle wear. Patients' attitude and perception of glasses and eye health could affect ...

  6. An Evaluation of High Velocity Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Stachowiak (Ed.), Wear: Materials, Mechanisms and Practice. Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons. 10. Hooser, M. (2007). Rail dimensions...NV, 10-13 Jan 2000. , AIAA 2000-0155 13. Hutchings, I. M. (2005). The Challenge of Wear. In G. W. Stachowiak (Ed.), Wear: Materials, Mechanisms and...Kato, K. (2005). Classification of Wear Mechanisms/Models. In G. W. Stachowiak (Ed.), Wear: Materials, mechanisms and practice. Chichester, England

  7. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  8. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you may wear special elastic stockings or inflatable boots. These devices squeeze the muscles to help keep ... Special stockings that compress the legs below the knee may help prevent blood clots from forming. However, ...

  9. Multiscale Modeling of Wear Degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2016-01-06

    Cylinder liners of diesel engines used for marine propulsion are naturally subjected to a wear process, and may fail when their wear exceeds a specified limit. Since failures often represent high economical costs, it is utterly important to predict and avoid them. In this work [4], we model the wear process using a pure jump process. Therefore, the inference goal here is to estimate: the number of possible jumps, its sizes, the coefficients and the shapes of the jump intensities. We propose a multiscale approach for the inference problem that can be seen as an indirect inference scheme. We found that using a Gaussian approximation based on moment expansions, it is possible to accurately estimate the jump intensities and the jump amplitudes. We obtained results equivalent to the state of the art but using a simpler and less expensive approach.

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Wear Degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2015-01-07

    Cylinder liners of diesel engines used for marine propulsion are naturally subjected to a wear process, and may fail when their wear exceeds a specified limit. Since failures often represent high economical costs, it is utterly important to predict and avoid them. In this work [4], we model the wear process using a pure jump process. Therefore, the inference goal here is to estimate: the number of possible jumps, its sizes, the coefficients and the shapes of the jump intensities. We propose a multiscale approach for the inference problem that can be seen as an indirect inference scheme. We found that using a Gaussian approximation based on moment expansions, it is possible to accurately estimate the jump intensities and the jump amplitudes. We obtained results equivalent to the state of the art but using a simpler and less expensive approach.

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Wear Degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-06

    Cylinder liners of diesel engines used for marine propulsion are naturally subjected to a wear process, and may fail when their wear exceeds a specified limit. Since failures often represent high economical costs, it is utterly important to predict and avoid them. In this work [4], we model the wear process using a pure jump process. Therefore, the inference goal here is to estimate: the number of possible jumps, its sizes, the coefficients and the shapes of the jump intensities. We propose a multiscale approach for the inference problem that can be seen as an indirect inference scheme. We found that using a Gaussian approximation based on moment expansions, it is possible to accurately estimate the jump intensities and the jump amplitudes. We obtained results equivalent to the state of the art but using a simpler and less expensive approach.

  12. Acanthamoeba keratitis and contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Richard G; Watters, Grant; Johnson, Richard; Ormonde, Susan E; Snibson, Grant R

    2007-09-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious complication of contact lens wear that may cause severe visual loss. The clinical picture is usually characterised by severe pain, sometimes disproportionate to the signs, with an early superficial keratitis that is often misdiagnosed as herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. Advanced stages of the infection are usually characterised by central corneal epithelial loss and marked stromal opacification with subsequent loss of vision. In this paper, six cases of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis that occurred in Australia and New Zealand over a three-year period are described. Three of the patients were disposable soft lens wearers, two were hybrid lens wearers and one was a rigid gas permeable lens wearer. For all six cases, the risk factors for Acanthamoeba keratitis were contact lens wear with inappropriate or ineffective lens maintenance and exposure of the contact lenses to tap or other sources of water. All six patients responded well to medical therapy that involved topical use of appropriate therapeutic agents, most commonly polyhexamethylene biguanide and propamidine isethionate, although two of the patients also subsequently underwent deep lamellar keratoplasty due to residual corneal surface irregularity and stromal scarring. Despite the significant advances that have been made in the medical therapy of Acanthamoeba keratitis over the past 10 years, prevention remains the best treatment and patients who wear contact lenses must be thoroughly educated about the proper use and care of the lenses. In particular, exposure of the contact lenses to tap water or other sources of water should be avoided.

  13. Calculation of wear (f.i. wear modulus) in the plastic cup of a hip joint prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    The wear equation is applied to the wear process in a hip joint prosthesis and a wear modulus is defined. The sliding distance, wear modulus, wear volume, wear area, contact angle and the maximum normal stress were calculated and the theoretical calculations applied to test results. During the wear

  14. "Work smart, wear your hard hat"

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Falling objects and collisions are frequent occurrences in work sites and hazardous areas. Hard hats can help prevent many types of accident and can even save lives. Just imagine an 800 g spanner falling from a 13 m high scaffold onto the head of someone standing below - a nightmare scenario! The impact to the head is equivalent to that of a 5 kg weight falling from 2 metres. That is just what happened to Gerd Fetchenhauer when he was working on the UA1 experiment. Fortunately, he was wearing a hard hat at the time. "That hat saved my life," he explains. "It punched a hole right through the hat and I was a bit dazed for a couple of hours but otherwise I was OK." Since that day, Gerd Fetchenhauer, now working on CMS, is never seen on a work site without his hard hat on. Work sites have proliferated at CERN with the construction of the LHC and its detectors, and the wearing of hard hats is compulsory (not to mention life-saving). In the underground caverns and experiment halls, where gantry cranes and other h...

  15. Research on the effect of wear-ring clearances to the performance of centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W G; Li, Y B; Wang, X Y; Sun, J P; Wu, G X

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of wear-ring clearance on the performance of centrifugal pump, based on the Reynolds Time-Averaged N-S equations and RNG k-ε turbulence model, a centrifugal pump was simulated with three variable styles of the wear-rings: Only the clearance of the front wear-ring was changed, only the clearance of the back wear-ring was changed and both were changed. Numerical results agree well with the experimental results. In the three changing styles of the clearance, the variable of the clearance of front wear-ring has the most influence on the performance of centrifugal pump. The existence of wear-ring not only has an effect on the volumetric loss of the centrifugal pump, but also on the performance of the centrifugal pump. Relative to the experimental studies, numerical simulation methods have some advantages, such as low cost, fast and efficient, and easy to get the detailed structure of the internal flow characteristics, so it has been widely used in the fluid machinery study. In order to study the effect of wear-ring clearance on the performance of centrifugal pump, based on the Reynolds Time-Averaged N-S equations and RNG k-ε turbulence model, a centrifugal pump was simulated with three variable styles of the wear-rings: Only the clearance of the front wear-ring was changed, only the clearance of the back wear-ring was changed and both were changed. Numerical results agree well with the experimental results. In the three changing styles of the clearance, the variable of the clearance of front wear-ring has the most influence on the performance of centrifugal pump.

  16. Wear resistance of cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2008-01-01

    In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  17. Should School Nurses Wear Uniforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Health, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper questions whether school nurses should wear uniforms (specifically, white uniforms). It concludes that white uniforms are often associated with the treatment of ill people, and since many people have a fear reaction to them, they are not necessary and are even undesirable. Since school nurses are school staff members, they should…

  18. Wear performance of laser processed tantalum coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrick, Stanley; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: amitband@wsu.edu

    2011-12-01

    This first generation investigation evaluates the in vitro tribological performance of laser-processed Ta coatings on Ti for load-bearing implant applications. Linear reciprocating wear tests in simulated body fluid showed one order of magnitude less wear rate, of the order of 10{sup -4} mm{sup 3}(N.m){sup -1}, for Ta coatings compared to Ti. Our results demonstrate that Ta coatings can potentially minimize the early-stage bone-implant interface micro-motion induced wear debris generation due to their excellent bioactivity comparable to that of hydroxyapatite (HA), high wear resistance and toughness compared to popular HA coatings. Highlights: {yields} In vitro wear performance of laser processed Ta coatings on Ti was evaluated. {yields} Wear tests in SBF showed one order of magnitude less wear for Ta coatings than Ti. {yields} Ta coatings can minimize early-stage micro-motion induced wear debris generation.

  19. Complications Caused by Contact Lens Wearing

    OpenAIRE

    Beljan, Jasna; Beljan, Kristina; Beljan, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    Complications in wearing contact lenses are very rare and caused by poor maintenance, over-extended wear and wearing of contact lenses in a polluted environment. Regular control by a professional person can efficiently reduce the number of complications. This paper describes the most common risks factors for complications, and complications of wearing contact lenses with the classification according to the anatomic parts of the eye: eyelids, tear film, limbus, corneal epithelium, corneal stro...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF ANGULAR BALL BEARING WEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Savchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Wearing process of balls in an angular ball bearing has been investigated in the paper. Force affecting a separator from the side of balls is determined theoretically. Wear rate may be calculated with a formula for abrasive wear while substituting numerical parameter values of the investigated ball bearing for formula symbols.

  1. Needs and challenges in precision wear measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    1996-01-10

    Accurate, precise wear measurements are a key element in solving both current wear problems and in basic wear research. Applications range from assessing durability of micro-scale components to accurate screening of surface treatments and thin solid films. Need to distinguish small differences in wear tate presents formidable problems to those who are developing new materials and surface treatments. Methods for measuring wear in ASTM standard test methods are discussed. Errors in using alterate methods of wear measurement on the same test specimen are also described. Human judgemental factors are a concern in common methods for wear measurement, and an experiment involving measurement of a wear scar by ten different people is described. Precision in wear measurement is limited both by the capabilities of the measuring instruments and by the nonuniformity of the wear process. A method of measuring wear using nano-scale indentations is discussed. Current and future prospects for incorporating advanced, higher-precision wear measurement methods into standards are considered.

  2. Consideration of Wear Rates at High Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    tionally, the texts by Bayer [3; 4], Rabinowicz [30], and Stachowiak [32] thoroughly cover the topic of wear mechanisms. A summary of the material is...Metals at High Sliding Speeds,” Wear, 44(1):109–125, August 1977. 32. Stachowiak , G. W. Wear - Materials, Mechanisms and Practice. Tribology in

  3. Wear Resistance of Sintered Composite Hardfacings under Different Abrasive Wear Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    SIMSON, Taavi; KULU, Priit; SURŽENKOV, Andrei; TARBE, Riho; GOLJANDIN, Dmitri; TARRASTE, Marek; VILJUS, Mart; TRAKSMAA, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on vacuum liquid phase sintered (PM) composite hardfacings and their behaviour under different abrasive wear conditions. Hardfacings studied contained 30 – 50 vol % fine, coarse or multimodal (fine and coarse) hardmetal reinforcement. For wear resistance studies, we used the Abrasive Rubber Wheel Wear (ARWW) test as a three-body abrasive wear test, the Abrasive Wheel Wear (AWW) test as a two-body abrasive wear test and the Abrasive-Impact Erosion wear (AIEW) test as an abr...

  4. Effects of abrasive and fiber components in medium on wear of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Ogura, Hideo

    2008-09-01

    Effects of abrasive and fiber components in a medium on the wear behavior of composite resins were evaluated. Calcium diphosphate and methyl cellulose were included in the medium as abrasive and fiber components respectively. A range of 0, 4, or 8% abrasive- or fiber-containing media were applied on a composite resin specimen during a simulated occlusal wear test. Four composite resins, Clearfil AP-X, Z100 Restorative, SOLARE P, and SOLIDEX F, were tested to evaluate the effects of these components in the medium. Presence of abrasive material in the medium increased the wear of composite resins significantly, but its effect differed among the composite resins. Presence of fiber material in the medium significantly decreased the wear of two composite resins, whereas the other two composites showed no significant differences. Nonetheless, presence of fiber in the medium generally tended to prevent the wear of composite resins.

  5. Wearing ambidextrous vinyl gloves does not impair manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, Tomas; Boucek, Charles D; Buffington, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Universal precautions mandate that health care workers wear gloves to prevent the unintended spread of bloodborne pathogens. Gloves may affect manual dexterity, generally delaying task completion. Our previous study showed that wearing the wrong size latex surgical glove degraded manual dexterity. The use of non-sterile and non-latex gloves may limit certain risks and be more cost-effective. However, such gloves may produce different results. We hypothesized that ambidextrous vinyl examination gloves would degrade manual dexterity compared with bare hands. We studied 20 random subjects from a medical environment. Subjects performed a standard battery of Grooved Pegboard tasks while bare-handed, wearing ambidextrous non-sterile vinyl gloves that were their preferred size, a size too small, and a size too large. The order was randomized with a Latin Square design to minimize the effects of time, boredom, and fatigue on the subjects. Subjects were also invited to comment on the fit of different size gloves. Wearing vinyl gloves of both the preferred size and a size up or down failed to affect manual dexterity vs. bare hands on time to insert pegs, and pegs dropped during insertion or removal. In contrast, the time to remove pegs was reduced by wearing preferred size vinyl gloves compared with performing the task with bare hands (Pgloves that were too small caused significant hand discomfort. Vinyl gloves surprisingly do not degrade manual dexterity even when worn in ill-fitting sizes. Wearing a preferred size vinyl glove vs. bare hands may improve dexterity in selected tasks. Choosing a comfortable, large size seems the best strategy when the preferred size is unavailable. Thinner vinyl gloves may improve grip and may not degrade touch as much as latex surgical gloves and may thus represent a reasonable choice for selected tasks.

  6. Time series analysis of tool wear in sheet metal stamping using acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh Shanbhag, V.; Pereira, P. Michael; Rolfe, F. Bernard; Arunachalam, N.

    2017-09-01

    Galling is an adhesive wear mode that often affects the lifespan of stamping tools. Since stamping tools represent significant economic cost, even a slight improvement in maintenance cost is of high importance for the stamping industry. In other manufacturing industries, online tool condition monitoring has been used to prevent tool wear-related failure. However, monitoring the acoustic emission signal from a stamping process is a non-trivial task since the acoustic emission signal is non-stationary and non-transient. There have been numerous studies examining acoustic emissions in sheet metal stamping. However, very few have focused in detail on how the signals change as wear on the tool surface progresses prior to failure. In this study, time domain analysis was applied to the acoustic emission signals to extract features related to tool wear. To understand the wear progression, accelerated stamping tests were performed using a semi-industrial stamping setup which can perform clamping, piercing, stamping in a single cycle. The time domain features related to stamping were computed for the acoustic emissions signal of each part. The sidewalls of the stamped parts were scanned using an optical profilometer to obtain profiles of the worn part, and they were qualitatively correlated to that of the acoustic emissions signal. Based on the wear behaviour, the wear data can be divided into three stages: - In the first stage, no wear is observed, in the second stage, adhesive wear is likely to occur, and in the third stage severe abrasive plus adhesive wear is likely to occur. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of lumps on the stamping tool, which represents galling behavior. Correlation between the time domain features of the acoustic emissions signal and the wear progression identified in this study lays the basis for tool diagnostics in stamping industry.

  7. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  8. Fluoridation and tooth wear in Irish adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear in adults in Ireland and its relationship with water fluoridation. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health was conducted in 2000\\/2001. Tooth wear was determined using a partial mouth examination assessing the upper and lower anterior teeth. A total of 2456 subjects were examined. In this survey, increasing levels and severity of tooth wear were associated with ageing. Men were more affected by tooth wear and were more likely to be affected by severe tooth wear than women. It was found that age, and gender were significant predictors of tooth wear (P < 0.01). Overall, there was no significant relationship between fluoridation and tooth wear in this study.

  9. Wear resistance of hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, MA; Abenojar, J.; Pantoja, M.; López de Armentia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Nature has been an inspiration source to develop artificial hydrophobic surfaces. During the latest years the development of hydrophobic surfaces has been widely researched due to their numerous ranges of industrial applications. Industrially the use of hydrophobic surfaces is being highly demanded. This is why many companies develop hydrophobic products to repel water, in order to be used as coatings. Moreover, these coating should have the appropriated mechanical properties and wear resistance. In this work wear study of a hydrophobic coating on glass is carried out. Hydrophobic product used was Sika Crystal Dry by Sika S.A.U. (Alcobendas, Spain). This product is currently used on car windshield. To calculate wear resistance, pin-on-disk tests were carried out in dry and water conditions. The test parameters were rate, load and sliding distance, which were fixed to 60 rpm, 5 N and 1000 m respectively. A chamois was used as pin. It allows to simulate a real use. The friction coefficient and loss weight were compared to determinate coating resistance

  10. Wear of dragline wire ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayawansa, D.; Kuruppu, M.; Mashiri, F.; Bartosiewicz, H. [Monash University (Caulfield Campus), Caulfield East, Vic. (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    2005-07-01

    Wire ropes are one of the most heavily used components in a dragline. Hoist ropes are subjected to fatigue due to the cyclic nature of load handling as well as due to rope bending over the sheaves and the drum under load. This leads to wire breaks due to fatigue. Accumulation of a number of wire breaks close to each other can have a detrimental effect on the rope. Furthermore, to allow for the increasing demand for higher load capacity coupled with the inconvenience of having very large ropes, the factor of safety is often compromised, which increases the wear rate. Drag ropes are also subjected to heavy loads. More importantly, they are allowed to drag along the rough mine surface subjecting them to external physical abrasion. This makes the life of drag ropes one of the lowest among those used in a dragline. Suspension and IBS ropes are relatively uniformly loaded during their regular usage although they need to withstand dynamic load cycles as well as bending. Hence they tend to last for a number of years on average. The paper analyses the wear types and their severity of each of these rope applications, and suggests methods to determine rope wear rates and the resulting rope life. The paper further gives suggestions for good operating and maintenance practice that can extend the rope life and help reduce the large expenditure associated with every major rope change in a dragline. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Aspects of wear and tear of tooth structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Bill

    2010-03-01

    Lifestyle factors and the increased longevity of the dentition due to greater life expectancy have resulted in greater wear and tear (cracking) of teeth. Often there exists interplay between damage and repair. An understanding of these mechanisms of damage and repair will assist the clinician in correct diagnosis and treatment planning. Preventive strategies as well as interdisciplinary measures are required for optimal outcomes. However, are some of our restorative interventions causing further damage to tooth structure?

  12. Wear Resistance of Sintered Composite Hardfacings under Different Abrasive Wear Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taavi SIMSON

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on vacuum liquid phase sintered (PM composite hardfacings and their behaviour under different abrasive wear conditions. Hardfacings studied contained 30 – 50 vol % fine, coarse or multimodal (fine and coarse hardmetal reinforcement. For wear resistance studies, we used the Abrasive Rubber Wheel Wear (ARWW test as a three-body abrasive wear test, the Abrasive Wheel Wear (AWW test as a two-body abrasive wear test and the Abrasive-Impact Erosion wear (AIEW test as an abrasive-erosive wear test. Tested materials were compared to Hardox 400 steel and CDP112 wear plate (Castolin Eutectic® Ltd.. It was found that under three-body abrasion conditions (ARWW test hardfacings with high content of spehrical coarse reinforcement are suitable; their wear resistance is about two times higher than that of unreinforced hardfacings. Under two-body abrasive wear (AWW test, hardfacings with a high content of coarse reinforcement are recommended; their wear resistance is up to eight times higher than that of unreinforced hardfacings from the figures and graphs mentioned in the text. Under abrasive-erosive wear (AIEW test, unreinforced ductile materials are recommended; they have two to three times higher wear resistance than composite hardfacings reinforced with fine or multimodal reinforcement.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16323

  13. Relationship Between Simulated Gap Wear and Generalized Wear of Resin Luting Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, A; Barkmeier, W W; Takamizawa, T; Latta, M A; Miayazaki, M

    The relationship between the simulated gap wear and generalized wear of resin luting cements was investigated. Five resin luting cements, G-Cem LinkForce (GL), Multilink Automix (MA), NX3 Nexus, Panavia V5 (PV), and RelyX Ultimate were evaluated and subsequently subjected to a wear challenge in a Leinfelder-Suzuki (Alabama) wear simulation device. Half of the specimens from each resin luting cement were photo-cured for 40 seconds and the other half were not photo-cured. The simulated gap and generalized wear were generated using a flat-ended stainless steel antagonist. Wear testing was performed in a water slurry of polymethyl methacrylate beads, and the simulated gap and generalized wear were determined using a noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2100) in conjunction with the Proscan and AnSur 3D software. A strong relationship was found between the gap wear and generalized wear simulation models. The simulated gap wear and generalized wear of the resin luting cements followed similar trends in terms of both volume loss and mean depth of wear facets with each curing method. Unlike the simulated gap wear and generalized wear of GL and PV, those of MA, NX, and RU were influenced by the curing method. The results of this study indicate that simulated gap wear of resin luting cements is very similar to simulated generalized wear. In most cases, dual curing appears to ensure greater wear resistance of resin luting cements than chemical curing alone. The wear resistance of some resin luting cements appears to be material dependent and is not influenced by the curing method.

  14. Radiation tagging measures wear at speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Jon.

    1994-01-01

    A new non-invasive technique for performing accelerated wear and corrosion analysis is particularly relevant to power transmission systems. Wear tests that would normally take days or weeks to complete can now be performed in hours. A tiny patch of the wearing component is made mildly radioactive and the drop in activity as material is worn away is monitored. Known as Thin Layer Activation (TLA), the technology was originally developed and pioneered in-house by the Atomic Energy Authority. Since then, the dominant partner has been the automotive sector where TLA has been used extensively for engine wear and lubrication performance analysis. However, TLA could be used in any wear or corrosion environment. Applications include wear analysis of machine tool cutting surfaces, pump impellers and brake linings to the corrosion monitoring of process plant and pipelines. (author)

  15. Wear mechanisms in ceramic hip implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonaker, Matthew; Goswami, Tarun

    2004-01-01

    The wear in hip implants is one of the main causes for premature hip replacements. The wear affects the potential life of the prosthesis and subsequent removals of in vivo implants. Therefore, the objective of this article is to review various joints that show lower wear rates and consequently higher life. Ceramics are used in hip implants and have been found to produce lower wear rates. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of ceramics compared to other implant materials. Different types of ceramics that are being used are reviewed in terms of the wear characteristics, debris released, and their size together with other biological factors. In general, the wear rates in ceramics were lower than that of metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene combinations.

  16. The Delamination Theory of Wear - III

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    purposes: to predict wear arnd to reduce wear, Mathematical modelo are necessary in order to predict wear 40 qualitatively. They are also useful in the...Jersey 08540 The Ohio State University 116 West 19th Avenue Dr. E. Rudy .I Columbus, Ohio 43210 Oregon Graduate Center 19600 N.W. Walker Road Mr. W...Smith Baverton, Oregon 97005 Code 2832 Naval Ship Research and Development Dr. W. Ruff I Annopolis, Maryland 21401 National Bureau of Standards Department

  17. Determination of rail wear and short-time wear measurements of rails applying radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    An energetic model has been developed for calculating rail wear. Short-time wear tests on rails after surface activation and following activity measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated values

  18. Structure effect on wear resistance of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, A.I.; Sidorova, L.I.; Tolstenko, E.V.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of wear resistance on hardness of steels with different microstructure is studied under conditions of gas-abrasion wear of surface layers. It is found out that at the same hardness the wear resistance of α-alloys is higher than that of γ-alloys in spite of considerable surface hardening of austenitic alloys. Fracture of surface in the process of abrasive wear occurs after achievement of definite values of microhardness and the width of a diffraction line for each structural class of alloys [ru

  19. Friction & Wear Under Very High Electromagnetic Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowan, Richard S; Danyluk, Steven; Moon, Francis; Ford, J. C; Brenner, Donald W

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes initial progress toward advancing the fundamental understanding of the friction, wear and mechanics of interfaces subjected to extreme electromagnetic stress, high relative...

  20. Abrasive wear behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daehyun

    The effect of grain size refinement on the abrasive wear behaviour of nanocrystalline Ni, Ni-P and Co electrodeposits and the critical materials properties that influence the abrasive wear resistance were studied using the Taber wear test. As the grain size of Ni decreased from 90 mum to 13 nm, the dominant abrasive wear mode changed from ploughing to cutting and the Taber wear resistance was considerably improved by the increases in hardness and surface elastic properties. The abrasive wear behaviour of Ni with various grain sizes can be described using the attack angle model, which takes into consideration the randomly dispersed Al2O3 abrasive particles in the Taber wheel with various sizes, shapes and orientations. Depending on the phosphorus content, the nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) alloys containing up to 6 wt.% P had nanocrystalline or mixed nanocrystalline-amorphous structures and both regular and inverse Hall-Petch behaviour were observed as a result of the microstructural changes with increasing P content/decreasing grain size. The wear resistance, like hardness, followed the Hall-Petch type behaviour, demonstrating that the smallest grain size does not necessarily provide the best wear resistance. For all Ni-P alloys, the wear resistance was improved by heat treatment due to Ni3P precipitates and, for materials with high P content, nanocrystallization of the amorphous phase. For heat-treated Ni-P alloys, however, the highest hardness did not give the best wear resistance. Despite the grain size reduction of Co from 10 mum to 17 nm, there was no significant change in the wear resistance due to the unusually high degree of plastic deformation of the nanocrystalline material. In addition to hardness and surface elastic properties which are usually considered important material properties that control the abrasive wear resistance, Taber wear ductility was introduced as a new material intrinsic property which can be applied to explain abrasive wear resistance for

  1. Antagonist wear by polished zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkamp, Oliver; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Reich, Sven

    The aim of this in vivo study was to measure antagonist wear caused by polished monolithic posterior zirconia crowns over a 24-month period using the intraoral digital impression (IDI) technique. Thirteen zirconia crowns were placed in nine patients. The crowns and adjacent teeth were captured using an intraoral scanner (Lava C.O.S.). The corresponding antagonist teeth and the respective neighboring teeth were also scanned. Scanning was performed immediately after the restoration (baseline) as well as 12 and 24 months after crown placement. Geomagic Qualify software was used to superimpose the follow-up data sets onto the corresponding baseline data set, identify wear sites, and measure maximum vertical height loss in each individual wear site. Overall antagonist wear was then determined as the mean of wear rates measured in all of the individual antagonist units. In addition, wear rates in enamel and ceramic antagonists were analyzed as part of the scope of this study. The maximum mean wear with standard deviation (SD) in the overall sample with a total of nine patients, 13 antagonist units, and 98 evaluable wear sites was 86 ± 23 µm at 12 months, and 103 ± 39 µm at 24 months. The maximum mean wear in the enamel antagonist subgroup was 87 ± 41 µm at 12 months, and 115 ± 71 µm at 24 months; and in the ceramic antagonist subgroup 107 ± 22 µm at 12 months, and 120 ± 27 µm at 24 months. The wear rates determined in this study are comparable to those of existing studies. The IDI technique of wear analysis can be carried out in a practical manner and produces useful results.

  2. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Brace wear preferences and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    In this prospective, multiinstitutional analysis of medial collateral ligament sprains in college football players, we categorized 987 previously uninjured study subjects according to frequency of wearing preventive knee braces, studied the patterns by which 47 of 100 injuries occurred to unbraced knees, and identified several extrinsic, sport-specific risk factors shared for both braced and unbraced knees. The attendance, brace wear choice, position, string, and session of each participant were recorded daily; medial collateral ligament sprains were reported whenever tissue damage was confirmed. Both the likelihood of wearing braces and risk of injury without them was highly dependent on session (games/practices), position group (line, linebacker/tight end, skill), and string group (players/nonplayers). Subjects wearing braces often faced a high injury risk to their unbraced knees, a finding compatible with the opinion that braces were a necessary evil, best worn when concern over danger of injury outweighed desire for speed and agility. It is concluded that to avoid misinterpretations due to the confounding influence of brace wear selection bias, accurate investigation of daily brace wear patterns is required. Then, before considing the impact of preventive knee braces, a repartitioning of the data base is essential to assure that only similar groups will be compared.

  3. Evaluation of the working clothes for nuclear power stations in wearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kazumi

    1984-01-01

    For the working clothes used for nuclear power stations, i.e. coveralls, Tyvek (nonwoven-fabric) clothings generally worn on coveralls to prevent dust and contaminant, and PVC suits, in order to improve the properties in wearing respective clothes, the following characteristics were examined when persons actually wear them: clothing weather, physiological phenomena and conscious complaints. The PVC suits with large steam resistance are not desirable at a temperature in working environment exceeding 30 deg C; but in the environment at 20 deg C and 30 deg C, the influence by thermal load is little. By judging from a thermal environment index, there was no difference in wearing the coveralls and the Tyvek clothings; even if wearing Tyvek clothings on coveralls, the influence is little. Considering the physiological limit of workers, however, the working environment where the allowable levels of heart beat, perspiration quantity and skin temperature are not exceeded is desirable. (Mori, K.)

  4. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Abrasive tool wear in metal forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masen, Marc Arthur

    2004-01-01

    In this work a model is presented that quantifies this abrasive tool wear. The foundation of the model is on the level of surface roughness. The surface micro-geometry of both the abrasive surface and the wearing tool are measured using an interferometer. Based on this data, the surface geometry in

  6. Truck tyre wear assessment and prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Montanaro, F.; Donadio, D.; Gelosa, E.; Vis, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Tyre wear is a complex phenomenon. It depends non-linearly on numerous parameters, like tyre compound and design, vehicle type and usage, road conditions and road surface characteristics, environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) and many others. Yet, tyre wear has many economic and ecological

  7. Vibrational characteristics and wear of fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmugar, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel rod wear, due to vibration, is a continuing concern in the design of liquid-cooled reactors. In my report, the methodology and models that are used to predict fuel rod vibrational response and vibratory wear, in a light water reactor environment, are discussed. This methodology is being followed at present in the design of Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel. Fuel rod vibrations are expressed as the normal bending modes, and sources of rod vibration are examined with special emphasis on flow-induced mechanisms in the stable flow region. In a typical Westinghouse PWR fuel assembly design, each fuel rod is supported at multiple locations along the rod axis by a square-shaped 'grid cell'. For a fuel rod /grid support system, the development of small oscillatory motions, due to fluid flow at the rod/grid interface, results in material wear. A theoretical wear mode is developed using the Archard Theory of Adhesive Wear as the basis. Without question certainty, fretting wear becomes a serious problem if it progresses to the stage where the fuel cladding is penetrated and fuel is exposed to the coolant. Westinghouse fuel is designed to minimize fretting wear by limiting the relative motion between the fuel rod and its supports. The wear producing motion between the fuel rod and its supports occurs when the vibration amplitude exceeds the slippage threshold amplitude

  8. Wear Calculation Approach for Sliding - Friction Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springis, G.; Rudzitis, J.; Lungevics, J.; Berzins, K.

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important things how to predict the service life of different products is always connected with the choice of adequate method. With the development of production technologies and measuring devices and with ever increasing precision one can get the appropriate data to be used in analytic calculations. Historically one can find several theoretical wear calculation methods but still there are no exact wear calculation model that could be applied to all cases of wear processes because of difficulties connected with a variety of parameters that are involved in wear process of two or several surfaces. Analysing the wear prediction theories that could be classified into definite groups one can state that each of them has shortcomings that might impact the results thus making unnecessary theoretical calculations. The offered wear calculation method is based on the theories of different branches of science. It includes the description of 3D surface micro-topography using standardized roughness parameters, explains the regularities of particle separation from the material in the wear process using fatigue theory and takes into account material’s physical and mechanical characteristics and definite conditions of product’s working time. The proposed wear calculation model could be of value for prediction of the exploitation time for sliding friction pairs thus allowing the best technologies to be chosen for many mechanical details.

  9. Straylight Measurements in Contact Lens Wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Engelbrecht, Leonore A.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To quantify the effect of contact lens wear on straylight in rigid and soft contact lens wearers and (2) to relate findings to morphological changes and subjective complaints. Methods: Straylight was measured using the Oculus C-Quant during contact lens wear and after contact lens

  10. Enamel wear opposing polished and aged zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J O; Janyavula, S; Lawson, N C; Lucas, T J; Cakir, D

    2014-01-01

    Aging of dental zirconia roughens its surface through low temperature degradation. We hypothesized that age-related roughening of zirconia crowns may cause detrimental wear to the enamel of an opposing tooth. To test our hypothesis, we subjected artificially aged zirconia and reference specimens to simulated mastication in a wear device and measured the wear of an opposing enamel cusp. Additionally, the roughness of the pretest surfaces was measured. The zirconia specimens, artificially aged by autoclave, showed no significant increase in roughness compared to the nonaged specimens. Furthermore, no significant difference in material or opposing enamel wear between the aged and nonaged zirconia was seen. All zirconia specimens showed less material and opposing enamel wear than the enamel to enamel control or veneering porcelain specimens. Scanning electron micrographs showed relatively smooth surfaces of aged and nonaged zirconia following wear testing. The micrographs of the veneering ceramic showed sharp fractured edges and fragments of wear debris. Zirconia may be considered a wear-friendly material for restorations opposing enamel, even after simulated aging.

  11. Sliding wear resistance of iron aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ordered intermetallic alloy (Johnson et al 1990, 1994,. 1996; Maupin et al 1992, 1993; Tu and Liu 1997; Kim and Kim 1998). Maupin et al (1992, 1993) had shown that the Fe3Al alloy having DO3 structure possesses mar- ginally lower wear rate than those with B2 structure. The wear resistance of Fe3Al alloy was found to ...

  12. Corrosion of amalgams under sliding wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, K; Meletis, E I

    1996-05-01

    During mastication, dental amalgams are simultaneously subjected to corrosion by the oral environment and to a sliding-wear process by biting forces. In the present study, the effect of sliding wear on the corrosion behavior of two high-copper dental amalgams was investigated. An experimental apparatus was utilized that allows electrochemical testing under sliding-wear conditions. Corrosion potential measurements and anodic polarization scans were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl solution under sliding wear to characterize the behavior of two commercial, high-copper, single composition dental amalgams. In addition, long duration tests were conducted to assess possible corrosion and wear synergistic effects. The results showed that sliding wear caused a sharp reduction in the corrosion potential, a significant increase in the corrosion rate and a decrease in the repassivation rate of both amalgams. These effects are due to the mechanical removal by the wear process of the surface protective film formed on dental amalgams. The simultaneous action of sliding wear and corrosion can also induce embrittlement that leads to cracking. The present evidence suggests that this cracking may be one of the major contributors to marginal failures of dental amalgam restorations.

  13. Asphalt wear and pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Asa [Division of Traffic Engineering, Lulea University of Technology Lulea (Sweden)

    1996-09-06

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  14. Complications caused by contact lens wearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beljan, Jasna; Beljan, Kristina; Beljan, Zdravko

    2013-04-01

    Complications in wearing contact lenses are very rare and caused by poor maintenance, over-extended wear and wearing of contact lenses in a polluted environment. Regular control by a professional person can efficiently reduce the number of complications. This paper describes the most common risks factors for complications, and complications of wearing contact lenses with the classification according to the anatomic parts of the eye: eyelids, tear film, limbus, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma and corneal endothelium. Every complication has been described by the characteristic signs and symptoms, etiology and pathology, as well as therapy and prognosis. The paper describes how to select adequate customers as contact lens users, with proper education in order to ensure minimal incidence of complications due to contact lens wear, thus attracting a lot of satisfied and healthy customers.

  15. The friction wear of electrolytic composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosta, R.

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the results of investigation of wear of galvanic composite coatings Ni-Al 2 O 3 and Ni-41%Fe-Al 2 O 3 . The diameter of small parts of aluminium oxide received 0.5; 3; 5 μm. Investigations of friction sliding were effected on PT3 device at Technical University of Gdansk. Counter sample constituted a funnel made of steel NC6 (750 HV). Increase of wear coatings together with the rise of iron content in matrix is observed. The rise of sizes of ceramic particles caused decrease of wear of composite coatings, but rise of steel funnel wear. The friction coefficient increased after ceramic particle s were built in coatings. The best wear resistance characterized Ni-41%Fe-Al 2 O 3 coatings containing 2.2x10 6 mm -2 ceramic particles. (author)

  16. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets. [friction and wear experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined, and etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the tungsten carbide (WC) and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation, and the wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation, and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  17. Adhesive Wear of Rollers in Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeef, Iqbal; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    This work was done to support NASA's James Webb Space Telescope that is equipped with a Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph and Micro Shutter Assembly (MSA). A MSA mechanism's qualification test in cryogenic vacuum at 30deg K for 96K cycles resulted in roller wear and formation of some debris. Lab tests in vacuum were conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to understand the wear of Ti6Al4V mated with 440F steel rollers. Misalignment angle was found to have the most significant effect on debris formation. At misalignment angle of 1.4deg, significant amount of wear debris were formed within 50,000 cycles. Very few wear particles were found for a zero misalignment angle, and the total wear was small even after 367,000 cycles. The mode of wear in all the tests was attributed to adhesion, which was clearly evident from video records as well as the plate-like amalgamated debris material from both rollers. The adhesive wear rate was found to be approximately proportional to the misalignment angle. The wear is a two-way phenomenon, and the mixing of both roller materials in wear debris was confirmed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and EDX spectra. While there was a net loss of mass from the steel rollers, XRF and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra showed peaks of Ti on steel rollers, and peaks of Fe on Ti rollers. These results are useful for designers in terms of maintaining appropriate tolerances to avoid misalignment of rolling elements and the resulting severe wear

  18. Dental wear, wear rate, and dental disease in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, Alison A

    2010-06-01

    The African apes possess thinner enamel than do other hominoids, and a certain amount of dentin exposure may be advantageous in the processing of tough diets eaten by Gorilla. Dental wear (attrition plus abrasion) that erodes the enamel exposes the underlying dentin and creates additional cutting edges at the dentin-enamel junction. Hypothetically, efficiency of food processing increases with junction formation until an optimal amount is reached, but excessive wear hinders efficient food processing and may lead to sickness, reduced fecundity, and death. Occlusal surfaces of molars and incisors in three populations each of Gorilla and Pan were videotaped and digitized. The quantity of incisal and molar occlusal dental wear and the lengths of dentin-enamel junctions were measured in 220 adult and 31 juvenile gorilla and chimpanzee skulls. Rates of dental wear were calculated in juveniles by scoring the degree of wear between adjacent molars M1 and M2. Differences were compared by principal (major) axis analysis. ANOVAs compared means of wear amounts. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the relationship between molar wear and incidence of dental disease. Results indicate that quantities of wear are significantly greater in permanent incisors and molars and juvenile molars of gorillas compared to chimpanzees. The lengths of dentin-enamel junctions were predominantly suboptimal. Western lowland gorillas have the highest quantities of wear and the most molars with suboptimal wear. The highest rates of wear are seen in Pan paniscus and Pan t. troglodytes, and the lowest rates are found in P.t. schweinfurthii and G. g. graueri. Among gorillas, G. b. beringei have the highest rates but low amounts of wear. Coefficients between wear and dental disease were low, but significant when all teeth were combined. Gorilla teeth are durable, and wear does not lead to mechanical senescence in this sample.

  19. Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hussein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.

  20. Gaussian process regression for tool wear prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongdong; Chen, Yongjie; Li, Ning

    2018-05-01

    To realize and accelerate the pace of intelligent manufacturing, this paper presents a novel tool wear assessment technique based on the integrated radial basis function based kernel principal component analysis (KPCA_IRBF) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) for real-timely and accurately monitoring the in-process tool wear parameters (flank wear width). The KPCA_IRBF is a kind of new nonlinear dimension-increment technique and firstly proposed for feature fusion. The tool wear predictive value and the corresponding confidence interval are both provided by utilizing the GPR model. Besides, GPR performs better than artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machines (SVM) in prediction accuracy since the Gaussian noises can be modeled quantitatively in the GPR model. However, the existence of noises will affect the stability of the confidence interval seriously. In this work, the proposed KPCA_IRBF technique helps to remove the noises and weaken its negative effects so as to make the confidence interval compressed greatly and more smoothed, which is conducive for monitoring the tool wear accurately. Moreover, the selection of kernel parameter in KPCA_IRBF can be easily carried out in a much larger selectable region in comparison with the conventional KPCA_RBF technique, which helps to improve the efficiency of model construction. Ten sets of cutting tests are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the presented tool wear assessment technique. The experimental results show that the in-process flank wear width of tool inserts can be monitored accurately by utilizing the presented tool wear assessment technique which is robust under a variety of cutting conditions. This study lays the foundation for tool wear monitoring in real industrial settings.

  1. Minimization of PWR reactor control rods wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzoni Filho, Pedro; Moura Angelkorte, Gunther de

    1995-01-01

    The Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA's) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's) have experienced a continuously wall cladding wear when Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP's) are running. Fretting wear is a result of vibrational contact between RCCA rodlets and the guide cards which provide lateral support for the rodlets when RCCA's are withdrawn from the core. A procedure is developed to minimize the rodlets wear, by the shuffling and axial reposition of RCCA's every operating cycle. These shuffling and repositions are based on measurement of the rodlet cladding thickness of all RCCA's. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Prediction of wear rates in comminution equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas Roald Dörig; Fundal, Erling; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    -resistant high chromium white cast iron (21988/JN/HBW555XCr21), a heat-treated wear resistant steel (Hardox 400) and a plain carbon construction steel (S235). Quartz, which accounts for the largest wear loss in the cement industry, was chosen as abrasive. Other process parameters such as velocity (1–7 m....../s) and pressure (70–1400 kPa) were chosen to closely imitate real industrial processes. The authors are aware that a number of wear mechanisms such as erosion, fatigue and abrasion may occur simultaneously in comminution equipment. Nonetheless, this paper aims at discussing abrasion only due to its large...

  3. Acanthamoeba keratitis and contact lens wear: static or increasing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N

    2007-11-01

    The occurrence of Acanthamoeba keratitis is increasing in the United States because of an expanding population at risk of infection and sporadic outbreaks of infection. Such outbreaks are the result of lapses in contact lens wear and care and of alterations in water quality and water treatment procedures. Although improved techniques in diagnosis are available, better identification of infection alone does not explain an increase in the observed occurrence of the disease. Likewise, there does not appear to be an increase in the virulence or infectivity of the amoebae. Strategies for prevention, including patient education, improved decontaminating agents, maintenance of water treatment standards, and possible immunization of subjects at risk, are needed.

  4. Characterization of Wear Mechanisms in Distorted Conical Picks After Coal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    The interest in understanding the wear mechanisms of cemented carbide (CC) is not a new development. For a long time, there have been studies on different wear mechanisms under different coal/rock cutting conditions. These studies have helped improving the quality of CC, thereby preventing such wearing of tools. Due to highly unpredictable character of coal/rock, the wearing phenomena cannot be attributed to one single domain of conditions. However, one conclusion that can be drawn in this context is that, under similar working conditions, similar types of CC undergo similar nature of wearing process. An optimum combination of high wear resistance, strength and hardness has facilitated widespread application of CC in the field of mining engineering. The abrasive parts of the mining tools are made of CC materials. The current study is focussed on a detailed characterization of the wear mechanisms of conical picks, which are used for coal mining. Conical picks consist of a steel body with an inserted cone-shaped CC tip. After being used for a certain period of time, both, the CC tip and the steel body get distorted. In this study, selection of appropriate samples was followed by critical observation of them through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). In the previous study, we explained the distortion process of both, the tip as well as the body, using the SEM images. For the present study, two samples were taken from our previous investigation for further analysis. Three other samples were also included in the present study. Seven different types of wear mechanisms, such as, cracking and crushing, cavity formation, coal intermixing, chemical degradation along with abrasion, long and deep cracks, heating effect and body deformation were observed in the five tool samples.

  5. The Wearing Out of Genre Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Joanna

    1971-01-01

    Scenes and plots wear out in three distinct stages: Innocence, Plausibility, and Decadence. Examines westerns, spy stories, nurse novels, detective stories, science fiction, pornography, avant-garde fiction, etc. (Author/RB)

  6. STUDIES ON TOOL WEAR CONDITION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Metin ERTUNÇ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wear mechanisms on cutting tools, especially for the drill bits, during the cutting operation have been investigated. As the importance of full automation in industry has gained substantial importance, tool wear condition monitoring during the cutting operation has been the subject of many investigators. Tool condition monitoring is very crucial in order to change the tool before breakage. Because tool breakage can cause considerable economical damage to both the machine tool and workpiece. In this paper, the studies on the monitoring of drill bit wear in literature have been introduced; the direct/indirect techniques used and sensor fusion techniques have been summarized. The methods which were proposed to determine tool wear evolution as processing the sensor signals collected have been provided and their references have been given for detailed information.

  7. Third abrasive wear mode: is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Câmara Cozza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose an initial discussion on the characterization of a third abrasive wear mode. The results obtained in a previous work [1] under different test conditions revealed the occurrence of the superposition of the “rolling” and “grooving” abrasive wear modes. This phenomenon was denoted “micro-rolling abrasion” due to the observation that “rolling abrasion” was found to act on “grooving abrasion”.

  8. Biocompatible wear-resistant thick ceramic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensitisation to immunologically active elements like chromium, cobalt or nickel and debris particle due to wear are serious problems for patients with metallic implants. We tested the approach of using a hard and thick ceramic coating as a wear-resistant protection of titanium implants, avoiding those sensitisation and foreign body problems. We showed that the process parameters strongly influence the coating porosity and, as a consequence, also its hardness.

  9. Thin layer activation: measuring wear and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvigne, T.; Leyman, D.; Oxorn, K.

    1995-01-01

    The technique known as thin layer activation (TLA) is explained and assessed in this article. Widely used, in for example the automotive industry, TLA allows on-line monitoring of the loss of matter from a critical surface, by wear erosion and corrosion. The technique offers extremely high sensitivity thus leading to reduced test times. On-line wear phenomena can be assessed during operation of a mechanical process, even through thick engine walls. (UK)

  10. Pseudomembranous candidiasis in patient wearing full denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiana Nurdiana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. Candida albicans is a harmless commensal organism inhabiting the mouths but it can change into pathogen and invade tissue and cause acute and chronic disease. Dentures predispose to infection with Candida in as many as 65% of elderly people wearing full upper dentures. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to discuss thrush in patient wearing full denture which rapidly developed. Case: This paper report a case of 57 year-old man who came to the Oral Medicine Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University with clinical appearance of pseudomembranous candidiasis (thrush. Case Management: Diagnosis of this case is confirmed with microbiology examination. Patient was wearing full upper dentures, and from anamnesis known that patient wearing denture for 24 hours and he had poor oral hygiene. Patient was treated with topical (nystatin oral suspension and miconazole oral gel and systemic (ketoconazole antifungal. Patient also instructed not to wear his denture and cleaned white pseudomembrane on his mouth with soft toothbrush. Conclusion: Denture, habit of wearing denture for 24 hours, and poor oral hygiene are predisposing factors of thrush and it can healed completely after treated with topical and systemic antifungal.

  11. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Abrasive Wear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wear of tillage tools is a major source of economic constraints to local farmers. Estimating wear in the field is time consuming and expensive. Abrasive wear testing machines developed in advanced countries are not available in Ghana. This makes the study of wear related problems at laboratory levels difficult in the ...

  12. Multifactorial analysis of factors associated with the incidence and progression of erosive tooth wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidi, H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    To prevent erosive tooth wear, early diagnosis and identification of causative factors are essential. The aim of the present 3-year longitudinal study was to investigate the association between a broad collection of biological and behavioural factors and the incidence and progression of erosive

  13. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  14. Wound Care: Preventing Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or wearing your Immediate Post-op or preliminary prosthesis; keep it elevated whenever possible. The limb should be raised above the level of your heart to prevent swelling. Take care of your whole self – body, mind, and spirit. Eat well and drink plenty ...

  15. Wear-resistance of Aluminum Matrix Microcomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kandeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is developed for the study of wear of aluminum alloys AlSi7 obtained by casting, reinforced by TiC microparticles, before and after heat treatment. Tribological study is realized under conditions of friction on counterbody with fixed abrasive. Experimental results were obtained for mass wear, wear rate, wear intensity and wear-resistance of the alloys with different wt% of microparticles.

  16. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It clearly indicates that the three stages of wear viz., Stage I, where the rate of wear is low, Stage II, where the rate of wear is moderate and. Stage III, where the rate of wear is faster and leading to the termination of tool life. In stage I, 0 to 8.5 min of the machining operation the tool wear is in the range of 0–8.3 μm only.

  17. An approach to understanding tribological behaviour of dental composites through volumetric wear loss and wear mechanism determination; beyond material ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaie, Asmaa; Bubb, Nigel L; Franklin, Paul; Dowling, Adam H; Fleming, Garry J P; Wood, David J

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the fundamental wear mechanisms of six resin-based composite (RBC) formulations during short-term in vitro wear testing. RBC materials were condensed into rectangular bar-shaped specimens and light irradiated using the ISO 4049 specimen manufacture and irradiation protocol. Wear testing (n=10 specimens for each RBC) was performed on a modified pin-on-plate wear test apparatus and wear facets were analysed for wear volume loss using a white light profilometer. The wear tested RBC specimens and their corresponding antagonists were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively to determine the wear mechanism. Data generated using the profilometer showed variations in the mean total wear volume (mm 3 ) between the RBCs tested (ptribology of the system rather than relying on a simple wear ranking for the RBC materials as is routinely the case in dental research studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Matthews

    2005-05-01

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston

  19. Quantitive dynamical wear analysis and the convergent quest for significant wear reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellschop, F.; Kirsch, J.; Derry, T.; Marcus, R.

    1984-01-01

    The maturing of nuclear physics has made the development of ion beam modification of materials possible, bringing new skills and prospects to the world of materials science. In the following paper an outline is given of the history of ion beam modification of materials (IBMM) and its use for altering the surface of metals to combat wear and friction, and monitoring wear in engines

  20. In vitro wear of resin-based materials--simultaneous corrosive and abrasive wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correr, Gisele Maria; Bruschi Alonso, Roberta Caroline; Correr Sobrinho, Lourenço; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Ferracane, Jack Liborio

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the wear of resin-based materials caused by the association of abrasive and corrosive processes. Twenty specimens were prepared for each material, cast in epoxy in acrylic rings, polished, and profiled with an MTS 3D Profiler. Antagonists were made from deciduous molars. Specimens were distributed into eight groups (n = 10), according to the material (Filtek Supreme, Point 4, Dyract AP, and Fuji II LC) and the type of slurry (neutral and acidic), and then cycled 100,000 times in the OHSU oral wear simulator. The specimens were cleaned and reprofiled. Volume loss and maximum depth were determined. ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for data analysis (p wear facet on the antagonist was also measured. Composites displayed less wear than the compomer and the resin-modified glass ionomer. Significant differences also were found for cusp wear, with a significant positive correlation shown between cusp and material wear. The acidic slurry significantly increased the wear of the materials compared to the neutral slurry. Exposure to acidic slurry accelerated the wear of resin-based materials.

  1. Wear mechanisms and friction parameters for sliding wear of micron-scale polysilicon sidewalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, D. H.; van der Hulst, R.; Stach, E. A.; Dugger, M. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Ritchie, R. O.

    As tribological properties are critical factors in the reliability of silicon-based microelectromechanical systems, it is important to understand what governs wear and friction. Average dynamic friction, wear volumes and morphology have been studied for polysilicon devices fabricated using the

  2. Assessment of fretting wear in Hanaro fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Hee Taek; Lim, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Hark Rho

    1999-06-01

    Since the first fuel loading on Feb. 1995, various zero-power tests were performed in HANARO and power ascending tests followed. After the initial fuel loading, Hanaro operation staffs inspected only two fuel bundles which were evaluated to have the highest power at the end of each cycle and they did not recognize anything peculiar in the inspected bundles. At the end of 1996, Hanaro staffs found severe wear damages in the fuel components. After that, the 4th cycle core was re-arranged with fresh fuels only to investigate wear phenomena on the fuel components. The fuel inspections have been performed 25 times periodically since the core re-configuration. In this report, fretting wear characteristics of the fuel assemblies were evaluated and summarized. Wear damages of the improved fuel assembly to resolve the wear problem were compared with those of the original fuel assembly. Based on the results of the fuel inspections, we suggest that fuel inspection need not be done for the first 60 pump operation days in order to reduce the potential of damage by a fuel handling error and an operator's burden of the fuel inspection. (author). 6 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Dental Wear: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp, to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders. It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction.

  4. Investigation on wear characteristic of biopolymer gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Wafiuddin Bin Md; Daing Idris, Daing Mohamad Nafiz Bin; Sofian, Azizul Helmi Bin; Basrawi, Mohamad Firdaus bin; Khalil Ibrahim, Thamir

    2017-10-01

    Polymer is widely used in many mechanical components such as gear. With the world going to a more green and sustainable environment, polymers which are bio based are being recognized as a replacement for conventional polymers based on fossil fuel. The use of biopolymer in mechanical components especially gear have not been fully explored yet. This research focuses on biopolymer for spur gear and whether the conventional method to investigate wear characteristic is applicable. The spur gears are produced by injection moulding and tested on several speeds using a custom test equipment. The wear formation such as tooth fracture, tooth deformation, debris and weight loss was observed on the biopolymer spur gear. It was noted that the biopolymer gear wear mechanism was similar with other type of polymer spur gears. It also undergoes stages of wear which are; running in, linear and rapid. It can be said that the wear mechanism of biopolymer spur gear is comparable to fossil fuel based polymer spur gear, thus it can be considered to replace polymer gears in suitable applications.

  5. Brake wear particle emissions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoratos, Theodoros; Martini, Giorgio

    2015-02-01

    Traffic-related sources have been recognized as a significant contributor of particulate matter particularly within major cities. Exhaust and non-exhaust traffic-related sources are estimated to contribute almost equally to traffic-related PM10 emissions. Non-exhaust particles can be generated either from non-exhaust sources such as brake, tyre, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the form of deposited material at the roadside and become resuspended due to traffic-induced turbulence. Among non-exhaust sources, brake wear can be a significant particulate matter (PM) contributor, particularly within areas with high traffic density and braking frequency. Studies mention that in urban environments, brake wear can contribute up to 55 % by mass to total non-exhaust traffic-related PM10 emissions and up to 21 % by mass to total traffic-related PM10 emissions, while in freeways, this contribution is lower due to lower braking frequency. As exhaust emissions control become stricter, relative contributions of non-exhaust sources-and therefore brake wear-to traffic-related emissions will become more significant and will raise discussions on possible regulatory needs. The aim of the present literature review study is to present the state-of-the-art of the different aspects regarding PM resulting from brake wear and provide all the necessary information in terms of importance, physicochemical characteristics, emission factors and possible health effects.

  6. Brush seal shaft wear resistant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold

    1995-03-01

    Brush seals suffer from high wear, which reduces their effectiveness. This work sought to reduce brush seal wear by identifying and testing several industry standard coatings. One of the coatings was developed for this work. It was a co-sprayed PSZ with boron-nitride added for a high temperature dry lubricant. Other coatings tested were a PSZ, chrome carbide and a bare rotor. Testing of these coatings included thermal shocking, tensile testing and wear/coefficient of friction testing. Wear testing consisted of applying a coating to a rotor and then running a sample tuft of SiC ceramic fiber against the coating. Surface speeds at point of contact were slightly over 1000 ft/sec. Rotor wear was noted, as well as coefficient of friction data. Results from the testing indicates that the oxide ceramic coatings cannot withstand the given set of conditions. Carbide coatings will not work because of the need for a metallic binder, which oxidizes in the high heat produced by friction. All work indicated a need for a coating that has a lubricant contained within itself and the coating must be resistant to an oxidizing environment.

  7. Cavitation wear of pump impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Szala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a common phenomenon in pump systems, negatively influencing their operating parameters and components such as impellers and, thus, causing considerable financial losses. This paper explains the problem of cavitation and cavitation erosion. The causes of cavitation in pump systems are analyzed. A selection of centrifugal pump impellers damaged by cavitation erosion are presented and examined. The authors also discuss ways of preventing cavitation and cavitation erosion in pump systems. Finally, relevant conclusions are drawn.

  8. Clinical study to evaluate the wear of natural enamel antagonist to zirconia and metal ceramic crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhe, Kailas; Jain, Veena; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem

    2015-09-01

    Tooth wear is a complex process, which, if not prevented, may adversely affect the integrity of the stomatognathic system. Different restorative dental materials may affect the amount of wear on natural enamel antagonists. The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate and compare the wear of enamel opposing natural enamel, zirconia, and metal ceramic crowns after 1 year. Ten participants between 18 and 35 years of age requiring 2 complete crowns, 1 on either side of maxillary or mandibular molar region, and having healthy natural teeth in the opposing arch were selected. For each participant, 1 monolithic polished zirconia crown and 1 glazed metal ceramic crown were fabricated and cemented. To evaluate the wear of the antagonistic natural enamel (premolar and molar), polyvinyl siloxane impressions were made immediately (baseline) and at 1 year after cementation. The wear of natural enamel against natural enamel was evaluated as the control. The resulting casts were scanned (using a 3D white light scanner), and 3D software was used to calculate the maximum amount of linear wear. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to analyze data. Mean ±SD occlusal wear of the antagonistic enamel 1 year after the cementation of metal ceramic crowns was 69.20 ±4.10 μm for premolar teeth and 179.70 ±8.09 μm for molar teeth, whereas for zirconia crowns, it was 42.10 ±4.30 μm for premolar teeth and 127.00 ±5.03 μm for molar teeth. Occlusal wear of natural enamel opposing natural enamel was 17.30 ±1.88 μm in the premolar region and 35.10 ±2.60 μm in the molar region. The Bonferroni post hoc test revealed that the occlusal wear of antagonistic enamel 1 year after the cementation of a metal ceramic crown was significantly higher (Pzirconia crown or natural enamel. Zirconia crowns led to less wear of antagonist enamel than metal ceramic crowns, but more than natural enamel. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by

  9. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  10. Wear resistance analysis of the aluminum 7075 alloy and the nanostructured aluminum 7075 - silver nanoparticles composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Ruiz R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured composites of the aluminum 7075 alloy and carbon-coated silver nanoparticles were synthetized by the mechanical milling technique using a high-energy mill SPEX 8000M; the powders generated were compacted, sintered and hot-extruded to produce 1 cm-diameter bars. The composites were then subjected to a wear test using a pin-on-disc device to validate the hypothesis that second phase-ductile nanometric particles homogenously distributed throughout the metalmatrix improve the wear resistance of the material. It was found that silver nanoparticles prevent the wear of the material by acting as an obstacle to dislocations movement during the plastic deformation of the contact surface, as well as a solid lubricant when these are separated from the metal-matrix.

  11. The mechanics of wear in slurry dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the pumping of abrasive slurries which exposes machinery and parts to an exceedingly large number of modes of wear, probably representing all possible modes that can be conceived. The term ''slurry'' as defined implies that the abrasive solids are mixed with a liquid, usually water, which can combine with certain soluble elements from the solids or from the atmosphere to form an insidious combination of corrosion-abrasion. The various wear modes are described and exemplified with drawings and photographs. A discussion on wear reduction and operating practices is included. A brief description of the ASTM G75 Miller Number Test for slurry abrasivity and a proposed Slurry Abrasion Resistance Test for the effect of slurries on materials is included

  12. Duke Power Company's control rod wear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, D.C.; Kitlan, M.S. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Recent examinations performed at several foreign and domestic pressurized water reactors have identified significant control rod cladding wear, leading to the conclusion that previously believed control rod lifetimes are not attainable. To monitor control rod performance and reduce safety concerns associated with wear, Duke Power Company has developed a comprehensive control rod wear program for Ag-In-Cd and boron carbide (B 4 C) rods at the McGuire and Catawba nuclear stations. Duke Power currently uses the Westinghouse 17 x 17 Ag-In-Cd control rod design at McGuire Unit 1 and the Westinghouse 17 x 17 hybrid B 4 C control rod design with a Ag-In-Cd tip at McGuire Unit 2 and Catawba Units 1 and 2. The designs are similar, with the exception of the absorber material and clad thickness. There are 53 control rods per unit

  13. Wear Resistant Amorphous and Nanocomposite Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racek, O

    2008-03-26

    Glass forming materials (critical cooling rate <10{sup 4}K.s{sup -1}) are promising for their high corrosion and wear resistance. During rapid cooling, the materials form an amorphous structure that transforms to nanocrystalline during a process of devitrification. High hardness (HV 1690) can be achieved through a controlled crystallization. Thermal spray process has been used to apply coatings, which preserves the amorphous/nanocomposite structure due to a high cooling rate of the feedstock particles during the impact on a substrate. Wear properties have been studied with respect to process conditions and feedstock material properties. Application specific properties such as sliding wear resistance have been correlated with laboratory tests based on instrumented indentation and scratch tests.

  14. Overview of PVD wear resistant coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeter, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The combined functionality of wear-resistant and low-friction multilayer coatings has widened application possibilities for a new generation of coated tools. For the first time tool wear mechanisms are comprehensively addressed both at the cutting edge and contact areas away from the edge where chip evacuation is facilitated. Since its recent market introduction a combined TiA1N and WC/C PVD coating has been proven to increase cutting performance in various metal cutting operations, notably drilling and tapping of steels and aluminum alloys. Significant improvements have been obtained under dry as well as with coolant conditions. The results of laboratory metal cutting tests and field trials to date will be described. Correlations between chip formation / wear mechanisms and coating properties are given to explain the effectiveness of this coating. (author)

  15. Quantitative wear particle analysis for osteoarthritis assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meizhai; Lord, Megan S; Peng, Zhongxiao

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The aims of this study were (1) to quantitatively characterise the boundary and surface features of wear particles present in the synovial fluid of patients, (2) to select key numerical parameters that describe distinctive particle features and enable osteoarthritis assessment and (3) to develop a model to assess osteoarthritis conditions using comprehensive wear debris information. Discriminant analysis was used to statistically group particles based on differences in their numerical parameters. The analysis methods agreed with the clinical osteoarthritis grades in 63%, 50% and 61% of particles for no osteoarthritis, mild osteoarthritis and severe osteoarthritis, respectively. This study has revealed particle features specific to different osteoarthritis grades and provided further understanding of the cartilage degradation process through wear particle analysis - the technique that has the potential to be developed as an objective and minimally invasive method for osteoarthritis diagnosis.

  16. Legislative Prohibitions on wearing a headscarf: Are they justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Osman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A headscarf, a simple piece of cloth that covers the head, is a controversial garment that carries various connotations and meanings. While it may be accepted as just another item of clothing when worn by non-Muslim women, it is often the subject of much controversy when worn by Muslim women. In recent years the headscarf has been described as a symbol of Islam's oppression of women and simultaneously of terrorism. As the debate regarding the acceptability of the headscarf in the modern world continues, an increasing number of states have legislated to ban the wearing of the headscarf. This article critically examines the reasons underlying these bans and argues that these prohibitions are not justified. It does this by first analysing the place of the headscarf in Islam, its religious basis and its significance to Muslim women. It argues that the headscarf is more than just a mere religious symbol and that Muslim women wear the headscarf as a matter of religious obligation. The headscarf is considered to be an important religious practice protected by the right to freedom of religion. Thereafter the article examines legislative bans on the headscarf in France, Turkey and Switzerland in order to identify the most popular justifications advanced by states and courts for banning the headscarf. It critically evaluates the justifications for protecting secularism, preventing coercion, promoting equality and curbing religious extremism, and disputes that the reasons put forward by states and accepted by courts justify banning the headscarf. It thereafter explores how South African courts would respond to a headscarf ban and argues that schools and employers should accommodate the headscarf. While Muslim women may not have an absolute right to wear the headscarf, there has thus far been no justifiable reason for banning the headscarf.

  17. Clinical measurement of palatal tooth wear following coating by a resin sealing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Geeta; Wilson, Ron; Watson, Timothy F; Bartlett, David

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that coating eroded teeth with a resin-based dentin bonding agent gave protection from tooth wear. Nineteen adults with palatal tooth wear exposing dentin were recruited, following referral by their general dental practitioner. Alternate teeth were coated with the resin adhesive, while the uncoated teeth acted as controls. Accurate impressions of the eroded teeth, onto which were cemented machined stainless steel discs to act as reference areas, were scanned with a non-contacting laser profilometer at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. The mean thickness of resin at baseline application was 0.15 mm and, from 0 to 6 months, the rate of wear of the control teeth was higher than those covered with Seal & Protect. There was a statistically significant difference in "wear" measured between resin covered and control teeth at three months. The Inter Class Correlations (repeated measurements) for the step heights obtained for the original and repeat impressions was excellent at 0.99. This study shows that coating eroded teeth with a resin-based adhesive has the potential to prevent further tooth wear.

  18. Wear Analysis of Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; Parten, Randy J [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Geer, Tom [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to investigate and characterize the nature of surface damage and wear to wind turbine gearbox bearings returned from service in the field. Bearings were supplied for examination by S. Butterfield and J. Johnson of the National Wind Technology Center (NREL), Boulder, Colorado. Studies consisted of visual examination, optical and electron microscopy, dimensional measurements of wear-induced macro-scale and micro-scale features, measurements of macro- and micro-scale hardness, 3D imaging of surface damage, studies of elemental distributions on fracture surfaces, and examinations of polished cross-sections of surfaces under various etched and non-etched conditions.

  19. Surface engineering for enhanced performance against wear

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Surface Engineering constitutes a variety of processes and sub processes. Each chapter of this work covers specific processes by experts working in the area. Included for each topic are tribological performances for each process as well as results of recent research. The reader also will benefit from in-depth studies of diffusion coatings, nanocomposite films for wear resistance, surfaces for biotribological applications, thin-film wear, tribology of thermal sprayed coatings, hardfacing, plating for tribology and high energy beam surface modifications. Material scientists as well as engineers working with surface engineering for tribology will be particularly interested in this work.

  20. The effect of microstructure on abrasive wear of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kešner, A.; Chotëborský, R.; Linda, M.

    2017-09-01

    Abrasive wear of agricultural tools is one of the biggest problems in currently being. The amount of abrasive wear, depending on the microstructure, has been investigated in this work. Steels 25CrMo4 and 51CrV4 were used in this work to determine the effect of the microstructure on the abrasive wear. These steels are commonly used for components that have to withstand abrasive wear.SEM analysis was used to detect the microstructure. The standardized ASTM G65 method was used to compare the abrasive wear of steels. The results show that the abrasive wear depends on the microstructure of steels.

  1. Effects of Load and Speed on Wear Rate of Abrasive Wear for 2014 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabas, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the normal load and sliding speed on wear rate of two-body abrasive wear for 2014 Al Alloy were investigated in detail. In order to understand the variation in wear behaviour with load and speed, wear tests were carried out at a sliding distance of 11 m, a speed of 0.36 m/s, a duration of 30 s and loads in the range 3-11 N using 220 grit abrasive paper, and at a speed range 0.09-0.90 m/s, a load of 5 N and an average sliding distance of 11 m using abrasive papers of 150 grit size under dry friction conditions. Before the wear tests, solution treatment of the 2014 Al alloy was carried out at temperatures of 505 and 520 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace and then quenched in cold water at 15 °C. Later, the ageing treatment was carried out at 185 °C for 8 h in the furnace. Generally, wear rate due to time increased linearly and linear wear resistance decreased with increasing loads. However, the wear rate was directly proportional to the load up to a critical load of 7 N. After this load, the slope of the curves decreased because the excessive deformation of the worn surface and the instability of the abrasive grains began to increase. When the load on an abrasive grain reaches a critical value, the groove width is about 0.17 of the abrasive grain diameter, and the abrasive grains begin to fail. The wear rate due to time increased slightly as the sliding speed increased in the range 0.09-0.90 m/s. The reason for this is that changes arising from strain rate and friction heating are expected with increasing sliding speeds.

  2. Sliding wear of conventional and nanostructured cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, K. [Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Fischer, T.E. [Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The sliding wear mechanisms of cemented carbide and the effects of the microstructure scale on the wear resistance were investigated by performing a series of unlubricated sliding wear tests in air with pins of WC-Co composites sliding against silicon nitride disks. In the first approximation, the wear rate is proportional to the hardness with a wear coefficient k=6.9x10{sup -6} for all materials. In the conventional cermets, the wear coefficient k also depends on the grain size; materials with smaller WC grains exhibit a smaller wear resistance. This reduction, however, does not extend to the nanostructured materials which exhibit the above value for k: Their wear resistance is higher than that of conventional cermets in proportion to their hardness. The data can also be expressed in terms of cobalt content: The lower the cobalt content, the lower the wear; but two different such dependencies exist, one for the conventional and one for the nanostructured materials with lower wear. The sliding wear of WC-Co composites occurs on a very small scale: The worn surfaces show no evidence of fracture of plastic deformation. This wear behavior is explained by the hexagonal structure and the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the WC grains that are capable of shear in a limited number of planes but are not capable of triaxial deformation. The higher wear resistance of the nanostructured composites is related to their hardness which decreases the real area of contact. (orig.)

  3. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  4. Wear-Out Sensitivity Analysis Project Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adam

    2015-01-01

    During the course of the Summer 2015 internship session, I worked in the Reliability and Maintainability group of the ISS Safety and Mission Assurance department. My project was a statistical analysis of how sensitive ORU's (Orbital Replacement Units) are to a reliability parameter called the wear-out characteristic. The intended goal of this was to determine a worst case scenario of how many spares would be needed if multiple systems started exhibiting wear-out characteristics simultaneously. The goal was also to determine which parts would be most likely to do so. In order to do this, my duties were to take historical data of operational times and failure times of these ORU's and use them to build predictive models of failure using probability distribution functions, mainly the Weibull distribution. Then, I ran Monte Carlo Simulations to see how an entire population of these components would perform. From here, my final duty was to vary the wear-out characteristic from the intrinsic value, to extremely high wear-out values and determine how much the probability of sufficiency of the population would shift. This was done for around 30 different ORU populations on board the ISS.

  5. Healthy Contact Lens Wear and Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Jennifer Cope explains some basic steps for proper wear and care of soft contact lenses.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  6. Clinical pulmonary function and industrial respirator wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, P.B. (Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Worth); Moss, R.F.; Page, K.; Garmon, R.; Skaggs, B.

    1981-12-01

    This investigation was the initial step in determining a clinical pulmonary test which could be used to evaluate workers as to their suitability to industrial respirator wear. Sixty subjects, 12 superior, 37 normal, and 11 moderately impaired with respect to lung function tests were evaluated with a battery of clinical pulmonary tests while wearing an industrial respirator. The respirator was a full-face mask (MSA-Ultravue) demand breathing type equipped with an inspiratory resistance of 85mm H/sub 2/O at 85 L/min air flow and an expiratory resistance of 25mm H/sub 2/O at 85 L/min air flow. Comparisons of these tests were made between the three groups of subjects both with and without a respirator. It appears that those lung tests which measure the flow characteristics of the lung especially those that are effort dependant are more susceptible to change as a result of respirator wear. Hence, the respirator affects the person with superior lung function to a greater degree than the moderately impaired person. It was suggested that the clinical test of 15 second maximum voluntary ventilations (MVV./sub 25/) may be the test of choice for determining worker capability in wearing an industrial respirator.

  7. Effective tool wear estimation through multisensory information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-line tool wear monitoring plays a significant role in industrial automation for higher productivity and product quality. In addition, an intelligent system is required to make a timely decision for tool change in machining systems in order to avoid the subsequent consequences on the dimensional accuracy and surface finish ...

  8. Tribology: Friction, lubrication, and wear technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: introduction and definitions of terms; friction concepts; lubrication technology concepts; wear technology concepts; and tribological transitions. This document is designed for educators who seek to teach these concepts to their students.

  9. Sliding wear resistance of iron aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    severe wear and erosion applications include cobalt- based alloys, high manganese stainless steels, and other chromium containing alloys. There is considerable inte- rest in replacing cobalt-based alloys for erosion resistance in nuclear power applications because of the problems with exposure of maintenance workers to ...

  10. Lubrication And Wear Of Hot Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.; Deadmore, D.; Miyoshi, K.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents results of experiments on tribological properties of ceramics. Describes friction and wear characteristics of some ceramics under consideration for use in gas turbines, diesel engines, and Stirling engines. Discusses formulation of composite plasma-sprayed ceramics containing solid lubricant additives, and data for carbide- and oxide-based composite coatings for use at temperatures up to at least 900 degree C.

  11. Comparison of two measurement techniques for clinical wear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, M C; Delong, R; Pintado, M R

    1999-01-01

    Clinical wear of restorations is generally evaluated by marginal integrity over time. In this study, both a subjective and an objective method for wear assessment are compared, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of each are considered....

  12. Is tooth wear in the primary dentition predictive of tooth wear in the permanent dentition? Report from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, M A; Whelton, H P; Shirodaria, S C; O'Mullane, D M; Cronin, M S

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of tooth wear in the permanent dentition of a sample of 12-year-old school children and establish whether an association exists between tooth wear recorded now and tooth wear recorded in their primary dentition at age five. A prospective cohort study. At follow-up to a previous study complete data were available for 123 children; fieldwork was conducted in the child's primary school. Measurement of tooth wear used a scoring system modified from the Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index (TWI). Tooth wear which had progressed to dentine was assessed on the occlusal surfaces of the four first permanent molars, the labial, lingual/palatal and incisal surfaces of the six upper and six lower anterior teeth; a total of 40 scoreable surfaces. Demographic data were collected from the parents, and a questionnaire on oral hygiene habits, diet and behaviours was completed by each child. In total 38% (n = 47) of subjects had tooth wear, if incisor teeth only were included, 33% (n = 40) had tooth wear and similarly if the occlusal surfaces of molar teeth only were included 10% (n = 12) had signs of tooth wear. Gender was significantly associated with tooth wear: males had more tooth wear. The presence of tooth wear with dentine exposed in the primary dentition was significantly associated with tooth wear on the occlusal surfaces of the first permanent molars. Males had more tooth wear than females. An association existed between tooth wear recorded at age 5 and molar tooth wear recorded at age 12. Tooth wear is a lifelong cumulative process and should be recorded in both the primary and permanent dentitions.

  13. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.

    2007-12-15

    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the

  14. Improving of wear resistance of alloys with metastable austenite structure in abrasion wearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.S.; Brykov, N.N.; Pugachev, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of grain composition of abrasive masses upon the wear resistance of alloys having a metastable austenitic structure is studied. The investigations have been carried out on Kh12F1 steel, using diffraction and hardness measurements and the metallographic analysis. Experimental data indicate that the specific wear of the stable alloys increases substantially with the size of abrasive particles. As regards the metastable alloys, the increase in the size of the abrasive grains has little effect upon the specific wear, as the increasing abradability of the grains is compensated for by the strengthening of the rubbing surfaces, this resulting from the ability of the metal surface layer to underao structure transformations in the course of wear

  15. Sliding Wear and Fretting Wear of DLC-Based, Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pohlchuck, B.; Street, Kenneth W.; Zabinski, J. S.; Sanders, J. H.; Voevodin, A. a.; Wu, R. L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Improving the tribological functionality of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films--developing, good wear resistance, low friction, and high load-carrying capacity-was the aim of this investigation. Nanocomposite coatings consisting of an amorphous DLC (a-DLC) top layer and a functionally graded titanium-titanium carbon-diamondlike carbon (Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC) underlayer were produced on AISI 440C stainless steel substrates by the hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The resultant DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometry. Two types of wear experiment were conducted in this investioation: sliding friction experiments and fretting wear experiments. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted to examine the wear behavior of an a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC-coated AISI 440C stainless steel disk in sliding contact with a 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel ball in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air. Although the wear rates for both the coating and ball were low in all three environments, the humid air and dry nitrogen caused mild wear with burnishing, in the a-DLC top layer, and the ultrahigh vacuum caused relatively severe wear with brittle fracture in both the a-DLC top layer and the Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC underlayer. For reference, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (H-DLC) films produced on a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coatings by using an ion beam were also examined in the same manner. The H-DLC films markedly reduced friction even in ultrahigh vacuum without sacrificing wear resistance. The H-DLC films behaved much like the a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coating in dry nitrogen and humid air, presenting low friction and low wear. Fretting wear experiments were conducted in humid air (approximately 50% relative humidity) at a frequency of 80 Hz and an amplitude of 75 micron on an a

  16. A panorama of tooth wear during the medieval period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, Rémi; Hadjouis, Djillali; Donat, Richard; Passarrius, Olivier; Maret, Delphine; Vaysse, Frédéric; Crubézy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Tooth wear is a natural phenomenon and a universal occurrence that has existed from the origin of humankind and depends on the way of life, especially diet. Tooth wear was very serious in ancient populations up to the medieval period. The aim of this paper is to present a global view of tooth wear in medieval times in Europe through different parameters: scoring systems, quantity and direction of wear, gender, differences between maxilla and mandible, relations with diet, caries, tooth malpositions and age.

  17. Wear behavior of diamond wheel for grinding optical connector ferrule - FEA and wear test -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Min; Bae, Kyo Seouk; Suh, Min Soo

    2008-01-01

    The grinding characteristics and the wear behavior of diamond wheel for grinding the optical connector ferrule were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA) and wear test. FEA of contact between diamond wheel and ferrule shows that the subsurface damage area of ferrule is 13μm from the interface of abrasive particle and matrix. Fallout of abrasive particle is affected by the stress state at the interface. A 2-D finite element model was established to calculate the distribution of stress at the interface. As the result of FEA, fallout condition of abrasive was concerned with the ratio of the critical protrusion: the ratio of particle size is about 0.6. FE model was established to investigate the effects of the diamond concentration of wheel. The FEA result shows that the lower concentration of it has larger wear volume due to the small stress propagation. To investigate grinding performance, the pin-on-disc wear test was carried out for three types of concentrations 75%, 100% and 125%. Through the wear test, it was confirmed that the 75% wheel concentration has the highest amount of wear volume. This result shows good agreement with that of FEA. And 100% concentration by considering the grinding ratio of the wheel shows the best optimized result for the grinding performance

  18. Wear Analysis of Top Piston Ring to Reduce Top Ring Reversal Bore Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ilanthirayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The piston rings are the most important part in engine which controls the lubricating oil consumption and blowby of the gases. The lubricating film of oil is provided to seal of gases towards crankcase and also to give smooth friction free translatory motion between rings and liner. Of the three rings present top ring is more crucial as it does the main work of restricting gases downwards the crankcase. Boundary lubrication is present at the Top dead centre (TDC and Bottom dead centre (BDC of the liner surface. In addition to this, top ring is exposed to high temperature gases which makes the oil present near the top ring to get evaporated and decreasing its viscosity, making metal-metal contact most of the time. Due to this at TDC, excess wear happens on the liner which is termed as Top ring reversal bore wear. The wear rate depends upon many parameters such as lubrication condition, viscosity index, contact type, normal forces acting on ring, geometry of ring face, surface roughness, material property. The present work explores the wear depth for different geometries of barrel ring using Finite Element model with the help of Archard wear law and the same is validated through experimentation. The study reveals that Asymmetric barrel rings have less contact pressure which in turn reduces the wear at Top dead centre.

  19. Measurement and Evaluation of Wear Frogs Switches ŽSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urda Ján

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the measurement and evaluation of wear frogs switches ZSR. One of the main problems is the oversize wear. The possibilities analysis of this problem is offered through a set of switches and monitoring of selected parameters. One of these parameters is also monitoring the vertical wear

  20. Assessment of the progression of tooth wear on dental casts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoorn-Vis, G.M.G.J.; Wetselaar, P.; Koutris, M.; Visscher, C.M.; Evälahti, M.; Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods are available for the grading of tooth wear, but their ability to assess the progression of wear over time has not been studied frequently. The aim was to assess whether the occlusal/incisal grading scale of the Tooth Wear Evaluation System (TWES) was sensitive enough for the detection

  1. The influence of abrasive body dimensions on single asperity wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; van der Heide, Emile; Tinga, Tiedo; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on the relation between the properties of abrasive bodies and the wear they cause. By performing single asperity scratch tests to simulate abrasive wear, the wear process takes place in a controlled environment, allowing the properties of the abrasive body to be isolated and

  2. Wear Behavior of an Ultra-High-Strength Eutectoid Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Maity, Joydeep

    2018-02-01

    Wear behavior of an ultra-high-strength AISI 1080 steel developed through incomplete austenitization-based combined cyclic heat treatment is investigated in comparison with annealed and conventional hardened and tempered conditions against an alumina disk (sliding speed = 1 m s-1) using a pin-on-disk tribometer at a load range of 7.35-14.7 N. On a gross scale, the mechanism of surface damage involves adhesive wear coupled with abrasive wear (microcutting effects in particular) at lower loads. At higher loads, mainly the abrasive wear (both microcutting and microploughing mechanisms) and evolution of adherent oxide are observed. Besides, microhardness of matrix increases with load indicating substantial strain hardening during wear test. The rate of overall wear is found to increase with load. As-received annealed steel with the lowest initial hardness suffers from severe abrasive wear, thereby exhibiting the highest wear loss. Such a severe wear loss is not observed in conventional hardened and tempered and combined cyclic heat treatment conditions. Combined cyclic heat-treated steel exhibits the greatest wear resistance (lowest wear loss) due to its initial high hardness and evolution of hard abrasion-resistant tribolayer during wear test at higher load.

  3. Effect of ageing treatment on wear properties and electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... was in Cu–Cr–Zr alloy aged at 500°C for 2 h and the most wear loss was in specimens aged at 530°C for 2 h. Furthermore, it was observed that the friction coefficient values resulting from wear rate were overlapped with hardness results and there is a decrease tendency of friction coefficient as wear distance increases.

  4. Severe tooth wear: European consensus statement on management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loomans, Bas AC; Opdam, Niek JM; Attin, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a European expert consensus statement on guidelines for the management of severe tooth wear. It focuses on the definition of physiological versus pathological tooth wear and recommends diagnosis, monitoring and counseling to define the activity of the wear. Restorative interven...

  5. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper examines the flank and crater wear characteristics of coated carbide tool inserts during dry turning of steel workpieces. A brief review of tool wear mechanisms is presented together with new evidence showing that wear of the TiC layer on both flank and rake faces is dominated by discrete plastic deformation, ...

  6. AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON THE WEAR OF TRUCK TIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen IVANOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. An experimental device and methodology for tire wear investigation are presented. An indirect method for wear evaluating is used. The experimental results in cases of straight motion with and without side slip are obtained. The distribution of wearing on tread pattern wide is evaluated in different running conditions.

  7. Friction and wear characteristics of carbon steels in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkin, B. I.; Lyubarskiy, I. M.; Udovenko, V. F.; Guslyakov, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The nature of carbon steel friction and wear under vacuum conditions is described within the framework of general friction and wear theory. Friction is considered a dynamic process and wear is considered to be the result of a continuous sequence of transitions of the friction surface material from one state into another.

  8. Wear of control rod cluster assemblies and of instrumentation thimbles: first results obtained with the vibrateau wear simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbinden, M.; Hersant, D.

    1993-07-01

    Several REP components are affected by a particular sort of damage called impact/sliding wear. This kind of wear, originating from flow induced vibrations, affects loosely supported tubular structures. The main involved components are: - the RCCAs claddings and the guides tubes, - the instrumentation thimbles, - the fuel rods claddings, - the SG tubes. The R and D Division is concerned with studies aiming to understand and to master the phenomena leading to this wear. The MTC Branch is charged of the study of the wear itself. Tests are carried out on wear rigs to understand and to model wear mechanisms. The following work is related to the two first wear tests campaigns on the VIBRATEAU wear simulator: - a reproducibility test series in order to assess the spreading of the experimental results, - a comparative test series on surface treatments used to improve the components war resistance. (authors). 7 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  9. Adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes among people with diabetes: a systematic review and reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl G

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Jarl,1,2 Lars-Olov Lundqvist2 1Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, 2University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden Introduction: Therapeutic shoes are prescribed to prevent diabetic foot ulcers, but adherence to wearing the shoes is often poor.  Aim: The aim of this study was to review the literature on factors that are associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes and construct a model of adherence to aid future research and development in the field. Methods: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for quantitative studies on factors associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes among people with diabetes. Results: Six studies were included in the review. The studies focused mainly on patient-, therapy-, and condition-related adherence factors. There is some evidence (three to five studies that sex, diabetes duration, and ulcer history are not associated with adherence. The evidence for or against the other factors was weak (only one or two studies or conflicting. Conclusion: There is no conclusive evidence for using any factor to predict adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes, but there is some evidence against using certain factors for predicting adherence. Future studies should include a broader range of factors, including health system and social/economic factors, and they should investigate perceived costs and benefits of wearing therapeutic shoes in comparison with other shoes or no shoes. A seesaw model is presented illustrating the complex phenomenon of adherence. Further research is needed to identify factors associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes, to enable the development of interventions to improve adherence and thereby reduce ulceration rates among people with diabetic foot complications.Keywords: Patient compliance, shoes, foot ulcer, diabetic foot, diabetes

  10. Adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes among people with diabetes: a systematic review and reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Gustav; Lundqvist, Lars-Olov

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Therapeutic shoes are prescribed to prevent diabetic foot ulcers, but adherence to wearing the shoes is often poor. Aim The aim of this study was to review the literature on factors that are associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes and construct a model of adherence to aid future research and development in the field. Methods We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for quantitative studies on factors associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes among people with diabetes. Results Six studies were included in the review. The studies focused mainly on patient-, therapy-, and condition-related adherence factors. There is some evidence (three to five studies) that sex, diabetes duration, and ulcer history are not associated with adherence. The evidence for or against the other factors was weak (only one or two studies) or conflicting. Conclusion There is no conclusive evidence for using any factor to predict adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes, but there is some evidence against using certain factors for predicting adherence. Future studies should include a broader range of factors, including health system and social/economic factors, and they should investigate perceived costs and benefits of wearing therapeutic shoes in comparison with other shoes or no shoes. A seesaw model is presented illustrating the complex phenomenon of adherence. Further research is needed to identify factors associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes, to enable the development of interventions to improve adherence and thereby reduce ulceration rates among people with diabetic foot complications. PMID:27540284

  11. Mask-wearing and respiratory infection in healthcare workers in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine rates of mask-wearing, of respiratory infection and the factors associated with mask-wearing and of respiratory infection in healthcare workers (HCWs in Beijing during the winter of 2007/2008. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 400 HCWs working in eight hospitals in Beijing by face to face interview using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that 280/400 (70.0% of HCWs were compliant with mask-wearing while in contact with patients. Respiratory infection occurred in 238/400 (59.5% subjects from November, 2007 through February, 2008. Respiratory infection was higher among females (odds ratio [OR], 2.00 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.16-3.49] and staff working in larger hospitals (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.092.72], but was lower among subjects with seasonal influenza vaccination (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.280.76], wearing medical masks (reference: cotton-yarn; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.91] or with good mask-wearing adherence (OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.37-0.98]. The risk of respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas was similar to that of HCWs in high risk area. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that female HCWs and staffs working in larger hospitals are the focus of prevention and control of respiratory infection in Beijing hospitals. Mask-wearing and seasonal influenza vaccination are protective for respiratory infection in HCWs; the protective efficacy of medical masks is better than that of cotton yarn ones; respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas should also be given attention.

  12. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  13. Is tooth wear in the primary dentition predictive of tooth wear in the permanent dentition? Report from a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harding, M A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of tooth wear in the permanent dentition of a sample of 12-year-old school children and establish whether an association exists between tooth wear recorded now and tooth wear recorded in their primary dentition at age five.

  14. Process research into metallic pipe wear of hot chamber die casting machines and methods ofincreasing wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametzyanova, G. F.; Kolesnikov, MS; Mukhametzyanov, I. R.; Astatshenko, V. I.

    2017-09-01

    The kinetics and reasons for metallic pipe wear of hot chamberzinc alloy die casting machines are established.Increasing metallic pipe wear components wear resistance is being achieved by means of die steelДИ - 22 with electroslag remelting modification and electron-beamremelting modification and after the processes of nitriding and boriding besides.

  15. Research on the effect of wear-ring clearances to the axial and radial force of a centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W G; Qi, C X; Li, Y B; He, M Y

    2013-01-01

    Varying of the wear-ring clearance not only has a distinct effect on the volumetric loss of the centrifugal pump, but also on the performance of the centrifugal pump including the axial and radial forces. Comparing with the experimental studies, numerical simulation methods have some special advantages, such as the low cost, fast and high efficiency, and convenient to get the detailed structure of the internal flow characteristics, so it has been widely used in the fluid machinery study in recent years. In order to study the effect of wear-ring clearance on the force performance of the centrifugal pump, based on the Reynolds Time-Averaged N-S equations and RNG k-ε turbulence model, a centrifugal pump with three variable styles of the wear-rings was simulated: Only the clearance of the front wear-ring was changed, only the clearance of the back wear-ring was changed and both were changed. Comparing with the experiment, numerical results show a good agreement. In the three changing styles of the clearance, the variable of the clearance of front wear-ring has the most influence on the axial force of the centrifugal pump, while has tiny effect on the radial force for all the conditions

  16. Dynamic-scanning-electron-microscope study of friction and wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    A friction and wear apparatus was built into a real time scanning electron microscope (SEM). The apparatus and SEM comprise a system which provides the capability of performing dynamic friction and wear experiments in situ. When the system is used in conjunction with dispersive X-ray analysis, a wide range of information on the wearing process can be obtained. The type of wear and variation with speed, load, and time can be investigated. The source, size, and distribution of wear particles can be determined and metallic transferal observed. Some typical results obtained with aluminum, copper, and iron specimens are given.

  17. Finger wear detection for production line battery tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiante, Eduardo V.

    1997-01-01

    A method for detecting wear in a battery tester probe. The method includes providing a battery tester unit having at least one tester finger, generating a tester signal using the tester fingers and battery tester unit with the signal characteristic of the electrochemical condition of the battery and the tester finger, applying wavelet transformation to the tester signal including computing a mother wavelet to produce finger wear indicator signals, analyzing the signals to create a finger wear index, comparing the wear index for the tester finger with the index for a new tester finger and generating a tester finger signal change signal to indicate achieving a threshold wear change.

  18. Wear aspects of internal combustion engine valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panţuru, M.; Chicet, D.; Paulin, C.; Alexandru, A.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Because the surface engineering is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to the constructive changes made to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines, have been proposed and tested various types of coatings of some organs of internal combustion engines. One vital organ is the engine valves, which is subjected during operation to combined thermal, mechanical, corrosion and wear solicitations, which are leading to severe corrosion and complete breakdown. In this paper were analyzed aspects of valves wear and the active surfaces were coated using the atmospheric plasma spraying method (APS) with two commercial powders: Ni-Al and YSZ. Microstructural analyzes were made on these layers and also observations regarding the possibility of using them as thermal barrier and anti-oxidant coatings.

  19. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindall Matthew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low.

  20. Study on biocompatibility, tribological property and wear debris characterization of ultra-low-wear polyethylene as artificial joint materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Gang; Jin, Zhong-Min; Xin, Shi-Xuan; Hua, Zi-Kai; Weng, Xi-Sheng

    2018-03-10

    Ultra-low-wear polyethylene (ULWPE) is a new type polyethylene made by experts who are from China petrochemical research institute, which is easy to process and implant. Preliminary test showed it was more resistant to wear than that of Ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The purpose of the research is to study biocompatibility, bio-tribological properties and debris characterization of ULWPE. Cytotoxicity test, hemolysis test, acute/chronic toxicity and muscular implantation test were conducted according to national standard GB/T-16886/ISO-10993 for evaluation requirements of medical surgical implants. We obtained that this novel material had good biocompatibility and biological safety. The wear performance of ULWPE and UHMWPE was evaluated in a pin-on-disc (POD) wear tester within two million cycles and a knee wear simulator within six million cycles. We found that the ULWPE was higher abrasion resistance than the UHMWPE, the wear rate of ULWPE by POD test and knee wear simulator was 0.4 mg/10 6 cycles and (16.9 ± 1.8)mg/10 6 cycles respectively, while that of UHMWPE was 1.8 mg/10 6 cycles and (24.6 ± 2.4)mg/10 6 cycles. The morphology of wear debris is also an important factor to evaluate artificial joint materials, this study showed that the ULWPE wear debris gotten from the simulator had various different shapes, including spherical, block, tear, etc. The morphology of worn surface and wear debris analysis showed that wear mechanisms of ULWPE were adhesion wear, abrasive wear and fatigue wear and other wear forms, which were consistent with that of UHMWPE. Thus we conclude that ULWPE is expected to be a lifetime implantation of artificial joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contact Thermal Analysis and Wear Simulation of a Brake Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Békési

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental test and a coupled contact-thermal-wear analysis of a railway wheel/brake block system through the braking process. During the test, the friction, the generated heat, and the wear were evaluated. It was found that the contact between the brake block and the wheel occurs in relatively small and slowly moving hot spots, caused by the wear and the thermal effects. A coupled simulation method was developed including numerical frictional contact, transient thermal and incremental wear calculations. In the 3D simulation, the effects of the friction, the thermal expansion, the wear, and the temperature-dependent material properties were also considered. A good agreement was found between the results of the test and the calculations, both for the thermal and wear results. The proposed method is suitable for modelling the slowly oscillating wear caused by the thermal expansions in the contact area.

  2. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined. Etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the WC and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation. The wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  3. Brake wear particle emissions: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoratos, Theodoros; Martini, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic-related sources have been recognized as a significant contributor of particulate matter particularly within major cities. Exhaust and non-exhaust traffic-related sources are estimated to contribute almost equally to traffic-related PM10 emissions. Non-exhaust particles can be generated either from non-exhaust sources such as brake, tyre, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the form of deposited material at the roadside and become resuspended due to traffic-induced turbule...

  4. Wear Resistance Assessment of Fluoropolymer Coated Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Nedeloni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Power transmissions that incorporate gears dissipate a significant amount of energy and noise. Thus, any improvement in their performance contributes to reducing energy consumption and noise pollution. In recent years, the opportunities offered by conventional technologies to increase gear performance have been fully exploited. Therefore, surface depositions on gear teeth have become increasingly important technologies in achieving objectives such as: improving energy performance, providing greater protection against superficial defects, increasing load capacity and reducing acoustic emissions generated during operation. However, gear coating technologies have begun to be developed, but the investigations are still insufficient. In this study, we carried out wear resistance investigations performed on fluoropolymer coatings for different working speeds, loads and lubrication conditions. The results point out that the deterioration rate of the coating increases with the increase of the working speed and the applied load. In addition, a slight lubrication, applied at the start of testing, leads to a noticeable improvement in wear behaviour. This study represents one step further in understanding the wear process of fluoropolymer coated gears

  5. Phenomenological modeling of abradable wear in turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoul, Bérenger; Batailly, Alain; Stainier, Laurent; Legrand, Mathias; Cartraud, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Abradable materials are widely used as coatings within compressor and turbine stages of modern aircraft engines in order to reduce operating blade-tip/casing clearances and thus maximize energy efficiency. However, rubbing occurrences between blade tips and coating liners may lead to high blade vibratory levels and endanger their structural integrity through fatigue mechanisms. Accordingly, there is a need for a better comprehension of the physical phenomena at play and for an accurate modeling of the interaction, in order to predict potentially unsafe events. To this end, this work introduces a phenomenological model of the abradable coating removal based on phenomena reported in the literature and accounting for key frictional and wear mechanisms including plasticity at junctions, ploughing, micro-rupture and machining. It is implemented within an in-house software solution dedicated to the prediction of full three-dimensional blade/abradable coating interactions within an aircraft engine low pressure compressor. Two case studies are considered. The first one compares the results of an experimental abradable test rig and its simulation. The second one deals with the simulation of interactions in a complete low-pressure compressor. The consistency of the model with experimental observations is underlined, and the impact of material parameter variations on the interaction and wear behavior of the blade is discussed. It is found that even though wear patterns are remarkably robust, results are significantly influenced by abradable coating material properties.

  6. Wear properties of alumina/zirconia composite ceramics for joint prostheses measured with an end-face apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusuke; Nakata, Kenichi; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Sekino, Tohru; Niihara, Koichi; Ikeuchi, Ken

    2004-01-01

    While only alumina is applied to all-ceramic joint prostheses at present, a stronger ceramic is required to prevent fracture and chipping due to impingement and stress concentration. Zirconia could be a potential substitute for alumina because it has high strength and fracture toughness. However, the wear of zirconia/zirconia combination is too high for clinical use. Although some investigations on composite ceramics revealed that mixing of different ceramics was able to improve the mechanical properties of ceramics, there are few reports about wear properties of composite ceramics for joint prosthesis. Since acetabular cup and femoral head of artificial hip joint are finished precisely, they indicate high geometric conformity. Therefore, wear test under flat contact was carried out with an end-face wear testing apparatus for four kinds of ceramics: alumina monolith, zirconia monolith, alumina-based composite ceramic, and zirconia based composite ceramic. Mean contact pressure was 10 MPa and sliding velocity was 40 mm/s. The wear test continued for 72 hours and total sliding distance was 10 km. After the test, the wear factor was calculated. Worn surfaces were observed with a scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The results of this wear test show that the wear factors of the both composite ceramics are similarly low and their mechanical properties are much better than those of the alumina monolith and the zirconia monolith. According to these results, it is predicted that joint prostheses of the composite ceramics are safer against break down and have longer lifetime compared with alumina/alumina joint prostheses.

  7. Development of counting system for wear measurements using Thin Layer Activation and the Wearing Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Michel de A.; Suita, Julio C.; Salgado, César M., E-mail: mchldante@gmail.com, E-mail: suita@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper focus on developing a counting system for the Wearing Apparatus, which is a device previously built to generate measurable wear on a given surface (Main Source) and to carry the fillings from it to a filter (second source). The Thin Layer Activation is a technique used to produce activity on one of the Wearing Apparatus' piece, this activity is proportional to the amount of material worn, or scrapped, from the piece's surface. Thus, by measuring the activity on those two points it is possible to measure the produced wear. The methodology used in this work is based on simulations through MCNP-X Code to nd the best specifications for shielding, solid angles, detectors dimensions and collimation for the Counting System. By simulating several scenarios, each one different from the other, and analyzing the results in the form of Counts Per Second, the ideal counting system's specifications and geometry to measure the activity in the Main Source and the Filter (second source) is chosen. After that, a set of previously activated stainless steel foils were used to reproduce the real experiments' conditions, this real experiment consists of using TLA and the Wearing Apparatus, the results demonstrate that the counting system and methodology are adequate for such experiments. (author)

  8. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsley, M. Brad; Sebright, Jason L.

    2008-11-18

    Wear and corrosion of structures cuts across industries and continues to challenge materials scientists and engineers to develop cost effective solutions. Industries typically seek mature technologies that can be implemented for production with rapid or minimal development and have little appetite for the longer-term materials research and development required to solve complex problems. The collaborative work performed in this project addressed the complexity of this problem in a multi-year program that industries would be reluctant to undertake without government partnership. This effort built upon the prior development of Advanced Abrasion Resistant Materials conduct by Caterpillar Inc. under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41054. In this referenced work, coatings were developed that exhibited significant wear life improvements over standard carburized heat treated steel in abrasive wear applications. The technology used in this referenced work, arc lamp fusing of thermal spray coatings, was one of the primary technical paths in this work effort. In addition to extending the capability of the coating technology to address corrosion issues, additional competitive coating technologies were evaluated to insure that the best technology was developed to meet the goals of the program. From this, plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding was selected as the second primary technology that was investigated. Specifically, this project developed improved, cost effective surfacing materials and processes for wear and corrosion resistance in both sliding and abrasive wear applications. Materials with wear and corrosion performance improvements that are 4 to 5 times greater than heat treated steels were developed. The materials developed were based on low cost material systems utilizing ferrous substrates and stainless steel type matrix with hard particulates formed from borides and carbides. Affordability was assessed against other competing hard surfacing or coating

  9. Coulomb friction modelling in numerical simulations of vibration and wear work rate of multispan tube bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, J. (Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, LNETI/ICEN/DEEN, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. of Nuclear Energy and Engineering); Axisa, F.; Beaufils, B.; Guilbaud, D. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d' Etudes Mecaniques et Thermiques)

    1990-05-01

    The working life of heat exchanger multispan tube bundles subjected to flow-induced vibration, is heavily dependent on nonlinear interaction between the loosely supported tubes and their supports. Reliable wear prediction techniques must account for a number of factors controlling impact-sliding tube response, such as tube support gap, contact stiffness, impact damping, Coulomb friction and squeeze film effect at supports. Tube fretting wear potential risk may then be adequately quantified by an equivalent wear work rate. A simple model is presented which accounts for the key aspects of dry friction and is well suited to the efficient explicit numerical integration schemes, specifically through nonlinear model superposition. Extensive parametric two-dimensional simulations, under random vibration induced by flow turbulence, are presented. Also, the effect of permanent tube-support preload, arising from cross flow drag, tube-support misalignment and thermal expansion, is investigated. Results show that frictional forces consistently reduce wear work rates, which decrease for high values of the coefficient of friction. Such reductions may be extremely important for the limiting case when preload and frictional forces are of sufficient magnitude to overcome dynamic forces, preventing tube-support relative motion. (author).

  10. Association between Severity of Tooth Wear and Dentinal Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Tooth wear (attrition, abrasion, erosion, and abfraction is perceived globally as ever increasing problem. Several outcome of the tooth wear are hypersensitivity, esthetic problems, functional impairment, annoyance to the patient, and fracture of the tooth. Among these, the measurable and more commonly reported outcome is hypersensitivity to stimuli. Although dentin hypersensitivity is a common clinical condition and is generally reported by the patient after experiencing a sharp, short pain caused by one of the several different external stimuli, it is often inadequately understood. None of the scientific literature available till date attempted to establish the relationship between tooth wear and dentin hypersensitivity which could be a key factor in monitoring those patients.  The aim of the study was to estimate the association between severity of teeth wear and sensitivity in the patients with reported dentinal hypersensitivity.Materials & Methods: Fifty patients with dentin hypersensitivity were investigated for tooth wear. Tooth wear measured using exact tooth wear index and level of sensitivity to stimuli was recorded using a numerical rating scale. Results: Enamel wear at cervical region of teeth showed a positive correlation (p=.010, similarly, dentin wear at cervical region of teeth showed positive correlation and significant association (p<.001 with dentinal hypersensitivity.Conclusion: The observation supports a significant association between severities of tooth surface wear and dentinal hypersensitivity.

  11. On the debris-level origins of adhesive wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H; Molinari, Jean-François

    2017-07-25

    Every contacting surface inevitably experiences wear. Predicting the exact amount of material loss due to wear relies on empirical data and cannot be obtained from any physical model. Here, we analyze and quantify wear at the most fundamental level, i.e., wear debris particles. Our simulations show that the asperity junction size dictates the debris volume, revealing the origins of the long-standing hypothesized correlation between the wear volume and the real contact area. No correlation, however, is found between the debris volume and the normal applied force at the debris level. Alternatively, we show that the junction size controls the tangential force and sliding distance such that their product, i.e., the tangential work, is always proportional to the debris volume, with a proportionality constant of 1 over the junction shear strength. This study provides an estimation of the debris volume without any empirical factor, resulting in a wear coefficient of unity at the debris level. Discrepant microscopic and macroscopic wear observations and models are then contextualized on the basis of this understanding. This finding offers a way to characterize the wear volume in atomistic simulations and atomic force microscope wear experiments. It also provides a fundamental basis for predicting the wear coefficient for sliding rough contacts, given the statistics of junction clusters sizes.

  12. ON ASSESSMNENT OF PHYSICAL WEAR IN ELEMENTS OF TECHNICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real assessment of wear in technical devices, construction structures, minings, their elements and connections is of great importance for provision of operational security and efficiency. Natural properties of the overwhelming majority of materials follow to probabilistic (stochastic laws due to various reasons (external influence, processing technologies and others. An assessment of physical wear rate of buildings and structures and their elements is carried out in the former republics of the USSR mainly in accordance with external physical signs (deflections, cracks, layer separations, etc. but wear percentage is often calculated on the basis of replacement cost in comparison with the initial one even without taking into account inflation which did not officially exist in the USSR. In this case destruction or failure of structure or their elements are considered as 100 % wear.The paper proposes a new methodology for assessment of physical wear rate in accordance with probability ratio of nofailure operation (reliability, minimum ratio is assigned to admissible limit value in conformity with technical requirements for the technical devices, construction structures, minings in question, their elements and connections. In this context minimum permissible wear probability (reliability is taken as 100 % wear rate and its initial index is considered as 0 % wear rate. That is why wear intensity in time depends on type of value probability distribution while determining the rate of physical property. The proposed methodology is intended for probabilistic wear assessment in case of relatively simple changes in strength properties of materials (for example, within the elastic limit.

  13. Fretting-wear damage: a summary of recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerout, F.M.; Fisher, N.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Flow-induced vibration of steam generator (SG) tubes may sometimes result in fretting-wear damage at the tube-to-support locations. Fretting-wear damage predictions are largely experimental data obtained at representative test conditions. Fretting-wear of steam generator materials has been studied at the Chalk River Laboratories for two decades. Tests are conducted in fretting-wear test machines that simulate steam generator environmental conditions and tube-to-support dynamic interactions. A new high-temperature force and displacement measuring system was developed to monitor tube-to-support interaction (i.e., work-rate) at operating conditions. This improvement in experimental fretting-wear technology was used to perform a comprehensive study of the effect of various environment and design parameters on steam generator tube wear damage. This paper summarizes the results of tests performed over the past four years to study the effect of temperature, water chemistry, support geometry, and tube material on fretting-wear. The results show a significant effect of temperature on tube wear damage. Therefore fretting-wear tests must be performed at operating temperatures in order to be relevant. No significant effect of the type of water treatment on tube wear damage was observed. For predominantly impacting motion, the wear of steam generator tubes in contact with 410 stainless steel is similar regardless of whether Alloy 690 or Alloy 800 is used as tubing material or whether lattice bars or broached hole supports are used. Based on results presented in this paper, an average wear coefficient value is recommended that is used for the prediction of SG tube wear depth versus time. (author)

  14. Fretting-wear damage: a summary of recent findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerout, F.M.; Fisher, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration of steam generator (SG) tubes may sometimes result in fretting-wear damage at the tube-to-support locations. Fretting-wear damage predictions are largely experimental data obtained at representative test conditions. Fretting-wear of steam generator materials has been studied at the Chalk River Laboratories for two decades. Tests are conducted in fretting-wear test machines that simulate steam generator environmental conditions and tube-to-support dynamic interactions. A new high-temperature force and displacement measuring system was developed to monitor tube-to-support interaction (i.e., work-rate) at operating conditions. This improvement in experimental fretting-wear technology was used to perform a comprehensive study of the effect of various environment and design parameters on steam generator tube wear damage. This paper summarizes the results of tests performed over the past four years to study the effect of temperature, water chemistry, support geometry, and tube material on fretting-wear. The results show a significant effect of temperature on tube wear damage. Therefore fretting-wear tests must be performed at operating temperatures in order to be relevant. No significant effect of the type of water treatment on tube wear damage was observed. For predominantly impacting motion, the wear of steam generator tubes in contact with 410 stainless steel is similar regardless of whether Alloy 690 or Alloy 800 is used as tubing material or whether lattice bars or broached hole supports are used. Based on results presented in this paper, an average wear coefficient value is recommended that is used for the prediction of SG tube wear depth versus time. (author)

  15. Wear characterization of abrasive waterjet nozzles and nozzle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Madhusarathi

    Parameters that influence nozzle wear in the abrasive water jet (AWJ) environment were identified and classified into nozzle geometric, AWJ system, and nozzle material categories. Regular and accelerated wear test procedures were developed to study nozzle wear under actual and simulated conditions, respectively. Long term tests, using garnet abrasive, were conducted to validate the accelerated test procedure. In addition to exit diameter growth, two new measures of wear, nozzle weight loss and nozzle bore profiles were shown to be invaluable in characterizing and explaining the phenomena of nozzle wear. By conducting nozzle wear tests, the effects of nozzle geometric, and AWJ system parameters on nozzle wear were systematically investigated. An empirical model was developed for nozzle weight loss rate. To understand the response of nozzle materials under varying AWJ system conditions, erosion tests were conducted on samples of typical nozzle materials. The effect of factors such as jet impingement angle, abrasive type, abrasive size, abrasive flow rate, water pressure, traverse speed, and target material was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on eroded samples as well as worn nozzles to understand the wear mechanisms. The dominant wear mechanism observed was grain pullout. Erosion models were reviewed and along the lines of classical erosion theories a semi-empirical model, suitable for erosion of nozzle materials under AWJ impact, was developed. The erosion data correlated very well with the developed model. Finally, the cutting efficiency of AWJ nozzles was investigated in conjunction with nozzle wear. The cutting efficiency of a nozzle deteriorates as it wears. There is a direct correlation between nozzle wear and cutting efficiency. The operating conditions that produce the most efficient jets also cause the most wear in the nozzle.

  16. Development and Validation of a Wear Model to Predict Polyethylene Wear in a Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Innocenti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE wear in total knee arthroplasty (TKA components is one of the main reasons of the failure of implants and the consequent necessity of a revision procedure. Experimental wear tests are commonly used to quantify polyethylene wear in an implant, but these procedures are quite expensive and time consuming. On the other hand, numerical models could be used to predict the results of a wear test in less time with less cost. This requires, however, that such a model is not only available, but also validated. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop and validate a finite element methodology to be used for predicting polyethylene wear in TKAs. Initially, the wear model was calibrated using the results of an experimental roll-on-plane wear test. Afterwards, the developed wear model was applied to predict patello-femoral wear. Finally, the numerical model was validated by comparing the numerically-predicted wear, with experimental results achieving good agreement.

  17. Tool Wear Feature Extraction Based on Hilbert Marginal Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shan; Song, Weijie; Pang, Hongyang

    2017-09-01

    In the metal cutting process, the signal contains a wealth of tool wear state information. A tool wear signal’s analysis and feature extraction method based on Hilbert marginal spectrum is proposed. Firstly, the tool wear signal was decomposed by empirical mode decomposition algorithm and the intrinsic mode functions including the main information were screened out by the correlation coefficient and the variance contribution rate. Secondly, Hilbert transform was performed on the main intrinsic mode functions. Hilbert time-frequency spectrum and Hilbert marginal spectrum were obtained by Hilbert transform. Finally, Amplitude domain indexes were extracted on the basis of the Hilbert marginal spectrum and they structured recognition feature vector of tool wear state. The research results show that the extracted features can effectively characterize the different wear state of the tool, which provides a basis for monitoring tool wear condition.

  18. Abrasive wear and surface roughness of contemporary dental composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-min; Zhang, Hongyu; Choe, Hyo-Sun; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Hong, Guang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear and surface roughness of 20 currently available commercial dental composite resins, including nanofilled, supra-nanofilled, nanohybrid and microhybrid composite resins. The volume loss, maximum vertical loss, surface roughness (R(a)) and surface morphology [Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] were determined after wear. The inorganic filler content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The result showed that the volume loss and vertical loss varied among the materials. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of wear volume loss and filler content (wt%) was 0.283. SEM micrographs revealed nanofilled composites displayed a relatively uniform wear surfaces with nanoclusters protrusion, while the performance of nanohybrid composites varied. The abrasive wear resistance of contemporary dental composite resins is material-dependent and cannot be deduced from its category, filler loading and composite matrix; The abrasive wear resistance of some flowable composites is comparable to the universal/posterior composite resins.

  19. Control of erosive tooth wear: possibilities and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Campos Serra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a type of wear caused by non bacterial acids or chelation. There is evidence of a significant increase in the prevalence of dental wear in the deciduous and permanent teeth as a consequence of the frequent intake of acidic foods and drinks, or due to gastric acid which may reach the oral cavity following reflux or vomiting episodes. The presence of acids is a prerequisite for dental erosion, but the erosive wear is complex and depends on the interaction of biological, chemical and behavioral factors. Even though erosion may be defined or described as an isolated process, in clinical situations other wear phenomena are expected to occur concomitantly, such as abrasive wear (which occurs, e.g, due to tooth brushing or mastication. In order to control dental loss due to erosive wear it is crucial to take into account its multifactorial nature, which predisposes some individuals to the condition.

  20. Effect of wearing a swimsuit on hydrodynamic drag of swimmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Almeida Marinho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of wearing a swimsuit on swimmer's passive drag. A computational fluid dynamics analysis was carried out to determine the hydrodynamic drag of a female swimmer's model (i wearing a standard swimsuit; (ii wearing a last generation swimsuit and; (iii with no swimsuit, wearing light underwear. The three-dimensional surface geometry of a female swimmer's model with different swimsuit/underwear was acquired through standard commercial laser scanner. Passive drag force and drag coefficient were computed with the swimmer in a prone position. Higher hydrodynamic drag values were determined when the swimmer was with no swimsuit in comparison with the situation when the swimmer was wearing a swimsuit. The last generation swimsuit presented lower hydrodynamic drag values, although very similar to standard swimsuit. In conclusion, wearing a swimsuit could positively influence the swimmer's hydrodynamics, especially reducing the pressure drag component.

  1. Improvement of Scratch and Wear Resistance of Polymers by Fillers Including Nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Brostow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have lower resistance to scratching and wear than metals. Liquid lubricants work well for metals but not for polymers nor for polymer-based composites (PBCs. We review approaches for improvement of tribological properties of polymers based on inclusion of fillers. The fillers can be metallic or ceramic—with obvious consequences for electrical resistivity of the composites. Distinctions between effectiveness of micro- versus nano-particles are analyzed. For example, aluminum nanoparticles as filler are more effective for property improvement than microparticles at the same overall volumetric concentration. Prevention of local agglomeration of filler particles is discussed along with a technique to verify the prevention.

  2. The corneal stroma during contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Isabelle; Stapleton, Fiona

    2005-03-01

    Recent technological advances have lead to novel descriptions of the microanatomy of the corneal stroma. In the first section of this review, these findings and the role they play in the maintenance of vital properties such as corneal transparency, mechanical strength, homeostasis, wound-healing response and metabolism are described. In the second part, contact lens induced stromal alterations such as acidosis, oedema, striae, thinning and opacities are reviewed as well as the more recently described phenomenon of microdot deposits and keratocyte loss with an emphasis on how lens wearing stromal effects can be minimised.

  3. Tribocorrosion wear of austenitic and martensitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rozing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of tribocorrosion wear caused by an aggressive acidic media. Tests were conducted on samples made of stainless steel AISI 316L, 304L and 440C. Austenitic steels were tested in their nitrided state and martensitic in quenched and tempered and then induction hardened state. Electrochemical corrosion resistance testing and analysis of the microstructure and hardness in the cross section was carried out on samples of selected steels. To test the possibility of applying surface modification of selected materials in conditions of use, tests were conducted on samples/parts in a worm press for final pressing.

  4. The wear of polished and glazed zirconia against enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyavula, Sridhar; Lawson, Nathaniel; Lawson, Nathaniel; Cakir, Deniz; Beck, Preston; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O

    2013-01-01

    The wear of tooth structure opposing anatomically contoured zirconia crowns requires further investigation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the roughness and wear of polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed zirconia against human enamel antagonists and compare the measurements to those of veneering porcelain and natural enamel. Zirconia specimens were divided into polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed groups (n=8). A veneering porcelain (Ceramco3) and enamel were used as controls. The surface roughness of all pretest specimens was measured. Wear testing was performed in the newly designed Alabama wear testing device. The mesiobuccal cusps of extracted molars were standardized and used as antagonists. Three-dimensional (3D) scans of the specimens and antagonists were obtained at baseline and after 200 000 and 400 000 cycles with a profilometer. The baseline scans were superimposed on the posttesting scans to determine volumetric wear. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) post hoc tests (α=.05) Surface roughness ranked in order of least rough to roughest was: polished zirconia, glazed zirconia, polished then reglazed zirconia, veneering porcelain, and enamel. For ceramic, there was no measureable loss on polished zirconia, moderate loss on the surface of enamel, and significant loss on glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia. The highest ceramic wear was exhibited by the veneering ceramic. For enamel antagonists, polished zirconia caused the least wear, and enamel caused moderate wear. Glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia showed significant opposing enamel wear, and veneering porcelain demonstrated the most. Within the limitations of the study, polished zirconia is wear-friendly to the opposing tooth. Glazed zirconia causes more material and antagonist wear than polished zirconia. The surface roughness of the zirconia aided in predicting the wear of the opposing dentition

  5. THE WEAR RESISTANCE INCREASE OF CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Ilyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the tests on the wear resistance of chromium cast irons of different compositions obtained in sand forms. It has been shown that increase of the wear resistance and mechanical properties of the cast iron is possible to obtain using the casting in metal molds. A further increase in wear resistance of parts produced in metal molds is possible by changing the technological parameters of casting and alloying by titanium.

  6. Wearable Android Android wear and Google Fit app development

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Sanjay M

    2015-01-01

    Software Development/Mobile/Android/Wearable/Fitness Build ""Wearable"" Applications on the Android Wear and Google Fit Platforms This book covers wearable computing and wearable application development particularly for Android Wear (smartwatches) and Google Fit (fitness sensors). It provides relevant history, background and core concepts of wearable computing and ubiquitous computing, as a foundation for designing/developing applications for the Android Wear and Google Fit platforms. This book is intended for Android wearable enthusiasts, technologists and software developers. Gain ins

  7. Microstructure and wear behaviour of FeAl-based composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lower load-bearing capacity of graphite flakes in localized region was found to increase the wear rate of the alloy. The carbides such as Fe 3 AlC 0.5 , TiC and ZrC are embedded in the matrix after sliding wear without destruction or delamination. This significantly affects the wear resistance of FeAl-based alloys.

  8. Measurement of wheel rim wear on railway wheels using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kail, E.

    1979-01-01

    A radioisotopic measuring method developed for studying the wear process of wheel rims of railway vehicles is described. The wear process may be monitored by the measurement of activity of a thin galvanic layer deposited onto the rim and labelled by iron 59. The high sensitivity of the method allows the determination of the wear rate distribution even within a few days. The results of measurements on three different rim profiles are analysed. (R.J.)

  9. A model of tool wear monitoring system for turning

    OpenAIRE

    Šimunović, Goran; Ficko, Mirko; Šarić, Tomislav; Milošević, Mijodrag; Antić, Aco

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring high-quality and timely information on the tool wear condition in real time, presents a necessary prerequisite for identification of tool wear degree, which significantly improves the stability and quality of the machining process. Defined in this paper is a model of tool wear monitoring system with special emphasis on the module for acquisition and processing of vibration acceleration signal by applying discrete wavelet transformations (DWT) in signal decomposition. The paper prese...

  10. Prevalence of erosive tooth wear and associated factors in a group of Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aragón Pineda, Álvaro Edgar; Borges-Yáñez, Socorro Aída; Lussi, Adrian; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Angeles Medina, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Erosive tooth wear is the irreversible loss of dental hard tissue as a result of chemical processes. When the surface of a tooth is attacked by acids, the resulting loss of structural integrity leaves a softened layer on the tooth's surface, which renders it vulnerable to abrasive forces. The authors' objective was to estimate the prevalence of erosive tooth wear and to identify associated factors in a sample of 14- to 19-year-old adolescents in Mexico. The authors performed a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample (N = 417) of adolescents in a school in Mexico City, Mexico. The authors used a questionnaire and an oral examination performed according to the Lussi index. The prevalence of erosive tooth wear was 31.7% (10.8% with exposed dentin). The final logistic regression model included age (P < .01; odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.13), high intake of sweet carbonated drinks (P = .03; OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.07), and xerostomia (P = .04; OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.05-5.09). Erosive tooth wear, mainly on the mandibular first molars, was associated with age, high intake of sweet carbonated drinks, and xerostomia. Knowledge regarding erosive tooth wear in adolescents with relatively few years of exposure to causal factors will increase the focus on effective preventive measures, the identification of people at high risk, and early treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wear Behavior of an Unstable Knee: Stabilization via Implant Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Reinders

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wear-related failures and instabilities are frequent failure mechanisms of total knee replacements. High-conforming designs may provide additional stability for the joint. This study analyzes the effects of a ligamentous insufficiency on the stability and the wear behavior of a high-conforming knee design. Methods. Two simulator wear tests were performed on a high-conforming total knee replacement design. In the first, a ligamentous-stable knee replacement with a sacrificed anterior cruciate ligament was simulated. In the second, a ligamentous-unstable knee with additionally insufficient posterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament was simulated. Wear was determined gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. Implant kinematics was recorded during simulation. Results. Significantly higher wear rates (P≤0.001 were observed for the unstable knee (14.58±0.56 mg/106 cycles compared to the stable knee (7.97 ± 0.87 mg/106 cycles. A higher number of wear particles with only small differences in wear particle characteristics were observed. Under unstable knee conditions, kinematics increased significantly for translations and rotations (P≤0.01. This increase was mainly attributed to higher tibial posterior translation and internal rotations. Conclusion. Higher kinematics under unstable test conditions is a result of insufficient stabilization via implant design. Due to the higher kinematics, increased wear was observed in this study.

  12. Friction and wear in polymer-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bely, V A; Petrokovets, M I

    1982-01-01

    Friction and Wear in Polymer-Based Materials discusses friction and wear problems in polymer-based materials. The book is organized into three parts. The chapters in Part I cover the basic laws of friction and wear in polymer-based materials. Topics covered include frictional interaction during metal-polymer contact and the influence of operating conditions on wear in polymers. The chapters in Part II discuss the structure and frictional properties of polymer-based materials; the mechanism of frictional transfer when a polymer comes into contact with polymers, metals, and other materials; and

  13. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Paoloni, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10 16 ionscm -2 were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  14. A Study on Optimal Wear Design for a Gerotor Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Man; Nam, Hyoung Chul; Lu, Lei; Shin, Joong Ho [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    A disadvantage in the design of gerotor pump is a lack of parts that can be adjusted to compensate for wear in the rotor set, and as a consequence, it causes a sharp reduction of efficiency. In this paper, an attempt has been made to reduce the wear rate between the rotors of a gerotor pump. To do this, floating genetic algorithm (FGA) is used as an optimization technique for minimizing the wear rate proportional factor (WRPF). The result shows that the wear rate can be reduced considerably, e.g. approximately 8% in this paper, throughout the optimization using FGA.

  15. Prevalence and distribution of tooth wear among Sri Lankan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Nilantha; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence, distribution and sociodemographic factors associated with tooth wear among Sri Lankan adolescents. A total of 1200 17-year-olds were selected from government, private and international schools in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. The data were collected using a pretested, validated self-administered questionnaire and by conducting a clinical examination. Tooth wear was recorded using a modified version of Smith and Knight's tooth wear index. The prevalence of tooth wear among Sri Lankan adolescents was found to be 22.4%. In nearly 13.7%, tooth wear was confined to the enamel, whereas 8.7% had wear lesions extending up to the dentine. Occlusal surface was the most frequently affected surface, while the first molar was the most frequently affected tooth. Tooth wear was significantly associated with the type of school attended, father's occupational status and mother's level of education. The present study found that nearly one-fourth of the adolescents were affected by tooth wear. These findings are in agreement with those from developed countries where tooth wear has been shown to be an emerging oral health problem.

  16. Friction and wear life properties of polyimide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A transition in the friction coefficient and wear life properties of Pyralin polyimide (PI) thin films was found to exist at a temperature between 25 deg and 100 deg C. Above this transition, PI thin films gave long wear lives and low friction coefficients. The presence of H2O in air improved the friction and wear life properties at 25 deg C; but at 100 deg C, H2O had a detrimental effect. At 100 deg C and above, a dry argon atmosphere gave lower friction coefficients and longer wear lives than did a dry air atmosphere.

  17. Prediction of Cone Crusher Performance Considering Liner Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cone crushers are used in the aggregates and mining industries to crush rock material. The pressure on cone crusher liners is the key factor that influences the hydraulic pressure, power draw and liner wear. In order to dynamically analyze and calculate cone crusher performance along with liner wear, a series of experiments are performed to obtain the crushed rock material samples from a crushing plant at different time intervals. In this study, piston die tests are carried out and a model relating compression coefficient, compression ratio and particle size distribution to a corresponding pressure is presented. On this basis, a new wear prediction model is proposed combining the empirical model for predicting liner wear with time parameter. A simple and practical model, based on the wear model and interparticle breakage, is presented for calculating compression ratio of each crushing zone along with liner wear. Furthermore, the size distribution of the product is calculated based on existing size reduction process model. A method of analysis of product size distribution and shape in the crushing process considering liner wear is proposed. Finally, the validity of the wear model is verified via testing. The result shows that there is a significant improvement of the prediction of cone crusher performance considering liner wear as compared to the previous model.

  18. Radioactive ion implantation as a tool for wear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, C.; Soerensen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with ion implantation of radioactive krypton ions in surfaces with aim of measuring wear of different magnetic materials in sound-heads. The technique is especially suited for a relatively fast comparison of wear-characteristics of materials of varying composition in small inaccessible areas. In the present case utilisation of a 60 KeV accelerator allows determination of a total wear as small as 0.05 μm with an accuracy of 10%. Further the technique yields information of the time dependence of the wear process with an accuracy less than 0.001 μm. (author)

  19. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth L. Knittel

    2005-05-09

    The work performed on this program was to develop wear resistant, tough FM composite materials with efforts focused on WC-Co based FM systems. The materials were developed for use in mining industry wear applications. Components of interest were drill bit inserts for drilling blast holes. Other component applications investigated included wear plates for a variety of equipment such as pit shovels, wear surfaces for conveyors, milling media for ball milling operations, hydrocyclone cones, grader blades and dozer teeth. Cross-cutting technologies investigated included hot metal extrusion dies, drill bits for circuit board fabrication, cutting tools for cast iron and aluminum machining. An important part of the work was identification of the standard materials used in drilling applications. A materials trade study to determine those metals and ceramics used for mining applications provided guidance for the most important materials to be investigated. WC-Co and diamond combinations were shown to have the most desirable properties. Other considerations such as fabrication technique and the ability to consolidate shifted the focus away from diamond materials and toward WC-Co. Cooperating partners such as Kennametal and Kyocera assisted with supplies, evaluations of material systems, fabricated parts and suggestions for cross-cutting technology applications for FM architectures. Kennametal provided the raw materials (WC-Co and Al-TiCN powders) for the extent of the material evaluations. Kyocera shared their research into various FM systems and provided laboratory testing of fabricated materials. Kyocera also continued research of the FM systems with the intention of developing commercial markets for a variety of applications. The continued development of FM technology by Kyocera is seen as a direct result of the cooperation established under this funding. Kyocera has a specific interest in the commercial development of the FM technology and have licensed it and have paid

  20. Superior wear resistance of aggregated diamond nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dub, Sergey; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2006-04-01

    The hardness of single-crystal diamond is superior to all other known materials, but its performance as a superabrasive is limited because of its low wear resistance. This is the consequence of diamond's low thermal stability (it graphitizes at elevated temperature), low fracture toughness (it tends to cleave preferentially along the octahedral (111) crystal plains), and large directional effect in polishing (some directions appear to be "soft", i.e., easy to abrade, because diamond is anisotropic in many of its physical properties). Here we report the results of measurements of mechanical properties (hardness, fracture toughness, and Young's modulus) of aggregated diamond nanorods (ADNRs) synthesized as a bulk sample. Our investigation has shown that this nanocrystalline material has the fracture toughness 11.1 +/- 1.2 MPa.m(0.5), which exceeds that of natural and synthetic diamond (that varies from 3.4 to 5.0 MPa.m(0.5)) by 2-3 times. At the same time, having a hardness and Young's modulus comparable to that of natural diamond and suppressed because of the random orientation of nanorods "soft" directions, ADNR samples show the enhancement of wear resistance up to 300% in comparison with commercially available polycrystalline diamonds (PCDs). This makes ADNRs extremely prospective materials for applications as superabrasives.

  1. Does wearing shoes affect your biomechanical efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Guillaume; Chambon, Nicolas; Guéguen, Nils; Berton, Eric; Delattre, Nicolas

    2015-02-05

    Studies involving minimalist shoes have dramatically increased this past 10 years. While a deeper knowledge of the related modifications has ensued regarding the kinematics, electromyographic, and dynamic patterns, little is known regarding the modifications at the muscle forces and muscle fiber levels. The aim of the present study was to assess at a muscular level the modifications brought up when running barefoot, using 0mm midsole height running shoe, or using classical midsole height running shoes. An EMG-Driven model that combines the kinematics, dynamics, and electromyographic data was used to estimate the Triceps Surae (TS) muscle forces and fiber behavior during running using different footwear conditions. Despite differences at the joint level between barefoot and shod running when looking at ankle joint range of motion, or foot-ground angle at touchdown, the results showed no effect of footwear neither on the maximal muscle forces nor on the relative amount of force produced by each muscle within the TS muscle group when wearing different footwear. On the contrary, different behaviors of muscle fibers were shown with lower amplitudes of fiber lengths for the Gastrocnemii biarticular muscles when running barefoot. This particular results reveal that wearing a shoe, even with a very thin sole, could deeply modify the intricate muscle-tendon mechanics of running. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of accelerometer wear and non-wear events in seconds for monitoring free-living physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Hill, Rebecca A; Morgan, Kelly; Stratton, Gareth; Gravenor, Mike B; Bijlsma, Gunnar; Brophy, Sinead

    2015-05-11

    To classify wear and non-wear time of accelerometer data for accurately quantifying physical activity in public health or population level research. A bi-moving-window-based approach was used to combine acceleration and skin temperature data to identify wear and non-wear time events in triaxial accelerometer data that monitor physical activity. Local residents in Swansea, Wales, UK. 50 participants aged under 16 years (n=23) and over 17 years (n=27) were recruited in two phases: phase 1: design of the wear/non-wear algorithm (n=20) and phase 2: validation of the algorithm (n=30). Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer (GeneActiv) against the skin surface on the wrist (adults) or ankle (children). Participants kept a diary to record the timings of wear and non-wear and were asked to ensure that events of wear/non-wear last for a minimum of 15 min. The overall sensitivity of the proposed method was 0.94 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.98) and specificity 0.91 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.94). It performed equally well for children compared with adults, and females compared with males. Using surface skin temperature data in combination with acceleration data significantly improved the classification of wear/non-wear time when compared with methods that used acceleration data only (pclassification of sedentary behaviour. This method can be used in population studies of physical activity in free-living environments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Remarkable improvement of the wear resistance of poly(vinylidene difluoride) by incorporating polyimide powder and carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chunying; Liu, Dengdeng; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Qiaqia; Shen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) composites reinforced via adding different fillers have attracted wide attention in the field of dielectric materials, but few have been reported in the tribological area. In this paper, the effect of polyimide (PI) powder and carbon nanofibers (CF) as reinforcement phases on the friction and wear performance of PVDF composites has been investigated. It was found that PI powder enhances the mechanical and tribological properties of PVDF and especially as the content of the PI powder reaches 5 wt%. In addition, CF and PI exhibited synergistic effect on the tribological properties of PVDF. With PVDF containing 5 wt% PI powder and 20 wt% CF, the friction and wear behavior of the PVDF composite showed the best performance. PVDF, PI powder and CF can form a consistent network structure, which prevents the polymer molecular chains from moving or deformation, decreasing the wear loss of PVDF composites.

  4. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs) wearing personal body armor (PBA) in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing. PMID:21801453

  5. Improvement of Wearable Power Assist Wear for Low Back Support using Pneumatic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Feifei; Sugimoto, Riku; Noritsugu, Toshiro; Li, Xiangpan

    2017-10-01

    This study focuses on developing a safe, lightweight, power assist device that can be worn by people who like caregivers during lifting or static holding tasks to prevent low back pain (LBP). Therefore in consideration of their flexibility, light weight, and large force to weight ratio we have developed a Wearable Power Assist Wear for caregivers, two types of pneumatic actuators are employed in assisting low back movement for their safety and comfort. The device can be worn directly on the body like normal clothing. Because there is no rigid exoskeleton frame structure, it is lightweight and user friendly. In this paper, we proposed the new type of the wearable power assist wear and improved the controller of control system.

  6. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs wearing personal body armor (PBA in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing.

  7. Analysis of Wear Particles Formed in Boundary-Lubricated Sliding Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akchurin, Aydar; Bosman, Rob; Lugt, Pieter Martin; van Drogen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The wear process in a sliding contact results in generation of wear debris, which affects the system life. The impact depends on the wear particle properties, such as size, shape and number. In this paper, the wear particles formed during a cylinder-on-disk wear test were examined. PAO additive-free

  8. Wear Properties of ECAP-Processed AM80 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, K. R.; Shivananda Nayaka, H.; Sahu, Sandeep

    2017-07-01

    AM80 magnesium alloy was subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), and microstructural evolution was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grain size was found to decrease up to 3 µm after four passes. An increase in number of ECAP passes led to a corresponding increase in hardness of the processed samples. Unprocessed and ECAP-processed samples were subjected to wear test using pin-on-disk wear test machine to study the wear behavior. Effects of varying loads (30 and 40 N) with sliding distances (2500 and 5000 m) were studied. The results showed reduction in wear mass loss for the ECAP-processed samples in comparison with unprocessed condition. Coefficient of friction (COF) was studied for different loads, and improvement in COF values was observed for ECAP-processed samples compared to unprocessed condition. Worn surfaces were studied using SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer, and they exhibited plastic deformation, delamination, plowing, wear debris and oxidation in the sliding direction. X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted on the worn surfaces to identify the phases. It revealed the presence of magnesium oxide and magnesium aluminum oxide which led to oxidation wear in the sliding direction. Wear mechanism was found to be abrasive and oxidation wear.

  9. Tooth -Wear Lesions Among Patients Attending Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tooth wear manifest in the form of abrasion, attrition, erosion and abfraction and can affect the quality of life of the sufferer. This was a prospective study of patients who ... We recommend oral hygiene advice, dietary counseling and regular dental examination for early detection. Key words: Tooth wear, lesion, prospective, ...

  10. Effect of ageing treatment on wear properties and electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Furthermore, it was observed that the friction coefficient values resulting from wear rate were overlapped with hardness results and there is a decrease tendency of friction coefficient as wear distance increases. Keywords. Cu–Cr–Zr ... increase resistance and electrical conductivity of Cu–Cr–Zr alloys and to increase the ...

  11. 22 CFR 1203.735-212 - Wearing of uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Wearing of uniforms. 1203.735-212 Section 1203.735-212 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 1203.735-212 Wearing of...

  12. Monitoring of dry sliding wear using fractal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jindang; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Korsten, Maarten J.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable online monitoring of wear remains a challenge to tribology research as well as to the industry. This paper presents a new method for monitoring of dry sliding wear using digital imaging and fractal analysis. Fractal values, namely fractal dimension and intercept, computed from the power

  13. A Finite Element Approach to Modeling Abrasive Wear Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; van der Heide, Emile; Tinga, Tiedo; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Machine components operating in sandy environments will wear because of the abrasive interaction with sand particles. In this work, a method is derived to predict the amount of wear caused by such abrasive action, in order to improve the maintenance concept of the components. A finite element model

  14. Diffusion wear studies of HSS tools by gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, V.C.

    1979-01-01

    During the machinino. of plain carbon steels with HSS tools diffusion of some elements particularly carbon and chromium has been observed with the help of an electron probe micro-analyser. The disadvantage of the probe is that it gives only spot analysis and measurement of wear of individual elements over several metres of chips becomes a cumbersome affair. Gamma spectrometry presents a rapid method for wear studies of individual elements. A 100 channel scintillation spectrometer was used simultaneously with the radio-active tool wear tests for this ourpose. The study was undertaken of only those radioelements whose gamma energy could be easily distinguished, which in the case of HSS tools are W, Cr and Co. In this method the gamma energy of W, Cr and Co was measured and the energy curves were plotted. Then the specific activity was calculated. Knowing the specific activities it is possible to calculate the transfer of individual elements i.e. the mass of element in gm/gm of tool wear. W and Co unlike Cr did not show the same trend in all the samples. This could be because wear occurs by abrasion and adhesion and by diffusion as well. In the abrasion and adhesion, wear process elements will be in proportion to that obtaining in the HSS matrix or in the carbides in HSS. The regular trend of wear of chromium indicates its wear by diffusion and this has also been established by electron probe micro-analysis. (auth.)

  15. Micro-contact based modelling of abrasive wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masen, Marc Arthur; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2005-01-01

    A model that describes the abrasive wear between a hard and rough surface and a softer and smooth surface is developed. The contact between these two solids is modelled based on micro-contacts [M.A. Masen, M.B. de Rooij, Abrasive wear between rough surfaces in deep drawing, in: Proceedings of the

  16. A study on wear behaviour of Al/6101/graphite composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research work scrutinizes aluminium alloy 6101-graphite composites for their mechanical and tribological behaviour in dry sliding environments. The orthodox liquid casting technique had been used for the manufacturing of composite materials and imperilled to T6 heat treatment. The content of reinforcement particles was taken as 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 wt.% of graphite to ascertain it is prospective as self-lubricating reinforcement in sliding wear environments. Hardness, tensile strength and flexural strength of cast Al6101 metal matrix and manufactured composites were evaluated. Hardness, tensile strength and flexural strength decreases with increasing volume fraction of graphite reinforcement as compared to cast Al6101 metal matrix. Wear tests were performed on pin on disc apparatus to assess the tribological behaviour of composites and to determine the optimum volume fraction of graphite for its minimum wear rate. Wear rate reduces with increase in graphite volume fraction and minimum wear rate was attained at 4 wt.% graphite. The wear was found to decrease with increase in sliding distance. The average co-efficient of friction also reduces with graphite addition and its minimum value was found to be at 4 wt.% graphite. The worn surfaces of wear specimens were studied through scanning electron microscopy. The occurrence of 4 wt.% of graphite reinforcement in the composites can reveal loftier wear possessions as compared to cast Al6101 metal matrix.

  17. CONTACT LENS WEAR AND THE OXYGEN ISSUE: A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmissibility and rigid gas permeable (RGP). CLs became available. These advances and ... associated with CL wear. KEYWORDS: Contact lenses, Oxygen transmissibility, Rigid gas permeable lenses, Hydrogel contact lenses .... high visual demand, durability, ease of care, extended wear, when cylinder error is greater.

  18. Professional women's evaluation of the quality of career wear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professional women's evaluation of the quality of career wear. M Smith, HM de Klerk, L Fletcher. Abstract. Professionally employed women have considerable spending power and clothing constitutes the third largest household expenditure. Personal image is important to career growth, thus satisfying the career wear needs ...

  19. Severe wear behaviour of alumina balls sliding against diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alumina balls worn out ( 14.2 × 10 − 1 mm 3 ) very rapidly with zero wear for diamond ceramic coatings. Since the generation of wear particle is the main problem for load-bearing prosthetic joints, it was concluded that the PCD material can potentially replace existing alumina bio-ceramic for their bettertribological properties ...

  20. Anisotropy abrasive wear behavior of bagasse fiber reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three different types of abrasives wear behaviour have been observed in the composite in three orientations and follow the following trends: WNO < WAPO < WPO, where WNO, WAPO and WPO are the wear in normal, anti-parallel and parallel directions of fibres orientation, respectively. The fiber bundles present in the ...

  1. Wear numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.; Moes, H.

    1980-01-01

    A wear number is defined for ball cup bearings and for journal bearings where the cup and the cylindrical bearing are made of soft material. This dimensionless wear number provides a relation between the following five quantities: the radius of the ball or the length of the journal bearing in

  2. Multi technical analysis of wear mechanisms in axial piston pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhler, G.; Jourani, A.; Bouvier, S.; Perrochat, J.-M.

    2017-05-01

    Axial piston pumps convert a motor rotation motion into hydraulic or pneumatic power. Their compactness and efficiency of approximately 0.9 make them suitable for actuation applications especially in aeronautics. However, they suffer a limited life due to the wear of their components. In the literature, studies of axial piston pumps deal with contact between its different elements under lubrication conditions. Nevertheless, they are more focused on analytic or numerical approaches. This study consists in an experimental analysis of worn pump components to highlight and understand wear mechanisms. Piston shoes are central components in the axial piston pump since they are involved in three tribological contacts. These three contacts are thereby studied: piston shoes/swashplate, piston shoes/pistons and piston shoes/shoes hold down plate (SHDP). To perform this analysis, helicopter hydraulic pumps after different operating times have been studied. The wear damage mechanisms and wear debris are analysed using SEM observations. 3D surface roughness measurements are then used to characterize worn surfaces. The observations reveal that in the contact between shoes and swashplate, the main wear mechanism is three-body abrasive wear due to coarse carbides removal. Between shoes and pistons, wear occurs in a less severe way and is mainly due to the debris generated in the first contact and conveyed by the lubricating fluid. In the third contact, the debris are also the prime cause of the abrasive wear and the generation of deep craters in the piston shoes.

  3. Effect of increasingly metallized hybrid reinforcement on the wear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tron microscopy identified abrasion and delamination as primary wear mechanisms in the hybrid nanocomposite. Oxidation was active in nanocomposite with higher copper content, tested under higher load and positively affected the wear resistance. Limited thermal softening was observed when tested at a relatively higher ...

  4. Investigation of friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both wear and friction decrease with the increase of biodiesel concentration. ► Wear and friction appear to decrease more at the range of 10–20% biodiesel in diesel blend. ► The wear of steel ball in biodiesel (B100) was 20% lower than that in diesel (B0). ► Lubricity in terms of wear and friction decreases with the increase of rotating speed. - Abstract: Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased with the increase of biodiesel concentration. The wear of steel ball in B100 was appeared to be 20% lower than that in diesel (B0)

  5. Modelling and analysis of abrasive wear performance of composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that fibre length plays a major role in wear phenomenon. The length of the fibre has been optimized using a popular evolutionary technique known as particle swarm optimization (PSO) and neural network. The study recommends that fibre length should be 7-8 mm for minimum wear of the composites.

  6. Occlusal wear of provisional implant-supported restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santing, H.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Werner, A.; Feilzer, A.J.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Meijer, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Implant-supported provisional restorations should be resistant to occlusal wear. Purpose The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate three-body wear of three indirect laboratory composite resins, five chair side bis-acryl resin-based materials, and two chair side

  7. Effect of ageing treatment on wear properties and electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In wear tests, pin-on-disc type standard wearing unit was used. As a result, starting from 1 h aged specimens, orderly increase of electrical conductivity was defined. From EDS analyses it was observed that Cr rate increases as precipitates grow. With increase of Cr rate there was also a defined rise of electrical conductivity.

  8. Occlusal wear of provisional implant-supported restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santing, Hendrik J.; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J.; Werner, Arie; Feilzer, Albert J.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    BACKGROUND: Implant-supported provisional restorations should be resistant to occlusal wear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate three-body wear of three indirect laboratory composite resins, five chair side bis-acryl resin-based materials, and two chair side

  9. Surface effects in adhesion, friction, wear, and lubrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckley, Donald H

    1981-01-01

    ... for carbon bodies to improve their wear resistance in high altitude aircraft generator applications. Basic researchers found that moisture in the carbon was critical t o its lubrication. Therefore, the presence of moisture o n the surface of the carbon was important. With it present, the carbon lubricated very effectively and very low wear was ...

  10. Lubricity Additives and Wear with DME in Diesel Injection Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kasper; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1999-01-01

    wear of standard diesel jerk pump plungers elements were made with weight measurements, diameter measurements, 2-D and 3-D surface roughness measurements, and photography by a Michelson interferometer. Several lubricity additives were tested, but none reduced wear levels to those for diesel fuel...

  11. Fracture mechanics approach to estimate rail wear limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes a systematic methodology to estimate allowable limits for rail head wear in terms of vertical head-height loss, gage-face side wear, and/or the combination of the two. This methodology is based on the principles of engineering fr...

  12. Effect of increasingly metallized hybrid reinforcement on the wear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scanning electron microscopy identified abrasion and delamination as primary wear mechanisms in the hybrid nanocomposite.Oxidation was active in nanocomposite with higher copper content, tested under higher load and positively affected the wear resistance. Limited thermal softening was observed when tested at a ...

  13. Airtight clothing for preventing radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Yoshinori.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To completely prevent the radioactive contaminations at the time of wearing or removing the airtight clothing, and further to facilitate wearing and removal of the same, air supply thereto and other works. Constitution: A duct having a large caliber and communicating with an air supply chamber is provided at the rear part of the airtight clothing. Since this duct is constituted in an expansible and contractible manner, the operator can pass the duct to wear or remove the airtight clothing. Since the airtight clothing according to the present invention is not cut off from its neck portion, the radiation protection is complete. Further, since the air supply duct has a great caliber, the wearing and removal of the airtight clothing become easy and further a large quantity of air can be supplied therein. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Durability analysis of gneiss using wear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Ernandes Dias Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted in gneiss in Santo Antonio de Pádua, RJ, BR, including durability analysis of the rock using slake durability test. Rocks in the region of Pádua are mostly used for ornamental purposes. A lab equipment was developed to evaluate the influence of rotation in the test, allowing for the speed variation of 7 RPM to 238 RPM. This study could be implemented in a wide variety of rock materials, targeting them according to their lifetime in the project. With variation of the wear levels, increasing weight loss was observed until the inertia moment in which the sample holds to the machine wall. The results indicate an increase in linear mass loss. These procedures allow a more precise analysis of durability than can be applied in different different regions of the world.

  15. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  16. Cast bulk metallic glass alloys: prospects as wear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Shiflet, Gary J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA)

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are single phase materials with unusual physical and mechanical properties. One intriguing area of possible use is as a wear material. Usually, pure metals and single phase dilute alloys do not perform well in tribological conditions. When the metal or alloy is lightweight, it is usually soft leading to galling in sliding situations. For the harder metals and alloys, their density is usually high, so there is an energy penalty when using these materials in wear situations. However, bulk metallic glasses at the same density are usually harder than corresponding metals and dilute single phase alloys, and so could offer better wear resistance. This work will discuss preliminary wear results for metallic glasses with densities in the range of 4.5 to 7.9 g/cc. The wear behavior of these materials will be compared to similar metals and alloys.

  17. Thermodynamical Description of Running Discontinuities: Application to Friction and Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Stolz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear phenomena appear due to contact and relative motion between two solids. The evolution of contact conditions depends on loading conditions and mechanical behaviours. The wear phenomena are essentially characterized by a matter loss. Wear and friction are in interaction due to the fact that particles are detached from the solids. A complex medium appears as an interface having a strong effect on the friction condition. The purpose of this paper is to describe such phenomena taking account of different scales of modelization in order to derive some macroscopic laws. A thermodynamical approach is proposed and models of wear are analysed in this framework where the separation between the dissipation due to friction and that due to wear is made. Applications on different cases are presented.

  18. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  19. Tool Wear Mechanisms during Cutting of Soda Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Nasima Bagum, Mst.; Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Arif, Tasnim Firdaus Bt. Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Soda lime glass milling has high performance application. It is a challenging task to achieve fracture free surface on this material due to its brittle nature. High-speed end milling is capable to achieve ductile mode in an enhance flexibility. In this research, end milling of soda lime using uncoated carbide tool was performed where spindle speed varied from 20,000 to 40,000 rpm, cutting depth from 10 to 30 µm and feed rate from 5 to 20 mm/min in dry condition. The effects of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed per tooth and depth of cut) on tool flank wear as well as wear mechanisms of tool flank investigated. Investigation showed that feed per edge has most influencing effect followed by cutting speed and depth of cut on flank wear and the main wear mechanism is abrasion wear. In some cases, oxidation, thermal diffusion and recast layer on tool flank also observed.

  20. Fretting wear and friction behaviour of engineering ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowiak, G.B. [Tribology Lab., Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Stachowiak, G.W. [Tribology Lab., Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)

    1995-12-01

    Friction and wear characteristics of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) fretted against itself and against high carbon steel were investigated. The results fror the transformation toughened PSZ ceramics are compared with the behaviour of more brittle alumina ceramic under the same test conditions. Fretting tests in air were carried out on a high frequency wear test rig at room temperature using a cross-cylinder configuration. It was found that both the oxide ceramics were more resistant to fretting wear than the steel. Surface cracking was observed on the alumina wear scars while microfracture and delamination dominated on the PSZ wear scars. When metallic samples were fretted against ceramics, metallic film transfer to the ceramic surfaces occurred. (orig.)

  1. Sliding wear behavior of nanostructured WC-Co-Cr coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Wang, Xuezheng; Song, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Xingwei

    2015-11-01

    The nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coatings were fabricated by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying using the in situ synthesized WC-Co nanocomposite powder with size of 70-200 nm and Cr addition. Through optimization of the processing conditions, the nanostructured WC-Co-Cr coating has only a small amount of decarburized phase, a dense microstructure and an excellent combination of hardness, fracture toughness and wear resistance. A series of sliding wear tests were performed to investigate the wear behavior of the nanostructured cermet coating. The evolution of the friction coefficient, wear characteristics and their mechanisms were studied for the nanostructured WC-Co-Cr coating with the change of the load. The present study proposes a new understanding of the occurrence and the related mechanisms of the wear of the cermet coatings.

  2. Scanning-electron-microscope used in real-time study of friction and wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Small friction and wear apparatus built directly into scanning-electron-microscope provides both dynamic observation and microscopic view of wear process. Friction and wear tests conducted using this system have indicated that considerable information can readily be gained.

  3. Occlusal wear of provisional implant-supported restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santing, Hendrik J; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Werner, Arie; Feilzer, Albert J; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A

    2015-02-01

    Implant-supported provisional restorations should be resistant to occlusal wear. The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate three-body wear of three indirect laboratory composite resins, five chair side bis-acryl resin-based materials, and two chair side methacrylate-based materials used to fabricate provisional implant-supported restorations. The materials were handled and cured according to the manufacturers' instructions. The three-body wear was measured 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after curing using the ACTA wear device. Wear rate decreased significantly after 8 weeks compared with the first day for all tested materials, except for Estenia C&B. The three-body wear of two indirect laboratory composite resins, that is, Estenia C&B and Solidex, was significantly less compared with all other tested materials used for fabricating provisional implant-supported restorations. Of the chair side materials, the wear rate of Protemp Crown Paste was significantly less compared with the others materials used to fabricate chair side provisional implant-supported restorations. The methacrylate-based materials, Temdent Classic and Trim, showed extreme high wear rates. Based on the results of this laboratory study on long-term wear, the use of indirect composite resin is preferred over chair side methacrylate-based materials when the provisional implant-supported restoration has to be in service for a long period of time. Of the investigated materials, only Estenia C&B and Solidex showed wear rate comparable with posterior resin composites. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Wear behavior of pressable lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhongxiao; Izzat Abdul Rahman, Muhammad; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Ling

    2016-07-01

    This article reports effects of surface preparation and contact loads on abrasive wear properties of highly aesthetic and high-strength pressable lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDGC). Abrasive wear testing was performed using a pin-on-disk device in which LDGC disks prepared with different surface finishes were against alumina pins at different contact loads. Coefficients of friction and wear volumes were measured as functions of initial surface finishes and contact loads. Wear-induced surface morphology changes in both LDGC disks and alumina pins were characterized using three-dimensional laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that initial surface finishes of LDGC specimens and contact loads significantly affected the friction coefficients, wear volumes and wear-induced surface roughness changes of the material. Both wear volumes and friction coefficients of LDGC increased as the load increased while surface roughness effects were complicated. For rough LDGC surfaces, three-body wear was dominant while for fine LDGC surfaces, two-body abrasive wear played a key role. Delamination, plastic deformation, and brittle fracture were observed on worn LDGC surfaces. The adhesion of LDGC matrix materials to alumina pins was also discovered. This research has advanced our understanding of the abrasive wear behavior of LDGC and will provide guidelines for better utilization and preparation of the material for long-term success in dental restorations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 968-978, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Coupling behavior between adhesive and abrasive wear mechanism of aero-hydraulic spool valves

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Yunxia; Gong Wenjun; Kang Rui

    2016-01-01

    Leakage due to wear is one of the main failure modes of aero-hydraulic spool valves. This paper established a practical coupling wear model for aero-hydraulic spool valves based on dynamic system modelling theory. Firstly, the experiment for wear mechanism verification proved that adhesive wear and abrasive wear did coexist during the working process of spool valves. Secondly coupling behavior of each wear mechanism was characterized by analyzing actual time-variation of model parameters duri...

  6. Application of the method of dimensionality reduction to simulate the fretting wear of anisotropic indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    In the paper we consider the fretting wear of two contacting bodies (indenter and half-space). Due to heterogeneity the indenter in contact area can have different mechanical properties. With an increasing number of cycles, the wear profile tends towards a limiting shape, in which no further wear occurs. Nonlinear dependence between final wear volume and indenter shear modulus was found. In accordance with our results the soft indenter provides less wear volume under fretting wear.

  7. Surface wear reduction of bulk solids handling equipment using bionic design

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Bulk solids handling continues to play an important role in a number of industries. One of the issues during bulk solids handling processes is equipment surface wear. Wear results in high economic loss and increases downtime. Current wear reduction methods such as optimizing transfer conditions or using wear-resistant materials, have brought notable progress. Nevertheless, the wear loss is still significant. Therefore, new solutions for reducing the surface wear must be investigated.Because w...

  8. Influence of stress state stiffness on wear resistance of materials under conditions of hydro- and impact abrasive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogodaev, L.I.; Tsvetkov, Yu.N.; Khomyakova, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    Aimed to develop a universal criterion of wear resistance a wide range of steels and nonferrous alloys was tested and testing results were analyzed. The specimens were tested for hydro-abrasive and impact-abrasive wear. It is shown that wear resistance is dependent on the parameter which characterizes the stiffness of stressed state for thin wearing layers. The critical density of strain energy determined with regard to the stiffness of stressed state of surface layers is concluded to be an universal criterion of wear resistance. it is revealed that the stiffness of surface stressed state decreases with a hardness increase and with transition from tension to compression or shear. This phenomenon is considered as the protection of surface layers against catastrophic failure. The data on mechanical properties are presented for a great quantity of cast materials (stainless, chromium and manganese steels, aluminium and copper alloys)

  9. Characterization of wear debris from metal-on-metal hip implants during normal wear versus edge-loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovochich, Michael; Fung, Ernest S; Donovan, Ellen; Unice, Kenneth M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L

    2018-04-01

    Advantages of second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants include low volumetric wear rates and the release of nanosized wear particles that are chemically inert and readily cleared from local tissue. In some patients, edge loading conditions occur, which result in higher volumetric wear. The objective of this study was to characterize the size, morphology, and chemistry of wear particles released from MoM hip implants during normal (40° angle) and edge-loading (65° angle with microseparation) conditions. The mean primary particle size by volume under normal wear was 35 nm (range: 9-152 nm) compared with 95 nm (range: 6-573 nm) under edge-loading conditions. Hydrodynamic diameter analysis by volume showed that particles from normal wear were in the nano- (edge-loading conditions generated particles that ranged from Edge-loading conditions generated more elongated particles (4.5%) (aspect ratio ≥ 2.5) and more CoCr alloy particles (9.3%) compared with normal wear conditions (1.3% CoCr particles). By total mass, edge-loading particles contained approximately 640-fold more cobalt than normal wear particles. Our findings suggest that high wear conditions are a potential risk factor for adverse local tissue effects in MoM patients who experience edge loading. This study is the first to characterize both the physical and chemical characteristics of MoM wear particles collected under normal and edge-loading conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 986-996, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Parameter Estimation of a Delay Time Model of Wearing Parts Based on Objective Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wearing parts of a system have a very high failure frequency, making it necessary to carry out continual functional inspections and maintenance to protect the system from unscheduled downtime. This allows for the collection of a large amount of maintenance data. Taking the unique characteristics of the wearing parts into consideration, we establish their respective delay time models in ideal inspection cases and nonideal inspection cases. The model parameters are estimated entirely using the collected maintenance data. Then, a likelihood function of all renewal events is derived based on their occurring probability functions, and the model parameters are calculated with the maximum likelihood function method, which is solved by the CRM. Finally, using two wearing parts from the oil and gas drilling industry as examples—the filter element and the blowout preventer rubber core—the parameters of the distribution function of the initial failure time and the delay time for each example are estimated, and their distribution functions are obtained. Such parameter estimation based on objective data will contribute to the optimization of the reasonable function inspection interval and will also provide some theoretical models to support the integrity management of equipment or systems.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tooth wear among adults in Bertam, Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurfarhana Farah; Roslan, Husniyati; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd

    2016-12-01

    Tooth wear is an oral lesion with multifactorial causes. The prevalence is increasing with an increasing age. Knowledge of tooth wear is part of oral health and essential requirements are needed to modify health related behaviors. This study was aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of tooth wear and to compare with the socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study using a modified version of self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 390 adults (aged more than 18 years old) from three government institutions in Bertam, Penang. A total of 349 (89.5%) subjects had participated in this study with 55.3% were males and majority of the subjects were Malays. About 58.2% had low level of knowledge with mean score at 20.8. Meanwhile, 93.4% subjects had a positive attitude and 84.2% had poor level of practice on oral hygiene. The low mean score of knowledge among subjects was not necessary an indicator that attitude and practice were affected. However, identification of etiological factors emphasizes on educational approaches, and empowerment of patients and community towards awareness are the most important factors for preventive strategies.

  12. Influence of wearing a scuba diving mouthpiece on the stomatognathic system - considerations for mouthpiece design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Toshiaki; Ono, Takahiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2016-06-01

    Although diver's mouth syndrome (DMS) has long been recognized by scuba divers, little attention has been paid to the influence of wearing a scuba diving mouthpiece on the stomatognathic system. In this review, DMS-related stomatognathic events (DMS-SE) while wearing a mouthpiece, the relationship between components of the mouthpiece and those events, and design considerations to reduce the risk of those events are discussed based on evidence from 32 articles concerning scuba diving mouthpieces. Forward movement of the mandible, loss of molar occlusal support, and continuous jaw clenching while wearing a mouthpiece are considered to be pathogenic for DMS-SE. Several experimental studies have suggested a relationship between incidence of those events and the design of mouthpiece components such as the connector, labial flange, platform, and occlusal rug, and the possibility of reducing risk of those events through design customization of these components. Improvement of the shape of commercially available mouthpieces and creation of custom-made mouthpieces may thus contribute to the prevention and treatment of DMS-SE and the provision of a comfortable diving environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of Wearing Different Personal Equipment on Force Distribution at the Plantar Surface of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The wearing of personal equipment can cause specific changes in muscle activity and posture. In the present study, we investigated the influence of differences in equipment related weight loading and load distribution on plantar pressure. In addition, we studied functional effects of wearing different equipment with a particular focus on relevant changes in foot shape. Methods. Static and dynamic pedobarography were performed on 31 male soldiers carrying increasing weights consisting of different items of equipment. Results. The pressure acting on the plantar surface of the foot increased with higher loading, both under static and dynamic conditions (p < 0.05. We observed an increase in the contact area (p < 0.05 and an influence of load distribution through different ways to carry the rifle. Conclusions. The wearing of heavier weights leads to an increase in plantar pressure and contact area. This may be caused by flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. The effects are more evident in subjects with flat feet deformities which seem to flatten at an earlier load condition with a greater amount compared to subjects with normal arches. Improving load distribution should be a main goal in the development of military equipment in order to prevent injuries or functional disorders of the lower extremity.

  14. Ferrography Wear Particles Image Recognition Based on Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of wear particles reflects the complex properties of wear processes involved in particle formation. Typically, the morphology of wear particles is evaluated qualitatively based on microscopy observations. This procedure relies upon the experts’ knowledge and, thus, is not always objective and cheap. With the rapid development of computer image processing technology, neural network based on traditional gradient training algorithm can be used to recognize them. However, the feedforward neural network based on traditional gradient training algorithms for image segmentation creates many issues, such as needing multiple iterations to converge and easy fall into local minimum, which restrict its development heavily. Recently, extreme learning machine (ELM for single-hidden-layer feedforward neural networks (SLFN has been attracting attentions for its faster learning speed and better generalization performance than those of traditional gradient-based learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose to employ ELM for ferrography wear particles image recognition. We extract the shape features, color features, and texture features of five typical kinds of wear particles as the input of the ELM classifier and set five types of wear particles as the output of the ELM classifier. Therefore, the novel ferrography wear particle classifier is founded based on ELM.

  15. Adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms in ion implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    The distinction between adhesive and abrasive wear processes was introduced originally by Burwell during the nineteen-fifties, though some authors prefer to classify wear according to whether it is mild or severe. It is argued here that, on the basis of the performance of a variety of ion implanted metal surfaces, exposed to different modes of wear, the Burwell distinction is a valid one which, moreover, enables us to predict under which circumstances a given treatment will perform well. It is shown that, because wear rates under abrasive conditions are very sensitive to the ratio of the hardness of the surface to that of the abrasive particles, large increases in working life are attainable as a result of ion implantation. Under adhesive wear conditions, the wear rate appears to fall inversely as the hardness increases, and it is advantageous to implant species which will create and retain a hard surface oxide or other continuous film in order to reduce metal-metal contact. By the appropriate combination of physico-chemical changes in an implanted layer it has been possible to reduce wear rates by up to three orders of magnitude. Such rates compensate for the shallow depths achievable by ion implantation. (orig.)

  16. Enamel erosion and mechanical tooth wear in medieval Icelanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2016-01-01

    The Icelandic Sagas are an important source of information on the way of life and diet habits in Iceland and possibly other Nordic countries 1000 years ago. Archaeological human skull material worldwide has revealed extensive tooth wear, with the main cause believed to be coarse diet. From a graveyard near volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in Icelanders 1000 years ago. Forty-nine skulls were available for research. Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation. An attempt was made to determine the main causes of tooth wear in the light of likely diet and beverage consumption according to a computer search on food and drink customs described in the Icelandic Sagas. Tooth wear was extensive in all groups, increasing with age. The highest score was on first molars, with no difference between sexes. It had all the similarities seen in wear from coarse diet. In some instances it had similar characteristics to those seen in erosion in modern Icelanders consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and used for preservation of food in Iceland until recently. Since acidic whey has considerably high dental erosive potential, it is postulated that consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear of ancient Icelanders.

  17. Surface and Sliding Wear Behaviour of Different Coatings and Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera-Cárdenas E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the sliding wear behaviour of the coatings TiN, CrN and WC/C applied on steel substrates was studied using a reciprocating wear test machine. All tests were carried out in dry conditions, at room temperature (20-23 C and 45% - 50% relative humidity. The average sliding velocity was 0.08 m/s and an amplitude of 2 mm was used. The applied loads were 11.76 N (Po = 1.74 GPa and 7.84 N (Po = 1.52 GPa. Optical microscopy was used to observe the characteristics of wear scars and spalls and possible causes of their formation. The variation of the friction coefficient against the number of cycles was obtained. This was used to determine more precisely the time (number of cycles where the coating presented the first signs of wear, in addition Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS was performed, as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and hardness tests on the wear traces, which reinforced the previous observations. Thus it was possible to know the wear life of different coatings and possible causes of variation. Increasing the load was an important factor in the variation of wear life results. But it is also important to consider other factors such as surface roughness and thickness of coatings.

  18. Dermatologists wearing white coats on practice websites: current trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G. Gamble

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians wearing white coats are perceived as having more authority, being more friendly and being more attractive than those not wearing white coats, and patients report that they prefer their dermatologist to wear a white coat. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of dermatologists wearing white coats on practice websites. We searched Google for dermatology practice websites in six states representing distinct geographic regions in the United States. The first one hundred search results were evaluated, and photographs of dermatologists on these websites were examined for the presence or absence of white coats. Most (77% of dermatologists did not wear white coats. The highest prevalence was in the eastern states of Massachusetts and South Carolina, with 29% and 39%, respectively. Colorado had the lowest rate at 13%. Rates were essentially equal when segmented by gender. Although patients report that they prefer their dermatologist to wear a white coat, dermatologists often do not wear a white coat on their practice websites.

  19. Clinical assessment of enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Schwindling, F S; Schmitter, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure enamel wear caused by antagonistic monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia full molar crowns were placed in 20 patients. Patients with high activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were excluded. For analysis of wear, vinylpolysiloxane impressions were prepared after crown incorporation and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists, and of two contralateral natural antagonists (control teeth) was measured by use of plaster replicas and a 3D laser-scanning device. Differences of wear between the zirconia crown antagonists and the control teeth were investigated by means of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. After 2 years, mean vertical loss was 46 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 19-26 μm for contralateral control teeth and 14 μm for zirconia crowns. Maximum vertical loss was 151 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 75-115 μm for control teeth and 60 μm for zirconia crowns. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between wear of enamel by zirconia-opposed teeth and by control teeth. Gender, which significantly affected wear, was identified as a possible confounder. Monolithic zirconia crowns generated more wear of opposed enamel than did natural teeth. Because of the greater wear caused by other dental ceramics, the use of monolithic zirconia crowns may be justified. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. RPP-WTP Slurry Wear Evaluation: Slurry Abrasivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with the task of evaluating wear in the cross-flow ultrafiltration system and specifically the need to define a representative slurry in order to obtain prototypic wear rates. The filtration system will treat many different wastes, but it is not practical to run a test for each one. This is especially true when considering that the planned period for testing is 2000 hours long and procurement of appropriate simulants is costly. Considering time and cost, one waste stream needs to be chosen to perform the wear test

  1. Changing in tool steels wear resistance under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginskaya, A.E.; Manin, V.N.; Makedonskij, A.V.; Mel'nikova, N.A.; Pakchanin, L.M.; Petrenko, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    The tool steels and alloys wear resistance under dry friction after electron irradiation has been studied. Electron irradiation of a wide variety of steels is shown to increase wear resistance. In this case phase composition and lattice parameters changes are observed both in matrix and carbides. The conclusion is drawn that an appreciable increase of steel wear resistance under electron irradiation can be explained both by carbide phase volume gain and changes in it's composition and the formation of carbide phase submicroscopic heterogeneities and, possibly, complexes of defects

  2. Evaluating and comparison between wear behavior of dental Amalgam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi MH

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Wear characteristics of dental amalgams were investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests. Wear"nof dental amalgam was studied and evaluated using a three - body abrasion test and Pin-On-Disk"nmethod. Porcelain was used for preparing disk and materials such as toothpaste, artificial saliva and"nnaturally saliva were used as the third material that was contributed in tribologic system"nThe results showed that effects of various toothpastes on the wear of dental amalgam are considerably"ndifferent and size, shape and chemical composition of amalgam are important too.

  3. Wear characteristics of INCONEL 690 and INCONEL 600 in elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S.H.; Lee, Y.Z.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the fretting wear characteristics of INCONEL 690 (I-690) and INCONEL 600 (I-600) was evaluated to verity the wear mechanism and the wear life. Because of the excellent corrosion-resistance of nickel-based alloy, those materials are used for steam generator tube in nuclear power plants. Sometimes the tubes are damaged due to small amplitude vibration, so called fretting wear. To verify the fretting wear mechanisms the wear experiment was carried with the crossed-cylinder wear tester, which used a cam to oscillate the specimen. The test was carried out at loads of 40N and 90N in elevated temperatures of water. The temperatures of water were 20 C, 50 C and 80 C. The increase of water temperature causes the oxidation of the contact area to be delayed, and the amount of wear on oxide layer to be reduced. The main wear mechanisms of fretting were abrasive wear and oxidation wear. (orig.)

  4. Non-compliance in contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, B E; Efron, N

    1994-10-01

    Non-compliance is emerging as a critical issue in the contact lens field. This problem has been studied at depth in general health care situations and is seen as the responsibility of both practitioner and patient (client) working in a health care partnership. The contact lens practitioner and patient present a specific case for the study of non-compliance in areas such as hygiene, solution use, appointment attendance and wearing times. From 40 to 91% of contact lens patients have been reported as non-complaint in the use of recommended care and maintenance regimens and many of these are confused or ignorant about their behaviour. In order to arrive at a general set of conclusions from the studies published to date, it is important to understand the methodology of each study, it purpose, the definition of non-compliance used and the way the results were analysed and described. This review summarizes the research into non-compliance in the contact lens field to data. A set of general conclusions is drawn and a model for compliance in the context of contact lens practice is proposed.

  5. Calibration of the portable wear metal analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael J.

    1987-12-01

    The Portable Wear Metal Analyzer (PWMA), a graphite furnace atomic absorption (AA) spectrometer, developed under a contract for this laboratory, was evaluated using powdered metal particles suspended in oil. The PWMA is a microprocessor controlled automatic sequential multielement AA spectrometer designed to support the deployed aircraft requirement for spectrometric oil analysis. The PWMA will analyze for nine elements (Ni, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ag, Mg, Si, Ti, Al) at a rate of 4 min per sample. The graphite tube and modified sample introduction system increase the detection of particles in oil when compared to the currently used techniques of flame AA or spark atomic emission (AE) spectroscopy. The PWMA shows good-to-excellent response for particles in sizes of 0 to 5 and 5 to 10 micrometers and fair response to particles of 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 micrometers. All trends in statistical variations are easily explained by system considerations. Correction factors to the calibration curves are necessary to correlate the analytical capability of the PWMA to the performance of existing spectrometric oil analysis (SOA) instruments.

  6. Automated visual inspection of brake shoe wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen; Nan, Guo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway, the automated fault inspection is necessary to ensure train's operation safety. Visual technology is paid more attention in trouble detection and maintenance. For a linear CCD camera, Image alignment is the first step in fault detection. To increase the speed of image processing, an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method is presented. The image is divided into multiple levels of different resolution. Then, we do not stop to extract the feature from the lowest resolution to the highest level until we get sufficient SIFT key points. At that level, the image is registered and aligned quickly. In the stage of inspection, we devote our efforts to finding the trouble of brake shoe, which is one of the key components in brake system on electrical multiple units train (EMU). Its pre-warning on wear limitation is very important in fault detection. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection approach to detect the fault of brake shoe. Firstly, we use multi-resolution pyramid template matching technology to fast locate the brake shoe. Then, we employ Hough transform to detect the circles of bolts in brake region. Due to the rigid characteristic of structure, we can identify whether the brake shoe has a fault. The experiments demonstrate that the way we propose has a good performance, and can meet the need of practical applications.

  7. Standard test method for ranking resistance of plastics to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test—cumulative wear method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of plastics to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank plastics according to their sliding wear characteristics against metals or other solids. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. In addition, the test can be run with different gaseous atmospheres and elevated temperatures, as desired, to simulate service conditions. 1.3 Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for the block and ring. Materials of higher wear resistance will have lower volume loss. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with it...

  8. Abrasive wear behaviour of as cast and austempered ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydogan, M.; Koekden, M.U.; Cimenoglu, H. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science Engineering Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of as cast and austempered GGG 50 and GGG 80 quality ductile irons was investigated. In the as cast condition, GGG 50 and GGG 80 quality ductile irons were having ferritic and pearlitic matrix structures, respectively. Austempering at 250 C after austenitisation at 900 C for 100 minutes produced bainitic matrix structure in both of the investigated ductile irons. Abrasive wear tests performed by rubbing the as cast and austempered specimens on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} abrasive bands, revealed that austempering treatment improves abrasion resistance about 10-70% depending on the abrasive particle size and composition of the base iron. In the as cast condition, pearlitic GGG 80 grade ductile iron, has higher wear resistance than ferritic GGG 50 grade ductile iron. In the austempered condition GGG 50 and GGG 80 grade ductile irons which have bainitic matrix structure, exhibit almost similar wear resistance. (orig.)

  9. Tribological wear behavior of diamond reinforced composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Gunjan, Manoj Kumar; Mondal, D.P.; Pathak, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, diamond reinforced composite (DRC) coating has been applied on mild steel substrate using thermal spray coating technique. The composite powder consists of diamond, tungsten carbide, and bronze, which was mixed in a ball mill prior deposition by thermal spray. The microstructure and the distribution of diamond and tungsten carbide particle in the bronze matrix were studied. The DRC-coated mild steel substrates were assessed in terms of their high stress abrasive wear and compared with that of uncoated mild steel substrates. It was observed that when sliding against steel, the DRC-coated sample initially gains weight, but then loses the transferred counter surface material. In case of abrasive wear, the wear rate was greatly reduced due to the coating; wherein the wear rate decreased with increase in diamond content

  10. Mitigation of wear damage by laser surface alloying technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, ID

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's increasingly extreme and aggressive production environments require that machine components be made with materials having specific surface properties such as good wear resistance. Unfortunately, nature does not provide such materials...

  11. Hardfacing materials used in valves for seating and wear surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity.

  12. Corrosion and wear resistant metallic layers produced by electrochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion and wear-corrosion properties of novel nickel alloy coatings with promising production characteristics have been compared with conventional bulk materials and hard platings. Corrosion properties in neutral and acidic environments have been investigated with electrochemical methods....... Determination of polarisation resistance during 100 hours followed by stepwise anodic polarisation seems to be a promising technique to obtain steady state data on slowly corroding coatings with transient kinetics. A slurry test enables determination of simultaneous corrosion and abrasive wear. Comparison...... of AISI 316, hard chromium and hardened Ni-P shows that there is no universal correlation between surface hardness and wear-corrosion loss. The possible relation between questionable passivity of Ni-P coatings and their high wear-corrosion loss rate compared to hard chromium is discussed....

  13. Friction and Wear Sciences for a Highly Durable Railgun Weapon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satapathy, S; Persad, C

    2007-01-01

    .... To be effective, a weapon must be able to fire thousands of rounds without refurbishment. New approaches are needed to understand the friction and wear sciences that influence the life of the railgun bore...

  14. A Wear Geometry Model of Plain Woven Fabric Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Dapeng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper g describes a model meant for analysis of the wear geometry of plain woven fabric composites. The referred model consists of a mathematical description of plain woven fabric based on Peirce’s model coupled with a stratified method for the solution of the wear geometry. The evolutions of the wear area ratio of weft yarn, warp yarn and matrix resin on the worn surface are simulated by MatLab software in combination of warp and weft yarn diameters, warp and weft yarn-to-yarn distances, fabric structure phases (SPs. By comparing theoretical and experimental results from the PTFE/Kevlar fabric wear experiment, it can be concluded that the model can present a trend of the component area ratio variations along with the thickness of fabric, but has a inherently large error in quantitative analysis as an idealized model.

  15. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  16. Wear deformation of ordered Fe-Al intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, H.E. (US Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center, OR (United States)); Wilson, R.D. (US Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center, OR (United States)); Hawk, J.A. (US Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center, OR (United States))

    1993-04-13

    The Bureau of Mines conducted abrasive wear research on DO[sub 3] ordered and disordered Fe[sub 3]Al intermetallics. The effect of abrasion on these alloys was studied through mixroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hardness measurements. The region near the wear surface undergoes dynamic recrystallization, i.e. the original microstructural morphology of micron-size grains is replaced by one with nanosize grains. Abrasion of the Fe[sub 3]Al alloys also results in a loss of the DO[sub 3] ordering in the wear surface region. The bulk temperature rise of the specimen during abrasion was approximately 28 C which is insufficient to cause recrystallization in these alloys. Therefore, the flash temperature due to interface frictional heating is considered more important than the bulk temperature when considering dynamic recrystallization as the transformation mechanism in the near wear surface region. (orig.)

  17. Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    body abrasive wear characteristic of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. For this, the three-body abrasion test is done on dry abrasion test rig (TR-50)and analysed using Taguchi's experimental design ...

  19. WEAR-RESISTANCE OF CHROMIC CAST IRONS OF EUTECTIC COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Baranovskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Casting of wear-resistant chrome cast irons in combined molds and iron chills is studied. Application of these ways of casting results in blending of carbides and increasing of hardness of castings.

  20. Friction and wear methodologies for design and control

    CERN Document Server

    Straffelini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of contact mechanics, friction, lubrication, and wear mechanisms, providing simplified analytical relationships that are useful for quantitative assessments. Subsequently, an overview on the main wear processes is provided, and guidelines on the most suitable design solutions for each specific application are outlined. The final part of the text is devoted to a description of the main materials and surface treatments specifically developed for tribological applications and to the presentation of tribological systems of particular engineering relevance. The text is up to date with the latest developments in the field of tribology and provides a theoretical framework to explain friction and wear problems, together with practical tools for their resolution. The text is intended for students on Engineering courses (both bachelor and master degrees) who must develop a sound understanding of friction, wear, lubrication, and surface engineering, and for technicians or professi...

  1. Application of charged particle activation for testing machine part wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosimova, M.; Tendera, P.

    1985-01-01

    The results of application of the charge particle activation method to investigate machine part wear are presented. Study of radionuclide activity and yield has been carried out at the U-120M isochronous cyclotron by means of the method of iron foil piles from 20 to 100 μm in thick. Protons and deuterons have been used. Wear measurement is based on determination of wear particle activity in a butyric medium. An example of the results of a bench test of activated piston rings and cylinder liner of the engine for trucks is given. The method of surface activation is shown to be acceptable for studying machine part wear under the regular service conditions, especially on the stage of the primary investigations and development, when sampling structural materials and estimating different lubricating oil applicability

  2. Complex technique for studying the machine part wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishko, V.A.; Zhushma, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A technique to determine the wear of steel details rolling with sliding with circulatory lubrication is suggested. The functional diagram of the experimental device and structural diagrams of equipment to register the wear of tested samples and forming the lubricating layer between them, are considered. Results of testing three conples of disc samples and the data characterizing the dependence of sample wear on the value of contact stress are presented. The peculiarity of the device used is synchronous registering of the lubricating layer formation in the place of contact and detail mass loss in time which is realized correspondingly over discharge voltage on the lubricating layer and the intensity of radiation from detail wear products activated by neutrons. On the basis, of the investigation the conclusion is made that MEhF-1 oil has a greater antiwear effectiveness than the universal TAD-17 1 oil used presently [ru

  3. Performance evaluation of thin wearing courses through scaled accelerated trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the permanent deformation (rutting) and fatigue performance of : several thin asphalt concrete wearing courses using a scaled-down accelerated pavement testing device. The accelerated testing : was ...

  4. Influence of quartz particles on wear in vertical roller mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas R.D.; Friis, Henrik; Fundal, Erling

    2010-01-01

    The standard closed circuit comminution process commonly employed in industrial vertical roller mills has been analyzed to determine the influence of typical abrasive minerals on wear rates. With the main focus on raw mixes used in cement plants, synthetic mixtures imitating were prepared. Using...... in an increased concentration of abrasive particles in the grinding bed ðR2 > 0:99Þ. The present study shows that the quartz concentration in the grinding bed is determining the wear rate....

  5. Adhesion and wear properties of boro-tempered ductile iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayali, Yusuf; Yalcin, Yilmaz; Taktak, Suekrue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study, the wear and adhesion properties of BDI were investigated. → Boro-tempering process under several heat treatment conditions was examined. → Optical microscope, SEM and XRD analysis were carried out to investigate the microstructure. → It was observed that boro-tempering process improves micro-hardness and wear properties of ductile irons. -- Abstract: In this study, adhesion and wear properties of boro-tempered ductile iron (BDI) were investigated. Boro-tempering was carried out on two stage processes i.e. boronizing and tempering. At the first stage, ductile iron samples were boronized by using pack process at 900 o C for 1, 3, and 5 h and then, secondly tempered at 250, 300, 350, and 400 o C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of boro-tempered samples showed that FeB and Fe 2 B phases were found on the surface of the samples. The Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test was used to assess the adhesion of boride layer. Test result showed that adhesion decreased with increasing boriding time and increased with increasing tempering temperature. Dry sliding wear tests of these samples were performed against Al 2 O 3 ball at a constant sliding speed and loads of 5 and 10 N. Wear tests indicated that boro-tempering heat treatment increased wear resistance of ductile iron. In addition, it was found that while wear rate of boro-tempered samples decreased with increasing boriding time, there is no significant affect of tempering temperature on wear rate.

  6. Wear characteristics of UHMW polyethylene by twist method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chișiu, G.; Popescu, A. M.; Tudor, A.; Petrescu, A. M.; Stoica, G. F.; Subhi, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    A wear test of the twist movement was performed as a new method to estimate the in vivo wear behavior of an acetabular cup material for total knee replacements. A series of UHMWPE samples was used to evaluate the dynamic coefficient of friction in twist movement in contact with steel. The experimental data were conducted to validate the related theoretical model developed in the present study.

  7. Wear Assessment of Conical Pick used in Coal Cutting Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-09-01

    Conical pick is a widely used tool for cutting coal in mines. It has a cemented carbide tip inserted in a steel body. Cemented carbide has been in use for many years for coal/rock cutting because it has the optimum combination of hardness, toughness and resistance against abrasive wear. As coal/rock is a heterogeneous substance, the cutting tool has to undergo various obstructions at the time of excavation that cause the tool to wear out. The cracks and fractures developing in the cemented carbide limit the life of the tool. For a long time, different wear mechanisms have been studied to develop improved grades of cemented carbide with high wear resistance properties. The research is still continuing. Moreover, due to the highly unpredictable nature of coal/rock, it is not easy to understand the wear mechanisms. In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the wear mechanisms in four conical picks, which were used in a continuous miner machine for underground mining of coal. The wearing pattern of the conical pick indicates damage in its cemented carbide tip as well as the steel body. The worn out parts of the tools have been critically examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) point analysis. Mainly four types of wear mechanisms, namely, coal/rock intermixing, plastic deformation, rock channel formation and crushing and cracking, have been detected. The presence of coal/rock material and their respective concentrations in the selected area of worn out surface were observed using the spectra generated by EDX analysis.

  8. Microstructure and wear behaviour of FeAl-based composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The carbides such as Fe3AlC0.5, TiC and ZrC are embedded in the matrix after sliding wear ... to formation of TiC/ZrC, thus forming a composite with the. FeAl matrix. ... s. −1 at room temperature. The dry sliding wear tests were carried out using a ball- on-disc apparatus. Specimens with size of 12 × 12 × 5 mm3 were used.

  9. Investigation on cause of the elevator turbine wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Ouyang, W. P.; Xue, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    Elevator traction turbine is often worn for various reasons, causing serious safety hazard. It is explained the main causes of traction wheel wear in detail in combination with a large number of engineering experience. The effect of turbine wear on the actual operation of the elevator is verified by contrast experiment, which is helpful to identify risks early. It is put forward on some reasonable suggestions for elevator inspection, maintenance and management.

  10. Determination of a Wear Initiation Cycle by using a Contact Resistance Measurement in Nuclear Fuel Fretting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fretting, the improving of the contact condition with a modified spring shape is a useful method for increasing the wear resistance of the nuclear fuel rod. This is because the fretting wear resistance between the fuel rod and grid spring is mainly affected by the grid spring shape rather than the environment, the contact modes, etc. In addition, the wear resistance is affected by the wear debris behavior between contact surfaces. So, it is expected that the wear initiation of each spring shape should be determined in order to evaluate a wear resistance. However, it is almost impossible to measure the wear behavior in contact surfaces on a real time basis because the contact surfaces are always hidden. Besides, the results of the worn surface observation after the fretting wear tests are restricted to archive the information on the wear debris behavior and the formation mechanism of the wear scar. In order to evaluate the wear behavior during the fretting wear tests, it is proposed that the contact resistance measurement is a useful method for examining the wear initiation cycle and modes. Generally, fretting wear damages are rapidly progressed by a localized plastic deformation between the contact surfaces, crack initiation and fracture of the deformed surface with a strain hardening difference between a surface and a subsurface and finally a detachment of wear debris. After this, wear debris is easily oxidized by frictional heat, test environment, etc. At this time, a small amount of electric current applied between the contact surfaces will be influenced by the wear debris, which could be an obstacle to an electric current flow. So, it is possible to archive the information on the wear behavior by measuring the contact resistance. In order to determine the wear initiation cycle during the fretting wear tests, in this study, fretting wear tests have been performed by applying a constant electric current in room temperature air

  11. Wear behavior of niobium carbide coated AISI 52100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos Kleber Nascimento de; Lombardi Neto, Amadeu; Totten, George Edward

    2010-01-01

    Bearing steels must have high hardness, good wear resistance and dimensional stability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of NbC coating, produced using the thermo-reactive deposition (TRD) process, on the wear resistance of the AISI 52100 steel. Untreated AISI 52100 samples were ground up to 600 mesh emery paper. The bath was composed of 5wt.% ferroniobium (65 wt.% Nb), 3wt.% aluminum and (Na2B4O7) to 100%. Samples were treated at 1000 deg C for 4h and quenched in oil directly from the bath. The resulting layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and a micro-abrasive wear testing. The thermo-reactive deposition process in molten borax produced a hard and homogeneous layer composed by NbC, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The NbC coating produced a great increase in the wear resistance of the AISI 52100 steel, decreasing the wear rate by an order of magnitude in relation to the substrate. For coated and uncoated samples the worn volume and wear rate increases with the load. (author)

  12. Abrasive wear of Hilong BoTN hardfacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, L.; Fedorov, S.; Sadovnikov, A.; Ivanova, Y.; Voronina, M.

    2018-02-01

    The spread of steels, which are used to produce locks of steel drill pipes, adversely affects their wear resistance, which, in combination with low hardness of HV 2400 ... 2800 MPa as well as of the thread of screw, results in low wear resistance and the need for their reconstruction at the pipe control shop. An efficient way of improving the quality of drill pipe jonts is to hard-face them by the outside diameter with wear-resistant materials (hardbanding). One of the companies engaged in the development of hardfacing materials and hardbanding is Hilong (China) with weld seams of the brand BoTn. According to the results of the studies the following conclusion can be made: hardfacing increases the durability of the hardware, contributing to an increase in wear resistance of locks of DP under the conditions of abrasive action of aggressive geological formations; the usage of DP without wear-resistant weld seams is impermissible, because their further operation, as part of the drill-stem, can lead to emergency consequences; application of the pipes with the hardfacing collars together with the collars without hardfacing, due to varying degree of wear of jonts in the drill-stem, is also impermissible.

  13. Hydrogen ion induced ultralow wear of PEEK under extreme load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Anying; Fei, Jixiong; Wang, Zhenyang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Bin

    2018-03-01

    As a high-performance engineering polymer, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is a perfect candidate material for applications under extreme working conditions. However, its high wear rate greatly shortens its service life. In this study, ultralow friction and wear between PEEK and silicon nitride (Si3N4) under extreme-load conditions (with a mean contact pressure above 100 MPa) are found in acid lubricating solutions. Both friction and wear decrease sharply with decreasing pH. At pH = 1, the friction coefficient decreases by an order of magnitude and the wear rate of the PEEK decreases by two orders of magnitude compared to the results with water lubrication. These reductions in friction and wear occur for different speed, load, and surface roughness conditions. The underlying mechanism can be attributed to the formation of hydrogen-ion-induced electrical double layers on the surfaces of PEEK and Si3N4. The combined effect of the resulting repulsive force, electro-viscosity, and low shear strength of the water layer dramatically reduces both friction and wear.

  14. Disposable contact lenses vs. contact lens maintenance for extended wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, J E; Caffery, B E; Campbell, I; Slomovic, A R

    1990-01-01

    We compared a disposable extended wear contact lens modality with conventional extended wear over a 6-week period. To do so, we refit 31 patients who had successfully worn conventional extended wear contact lenses for more than 1 year. One eye was fit with the AcuvueR disposable contact lens, and a new extended wear lens of the type the patient had been wearing was placed on the other eye. At weekly intervals the disposable lens was discarded and a new disposable lens inserted. At the same time, the conventional lens on the fellow eye was cleaned, disinfected, and reinserted. After 6 weeks the ocular response, subjective impressions, and condition of the lenses in the two eyes were compared. Both lenses were then cultured. Three subjects had to discontinue disposable lens wear because of adverse reactions to trapped cellular debris and corneal microcysts. Although the results were not statistically significant, the Acuvue lens appeared to perform better than or equal to the conventional lens in biomicroscopic observation, visual acuity measurement, and subjective patient preference. Eighty-seven percent of patients preferred to continue with the disposable system. There were no differences found in the type or degree of microbial contamination of the lenses.

  15. Fretting wear behavior of TA 16 alloy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yafei; Zhang Xiaoyu; Zhu Minhao; Ren Pingdi; Li Changxiang

    2011-01-01

    The fretting wear behavior tests on cylinder contacts of TA16/0Cr18Ni9 have been carried out under the normal load (50 N and 80 N), frequency (2 Hz) and displacement amplitude (from 80 μm to 200 μm) using the hydraulic fretting test machine with a high precision. Experimental results showed that the normal loads and displacement amplitudes may have remarkable influence on the damage degree and injury mechanism of materials. Degree of injury of material increases with the increasing displacement amplitude and normal loads, however, the friction coefficients decrease. Three-body layer consists of two parts: plastic deformation layer and debris layer that has effect on the restriction and control in the fretting wear. The analysis found that there are some micro-crack and delamination in the plastic deformation layer, and the abrasive dust have based mainly on the oxide of titanium and titanium alloys, and attached on the surface of wear. Adhesive wear, abrasive wear and friction oxidation are the main fretting wear mechanism. (authors)

  16. Impact wear of structural steel with yield strength of 235 MPa in various liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The wear of pipelines, used in slurry transport, results in high costs for maintenance and replacement. The wear mechanism involves abrasion, corrosion, impact, and the interaction among them. In this work, we study the effect of impact on the wear mechanism and wear rate. Results show that when the

  17. [Contact wear related to single- and multi-unit dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Spijker, A. van 't; Kuin, D.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Occlusal surfaces of teeth and restorations wear by repeated antagonistic contact. Two-body wear is the result of direct contact between occlusal surfaces. In cases of three-body wear, food is found between antagonistic teeth. Contact wear is expressed predominantly by abrasion and material fatigue.

  18. Policies for Probe-Wear Leveling in MEMS-Based Storage Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    Probes (or read/write heads) in MEMS-based storage devices are susceptible to wear. We study probe wear, and analyze the causes of probe uneven wear. We show that under real-world traces some probes can wear one order of magnitude faster than other probes leading to premature expiry of some probes.

  19. Airway Management in Athletes Wearing Lacrosse Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Boergers, Richard J; Lininger, Monica R

    2018-03-01

      Patient ventilation volume and rate have been found to be compromised due to the inability to seal a pocket mask over the chinstrap of football helmets. The effects of supraglottic airway devices such as the King LT and of lacrosse helmets on these measures have not been studied.   To assess the effects of different airway management devices and helmet conditions on producing quality ventilations while performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation on simulation manikins.   Crossover study.   Simulation laboratory.   Thirty-six athletic trainers (12 men, 24 women) completed this study.   Airway-management device (pocket mask, oral pharyngeal airway, King LT airway [KA]) and helmet condition (no helmet, Cascade helmet, Schutt helmet, Warrior helmet) served as the independent variables. Participant pairs performed 2 minutes of 2-rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation under 12 trial conditions.   Ventilation volume (mL), ventilation rate (ventilations/min), rating of perceived difficulty (RPD), and percentage of quality ventilations were the dependent variables.   A significant interaction was found between type of airway-management device and helmet condition on ventilation volume and rate ( F 12,408 = 2.902, P < .0001). In addition, a significant interaction was noted between airway-management device and helmet condition on RPD scores ( F 6,204 = 3.366, P = .003). The no-helmet condition produced a higher percentage of quality ventilations compared with the helmet conditions ( P ≤ .003). Also, the percentage of quality ventilations differed, and the KA outperformed each of the other devices ( P ≤ .029).   The helmet chinstrap inhibited quality ventilation (rate and volume) in airway procedures that required the mask to be sealed on the face. However, the KA allowed quality ventilation in patients wearing a helmet with the chinstrap fastened. If a KA is not available, the helmet may need to be removed to provide quality ventilations.

  20. Balancing between being a person and being a patient-A qualitative study of wearing patient clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, David

    2009-01-01

    The nursing literature is replete with articles on the function of clothing in preventing and controlling infections. However, although contemporary literature demonstrates intimate connections between clothing and identity, there is a lack of studies which illuminate the meanings associated with wearing patient clothing. This study aimed to illuminate the meanings of wearing patient clothing as narrated by patients and nurses in Swedish care settings. The data collection was based on grounded theory. Interviews with patients (n=9) and staff (n=5) were drawn from a larger study and analysed with a phenomenological hermeneutical method. Data was collected between 2001 and 2003 at a hospice, an in-patient geriatric unit, an acute medical unit, and an in-patient oncology unit in Sweden. The phenomenon of 'wearing patient clothing' was found to consist of four themes: (1) being comfortable and cared for; (2) being depersonalised; (3) being stigmatised; and (4) being devitalised. Interpreted in the light of philosophical literature on identity and symbols, the comprehensive understanding of wearing patient clothing is that it is a balancing between being a person and being a patient. Patient clothes were experienced as being comfortable and practical, but also as being stigmatising symbols of illness, confinement, and depersonalisation. The tension between patient clothing as being practical and comfortable and at the same time enabling feelings of being depersonalised and stigmatised suggests that nursing staff need to balance the practical benefits of these garments with the social and existential meanings they might have.

  1. Research on dynamic wear behavior at elevated temperature of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-17Co coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Chen Hui; Gou Guoqing; Tu Mingjing

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured WC-17Co coatings have been prepared by means of High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique. The wear resistance at the elevated temperature (500 0 C) of nanostructured coatings was compared using GCr15 steel as counterpart in sliding wear tests. The results show that when at the temperature of 500 0 C, the wear failure mechanism turns from plastic deformation to fracture resulted from crack propagation and adhesive wear. With the wear going, abrasive wear dominate in the coating, then turns into adhesive wear with changes of microscope.

  2. Dressing Wear Time after Breast Reconstruction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Francescato Veiga

    Full Text Available The evidence to support dressing standards for breast surgery wounds is empiric and scarce.This two-arm randomized clinical trial was designed to assess the effect of dressing wear time on surgical site infection (SSI rates, skin colonization and patient perceptions.A total of 200 breast cancer patients undergoing breast reconstruction were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to group I (dressing removed on the first postoperative day, n = 100 or group II (dressing removed on the sixth postoperative day, n = 100. SSIs were defined and classified according to criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Samples collected before placing the dressing and after 1 day (group I and 6 days (both groups were cultured for skin colonization assessments. Patients preferences and perceptions with regard to safety, comfort and convenience were recorded and analyzed.A total of 186 patients completed the follow-up. The global SSI rate was 4.5%. Six patients in group I and three in group II had SSI (p = 0.497. Before dressing, the groups were similar with regard to skin colonization. At the sixth day, there was a higher colonization by coagulase-negative staphylococci in group I (p<0.0001. Patients preferred to keep dressing for six days (p<0.0001, and considered this a safer choice (p<0.05.Despite group I had a higher skin colonization by coagulase-negative staphylococci on the sixth postoperative day, there was no difference in SSI rates. Patients preferred keeping dressing for six days and considered it a safer choice.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01148823.

  3. Nitrogen implantation of steels: A treatment which can initiate sustained oxidative wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, E.B.; Reinbold, R.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Kohser, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Falex wear tests on mild (SAE 3135) steel samples treated by either nitrogen implantation (2.5x10 17 N 2 + cm -2 at 180 keV) or low temperature (about 315 0 C) oxidation are reported. The results show that both treatments lead to about an order-of-magnitude reduction in the long-term wear rate of the steel. In addition to the wear rate measurements, the wear member asymmetry behavior, scanning electron microscopy studies, Auger spectra and sputter profiles all indicate that the wear modes induced by both treatments are the same and are oxidative wear. These results confirm the previously proposed initiator-sustainer wear model in which implanted nitrogen simply acts as an initiator of favorable oxidative wear but is not directly involved in maintaining the sustained wear resistance. Possible mechanisms for both the initiation process and the sustained wear process are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  4. Standard guide for measuring the wear volumes of piston ring segments run against flat coupons in reciprocating wear tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers and describes a profiling method for use accurately measuring the wear loss of compound-curved (crowned) piston ring specimens that run against flat counterfaces. It does not assume that the wear scars are ideally flat, as do some alternative measurement methods. Laboratory-scale wear tests have been used to evaluate the wear of materials, coatings, and surface treatments that are candidates for piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel engines or spark ignition engines. Various loads, temperatures, speeds, lubricants, and durations are used for such tests, but some of them use a curved piston ring segment as one sliding partner and a flat or curved specimen (simulating the cylinder liner) as its counterface. The goal of this guide is to provide more accurate wear measurements than alternative approaches involving weight loss or simply measuring the length and width of the wear marks. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its ...

  5. Detection and mitigation of aging and service wear effects of nuclear power plant components in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachner, J.

    1987-07-01

    In Canada, the operational safety management of nuclear power plants employs methods which are intended to prevent, detect, correct and mitigate system and component failures from any cause, including the effects of aging and service wear degradation. The paper gives an overview of the application of these methods in the detection and mitigation of aging effects before they impact on plant safety and production reliability. Regulatory audits of these methods, to ensure that an acceptable level of plant safety is maintained by the nuclear power plant licensees, are also described. The methods are: a preventive maintenance program, Significant Event Reporting system, and a reliability based assessment of performance of safety related systems. The above methods are discussed and illustrated by examples. The soundness of the approach has been proven by the results achieved in 163 reactor-years of operation. Present and future developments include reviews of current monitoring, testing and inspection methods to ensure that appropriate time variant parameters (capable of revealing aging degradation before loss of functional capability) are monitored, and reviews of the effectiveness of existing maintenance programs and methods in mitigating aging and service wear effects

  6. Consensus Report of the European Federation of Conservative Dentistry: Erosive tooth wear – diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Thiago S; Colon, Pierre; Ganss, Carolina; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Lussi, Adrian; Schlueter, Nadine; Schmalz, Gottfried; Shellis, Peter R; Björg Tveit, Anne; Wiegand, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Due to an increased focus on erosive tooth wear (ETW), the European Federation of Conservative Dentistry (EFCD) considered ETW as a relevant topic for generating this consensus report. This report is based on a compilation of the scientific literature, an expert conference, and the approval by the General Assembly of EFCD. ETW is a chemical-mechanical process resulting in a cumulative loss of hard dental tissue not caused by bacteria, and it is characterized by loss of the natural surface morphology and contour of the teeth. A suitable index for classification of ETW is the basic erosive wear examination (BEWE). Regarding the etiology, patient-related factors include the predisposition to erosion, reflux, vomiting, drinking and eating habits, as well as medications and dietary supplements. Nutritional factors relate to the composition of foods and beverages, e.g., with low pH and high buffer capacity (major risk factors), and calcium concentration (major protective factor). Occupational factors are exposition of workers to acidic liquids or vapors. Preventive management of ETWaims at reducing or stopping the progression of the lesions. Restorative management aims at reducing symptoms of pain and dentine hypersensitivity, or to restore esthetic and function, but it should only be used in conjunction with preventive strategies. Effective management of ETW includes screening for early signs of ETW and evaluating all etiological factors. ETW is a clinical condition, which calls for the increased attention of the dental community and is a challenge for the cooperation with other medical specialities.

  7. A mechanistic understanding of the wear coefficient: From single to multiple asperities contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frérot, Lucas; Aghababaei, Ramin; Molinari, Jean-François

    2018-05-01

    Sliding contact between solids leads to material detaching from their surfaces in the form of debris particles, a process known as wear. According to the well-known Archard wear model, the wear volume (i.e. the volume of detached particles) is proportional to the load and the sliding distance, while being inversely proportional to the hardness. The influence of other parameters are empirically merged into a factor, referred to as wear coefficient, which does not stem from any theoretical development, thus limiting the predictive capacity of the model. Based on a recent understanding of a critical length-scale controlling wear particle formation, we present two novel derivations of the wear coefficient: one based on Archard's interpretation of the wear coefficient as the probability of wear particle detachment and one that follows naturally from the up-scaling of asperity-level physics into a generic multi-asperity wear model. As a result, the variation of wear rate and wear coefficient are discussed in terms of the properties of the interface, surface roughness parameters and applied load for various rough contact situations. Both new wear interpretations are evaluated analytically and numerically, and recover some key features of wear observed in experiments. This work shines new light on the understanding of wear, potentially opening a pathway for calculating the wear coefficient from first principles.

  8. Surface roughness and wear of resin cements after toothbrush abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Kiyoshi ISHIKIRIAMA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10: Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC; RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100; and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2. Initial roughness (Ra, µm was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles, and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05. The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm/wear (µm were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175; ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263; U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952; and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876. Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations.

  9. Impact of Advertising on Tampon Wear-time Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara E. Woeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives (1 To determine whether advertising nighttime tampon use for up to eight hours was understood to be consistent with label recommendations and (2 to determine whether television and print advertising with this message affected tampon wear times in adults and teens. Methods (1 A comprehension study (online advertising and follow-up questionnaire among women aged 14–49 years (300 per group who viewed either the test or a control advertising message; (2 Diary-based surveys of tampon wear times performed prior to ( n = 292 adults, 18–49 years, 74 teens, 12–17 years and after ( n = 287 adults, 104 teens the launch of national advertising. Results Significantly more test message viewers than controls stated tampons should be worn less than or equal to eight hours (93.6% vs. 88.6%, respectively, P = 0.049. A directionally higher percentage of test message viewers said they would use a pad if sleeping longer than eight hours (52% vs. 42% of controls. Among the women who used tampons longer than eight hours when sleeping, 52% reported they would wake up and change compared with 45% of controls. No significant difference between baseline and follow-up diary surveys was found among teens or adults in various measures of tampon wear time (mean wear times; usage intervals from less than two hours to more than 10 hours; percentage of tampons used for more than or equal to eight hours; frequency of wearing at least one tampon more than eight hours. Conclusions Advertising nighttime tampon wear for up to eight hours effectively communicated label recommendations but did not alter tampon wear times. The informational intervention had limited impact on established habits.

  10. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  11. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Asefi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow, Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists. A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  12. Study on Composition, Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Fe-B-C Wear-Resistant Surfacing Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Minghui; Li, Muqin; Wang, Jun; Ma, Zhen; Yuan, Shidan

    2017-12-01

    Fe-B-C alloy layers with various microstructures were welded on Q235 steel plates using welding powders/H08Mn2Si and welding wires composite surfacing technology. The relationship existing between the chemical composition, microstructure and wear resistance of the surfacing alloy layers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and wear tests. The results demonstrated that the volume fractions and morphologies of the microstructures in the surfacing alloy layers could be controlled by adjusting the boron and carbon contents in the welding powders, which could further regulate the wear resistance of the surfacing alloy layers. The typical microstructures of the Fe-B-C surfacing alloy layers included dendritic Fe, rod-like Fe2B, fishbone-like Fe2B and daisy-like Fe3(C, B). The wear resistance of the alloy layers with various morphologies differed. The wear resistance order of the different microstructures was: rod-like Fe2B > fishbone-like Fe2B > daisy-like Fe3(C, B) > dendritic Fe. A large number of rod-like Fe2B with high microhardness could be obtained at the boron content of 5.70 5.90 wt.% and the carbon content of 0.50 0.60wt.%. The highest wear resistance of the Fe-B-C alloy layers reached the value of 24.1 g-1, which demonstrates the main microscopic cutting wear mechanism of the Fe-B-C alloy layers.

  13. Modeling and Tool Wear in Routing of CFRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, D.; Fernandez, A.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Girot, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of feed force in routing of carbon composite material. In order to extend tool life and improve quality of the machined surface, a better understanding of uncoated and coated tool behaviors is required. This work describes (1) the optimization of the geometry of multiple teeth tools minimizing the tool wear and the feed force, (2) the optimization of tool coating and (3) the development of a phenomenological model between the feed force, the routing parameters and the tool wear. The experimental results indicate that the feed rate, the cutting speed and the tool wear are the most significant factors affecting the feed force. In the case of multiple teeth tools, a particular geometry with 14 teeth right helix right cut and 11 teeth left helix right cut gives the best results. A thick AlTiN coating or a diamond coating can dramatically improve the tool life while minimizing the axial force, roughness and delamination. A wear model has then been developed based on an abrasive behavior of the tool. The model links the feed rate to the tool geometry parameters (tool diameter), to the process parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut) and to the wear. The model presented has been verified by experimental tests.

  14. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Dai

    Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  15. Graded coatings for thermal, wear and corrosion barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, U.; Peters, M.; Bach, Fr.-W.; Tegeder, G.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the main results generated in a German National Science Foundation (DFG) program on projects concerned with functionally graded materials applied to optimize the thermal, wear and corrosion properties of metallic and ceramic materials. Thermal barrier coatings deposited onto Cu substrates by pulsed laser deposition showed improved spallation behavior by a graded lamella microstructure with improved interface fracture toughness. A particle-hardened graded surface structure improved the wear resistance of plasma sprayed thermal barriers. By means of evaporation techniques a graded bonding area was manufactured with a high potential of lifetime improvement. For non-oxide ceramics graded coatings based on Si 3 N 4 and mullite led to improved oxidation resistance of the substrate material. Graded TiC-TiN thin films allowed to improve the wear resistance of cutting tool alloys with good adhesion to the substrate material. On light metal alloys, the limits of grading with respect to corrosion protection as well as wear were determined. Graded layers of arc-sprayed titanium with in situ produced particles or welded alloy gradients led to improved wear characteristics. Stress profiles in graded layers were analyzed with the help of a modified X-ray diffraction analysis

  16. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Emily E; Baier, Melissa A; Reinhard, Karl J

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  17. Experimental fretting-wear studies of steam generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, N.J.; Chow, A.B.; Weckwerth, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration of steam generator tubes results in fretting-wear damage due to impacting and rubbing of the tubes against their supports. This damage can be predicted by computing tube response to flow-induced excitation forces using analytical techniques, and then relating this response to resultant wear damage using experimentally-derived wear coefficients. Fretting-wear of steam generator materials has been studied experimentally at Chalk River Laboratories for two decades. Tests are conducted in machines that simulate steam generator environmental conditions and tube-to-support dynamic interactions. Different tube and support materials, tube-to-support clearances and tube support geometries have been studied. As well, the effect of environmental conditions, such as temperature, oxygen content, pH and chemistry control additive, have been investigated. Early studies showed that damage was related to contact force as long as other parameters, such as geometry and motion were held constant. Later studies have shown that damage is related to a parameter called work-rate, which combines both contact force and sliding distance. Results of short- and long-term fretting-wear tests for CANDU steam generator materials at realistic environmental conditions are presented. These results demonstrate that work-rate is appropriate correlating parameter for impact-sliding interaction

  18. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Hammerl

    Full Text Available Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  19. Simulated night vision goggle wear and colored aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jeffery K; Pilecki, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Surveys of military pilots report that between 1.6% and 65% of the respondents experienced altered color vision after night vision goggle (NVG) wear. For the majority of these pilots, the aftereffect was a brownish afterimage that lasted less than 10 min. Given the large disparity in the surveys, we asked subjects to wear goggles which simulated NVGs to determine the nature and duration of any color aftereffects after removing the goggles. Two separate experiments were conducted after wearing the goggles for 30 continuous minutes. The first measured the adaptation effects on color appearance by determining the spectral locations of unique blue and unique yellow. The second measured the adaptation effects on color discrimination using the Lanthony Desaturated D15 (Desat D15) color vision test. The location of unique blue shifted to a longer wavelength by 4 nm immediately after removing the goggles and returned to baseline by 12 min post-wear. The unique yellow location was unaffected by the color aftereffect. In the second experiment, the time to complete the Desat D15 was 13% longer than baseline for the first 6 min post-wear. There was also a decrease in the frequency of errors relative to baseline. Only one subject reported an afterimage in either experiment. The results showed that the color aftereffects were subtle and unlikely to cause major color vision problems. The time course of the color aftereffect in this experiment resembled short-term adaptation effects.

  20. Wear reduction through piezoelectrically-assisted ultrasonic lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Sheng; J Dapino, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Traditional lubricants are undesirable in harsh aerospace environments and certain automotive applications. Ultrasonic vibrations can be used to reduce and modulate the effective friction coefficient between two sliding surfaces. This paper investigates the relationship between friction force reduction and wear reduction in ultrasonically lubricated surfaces. A pin-on-disc tribometer is modified through the addition of a piezoelectric transducer which vibrates the pin at 22 kHz in the direction perpendicular to the rotating disc surface. Friction and wear metrics including volume loss, surface roughness, friction forces and apparent stick-slip effects are measured without and with ultrasonic vibrations at three different sliding velocities. SEM imaging and 3D profilometry are used to characterize the wear surfaces and guide model development. Over the range of speeds considered, ultrasonic vibrations reduce the effective friction force up to 62% along with a wear reduction of up to 49%. A simple cube model previously developed to quantify friction force reduction is implemented which describes wear reduction within 15% of the experimental data. (paper)

  1. Allowable stem nut wear and diagnostic monitoring for MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinburne, P.

    1994-01-01

    After a motor-operated valve (MOV) stem nut failure in 1991 that contributed to a forced plant shutdown, the FitzPatrick Plant staff developed criteria to check for excessive stem nut wear in MOVs. Allowable stem nut wear monitoring uses both direct dimensional measurement and diagnostic test data interpretation. The wear allowance is based on the recommended permitted backlash discussed in the Electric Power Research Institute/Nuclear Maintenance Assistance Center Technical Repair Guideline for the Limitorque SMB-000 Motor Actuator. The diagnostic analysis technique measures the time at zero load and compares this with a precalculated allowable zero force time. Excessive zero force time may be the result of other MOV problems, such as a loose stem nut lock nut or excessive free play in the drive sleeve bearing. Stress levels for new or nominal stem nuts and stem nuts with the full wear allowance were compared. Bending and shear stresses at the thread root increase for the maximum wear condition when compared with a open-quotes newclose quotes stem nut. These stresses are directly related to the thread root thickness. For typical MOV loading and common stem threading (with two diameters of thread engagement), the thread stresses are well within acceptable limits for ASTM B584-C86300 (formerly B147-863) manganese bronze (typical stem nut material)

  2. A new production technique for wear resistant ring-hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shifeng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a great number of laboratory experiments, a new technique has been developed for producing wear resistant ring-hammers. In this technology, lost foam casting with iron sand was combined to make mold; a special alloy was used to inoculate the molten steel, and proper heat treatment was used to further improve mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers. The influence of this new production technology on the microstructure and mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers was studied. Results show that iron sand molding, having the inherent characteristic of sand molding, changes the type of metallic compounds, refines crystal grains and increases the fineness of microstructure. Practical experience verified that the properties of the ring-hammers produced with this new technique are as follows: tensile strength (Rm 720 MPa, impact toughness (ak > 210 J•cm-2 and hardness > 200 HB. After water quenching from 1,080℃ (holding for 4 h and tempering at 320℃ for 3 h, the best wear resistance is obtained, and the wear resistance is 1.6 times higher than that of common high manganese ring-hammers.

  3. The wear rates and performance of three mold insert materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z.W.; Leong, M.H.; Liu, X.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a rapidly solidified aluminum alloy was compared with beryllium copper and 6061 aluminum alloys in terms of their wear rates, hardness and performance as mold insert materials. A Vickers hardness measuring machine and a tribometer were used to determine the hardness values and wear rates of the materials. Three sets of mold inserts were made of these materials, and the insert surfaces and the molded plastic lens surfaces were characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a surface profilometer, respectively. The investigation results indicate that the BeCu alloy has the lowest wear rate, while aluminum 6061-T6 has the highest wear rate. Although the rapidly solidified aluminum alloy is not as hard as the BeCu alloy, the differences between their wear rates and hardness values are not as great as the differences between aluminum 6061-T6 and the BeCu alloy. The results also indicate that the rapidly solidified aluminum alloy performs much better than aluminum 6061-T6 in molding of plastic lenses and is comparable to the BeCu alloy. It is able to attain finer surfaces of the molded plastic lenses. This is an important finding, and this means that the rapidly solidified aluminum alloy can replace the BeCu alloy as a good mold insert material, because beryllium (Be) is a toxic element. The finding gives the industry a better choice for selection of mold insert materials.

  4. Wear Resistance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFA intended for pavement applications is presented in this paper. In India, yearly production of fly ash is more than 100 million tons. Majority of fly ash is of Class F type. Out of which 20-25% is being utilized in cement-based materials. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out for its large scale utilization. Concrete mixtures were prepared by replacing cement with 40, 50, and 60% of fly ash. Experiments were conducted for fresh concrete properties, compressive strength and wear resistance. Test results indicated that wear resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 40% was comparable to the normal concrete. Beyond 40% fly ash content, concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to wear in relation non-fly ash concretes. There is very good correlation between wear resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.8482 and 0.9787 depending upon age.

  5. Testing of a Fiber Optic Wear, Erosion and Regression Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the physical processes and harsh environments associated with erosion and wear in propulsion environments makes their measurement and real-time rate quantification difficult. A fiber optic sensor capable of determining the wear (regression, erosion, ablation) associated with these environments has been developed and tested in a number of different applications to validate the technique. The sensor consists of two fiber optics that have differing attenuation coefficients and transmit light to detectors. The ratio of the two measured intensities can be correlated to the lengths of the fiber optic lines, and if the fibers and the host parent material in which they are embedded wear at the same rate the remaining length of fiber provides a real-time measure of the wear process. Testing in several disparate situations has been performed, with the data exhibiting excellent qualitative agreement with the theoretical description of the process and when a separate calibrated regression measurement is available good quantitative agreement is obtained as well. The light collected by the fibers can also be used to optically obtain the spectra and measure the internal temperature of the wear layer.

  6. Evolution of wear and friction along experimental faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneh, Yeval; Chang, Jefferson C.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of wear and friction along experimental faults composed of solid rock blocks. This evolution is analyzed through shear experiments along five rock types, and the experiments were conducted in a rotary apparatus at slip velocities of 0.002–0.97 m/s, slip distances from a few millimeters to tens of meters, and normal stress of 0.25–6.9 MPa. The wear and friction measurements and fault surface observations revealed three evolution phases: A) An initial stage (slip distances surface; B) a running-in stage of slip distances of 1–3 m with intense wear-rate, failure of many asperities, and simultaneous reduction of the friction coefficient and wear-rate; and C) a steady-state stage that initiates when the fault surface is covered by a gouge layer, and during which both wear-rate and friction coefficient maintain quasi-constant, low levels. While these evolution stages are clearly recognizable for experimental faults made from bare rock blocks, our analysis suggests that natural faults “bypass” the first two stages and slip at gouge-controlled steady-state conditions.

  7. Characterization of polyethylene wear particle: The impact of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Reinders, Jörn; Zietz, Carmen; Utzschneider, Sandra; Bader, Rainer; Kretzer, J Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Due to the prevalence of problems caused by wear particles, the reduced durability of total joint replacements is well documented. The characterization of wear debris enables the size and morphology of these wear particles to be measured and provides an assessment of the biological response in vivo. However, the impact of different methodologies of particle analysis is not yet clear. Hence, the aim of this investigation was to analyze the influence of different particle characterization methods performed by three research centers within the scope of a "round robin test". To obtain knowledge about possible pitfalls, single steps of the particle characterization process (storage, pore size of the filter, coating durations by gold sputtering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) magnification) were analyzed. The round robin test showed significant differences between the research groups, especially for the morphology of the particles. The SEM magnification was identified as having the greatest influence on the size and shape of the particles, followed by the storage conditions of the wear particle containing lubricant. Gold sputter coating and filter pore size also exhibit significant effects. However, even though they are statistically significant, it should be emphasized that the differences are small. In conclusion, particle characterization is a complex analytical method with a multiplicity of influencing factors. It becomes apparent that a comparison of wear particle results between different research groups is challenging. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fretting friction and wear characteristics of magnetorheological fluid under different magnetic field strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    A magnetorheological fluid (MRF) performs differently under different magnetic field strength. This study examined the fretting friction and wear characteristics of MRFs under a range of magnetic field strengths and oscillation frequencies. The fretting friction and wear behaviors of MRF are investigated using a fretting friction and wear tester. The surfaces of specimen are examined by optical microscopy and 3D surface profilometer before and after the tests and wear surface profiles, the wear volume loss and wear coefficient for each magnetic field strength are evaluated. The results show that the friction and wear properties of MRF change according to the magnetic field strength and oscillation frequency. - Highlights: • Fretting friction and wear characteristics of MRF is examined. • The friction coefficients increased with increasing magnetic field strength. • The coefficient of friction decreased with increasing oscillation frequency. • Wear volume and coefficient become worse with increasing magnetic field strength.

  9. Chaotic Characteristics and the Application of SVM in the Tool Wear State Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal cutting process is a nonlinear system to obtain the tool wear state and chaos theory are introduced tool wear and feature extraction of acoustic emission signal analysis and classification of tool wear state and wear prediction based on support vector machine (SVM. First, optimal embedding dimension of the time delay of phase space reconstruction of nonlinear dynamic system, the chaotic attractor; secondly, three characteristics: correlation dimension, the largest Lyapunov exponent and the Kolmogorov is extracted from the AE signal denoising feature vector and construct the different wear conditions. Finally, the feature vector is fed into the support vector machine (SVM, and the tool wear condition is classified. Research shows that: the cutting tool wear acoustic emission signal possesses the characteristics of chaos, chaotic characteristic parameters and tool wear status has intrinsic relationship; combined with chaos theory and support vector machine (SVM, can be very good to achieve the tool wear state recognition and prediction.

  10. Two-body in vitro wear study of some current dental composites and amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Marquis, P M; Shortall, A C

    1999-08-01

    Wear resistance of restorative materials is a major concern in clinical practice for restorations involving occlusion. The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composites in stress-bearing posterior situations has restricted even wider clinical application of this type of restorative material. This in vitro study compared the relative wear resistance of a selection of current dental composites and amalgams under cyclic loading to explore the wear mechanisms operating on these materials and to assess their relative potential clinical wear resistance under variable masticatory loads. A 2-body in vitro wear test was undertaken on a selection of 2 Ultrafine Compact-Filled composites, 1 microfilled composite, and 3 dental amalgams. An alternating sine curve load (0.5 to 15 N) was applied to the wear surface through a rotating countersample with a purpose-built system to simulate the variable loading pattern that occurs during mastication. Under conditions simulating the repetitive cyclic loading pattern that may occur intraorally in high stress occlusal contact situations, the Ultrafine Compact-Filled composites exhibited a delamination wear pattern and had a significantly lower wear resistance than the amalgams. By comparison, the microfilled composite (Silux Plus) displayed an improved wear resistance that was superior to some amalgams. Dispersalloy had the best wear resistance among the materials selected. The wear of Ultrafine Compact-Filled composite and microfilled composite differed and reflect different operative wear mechanisms. For amalgams, the size, shape, and composition of the particles had an effect on the wear resistance of the materials.

  11. Corrosion and corrosion-friction properties of plasma cladding wear-resistant layer on Fe-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dekun; Yu, Ruoqi; Chen, Kai; Yang, Xuehui; Liu, Yuan; Yin, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Plasma cladding technology is used to prepare a plasma cladding gradient wear-resistant layer, and the corrosion and corrosion-friction properties of the plasma cladding wear-resistant layer are analyzed. The results indicate that under pure immersion corrosion, the plasma gradient cladding wear-resisting layer has better corrosion resistance compared with that of single cladding specimen. No obvious corrosion traces occur on the corrosion surface. Under corrosion-friction conditions, the variety law of friction coefficient can be divided into four stages: rapid decline zone, slight increase zone, fluctuation zone and steady zone. The fluctuation ranges of friction coefficient and wear loss greatly reduce compared with those of dry friction. Furthermore, the wear scar has no obvious corrosion traces. The wear mechanism of the substrate is corrosion wear, adhesive wear, abrasive wear and fatigue wear, while the plasma cladding gradient wear-resistant layer is given priority to with adhesive wear and abrasive wear.

  12. Dry sliding wear of Ni alloyed austempered ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Akbarzadeh Chiniforush

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of dry sliding wear are presented for ductile irons with composition Fe-3.56C-2.67Si-0.25Mo-0.5Cu and Ni contents of 0.8 and 1.5 in wt.% with applied loads of 50, 100 and 150 N for austempering temperatures of 270, 320, and 370 °C after austenitizing at 870 °C for 120 min. The mechanical property measurements show that the grades of the ASTM 897M: 1990 Standard can be satisfied for the selected austempering conditions. The results show that wear resistance is independent of austempering temperature with an applied load of 50 N, but there is a strong dependence at higher austempering temperatures with applied loads of 100 and 150 N. Observations indicate that wear is due to subsurface fatigue with cracks nucleated at deformed graphite nodules.

  13. Wear Resistance of Austempered Ductile Iron with Nanosized Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleicheva, J. K.; Mishev, V.

    2018-01-01

    The wear resistance, microstructure and mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with nanosized additives of cubic boron nitride cBN are investigated. Samples of ductile iron are put under austhempering at the following conditions: heating at 900°С, 1 h and isothermal retention at 280оС, 2 h and 380°С, 2 h with the aim to achieve a lower bainitic structure and an upper bainitic structure. The experimental wear testing of austempered ductile irons is performed in friction conditions of a fixed abrasive by a cinematic scheme „pin - disc” using an accelerated testing method and device. The microstructure of the ADI is investigated by metallographic and X-Ray analyses. The Vickers hardness testing and impact strength examination are carried out. The influence of the nanosized additives of cBN on the wear resistance, microstructure, impact strength and hardness of the ADI is investigated.

  14. Amorphous Metallic Alloys: Pathways for Enhanced Wear and Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Ayyagari; Felix Wu, H.; Arora, Harpreet; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous metallic alloys are widely used in bulk form and as coatings for their desirable corrosion and wear behavior. Nevertheless, the effects of heat treatment and thermal cycling on these surface properties are not well understood. In this study, the corrosion and wear behavior of two Zr-based bulk metallic glasses were evaluated in as-cast and thermally relaxed states. Significant improvement in wear rate, friction coefficient, and corrosion penetration rate was seen for both alloys after thermal relaxation. A fully amorphous structure was retained with thermal relaxation below the glass transition. There was an increase in surface hardness and elastic modulus for both alloys after relaxation. The improvement in surface properties was explained based on annihilation of free volume.

  15. Friction and wear behavior of glasses and ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of glasses and ionic solids are reviewed. These materials are shown to behave in a manner similar to other solids with respect to adhesion. Their friction characteristics are shown to be sensitive to environmental constituents and surface films. This sensitivity can be related to a reduction in adhesive bonding and the changes in surficial mechanical behavior associated with Rehbinder and Joffe effects. Both friction and wear properties of ionic crystalline solids are highly anisotropic. With metals in contact with ionic solids the fracture strength of the ionic solid and the shear strength in the metal and those properties that determine these will dictate which of the materials undergoes adhesive wear. The chemical activity of the metal plays an important role in the nature and strength of the adhesive interfacial bond that develops between the metal and a glass or ionic solid.

  16. Subjective assessment of contact lens wear by army aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, M R; Cornum, R L

    1993-07-01

    Because 23% of Army aviators are ametropic, contact lenses have drawn increased attention as a spectacle substitute to solve system compatibility problems. From November 1988 until October 1991, a series of contact lens research protocols were conducted to develop a comprehensive database on contact lens wear in varied environments. Questionnaires were used to assess suitability and acceptability of routine contact lens wear. Responses from 202 subjects were obtained from September 1989 through September 1991. The questions explored operational and safety of flight issues of contact lens wear. Subjects overwhelmingly approved of contact lens use in all settings: 95% expressed greater combat readiness and effectiveness with contact lenses, 98% felt contact lens use (and maintenance) in the cockpit had no adverse impact on safety of flight, and 98% endorsed the routine use of contact lenses. These data highlight Army aircrew acceptance of contact lens use.

  17. INCREASING OF WEAR RESISTANCE OF THE GRAPHITIZED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Akimov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Graphitized steels are alloys, in which carbon is partly in form of graphite inclusions. Due to this such steels possess good antifriction properties, wear resistance, heat conductivity and a variety of other mechanical properties, which decently distinguish them from cast irons. However, such steels are not studied enough and practically are not used in mechanical engineering. Purpose of the work is the research of the possibility of wear resistance increase for graphitized steels in the conditions of metal-to-metal dry friction sliding to use them in the railway systems. Methodology. Graphitized hypoeutectoid, eutectoid and hypereutectoid steels have been used as a research material. Experimental alloys have been studied in the condition after thermal hardening. Hardness of alloys has been determined by the Vickers method. Wear resistance of steels has been studied in the conditions of metal-to-metal dry friction sliding with the use of МI-1 friction machine (disk to disk. Findings. Data, which allow assessing the wear resistance of experimental graphitized steels depending on carbon, silicon and copper content have been obtained in this work. The regression dependence obtained as a result of statistical processing of the experimental data allowed determining an optimal chemical content of the steel, which is characterized by high wear resistance. Originality. A dependence describing carbon, silicon and copper content on the specimen's weight loss during metal-to-metal dry friction tests has been obtained in the work. Practical value. The optimized content of the graphitized steel can be used for production of products working in the conditions of wear such as brake blocks of rolling stock, separators of high-speed bearings, dies and others.

  18. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  19. Pipe bend wear - is tungsten carbide the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freinkel, D.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to compare the relative wear resistance of various grades of sintered tungsten carbide liners against a mild steel standard in a full-scale pneumatic conveying testing rig. Speciments ranging in cobalt content from 6 to 30 per cent and in grain size from 0,56 to 2,98 microns, including a mild steel standard, were placed on a specially designed holder which fitted into a tee type 100 mm diameter bend. The specimens were tested under various operating conditions, ie air velocity ranging from 28m/s to 52m/s, impact angles of 30 0 to 70 0 mass flow rates of 35kg/min to 83kg/min and phase densities of 1,2 to 2,9, using a 4 mm nominal size crushed granite rock. The experimental results show that the ultrafine-grained, low cobalt (6 per cent) tungsten carbide displays little sensitivity to varying velocities, impact angles, mass flow rates or phase densities, and consistently gave the best wear resistance under all testing conditions. It consistently showed the least wear resistance under all testing conditions and performed only slightly better than mild steel. The effect of the carbide grain size was found to be small, although the finer grain sizes displayed greater wear resistance than the coarse grains. The effect of cobalt content was such that the lower cobalt specimens (6 per cent range) consistently performed better than the higher cobalt contents (10 per cent, 15 per cent, 30 per cent) under all testing conditions; the wear resistance decreasing with increasing cobalt content. An empirical model for the prediction of wear for each type of material tested has been proposed, given the particular operating conditions. Microstructurally it has been shown that there is a definite relationship between erosion resistance and the inverse of the magnetic coercivity of the tungsten carbide alloys

  20. Ultrananocrystalline diamond film as a wear resistant and protective coating for mechanical seal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumant, A.V.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Auciello, O.; Erdemir, A.; Williams, M.; Artiles, A.F.; Adams, W.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical shaft seals used in pumps are critically important to the safe operation of the paper, pulp, and chemical process industry, as well as petroleum and nuclear power plants. Specifically, these seals prevent the leakage of toxic gases and hazardous chemicals to the environment and final products from the rotating equipment used in manufacturing processes. Diamond coatings have the potential to provide negligible wear, ultralow friction, and high corrosion resistance for the sliding surfaces of mechanical seals, because diamond exhibits outstanding tribological, physical, and chemical properties. However, diamond coatings produced by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibit high surface roughness (R a ≥ 1 μm), which results in high wear of the seal counterface, leading to premature seal failure. To avoid this problem, we have developed an ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film formed by a unique CH 4 /Ar microwave plasma CVD method. This method yields extremely smooth diamond coatings with surface roughness R a = 20-30 nm and an average grain size of 2-5 nm. We report the results of a systematic test program involving uncoated and UNCD-coated SiC shaft seals. Results confirmed that the UNCD-coated seals exhibited neither measurable wear nor any leakage during long-duration tests that took 21 days to complete. In addition, the UNCD coatings reduced the frictional torque for seal rotation by five to six times compared with the uncoated seals. This work promises to lead to rotating shaft seals with much improved service life, reduced maintenance cost, reduced leakage of environmentally hazardous materials, and increased energy savings. This technology may also have many other tribological applications involving rolling or sliding contacts.

  1. The effect of frictional heating and forced cooling on the serum lubricant and wear of UHMW polyethylene cups against cobalt-chromium and zirconia balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y-S; McKellop, H; Lu, Z; Campbell, P; Benya, P

    2003-08-01

    Hip simulator tests of femoral balls of cobalt-chromium alloy or zirconia against acetabular cups of UHMW polyethylene were run with and without a coolant circulated inside the femoral balls. Without cooling, the wear of polyethylene against zirconia was about 48% lower than with cobalt-chromium alloy, but the steady-state temperature of the zirconia ball was higher (55 degrees C vs. 41 degrees C), and there was more precipitation of protein from the serum, which sometimes formed an adherent layer on the surface of the zirconia. Circulating coolant at 1-20 degrees C markedly reduced the bearing temperatures and the protein precipitation. With coolant at 4 degrees C, wear of the polyethylene against cobalt-chromium alloy was about 26% lower than against zirconia, but the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the worn polyethylene surfaces were unlike that typically generated in vivo. With or without coolant, the morphology of the polyethylene wear debris was comparable to that generated in vivo, but the ratio of fibrillar to granular debris was higher at the reduced temperature. These results suggested that circulating coolant at an appropriate temperature could avoid overheating (due to non-stop running of the simulator), preventing excessive protein precipitation while providing wear surfaces and wear debris with morphologies closely comparable to those generated in vivo.

  2. A Multiple Model Prediction Algorithm for CNC Machine Wear PHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 PHM data challenge focuses on the remaining useful life (RUL estimation for cutters of a high speed CNC milling machine using measurements from dynamometer, accelerometer, and acoustic emission sensors. We present a multiple model approach for wear depth estimation of milling machine cutters using the provided data. The feature selection, initial wear estimation and multiple model fusion components of the proposed algorithm are explained in details and compared with several alternative methods using the training data. The final submission ranked #2 among professional and student participants and the method is applicable to other data driven PHM problems.

  3. Wear and corrosion performance of metallurgical coatings in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Farwick, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The friction, wear, and corrosion performance of several metallurgical coatings in 200 to 650 0 C sodium are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those coatings which have successfully passed the qualification tests necessary for acceptance in breeder reactor environments. Tests include friction, wear, corrosion, thermal cycling, self-welding, and irradiation exposure under as-prototypic-as-possible service conditions. Materials tested were coatings of various refractory metal carbides in metallic binders, nickel-base and cobalt-base alloys and intermetallic compounds such as the aluminides and borides. Coating processes evaluated included plasma spray, detonation gun, sputtering, spark-deposition, and solid-state diffusion

  4. Decontamination of radioactive contaminated protective wear using dry cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthiah, Pushpa; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2013-01-01

    Liquid waste generated by conventional decontamination of radioactive contaminated cotton protective wear using detergent affects the chemical treatment of the plant. To reduce the generation of aqueous detergent waste, dry cleaning of cotton protective wear, highly soiled with oil and grease towards decontamination was tried with organic solvents. Mineral turpentine oil (MTO) among various other organic solvents was identified as a suitable organic solvent. As MTO leaves characteristic odour on the cloth, various commercial fragrances for the removal of the odour were tried. Application of the optimised dry cleaning solvent and commercial fragrance was adopted in plant scale operation. (author)

  5. Patient compliance and its influence on contact lens wearing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M J; Carney, L G

    1986-12-01

    One hundred consecutively presenting patients, fifty from each of two contact lens clinics, were questioned about the procedures encountered in care and maintenance of their contact lenses and asked to demonstrate their use of those procedures. Their clinic records were then analyzed for the occurrence of signs and symptoms that were related potentially to noncompliance with instructions and procedures, and that could not be otherwise explained. Only 26% of patients were fully complaint. Noncompliance with instructions was related strongly to the occurrence of signs and symptoms indicative of potential wearing problems. Improvements in the level of patient compliance with instructions is likely to bring about increased patient success with contact lens wearing.

  6. The effect of wearing high heel shoes on pelvis motion

    OpenAIRE

    Bočková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Title The effect of wearing high heel shoes on pelvis motion Aim of the thesis The main aim of this thesis is the verification of the influence of wearing high heel shoes on pelvis motion in the sagittal plane, while walking on high heel shoes and walking on heel less shoes. After then, we want to monitori the impact of walking in these shoes on the trajectory of pelvis motion. Methods Objectification method was 3D record of human gait (= kinematic analysis), which was performed using the Qua...

  7. Analysis of wear of antifriction bearing using radioisotope method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejcek, V.

    1986-01-01

    The time course was studied of the wear of one type of antifriction bearing in dependence on the thickness of lubricating film for five types of lubricating oil. The theory is described of the development of lubricating film, the experiment and its evaluation, and a detailed list is given of numerical results and practical conclusions. Briefly mentioned is the principle of the radioisotope method which has been described elsewhere: prior to the experiment the balls of the bearing were activated with a neutron beam from a nuclear reactor and the wear was determined from the activity of the worn material carried away by the lubricant. (A.K.)

  8. A systematic review of the interventions to promote the wearing of hearing protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Paolucci El Dib

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Noise-induced hearing loss can only be prevented by eliminating or lowering noise exposure levels. When the source of the noise cannot be eliminated, workers have to rely on hearing protection equipment. The aim here was to summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to enhance the wearing of hearing protection among workers exposed to noise in the workplace. DATA SOURCE: Studies with random assignment were identified by an electronic search of the medical literature up to 2005. Data were double-entered into the Review Manager software, version 4.2.5. DATA SYNTHESIS: Two studies were found. A computer-based intervention tailored to individual workers’ risks and lasting 30 minutes was not found to be more effective than a video providing general information for workers. A second randomized controlled trial evaluated the effect of a four-year school-based hearing loss prevention program among schoolchildren working on their parents’ farms. The intervention group was twice as likely to wear some kind of hearing protection as was the control group (which received only minimal intervention. REVIEWERS’ CONCLUSIONS: The limited evidence does not show whether tailored interventions are more or less effective than general interventions among workers, 80% of whom already use hearing protection. Long-lasting school-based interventions may increase the use of hearing protection substantially. Better interventions to enhance the use of hearing protection need to be developed and evaluated in order to increase the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss among workers.

  9. Experimental Research on the Determination of the Coefficient of Sliding Wear under Iron Ore Handling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The handling of iron ore bulk solids maintains an increasing trend due to economic development. Because iron ore particles have hard composites and irregular shapes, the bulk solids handling equipment surface can suffer from severe sliding wear. Prediction of equipment surface wear volume is beneficial to the efficient maintenance of worn areas. Archard’s equation provides a theoretical solution to predict wear volume. To use Archard’s equation, the coefficient of sliding wear must be determined. To our best knowledge, the coefficient of sliding wear for iron ore handling conditions has not yet been determined. In this research, using a pin-on-disk tribometer, the coefficients of sliding wear for both Sishen particles and mild steel are determined with regard to iron ore handling conditions. Both naturally irregular and spherical shapes of particles are used to estimate average values of wear rate. Moreover, the hardness and inner structures of Sishen particles are examined, which adds the evidence of the interpretation of wear results. It is concluded that the coefficients of sliding wear can vary largely for both Sishen particle and mild steel. The wear rate decreases from transient- to steady-state. The average coefficient of sliding wear is capable of predicting wear with respect to long distances at the steady-state. Two types of sliding friction are distinguished. In addition, it is found that the temperature rise of the friction pairs has negligible influence on wear rate.

  10. Milling tool wear diagnosis by feed motor current signal using an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajavi, Mehrdad Nouri; Nasernia, Ebrahim; Rostaghi, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to predict tool wear in face milling. For this purpose, a series of experiments was conducted using a milling machine on a CK45 work piece. Tool wear was measured by an optical microscope. To improve the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring system, tool wear state was classified into five groups, namely, no wear, slight wear, normal wear, severe wear and broken tool. Experiments were conducted with the aforementioned tool wear states, and different machining conditions and data were extracted. An increase in current amplitude was observed as the tool wear increased. Furthermore, effects of parameters such as tool wear, feed, and cut depth on motor current consumption were analyzed. Considering the complexity of the wear state classification, a multi-layer neural network was used. The root mean square of motor current, feed, cut depth, and tool rpm were chosen as the input and amount of flank wear as the output of MLP. Results showed good performance of the designed tool wear monitoring system

  11. Milling tool wear diagnosis by feed motor current signal using an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajavi, Mehrdad Nouri; Nasernia, Ebrahim; Rostaghi, Mostafa [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, a Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to predict tool wear in face milling. For this purpose, a series of experiments was conducted using a milling machine on a CK45 work piece. Tool wear was measured by an optical microscope. To improve the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring system, tool wear state was classified into five groups, namely, no wear, slight wear, normal wear, severe wear and broken tool. Experiments were conducted with the aforementioned tool wear states, and different machining conditions and data were extracted. An increase in current amplitude was observed as the tool wear increased. Furthermore, effects of parameters such as tool wear, feed, and cut depth on motor current consumption were analyzed. Considering the complexity of the wear state classification, a multi-layer neural network was used. The root mean square of motor current, feed, cut depth, and tool rpm were chosen as the input and amount of flank wear as the output of MLP. Results showed good performance of the designed tool wear monitoring system.

  12. Edge loading has a paradoxical effect on wear in metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William H

    2012-11-01

    Edge wear is an adverse factor that can negatively impact certain THAs. In some metal-on-metal THAs, it can lead to adverse tissue reactions including aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions and even to pseudotumor formation. In some ceramic-on-ceramic THAs, it can lead to squeaking and/or stripe wear. Edge wear in metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic THAs can also be associated with accelerated wear across the articulation of these joints. I asked: Does edge wear occur in metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) articulations? And if so, does it increase joint wear? I examined the evidence in the literature for edge wear occurring in MOP THA and then assessed the evidence in the literature for data supporting the concept that edge wear in MOP hips could accelerate wear across the articulation over time. Extensive data in the literature confirm edge wear is common in MOP THA. Surprisingly, the evidence does not support that it accelerates wear across the articulation. In fact, substantial data support the concept that it does not. These observations suggest, in terms of edge wear accelerating overall wear, MOP articulation may have a privileged position compared to hard-on-hard THA articulations.

  13. Thin Layer Activation (TLA) Technique Application for Monitoring Corrosion, Erosion and Wear on Industrial Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Suryanto; Sunarhadijoso Soenarjo; Imam Kambali

    2003-01-01

    Thin Layer Activation (TLA) technique is one of high-precision and effective nuclear methods for measurement and monitoring corrosion, erosion and wear on industrial components. This technique was developed by using low current charged particle beam produced from a cyclotron to activate a surface layer of component. In this case only the surface layer in the μm range at the desired parts of the component are activated. The surface activation lets a very low radioactivity concerning to safety aspect but still can be detected and measured well due to specificity and sensitivity of nuclear reaction produced. Some reported experiences on TLA technique have confirmed that the technique is proper fully recommended to be applied in various industries such as automotive, petrochemical, petroleum, power plant, transportation, lubricant oil etc. The measurement and monitoring of corrosion, erosion and wear rates can be remotely and continuously performed, on-line and in-situ, giving a real-time information. By giving a real-time information, TLA technique provides a considerably better estimation of the components lifetimes for any operating condition. The measurement sensitivity of surface loss rate by using this method can reach up to 0.01 μm depends on the type of applications. The application of the TLA technique lets early observation on the damage of the system preventing any disturbance on industrial process, either in the form of accident during the process or that of unscheduled interruption. (author)

  14. Novel texture-based descriptors for tool wear condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Aco; Popović, Branislav; Krstanović, Lidija; Obradović, Ratko; Milošević, Mijodrag

    2018-01-01

    All state-of-the-art tool condition monitoring systems (TCM) in the tool wear recognition task, especially those that use vibration sensors, heavily depend on the choice of descriptors containing information about the tool wear state which are extracted from the particular sensor signals. All other post-processing techniques do not manage to increase the recognition precision if those descriptors are not discriminative enough. In this work, we propose a tool wear monitoring strategy which relies on the novel texture based descriptors. We consider the module of the Short Term Discrete Fourier Transform (STDFT) spectra obtained from the particular vibration sensors signal utterance as the 2D textured image. This is done by identifying the time scale of STDFT as the first dimension, and the frequency scale as the second dimension of the particular textured image. The obtained textured image is then divided into particular 2D texture patches, covering a part of the frequency range of interest. After applying the appropriate filter bank, 2D textons are extracted for each predefined frequency band. By averaging in time, we extract from the textons for each band of interest the information regarding the Probability Density Function (PDF) in the form of lower order moments, thus obtaining robust tool wear state descriptors. We validate the proposed features by the experiments conducted on the real TCM system, obtaining the high recognition accuracy.

  15. Corrosion and wear behaviour of multilayer pulse electrodeposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corrosion and wear behaviour of multilayer pulse electrodeposited. Ni–Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings assisted with ultrasound. H MAJIDI, M ALIOFKHAZRAEI. ∗. , A KARIMZADEH and A SABOUR ROUHAGHDAM. Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 1411713116, ...

  16. development and performance evaluation of an abrasive wear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. The wear of tillage tools is a major source of economic constraints to local farmers. Estimating ... The equipment consists of a circular soil bin, support frame, .... Ghana's economy. The sector employs 56% of the population and contributes 28-33.7% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). (MoFA, 2011).

  17. Experimental investigation of friction and wear behaviour of 304L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, friction and wear behavior of 304L stainless steel sliding against different ball counterface under dry contact was investigated. Tests were conducted using a ball-on-flat contact configuration in reciprocating sliding with 440C stainless steel, Al alloy (2017) and bronze ball counterfaces under different loads.

  18. Microstructure and wear behaviour of FeAl-based composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resistance of FeAl-based alloys is found to be significantly improved on addition of Ti/Zr. This is attributed to the ... exhibit superior wear resistance due to higher hardness of ..... This research has been supported by the Department of Sci- ence and Technology, New Delhi, and we are thankful for the financial support.

  19. Vibration and wear characteristics of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hwan

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the fluid elastic instability characteristics of Steam Generator (SG) U-tubes with defect and the safety assessment of the potential for fretting-wear damages on Steam Generator (SG) U-tubes caused by foreign object in operating nuclear power plants. The operating SG shell-side flow field conditions for determining the fluid elastic instability or fretting-wear parameters such as damping ratio, added mass and flow velocity are obtained from three-dimensional SG flow calculation using the ATHOS3 code. To get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor, modal analyses are performed for the U-tubes either with axial or circumferential flaw with different sizes. Special emphases are on the effects of flaw orientation and size on the modal and instability characteristics of tubes, which are expressed in terms of the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and stability ratio. Also, the wear rate of U-tube caused by foreign object is calculated using the Archard formula and the remaining life of the tube is predicted, and discussed in this study is the effect of the flow velocity and vibration of the tube on the remaining life of the tube. In addition, addressed is the effect of the internal pressure on the vibration and fretting-wear characteristics of the tube

  20. The Abrasive Wear Resistance of Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of cast iron to abrasive wear depends on the metal abrasive hardness ratio. For example, hardness of the structural constituents of the cast iron metal matrix is lower than the hardness of ordinary silica sand. Also cementite, the basic component of unalloyed white cast iron, has hardness lower than the hardness of silica. Some resistance to the abrasive effect of the aforementioned silica sand can provide the chromium white cast iron containing in its structure a large amount of (Cr, Fe7C3 carbides characterised by hardness higher than the hardness of the silica sand in question. In the present study, it has been anticipated that the white cast iron structure will be changed by changing the type of metal matrix and the type of carbides present in this matrix, which will greatly expand the application area of castings under the harsh operating conditions of abrasive wear. Moreover, the study compares the results of abrasive wear resistance tests performed on the examined types of cast iron. Tests of abrasive wear resistance were carried out on a Miller machine. Samples of standard dimensions were exposed to abrasion in a double to-and-fro movement, sliding against the bottom of a trough filled with an aqueous abrasive mixture containing SiC + distilled water. The obtained results of changes in the sample weight were approximated with a power curve and shown further in the study.

  1. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper is about the development of bi-directional E-glass fibre-based polyester composites filled with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) fillers, respectively. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three-body abrasive wear characteristic of fabricated composites has been ...

  2. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture ...

  3. Severe wear behaviour of alumina balls sliding against diamond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wear and friction data were recorded for microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MWCVD) grown PCD coatings of four different types, out of which two ... CSIR–Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032, India; Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209, India ...

  4. Severe wear behaviour of alumina balls sliding against diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1CSIR–Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032, India. 2Department of Chemistry, National ... knee implants, etc.), since the coefficient of friction (COF) of diamond is lower than alumina. In this tribological ... Adhesion, friction and wear are the main factors of tribology of contacting or sliding interfaces.

  5. Wear Assessment of Conical Pick used in Coal Cutting Operation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dewangan, S.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej

    -, 11/2014 (2014), s. 1-6 ISSN 0723-2632 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : conical pick * wear * SEM * EDX Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.420, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00603-014-0680-z

  6. Wear resistance of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Iwamoto, Misa; Lassila, Lippo V. J.; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study investigated the wear resistance of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins using nanoindentation instrument. Materials and methods Six injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins (two polyamides, two polyesters, one polycarbonate, one polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]) and a PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer control were tested. Elastic modulus, hardness, wear depth, and roughness were calculated using a nanoindentation instrument. Results Elastic modulus and hardness of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins were significantly lower than those of the PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer. Wear depth of polycarbonate and PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer were significantly higher than that of other injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. The roughness of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins was significantly more than that of PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer after testing. Conclusions Wear resistance of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base was low compared to PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymers. PMID:28642909

  7. A wear-resistant zirconia ceramic for low friction application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnubst, A.J.A.; Ran, S.; Wiratha, K.W.; Blank, D.H.A.; Pasaribu, H.R.; Sloetjes, J.W.; Schipper, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    A high wear-resistant ceramic/ceramic couple is described associated with low friction. By adding a small amount CuO to yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) the (dry) coefficient of friction against alumina is only 0.2 during a sliding distance of 3-5 km after which the coefficient drastically increases and a transition from mild to sever wear occurs. Pure Y-TZP exhibits a coefficient of friction of 0.7 under the same experimental conditions but wear remains mild during the test (upto 10 km of sliding distance). These small amounts of CuO also strongly influence the densification behaviour. Sintering of this system occurs in several steps where among other things dissolution of CuO in the Y-TZP matrix as well as liquid phase sintering takes place. Non-uniform shrinkage of the CuO-doped system resulting in relative large microcracks in the ceramic can explain its sudden drastic increase in coefficient of friction and wear rate after 3-5 km of operation. (orig.)

  8. Analysis and Modelling of Electrode Wear in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders; Pedersen, Kim; Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    2010-01-01

    A model describing electrode wear as a function of weld number, initial tip diameter, truncated cone angle, welding current and electrode force is proposed. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental results is achieved, showing that the model can describe the change in electrode tip...

  9. Wear prediction on total ankle replacement effect of design parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Amir Putra Bin Md; Harun, Muhamad Noor; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2016-01-01

    This book develops and analyses computational wear simulations of the total ankle replacement for the stance phase of gait cycle. The emphasis is put on the relevant design parameters. The book presents a model consisting of three components; tibial, bearing and talar representing their physiological functions.

  10. Muscle Activity during Dryland Swimming while Wearing a Triathlon Wetsuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Agnelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triathletes typically wear a wetsuit during the swim portion of an event, but it is not clear if muscle activity is influenced by wearing a wetsuit. Purpose: To investigate if shoulder muscle activity was influenced by wearing a full-sleeve wetsuit vs. no wetsuit during dryland swimming. Methods: Participants (n=10 males; 179.1±13.2 cm; 91.2±7.25 kg; 45.6±10.5 years completed two dry land swimming conditions on a swim ergometer: No Wetsuit (NW and with Wetsuit (W. Electromyography (EMG of four upper extremity muscles was recorded (Noraxon telemetry EMG, 500 Hz during each condition: Trapezius (TRAP, Triceps (TRI, Anterior Deltoid (AD and Posterior Deltoid (PD. Each condition lasted 90 seconds with data collected during the last 60 seconds. Resistance setting was self-selected and remained constant for both conditions. Stroke rate was controlled at 60 strokes per minute by having participants match a metronome. Average (AVG and Root Mean Square (RMS EMG were calculated over 45 seconds and each were compared between conditions using a paired t-test (α=0.05 for each muscle. Results: PD and AD AVG and RMS EMG were each greater (on average 40.0% and 66.8% greater, respectively during W vs. NW (p0.05. Conclusion: The greater PD and AD muscle activity while wearing a wetsuit might affect swimming performance and /or stroke technique on long distance event.

  11. Stochastic Distribution of Wear of Carbide Tools during Machining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing awareness of wear of carbide tools during machining operation has created doubts about the ability of this tool material to withstand stress and strain induced by the machining process. Manufacturers are beginning to question their dependence on carbide tools, seeing that they no longer meet their expected ...

  12. Controlled wear of vitrified abrasive materials for precision grinding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    wear plays an important role in determining the efficiency of the grinding process and the quality of the workpiece. The structure of a vitrified grinding wheel is composed of abrasive grains, a bonding system, and a large number of pores. Figure 2 shows a typical porous grinding wheel structure (Jackson 2001). Krabacher ...

  13. Corrosion wear fracture of new {beta} biomedical titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinomi, M.; Fukunaga, K.-I. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technol. (Japan). Dept. of Production Syst. Eng.; Kuroda, D.; Morinaga, M.; Kato, Y.; Yashiro, T.; Suzuki, A.

    1999-05-15

    Metallic materials such as stainless steel, Co-Cr alloy, pure titanium and titanium alloys have been used for surgical implant materials. The {alpha} + {beta} type titanium alloy such as Ti-6Al-4V ELI has been most widely used as an implant material for artificial hip joint and dental implant because of its high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Toxicity of alloying elements in conventional biomedical titanium alloys like Al and V, and the high modulus of elasticity of these alloy as compared to that of bone have been, however, pointed out [1,2]. New {beta} type titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements like Nb, Ta, Zr, Mo and Sn with lower moduli of elasticity, greater strength and greater corrosion resistance were, therefore, designed in this study. The friction wear properties of titanium alloys are, however, low as compared to those of other conventional metallic implant materials such as stainless steels and Co-Cr alloy. Tensile tests and friction wear tests in Ringer`s solution were conducted in order to investigate the mechanical properties of designed alloys. The friction wear characteristics of designed alloys and typical conventional biomedical titanium alloys were evaluated using a pin-on-disk type friction wear testing system and measuring the weight loss and width of groove of the specimen. (orig.) 8 refs.

  14. Wear and Friction in a Controllable Pitch Propeller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godjevac, M.

    2010-01-01

    The author is a naval architect and this book is his PhD thesis. In this research the author focuses on friction in a controllable pitch propeller (CPP), formation of wear in a CPP system, and their mutual dependence. Instead of going deeply only in tribology aspects, the author tries to get an

  15. Friction, Fretting and Wear: Emerging Materials and Technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, fatigue and wear of metals, alloys and polymers continue to challenge scientists and engineers. Friction, fracture and ... rough floors; and, finally, marvellous technological diversity of emerging materials in the new millennium demonstrates exciting advances in micro/nanoengineering. The diversity of applications ...

  16. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by.

  17. Legislative prohibitions on wearing a headscarf: are they justified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years the headscarf has been described as a symbol of Islam's oppression of women and simultaneously of terrorism. As the debate regarding the acceptability of the headscarf in the modern world continues, an increasing number of states have legislated to ban the wearing of the headscarf. This article critically ...

  18. Wear monitoring of protective nitride coatings using image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Inge Lise; Guibert, M.; Belin, M.

    2010-01-01

    -meter with up to 105 19 repetitive cycles, eventually leaving the embedded TiN signal layer uncovered at the bottom the wear scar. 20 The worn surface was characterized by subsequent image processing. A color detection of the wear scar with 21 the exposed TiN layer by a simple optical imaging system showed......A double-layer model system, consisting of a thin layer of tribological titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) on 17 top of titanium nitride (TiN), was deposited on polished 100Cr6 steel substrates. The TiAlN top-coatings 18 were exposed to abrasive wear by a reciprocating wear process in a linear tribo...... a significant increase up to a factor of 2 of 22 the relative color values from the TiAlN top layers to the embedded TiN signal layers. This behavior agrees 23 well with the results of reflectance detection experiment with a red laser optical system on the same system. 24 Thus we have demonstrated that image...

  19. Thermophysical properties of selected wear-resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwick, D.G.; Johnson, R.N.

    1980-06-01

    Thermophysical properties of 13 selected wear-resistant materials, including specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion (instantaneous, mean, and linear) are provided. The Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS) at Purdue University supplied properties data

  20. Can centrifugation affect the morphology of polyethylene wear debris ?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zolotarevova, E.; Fejfarková, Z.; Entlicher, G.; Lapčíková, Monika; Šlouf, Miroslav; Pokorný, D.; Sosna, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 265, 11-12 (2008), s. 1914-1917 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyethyelene wear particles * total joint replacement * centrifugation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2008

  1. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Edmonds, Brian J (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite useful over a wide temperature range is described herein. The composite includes metal bonded chromium oxide dispersed in a metal binder having a substantial amount of nickel. The composite contains a fluoride of at least one Group I, Group II, or rare earth metal, and optionally a low temperature lubricant metal.

  2. Tooth wear : a systematic review of treatment options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muts, Erik-Jan; van Pelt, Hans; Edelhoff, Daniel; Krejci, Ivo; Cune, Marco

    2014-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Treatment of tooth wear is increasing. Because no evidence-based guidelines are available, the clinician may have difficulties deciding which treatment option to choose to resolve complex situations. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify similarities

  3. Use of nuclear techniques for measuring thin wears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanneau, B.

    1989-01-01

    Wear measurements with apparatus of classical metrology like profilography or tridimensional analysis, need a certain number of conditions, in particular, dismantling of the machine into parts, which give less of time and money. Radioactive methods permit to avoid such a dismantling, isn't sensitive to the temperature of the part... and according to their sensitivity, reduce the test duration

  4. Heat stress reduction of helicopter crew wearing a ventilated vest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reffeltrath, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Helicopter pilots are often exposed to periods of high heat strain, especially when wearing survival suits. Therefore, a prototype of a ventilated vest was evaluated on its capability to reduce the heat strain of helicopter pilots during a 2-h simulated flight. Hypothesis: It was

  5. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  6. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  7. Some Socio-demographic attributes as covariates in tooth wear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Association between some socio-demographic attributes and tooth wear among adult male population in a rural community of Igbo-ora, Southwestern Nigeria was investigated in this cross-sectional study. METHODS: Cross-sectional study among 200 consenting adult males in Igbo-ora was carried out ...

  8. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel on erosive enamel wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam HajeNorouz Ali Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that although either CPP-ACP or APF can protect enamel against wear, their combination provides significant enamel wear reduction. These findings would lead to new strategies for the clinical management of tooth wear.

  9. Surface and sliding wear behaviour of different coatings and steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera-Cardenas, E.E. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Zempoala, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: evera@upp.edu.mx; Vite-Torres, M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: drmanulvite9@hotmail.com; Lewis, R. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: roger.lewis@sheffield.ac.uk

    2012-01-15

    In this work, the sliding wear behaviour of the coatings TiN, CrN and WC/C applied on steel substrates was studied using a reciprocating wear test machine. All tests were carried out in dry conditions, at room temperature (20-23 degrees Celsius and 45% - 50% relative humidity). The average sliding velocity was 0.08 m/s and an amplitude of 2 mm was used. The applied loads were 11.76 N (Po = 1.74 GPa) and 7.84 N (Po = 1.52 GPa). Optical microscopy was used to observe the characteristics of wear scars and spalls and possible causes of their formation. The variation of the friction coefficient against the number of cycles was obtained. This was used to determine more precisely the time (number of cycles) where the coating presented the first signs of wear, in addition Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) was performed, as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and hardness tests on the wear traces, which reinforced the previous observations. Thus it was possible to know the wear life of different coatings and possible causes of variation. Increasing the load was an important factor in the variation of wear life results. But it is also important to consider other factors such as surface roughness and thickness of coatings. [Spanish] En este trabajo se estudio el comportamiento en desgaste por deslizamiento de los recubrimientos de TiN, CrN y WC/C aplicados sobre sustratos de acero. Las pruebas se realizaron con una maquina reciprocante en condiciones secas a temperatura ambiente (20-23 grados centigrados y 45% - 50% de humedad relativa). Se empleo una velocidad promedio de 0.08 m/s y una amplitud de 2 mm. Las cargas aplicadas fueron de 11.76N (Po = 1.74 GPa) y de 7.84 N (Po = 1.52 GPa). Se realizo microscopia optica para observar las caracteristicas de las zonas de desgaste y sus posibles causas de formacion. Se obtuvo graficamente la variacion del coeficiente de friccion con el numero de ciclos. Estos datos se emplearon para determinar con mayor precision el

  10. Problems of locomotive wheel wear in fleet replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lingaytis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct a research and find out the causes of defects appearing on the wheel thread of freight locomotives 2М62 and SIEMENS ER20CF. Methodology. To find the ways to solve this problem comparing the locomotive designs and their operating conditions. Findings. After examining the nature of the wheel wear the main difference was found: in locomotives of the 2M62 line wears the wheel flange, and in the locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF – the tread surface. After installation on the 2M62 locomotive the lubrication system of flanges their wear rate significantly decreased. On the new freight locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF the flange lubrication systems of the wheel set have been already installed at the factory, however the wheel thread is wearing. As for locomotives 2M62, and on locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF most wear profile skating wheels of the first wheel set. On both locomotive lines the 2М62 and the SIEMENS ER20CF the tread profile of the first wheel set most of all is subject to the wear. After reaching the 170 000 km run, the tread surface of some wheels begins to crumble. There was a suspicion that the reason for crumb formation of the wheel surface may be insufficient or excessive wheel hardness or its chemical composition. In order to confirm or deny this suspicion the following studies were conducted: the examination of the rim surface, the study of the wheel metal hardness and the document analysis of the wheel production and their comparison with the results of wheel hardness measurement. Practical value. The technical condition of locomotives is one of the bases of safety and reliability of the rolling stock. The reduction of the wheel wear significantly reduces the operating costs of railway transport. After study completion it was found that there was no evidence to suggest that the ratio of the wheel-rail hardness could be the cause of the wheel surface crumbling.

  11. Mechanisms for fatigue and wear of polysilicon structural thinfilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsem, Daniel Henricus [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue and wear in micron-scale polysilicon structural films can severely impact the reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Despite studies on fatigue and wear behavior of these films, there is still an on-going debate regarding the precise physical mechanisms for these two important failure modes. Although macro-scale silicon does not fatigue, this phenomenon is observed in micron-scale silicon. It is shown that for polysilicon devices fabricated in the MUMPs foundry and SUMMiT process stress-lifetime data exhibits similar trends in ambient air, shorter lifetimes in higher relative humidity environments and no fatigue failure at all in high vacuum. Transmission electron microscopy of the surface oxides of the samples show an approximate four-fold thickening of the oxide at stress concentrations after fatigue failure, but no thickening after fracture in air or after fatigue cycling in vacuo. It is found that such oxide thickening and fatigue failure (in air) occurs in devices with initial oxide thicknesses of ~4-20 nm. Such results are interpreted and explained by a reaction layer fatigue mechanism; specifically, moisture-assisted subcritical cracking within a cyclic stress-assisted thickened oxide layer occurs until the crack reaches a critical size to cause catastrophic failure. Polysilicon specimens from the SUMMiT process are used to study wear mechanisms in micron-scale silicon in ambient air. Worn parts are examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy, while temperature changes are monitored using infrared microscopy. These results are compared with the development of values of static coefficients of friction (COF) with number of wear cycles. Observations show amorphous debris particles (~50-100 nm) created by fracture through the silicon grains (~500 nm), which subsequently oxidize, agglomerate into clusters and create plowing tracks. A nano-crystalline layer (~20-200 nm) forms at worn regions. No dislocations or

  12. Fretting wear characteristics of INCONEL 690 and INCONEL 600 in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S.H.; Lee, Y.Z.; Park, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Fretting is the oscillatory motion with very small amplitudes, which usually occurs between two solid surfaces in contact. Fretting wear is the removal of material from contacting surfaces through fretting action. Fretting wear of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plant becomes a serious problem in recent years. The materials for the tubes usually are INCONEL 690 (I-690) and INCONEL 600 (I-600). In this paper, fretting wear tests for I-690 and I-600 were performed under various applied loads in water at room temperature. Results showed that the fretting wear loss of I-690 and I-600 tubes was largely influenced by stick-slip. The fretting wear mechanisms were the abrasive wear in slip regime and the delamination wear in stick regime. Also, I-690 had somewhat better wear resistance than I-600. (orig.)

  13. Thermally-treated Pt-coated silicon AFM tips for wear resistance in ferroelectric data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Palacio, Manuel; Kwak, Kwang Joo

    2008-01-01

    In ferroelectric data storage, a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with a noble metal coating is placed in contact with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. The understanding and improvement of probe tip wear, particularly at high velocities, is needed for high data rate recording. A commercial Pt-coated silicon AFM probe was thermally treated in order to form platinum silicide at the near-surface. Nanoindentation, nanoscratch and wear experiments were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and wear performance at high velocities. The thermally treated tip exhibited lower wear than the untreated tip. The tip wear mechanism is adhesive and abrasive wear with some evidence of impact wear. The enhancement in mechanical properties and wear resistance in the thermally treated film is attributed to silicide formation in the near-surface. Auger electron spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements confirm the formation of platinum silicide. This study advances the understanding of thin film nanoscale surface interactions

  14. Influence of heat treatment on the wear life of hydraulic fracturing tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chao; Liu, Yonghong; Wang, Hanxiang; Qin, Jie; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Shihong

    2017-01-01

    Wear phenomenon has caused severe damage or failure of fracturing tools in oil and gas industry. In this paper, influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties and wear resistance of fracturing tool made of lamellar graphite grey cast iron were investigated. The surface composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and metallographic microscope. Sliding wear tests were performed to study the tribological behavior. Tests results showed that wear rates of treated specimens decreased by 33 %. Besides, worn morphology and wear debris were analyzed using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive Xray spectra (EDS). Wear failure mechanisms of specimens were identified. Furthermore, on-site experiment results indicated that wear loss of treated samples decreased by 37.5 %. The wear life of hydraulic fracturing tools can be improved obviously by the heat treatment

  15. Influence of heat treatment on the wear life of hydraulic fracturing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chao; Liu, Yonghong; Wang, Hanxiang; Qin, Jie; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Shihong [China University of Petroleum, Qingdao (China)

    2017-02-15

    Wear phenomenon has caused severe damage or failure of fracturing tools in oil and gas industry. In this paper, influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties and wear resistance of fracturing tool made of lamellar graphite grey cast iron were investigated. The surface composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and metallographic microscope. Sliding wear tests were performed to study the tribological behavior. Tests results showed that wear rates of treated specimens decreased by 33 %. Besides, worn morphology and wear debris were analyzed using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive Xray spectra (EDS). Wear failure mechanisms of specimens were identified. Furthermore, on-site experiment results indicated that wear loss of treated samples decreased by 37.5 %. The wear life of hydraulic fracturing tools can be improved obviously by the heat treatment.

  16. In vitro two-body wear of inlay-onlay composite resin restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, A R; Nicholls, J I; Brudvik, J S

    1991-02-01

    Inlay-onlay composite resin restorations have been introduced to the profession as alternatives to amalgam and direct composite resins. Two-body wear testing was performed on three inlay-onlay resins and one direct composite resins using a machine designed to produce sliding wear. The composite resins were opposed by human enamel, type III gold alloy, and porcelain. Of the investigated materials, the homogeneously microfilled inlay-onlay material showed significantly less wear. The direct composite resin showed significantly the greatest wear. The hybrid inlay-onlay resins showed intermediate wear. The hybrid inlay-onlay resins and the direct composite (small particle, heavily filled) resin created wear tracks in the opposing surfaces while the homogeneous microfill inlay-onlay resin did not. The depth of the observed wear tracks in the opposing surface was sufficiently substantial to warrant further investigation into the wear of materials that oppose composite resin restorations.

  17. Feasibility of wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tristo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of real time wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization. Experiments were performed involving discharge counting and tool electrode wear measurement in a wide range of process parameters...

  18. Influence of Subsurface Structure on the Linear Reciprocating Sliding Wear Behavior of Steels with Different Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Sangal, S.; Mondal, K.

    2014-12-01

    The present work investigates the influence of subsurface microstructure on the linear reciprocating sliding wear behavior of a number of steels with ferrite-pearlitic, pearlitic, bainitic, and martensitic microstructures under dry unlubricated condition. The change in the underlying microstructure with depth from worn-out surface of steel sample intimately relates to the associated hardness variation and wear volume. The present paper is not about comparison of wear resistance of steels with different structures; rather it is on mutual influence of wear and substructure for individual microstructure. Inherent toughness of the matrix and ability of microstructural components to get deformed under the reciprocating action of the ball decide the wear resistance of the steels. Bainite has good amount of stability to plastic deformation. Ferrite shows severe banding due to wear action. Work hardening renders pearlite to be wear resistant. Temperature rise and associated tempering of martensite are observed during wear.

  19. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2009-04-14

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  20. Surface chemical modification for exceptional wear life of MEMS materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arvind Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS are built at micro/nano-scales. At these scales, the interfacial forces are extremely strong. These forces adversely affect the smooth operation and cause wear resulting in the drastic reduction in wear life (useful operating lifetime of actuator-based devices. In this paper, we present a surface chemical modification method that reduces friction and significantly extends the wear life of the two most popular MEMS structural materials namely, silicon and SU-8 polymer. The method includes surface chemical treatment using ethanolamine-sodium phosphate buffer, followed by coating of perfluoropolyether (PFPE nanolubricant on (i silicon coated with SU-8 thin films (500 nm and (ii MEMS process treated SU-8 thick films (50 μm. After the surface chemical modification, it was observed that the steady-state coefficient of friction of the materials reduced by 4 to 5 times and simultaneously their wear durability increased by more than three orders of magnitude (> 1000 times. The significant reduction in the friction coefficients is due to the lubrication effect of PFPE nanolubricant, while the exceptional increase in their wear life is attributed to the bonding between the -OH functional group of ethanolamine treated SU-8 thin/thick films and the -OH functional group of PFPE. The surface chemical modification method acts as a common route to enhance the performance of both silicon and SU-8 polymer. It is time-effective (process time ≤ 11 min, cost-effective and can be readily integrated into MEMS fabrication/assembly processes. It can also work for any kind of structural material from which the miniaturized devices are/can be made.

  1. Destructive investigations of decommissioned guide tubes: characterization of wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambard, A.; Lina, A.; Bosselut, D.; Deforge, D.; Robinot, P.; Thebault, Y.; Paulhies, M.; Maingot, S.

    2011-01-01

    The wear of control rods has been a major maintenance concern for EDF since the nineties. Surface treatment of the rods (nitriding, chrome plating) were developed to deal with this issue. However, the question came to know whether the guiding tube in which those new control rods are inserted are also worn. EDF interest into guide tube wear has been renewed by the slow increase of the drop time in B06 position. EDF performed field examinations and some laboratory experiments to answer to this question. Two guide tubes were extracted from various cores. They were chosen due to their different positions within the core and the different nature of their counter bodies (different control rods surface treatment). Their continuous part were sliced to reduce their activity. Their dimensions were measured and compared to the nominal dimensions. Wear was evidenced with a low level. It is mainly concentrated around the notch. Some distinctions could be made depending on the guiding tube examined. Metallographic examinations were performed using SEM. The wear patterns of the guiding tubes appear similar from those of the control rods, which means that similar wear mechanisms must be involved. A tentative explanation of the increase of the rod drop time in position B06 is proposed. A tentative explanation of the low increase of rod drop time is presented. It could result from the conjunction of a larger pressing force in B06 position than in other position of the core as well as the conformal contact observed. The conformal contact in itself could results from the larger pressing force and the use of hardened rods. The findings of these field examinations have comforted EDF strategy concerning B06 guide tubes: they are changed before their drop time reaches a critical value. (authors)

  2. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  3. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    The level of nuclear plant radiation exposure due to activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. Laboratory pin-on-disc and rolling contact wear tests were used to evaluate the wear performance of several coatings. Based on the results of these tests, multilayer Cr-nitride coatings and ion nitriding are the most promising approaches

  4. A Novel Method for Assessment of Polyethylene Liner Wear in Radiopaque Tantalum Acetabular Cups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Anders; Greene, Meridith E; Ayers, David C

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for wear is not possible in patients with tantalum cups. We propose a novel method for wear analysis in tantalum cups. Wear was assessed by gold standard RSA and the novel method in total hip arthroplasty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled...... to the gold standard in titanium cups. The novel method offered accurate assessment and is a viable solution for assessment of wear in studies with tantalum cups....

  5. The wear properties of nuclear grade graphite IG-11 under different loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaowei; Zhang Lihong; Yu Suyuan

    2004-01-01

    The influence of normal load on wear performance of graphite used in a 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor was investigated. The experiments included the wear between graphite and graphite specimens, and the wear between graphite and stainless steel specimens. The worn surfaces and abrasive particles were analysed with SEM and the wear mechanism was discussed. The sizes of abrasive particles were counted. (author)

  6. Investigation on hard coating of pivot-jewel bearing and wearing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Kun; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of high speed rotating machine is related to the anti-wear properties of pivot jewel bearing used in the system. To reduce its wearing process, hard coating method is used on the steel pivot. Through the wearing test on specialized facilities, its founded that the TiN coating shows better performance than DLC coating, and multi-layer TiN coating can slow down the pivot's wearing process obviously compared to other methods. (authors)

  7. Fretting and wear of stainless and ferritic steels in LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.J.; Campbell, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Steam generators for LMFBR's may be subject to both fretting wear as a result of flow-induced vibrations and to wear from larger amplitude sliding movements from thermal changes. Results of tests simulating the latter are given for stainless and ferritic steels. For the assessment of fretting wear damage, vibration assessments must be combined with data on specific wear rates. Test mechanisms used to study fretting in sodium covering impact, impact-slide and pure rubbing are described and results presented. (author)

  8. Correlation between the wear behaviour and the mechanical properties of several surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelait, L.; Lina, A.; Rezakhanlou, R.; Duysen, J.C. van; Stebut, J. von

    1993-01-01

    Surface mechanical strength of chromium base (electrolytic and plasma sprayed) coatings is studied for friction and wear applications in nuclear environment. Indentation, scratch, and wear testing results are compared. In particular intrinsic coating brittleness is investigated as a mechanism responsible for impact wear. Electrolytic, hard chromium plate has a wear resistance well below that of the spray coated specimens studied. Acoustic emission level and brittle damage features are shown to be correlated. (orig.)

  9. Bionic design perspectives based on the formation mechanism of dental anti-wear function

    OpenAIRE

    ZR Zhou; W. Gong; J. Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Human teeth are the important masticatory organ and therefore are subjected to friction and wear everyday. Both the loading condition and the environment are relatively complex in the mouth, however, normally human teeth can serve in mouth all their time with excellent wear resistance in most people. Obviously, through the process of human evolution, human teeth have become a natural anti-wear system that far outclasses the best engineering anti-wear systems at present. To understand the exce...

  10. Not only hard contact lens wear but also soft contact lens wear may be associated with blepharoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Bleyen (Isabel); C.A. Hiemstra; T. Devogelaere (Thibaut); W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); R.J. Wubbels (René J.); A.D.A. Paridaens (Dion)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The authors attempt to establish an association between prolonged hard and soft contact lens wear and ptosis. Design: Single-center retrospective consecutive series. Participants: All patients between 18 and 50 years of age who were diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral

  11. Standard test method for ranking resistance of materials to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of materials to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank pairs of materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. However, the interlaboratory testing has been limited to metals. In addition, the test can be run with various lubricants, liquids, or gaseous atmospheres, as desired, to simulate service conditions. Rotational speed and load can also be varied to better correspond to service requirements. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for both the block and ring. Materials...

  12. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  13. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... wear debris, which exhibited the characteristic of a mild abrasive wear. The improvement of the wear resistance of the composite with the proper amount of β -Zr crystalline phase is attributed to the fact that the β -Zr crystalline phase distributed in the amorphous matrix has some effective load bearing, plastic deformation ...

  14. Effect of Cl on the corrosive wear of AISI 321 stainless steel in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-07-25

    Jul 25, 2002 ... 1994). It was found that the accelerating effect of Cl– on corrosive wear was caused by the Cl– assisted surface film cracking. In addition, there are controversies about the role of surface film in corrosive wear. In this work, the effect of Cl– on the corrosive wear behaviour of AISI. 321 stainless steel in H2SO4 ...

  15. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Mahboubi, Farzad; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  16. Bionic design methodology for wear reduction of bulk solids handling equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale handling of particulate solids can cause severe wear on bulk solids handling equipment surfaces. Wear reduces equipment life span and increases maintenance cost. Examples of traditional methods to reduce wear of bulk solids handling equipment include optimizing transport operations

  17. Wear of nitrogen ion implanted copper with tribological Cu-Mo-S coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, Stanislav Yu.; Sergeev, Victor P.; Sungatulin, Alfred R.; Kalashnikov, Mark P.

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies the effect of nitrogen ion implantation in copper samples before depositing a solid lubricant Cu-Mo-S coating on their wear resistance during wear testing in pairs with a copper counterface in the argon atmosphere. It was found that wear resistance of samples with Cu-Mo-S coating decreased with the increase in fluence of nitrogen ion implantation.

  18. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Min

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains.Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated.The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes.Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings.

  19. Effect of Cl–on the corrosive wear of AISI 321 stainless steel in H 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SO4 solution was studied via the corrosive wear rate, the load bearing capacity of passive film and the relationship between pitting and corrosive wear. There is a critical load at natural potential, below which the corrosive wear rate is slightly ...

  20. Role of PET in improving wear properties of PP in dry sliding condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The sliding wear of isotactic polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and their blends was evaluated as a function of applied pressure and composition against a stainless steel counter face in dry condition. Wear rate decreases with the addition of PET in the blend. The wear was observed in two.

  1. Surface wear reduction of bulk solids handling equipment using bionic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Bulk solids handling continues to play an important role in a number of industries. One of the issues during bulk solids handling processes is equipment surface wear. Wear results in high economic loss and increases downtime. Current wear reduction methods such as optimizing transfer conditions or

  2. Characteristics of fracture during the approach process and wear mechanism of a silicon AFM tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Ha; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2005-01-01

    The wear of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is one of the crucial issues in AFM as well as in other probe-based applications. In this work, wear tests under extremely low normal load using an AFM were conducted. Also, in order to understand the nature of silicon tip wear, the wear characteristics of crystal silicon and amorphous silicon oxide layer were investigated by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). It was found that fracture of the tip readily occurred due to impact during the approach process. Experimental results showed that the impact should be below 0.1 nN s to avoid significant fracture of the tip. Also, it was observed that wear of the amorphous layer, formed at the end of the tip, occurred at the initial stage of the silicon tip damage process. Based on Archard's wear law, the wear coefficient of the amorphous layer was in the range of 0.009-0.014. As for the wear characteristics of the silicon tip, it was shown that wear occurred gradually under light normal load and the wear rate decreased with increase in the sliding distance. As for the wear mechanism of the silicon tip, oxidation wear was identified to be the most significant. It was shown that the degree of oxidation was higher under high normal load and in a nitrogen environment, oxidation of the silicon tip was reduced

  3. Occlusal wear and occlusal condition in a convenience sample of young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, A. van 't; Kreulen, C.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study progression of tooth wear quantitatively in a convenient sample of young adults and to assess possible correlations with occlusal conditions. METHODS: Twenty-eight dental students participated in a three-year follow up study on tooth wear. Visible wear facets on full arch gypsum

  4. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Qiu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Minhao; Yu, Haiyang; Gao, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains. Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated. The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes. Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings.

  5. The effect of a carbonated beverage on the wear of human enamel and dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Hiyasat, A S; Saunders, W P; Sharkey, S W; Smith, G M

    1998-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of a carbonated beverage on the wear of human enamel and three dental ceramics: a conventional porcelain (Vitadur Alpha), a hydrothermal low-fusing ceramic (Duceram-LFC), and a machinable ceramic (Vita Mark II). Tooth-against-ceramic specimens (10 per group) were tested in a wear machine under a load of 40 N, at a rate of 80 cycles per minute, and for a total of 25,000 cycles. The test was performed in distilled water or with intermittent exposure to a carbonated beverage (Coca-Cola). Wear was determined by measuring the height reduction of the tooth specimens and the depth of wear track in the ceramic specimens. ANOVA revealed a significant difference among the groups for both enamel and ceramic wear (p Mark II. However, with exposure to the carbonated beverage, the enamel wear produced by Duceram-LFC did not differ significantly from that produced by Alpha porcelain, and Vita Mark II produced the least amount of enamel wear. Overall, exposure to the carbonated beverage significantly increased the enamel wear. The wear of Duceram-LFC and Vita Mark II increased with exposure to the carbonated beverage. It was concluded that exposure to the carbonated beverage accelerated the enamel wear and decreased the wear resistance of Duceram-LFC and Vita Mark II ceramics. Overall, Vita Mark II was shown to be the most resistant to wear and also significantly less abrasive than conventional Alpha porcelain.

  6. The rectal temperature estimation method based on tympanic temperature for workers wearing protective clothing in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoki; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    At nuclear facilities, workers wear impermeable protective clothing to prevent radioactive contamination during inspection and maintenance activities. The heat stroke risk of the workers wearing protective clothing gradually increases, because of retaining heat and humidity inside of protective clothing. Normally, the rectal temperature is used to manage the heat stroke risk. But the rectal temperature measurement is very difficult at the working place. We have already reported that the measurement of infrared tympanic temperature is more realistic than that of rectal temperature to manage the heat stroke risk. But tympanic temperature indicates high temperature compared to rectal temperature. So, the use of the tympanic temperature overestimates core temperature and decreases the work efficiency. Therefore, we attempted to make formulas to predict rectal temperature from measured tympanic temperature, and to use calculated rectal temperature for safer and more efficient management. The rectal temperature predicted with the formulas agreed with the actual measurement within the range of measurement error (±0.1degC). Combination of tympanic temperature measurement and heat rate evaluation enabled the safer management of the heat stroke risk with wearing protective clothing. (author)

  7. Wear of PEEK-OPTIMA® and PEEK-OPTIMA®-Wear Performance articulating against highly cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Rebecca H; Briscoe, Adam; Unsworth, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    The idea of all polymer artificial joints, particularly for the knee and finger, has been raised several times in the past 20 years. This is partly because of weight but also to reduce stress shielding in the bone when stiffer materials such as metals or ceramics are used. With this in mind, pin-on-plate studies of various polyetheretherketone preparations against highly cross-linked polyethylene were conducted to investigate the possibility of using such a combination in the design of a new generation of artificial joints. PEEK-OPTIMA(®) (no fibre) against highly cross-linked polyethylene gave very low wear factors of 0.0384 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the polyetheretherketone pins and -0.025 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the highly cross-linked polyethylene plates. The carbon-fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK-OPTIMA(®)-Wear Performance) also produced very low wear rates in the polyetheretherketone pins but produced very high wear in the highly cross-linked polyethylene, as might have been predicted since the carbon fibres are quite abrasive. When the fibres were predominantly tangential to the sliding plane, the mean wear factor was 0.052 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the pins and 49.3 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the highly cross-linked polyethylene plates; a half of that when the fibres ran axially in the pins (0.138 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the pins and 97.5 × 10(-6) mm/ N m for the cross-linked polyethylene plates). PEEK-OPTIMA(®) against highly cross-linked polyethylene merits further investigation. © IMechE 2015.

  8. Influence of carbon content on wear resistance and wear mechanism of Mn13Cr2 and Mn18Cr2 cast steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-shan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of impact abrasion tests, micro-hardness tests, and worn surface morphology observation via SEM, a comparison research based upon different impact abrasive wear conditions was conducted in this research to study the influence of different carbon contents (1.25wt.%, 1.35wt.%, and 1.45 wt.% on the wear resistance and wear mechanism of water-quenched Mn13Cr2 and Mn18Cr2 cast steels. The research results show that the wear resistance of the Mn18Cr2 cast steel is superior to that of the Mn13Cr2 cast steel under the condition of the same carbon content and different impact abrasive wear conditions because the Mn18Cr2 cast steel possesses higher worn work hardening capacity as well as a more desirable combination of high hardness and impact toughness than that of the Mn13Cr2 cast steel. When a 4.5 J impact abrasive load is applied, the wear mechanism of both steels is that plastic deformation fatigue spalling and micro-cutting coexist, and the former dominates. When the carbon content is increased, the worn work hardening effect becomes increasingly dramatic, while the wear resistance of both steels decreases, which implies that an increase in impact toughness is beneficial to improving the wear resistance under severe impact abrasive wear conditions. Under the condition of a 1.0 J impact abrasive load, the wear mechanism of both steels is that plastic deformation fatigue spalling and micro-cutting coexist, and the latter plays a leading role. The worn work hardening effect and wear resistance intensify when the carbon content is increased, which implies that a higher hardness can be conducive to better wear resistance under low impact abrasive condition.

  9. Effect of hexagonal boron nitride and calcined petroleum coke on friction and wear behavior of phenolic resin-based friction composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Gewen; Yan Fengyuan

    2006-01-01

    Calcined petroleum coke (CPC) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) were used as the friction modifiers to improve the friction and wear properties of phenolic resin-based friction composites. Thus, the composites with different relative amounts of CPC and h-BN as the friction modifiers were prepared by compression molding. The hardness and bending strength of the friction composites were measured. The friction and wear behaviors of the composites sliding against cast iron at various temperatures were evaluated using a pin-on-disc test rig. The worn surfaces and wear debris of the friction composites were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the hybrid of the two friction modifiers was effective to significantly decrease the wear rate and stabilize the friction coefficient of the friction composites at various temperatures by forming a uniform lubricating and/or transferred film on the rubbing surfaces. The uniform and durable transfer films were also able to effectively diminish the direct contact between the friction composite and the cast iron counterpart and hence prevent severe wear of the latter as well. The effectiveness of the hybrid of CPC and h-BN in improving the friction and wear behavior of the phenolic resin-based friction modifiers could be attributed to the complementary action of the 'low temperature' lubricity of CPC and the 'high temperature' lubricity of h-BN. The optimum ratio of the two friction modifiers CPC and h-BN in the friction composites was suggested to be 1:1, and the corresponding friction composite showed the best friction-reducing and antiwear abilities

  10. Assessment of oral hygiene habits, oral hygiene practices and tooth wear among fertilizer factory workers of Northern India: A Cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Philip-George, Pradeep; Chitkara, Neha; Patel, Maulikkumar-Natubhai; Shinde, Kushal; Sidhu, Prabhjot-Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between oral hygiene habits & practices and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. The present study was conducted with to assess oral hygiene habits & practices and tooth wear among fertilizer factory workers of Punjab, India. Material and Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted among 965 male workers who were aged between 19–58 years, who were the workers of fertilizers factory of Bathinda, India. An interview on the demographic profile, oral hygiene practices, and adverse habits followed a clinical examination for recording the Tooth Wear (Smith and Knight Index 1984) using Type III examination. The Chi–square test and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Confidence interval and p-value set at 95% and ≤ 0.05 respectively. Results In the present study majority (47.2%) of the study population used chew sticks for cleaning their teeth. Overall prevalence of adverse habits was reported (92.4%). Study population showed higher prevalence of tooth wear (77.1%). Best predictors identified for Tooth Wear were oral hygiene practices, adverse habits, years of work experience and age respectively. Conclusions Considerable percentages of fertilizer factory workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of tooth surface loss. This may be useful in designing the investigations that aim to further explore the causes for these findings and more importantly to plan oral health promotion program implementing both preventive and curative strategies. Key words:Tooth wear, smith & knight index, fertilizer factory. PMID:26644843

  11. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok

    2012-01-01

    Fretting wear studies for evaluating the contact damages of nuclear fuel rods have been focused on the contact shape, rod motion, contact condition, environment, etc.. However, fretting wear mechanism was dramatically changed with slight variation of test variables such as test environments and contact shapes. For example, in an unlubricated condition, effects of wear debris and/or its layer on the fretting wear mechanism showed that the formation of a well-developed layer on the contact surfaces has a beneficial effect for decreasing a friction coefficient. Otherwise, a severe wear was happened due to a third body abrasion. In addition, in water lubrication condition, some of wear debris was remained on worn surface of fuel rod specimens at both sliding and impacting loading conditions. So, it is apparent that a wear rate of fuel rod specimen was easily accelerated by the third-body abrasion. This is because the restrained agglomeration behavior between generated wear particles results in rapid removal of wear debris and its layer. In case of contact shape effects, previous studies show that wear debris are easily trapped between contact surfaces and its debris layer was well developed in a localized area especially in a concave spring rather than a convex spring shape. Consequently, localized wear was happened at both ends of a concave spring and center region of a convex spring. So, it is useful for determining the fretting wear resistance of spacer gird spring and dimple by using part unit in the various lubricated conditions. It is well known that the fretting wear phenomenon of nuclear fuel rod is originated from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) due to the rapid primary coolant. This means that both rod vibration and debris removal behavior were affected by flow fields around the contact regions between fuel rod and spring/dimple. However, all most of the fretting tests were performed by simulating rod vibrating motions such as axial vibration, conservative rod

  12. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  13. Abrasive wear response of aluminium alloy-sillimanite particle reinforced composite under low stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Mondal, D.P.; Das, S.

    2006-01-01

    The abrasive wear behaviour of aluminium alloy-sillimanite particle reinforced composite under low stress condition has been reported and the results have been compared with the corresponding matrix alloy which was produced and cast under similar conditions. The study showed that wear resistance (inverse of wear rate) of the composite was higher than the matrix alloy. The wear rate decreased with sliding distance and increased with applied load irrespective of materials. The worn surfaces and subsurfaces of the tested samples were examined in the scanning electron microscope in order to understand the material removal mechanism during low stress abrasive wear process

  14. Physico-mechanical properties and abrasive wear resistance of refractory compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    The method has been proposed to estimate abrasive wear resistance of refractory compounds and interstitial phases used as wear resistant PVD and CVD coatings. It was based on Khruschov-Babichev empiric laws for abrasion and used correlations between atomic pproperties of solids and their wear resistance. Based on these formulae, a simple model has been used to describe wear processes in a tribological system consisting of a coating deposited on a substrate. The agreement has been demonstrated between theoretical predictions of this paper and experimental results on abrasive wear of a PVD TiN coating on a stainless steel (12Kh18N10T) substrate

  15. The influence of die geometry on tool wear in deep drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    This work shows by numerical simulation how the die edge geometry in a standard deep drawing process influences the maximum wear and the wear distribution over the die edge. By experiments with physical simulation of deep drawing, the numerical model is verified. The model is then used...... for optimization of the die edge with respect to tool wear. Different edge geometries are used: a standard circular edge, an elliptical edge, a tractrix edge and an edge geometry designed especially to make the wear distribution more uniform. This investigation shows that the maximum wear on a die edge...

  16. THE WEAR OF INJECTION MOULD FUNCTIONAL PARTS IN CONTACT WITH POLYMER COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Brezinová

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of material wear of injection moulds made of aluminium alloy Alumec 89 and copper alloy Moldmax HH in friction couples with plastomer materials with various filler contents. The friction relations in injection moulding were simulated in an adhesion dry wear test using an Amsler machine, with an area contact of the friction couple materials. The wear intensity was evaluated by determination of friction coefficient and relative wearing by the mass loss. Surface morphology changes of evaluated alloys after wear and the thermal conditions in particular friction couples were analysed simultaneously.

  17. Theoretical-experimental analysis of the fretting/impact wear in fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecos, Luis F.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plant fuel elements are subjected to flow induced vibrations. A consequence of these vibrations is impact/fretting wear in fuel rods or sliding shoes. Because of the difficulties to assert the mechanism of impact/fretting wear phenomenon it is necessary to use semiempirical formulations in order to predict the wear rate of the components. The results of a series of experiments with Zr-4 specimens are presented in this work. A parameter called 'work-rate' was used to normalize the wear rates and interpret the results in terms of wear coefficient. (author) [es

  18. Friction and wear studies of nuclear power plant components in pressurized high temperature water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, P.L.; Robertson, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies on wear mechanisms of nuclear power plant components have shown that depending on the operating conditions and the environment, different wear mechanisms could occur during a wear process. There is also evidence that in an environment of pressurized high temperature water the wear rate could be significantly different from those obtained from room temperature studies. An experimental facility that is capable of performing tests in pressurized high temperature water environment with feedback controlled impact and reciprocating sliding motion has been built. A research project aimed at gaining better understanding of the mechanisms and mechanics involved in vibratory wear in such environment has been carried out

  19. Brittle wear of silicate materials by Hertzian rubbing contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, N; Tordjeman, Ph; Augereau, F; Attal, J

    2008-01-01

    We studied the tribological properties of a structural series of 11 silicate materials to identify the main physical parameters that control the brittle wear of these materials. First, for each material we characterized Young's modulus E by ultrasonic microscopy, roughness σ by atomic force microscopy and crack pressure P c by Hertzian indentation testing. Second, we measured the static and dynamic friction coefficients μ S and μ D , respectively, with a ball probe tribometer for each material and for three hardnesses of the ball probe. The experiments showed that crack density, which quantified the brittle wear of the materials, was controlled by an adimensional number, C r = P c /μ S E. We show in this paper how this number takes into account the combined effects of the mechanical properties, the lubricating coating layer and the residual internal stresses of these materials

  20. Dynamics Performance and Abrasive Wear of the Automotive Drive Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Mao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An automotive drive shaft is used in a front drive transmission vehicle for transmitting rotary movement from the gearbox output shaft to the wheels with a constant velocity. This paper presents the kinematic model of ball joint and tripod joint with consideration of clearance and proposes a simplified dynamics model of the drive shaft. The simulation of the dynamics model is given by the measured data. Also, the abrasive wear of the ball type joint is tested on the experimental setup with consideration of full loading. The results show that the dynamics of the motion will be affected by the clearance when the loading changes its direction. The motion will be stable due to the damping. It can be found that the abrasive wear of ball joint largely depends on the relative sliding velocity from the experiments. This will probably affectthe dynamics performance and the impact force, which will also cause the other type of failures.

  1. Force Modelling in Orthogonal Cutting Considering Flank Wear Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Kanti Bhikhubhai; Lalwani, Devdas I.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to provide a predictive cutting force model during orthogonal cutting by combining two different force models, that is, a force model for a perfectly sharp tool plus considering the effect of edge radius and a force model for a worn tool. The first force model is for a perfectly sharp tool that is based on Oxley's predictive machining theory for orthogonal cutting as the Oxley's model is for perfectly sharp tool, the effect of cutting edge radius (hone radius) is added and improve model is presented. The second force model is based on worn tool (flank wear) that was proposed by Waldorf. Further, the developed combined force model is also used to predict flank wear width using inverse approach. The performance of the developed combined total force model is compared with the previously published results for AISI 1045 and AISI 4142 materials and found reasonably good agreement.

  2. [The importance of wear couples for younger endoprosthesis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, J; Bergschmidt, P; Bader, R; Kluess, D; Besser-Mahuzir, E; Leder, A; Mittelmeier, W

    2007-04-01

    The success and long-term survival rates of modern joint arthroplasty leads to a high patient satisfaction and, together with its technical improvements, has broadened the indications to an increasingly younger population. Limitations to the established systems are the long-term survival rates, which are mainly influenced by wear of the articulating parts and the resulting problems. Beside "classic" long-stemmed cemented shafts articulating with metal against polyethylene, short-stemmed or cup designs with a hard-hard self pairing are increasingly used in total hip arthroplasty. This paper reflects the current state of the art in joint arthroplasty for younger patients with the focus on wear couples and discusses future perspectives. Special interest is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of ceramic bearings, problems with allergies to implant components and the design of endoprostheses with regard to avoidance of impingement.

  3. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  4. Effect of bagasse ash reinforcement on dry sliding wear behaviour of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbodion, V.S.; Hassan, S.B.; Agunsoye, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The influence of wear parameters on the wear rate of RLDPE were investigated. → The predicted wear rate of the RLDPE and it composites were found to lie close to that experimentally observed ones. → The results showed that the addition of bagasse ash as filler materials in RLDPE composites increase the wear resistance. -- Abstract: The tribological behaviour of recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE) polymer composites with bagasse ash particles as a reinforcement was studied using a pin-on-disc wear rig under dry sliding conditions. The influence of wear parameters like, applied load, sliding speed, sliding distance and percentage of bagasse ash fillers, on the wear rate were investigated. A plan of experiments was performed to acquire data in a controlled way. Scanning electron microscope was used to analyse the worn surface of the samples. Linear regression equation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to investigate the influence of process parameters on the wear rate of the samples. The predicted wear rate of the RLDPE and it composites were found to lie close to that experimentally observed ones. The confirmation of the experiments conducted using ANOVA to verify the optimal testing parameters show that sliding speed and applied load had significant effect on the wear rate. The results showed that the addition of bagasse ash as filler materials in RLDPE composites increase the wear resistance of the composite greatly.

  5. High-speed wear testing of selected ceramics in abrasive slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailov, Arnold; Levänen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased production speeds in modern process environments, the loading conditions in sliding contact applications have become more challenging. Therefore it is important to have good understanding of wear mechanisms in high-speed sliding conditions. A wear testing device was manufactured for the purpose of cost-efficient simulation of water-containing high-speed sliding conditions. Sliding speeds up to 40 meters per second can be achieved while abrasive-containing slurry is fed into the contact interface of material samples and a rubber coated drum. High-speed wear tests were run with three ceramic materials: silicon nitride, silicon carbide and partially stabilized zirconia. Wear behavior of these ceramics was analyzed as a function of sliding speed and slurry composition. Results indicate that in mild wear region increase in sliding speed reduced overall wear, whereas in severe wear conditions increasing speed accelerated wear. A transition from mild to severe wear was observed for silicon carbide when tested in alumina-containing slurry. For the materials that had high enough hardness, wear rates were dictated by the respective order of fracture toughness. Visual inspection of the worn samples supported the interpretation of wear mode transition

  6. Experimental Study of the Hygrothermal Effect on Wear Behavior of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhel Abbas. Abdulla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal effect on the wear behavior of composite material (fiberglass and polyester resin vf=40% was investigated experimentally in this work. The study includes manufacturing of test device (pin on disc according to ASTM G 99. In order to study the hygrothermal effect on wear behavior of composite materials the hygrothermal chamber was manufactured. The experimental results show that the wear of glass fiber/polyester increased with increasing the load, sliding speed and sliding distance. The load and sliding distance were more effective on the wear of the composite rather than sliding speed. Also, it has been revealed that, the hygrothermal is considerable effect that, the wear rate of glass fiber/polyester without hygrothermal effect is lower than wear with hygrothermal effect. Applied load is the wear factor that has the highest physical influence on the wear of composites materials than other wear factors. Also, the wear of glass fiber/polyester without hygrothermal effect is lower than wear with hygrothermal effect.

  7. Simulated localized wear of resin luting cements for universal adhesive systems with different curing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2018-01-29

    This study evaluated the simulated localized wear of resin luting cements for universal adhesive systems using different curing modes. Five resin luting cements for universal adhesive systems were evaluated and subsequently subjected to wear challenge in a Leinfelder-Suzuki wear simulation device. Overall, 20 specimens from each resin luting cement were photo-cured for 40 s (dual-cure group), and 20 specimens of each material were not photo-cured (chemical-cure group). Simulated localized wear was generated using a stainless steel ball-bearing antagonist in water slurry of polymethylmethacrylate beads. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of resin luting cements and wear facets were conducted. Significant differences in simulated wear and SEM observations of wear facets were evident among the materials in the dual- and chemical-cure groups. The simulated wear and SEM observations of wear facets of G-CEM LinkForce and Panavia V5 were not influenced by the curing mode. SEM observations of resin luting cements were material dependent. In most cases, dual curing appears to ensure greater wear resistance of resin luting cements than chemical curing alone. The wear resistance of some resin luting cements appears to be material dependent and is not influenced by the curing mode.

  8. Experimental and numerical study on casing wear in highly deviated drilling for oil and gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at studying the casing wear in the highly deviated well drilling, the experimental study on the casing wear was carried out in the first place. According to the test data and the linear wear model based on the energy dissipation proposed by White and Dawson, the tool joint–casing wear coefficient was obtained. The finite element model for casing wear mechanism research was established using ABAQUS. The nodal movement of the contact surface was employed to simulate the evolution of the wear depth, exploiting the Umeshmotion user subroutine. In addition, the time-dependent geometry of the contact surfaces between the tool joint and casing was being updated continuously. Consequently, the contact area and contact pressure were changed continuously during the casing wear process, which gives a more realistic simulation. Based on the shapes of worn casing, the numerical simulation research was carried out to determine the remaining collapse strength. Then the change curve of the maximum casing wear depth with time was obtained. Besides, the relationship between the maximum wear depth and remaining collapse strength was established to predict the maximum wear depth and the remaining strength of the casing after a period of accumulative wear, providing a theoretical basis for the safety assessment of worn casing.

  9. Exploring wear at the nanoscale with circular mode atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Noel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM has allowed wear mechanisms to be investigated at the nanometer scale by means of a single asperity contact generated by an AFM tip and an interacting surface. However, the low wear rate at the nanoscale and the thermal drift require fastidious quantitative measurements of the wear volume for determining wear laws. In this paper, we describe a new, effective, experimental methodology based on circular mode AFM, which generates high frequency, circular displacements of the contact. Under such conditions, the wear rate is significant and the drift of the piezoelectric actuator is limited. As a result, well-defined wear tracks are generated and an accurate computation of the wear volume is possible. Finally, we describe the advantages of this method and we report a relevant application example addressing a Cu/Al2O3 nanocomposite material used in industrial applications.

  10. High Temperature Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Performance of Laser Cladding WC/Ni Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different types of agglomerate and angular WC/Ni matrix composite coatings were deposited by laser cladding. The high temperature wear resistance of these composite coatings was tested with a ring-on-disc MMG-10 apparatus. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS for elemental composition. The results show that the high temperature wear resistance of the laser clad WC/Ni-based composite coatings is improved significantly with WC mass fraction increasing. The 60% agglomerate WC/Ni composite coating has optimal high temperature wear resistance. High temperature wear mechanism of 60% WC/Ni composite coating is from abrasive wear of low temperature into composite function of the oxidation wear and abrasive wear.

  11. Dry sliding wear behaviour of organo-modified montmorillonite filled epoxy nanocomposites using Taguchi's techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashmi; Renukappa, N.M.; Suresha, B.; Devarajaiah, R.M.; Shivakumar, K.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Successful fabrication of OMMT filled epoxy nanocomposites by high-shear mixing mehod. → Systematic tribological behaviour of the nanocomposites was made using Taguchi method. → Worn surface morphologies of the samples were discussed for different wear mechanisms. → Generation of wear data for sliding/bearing parts for different industries. -- Abstract: The aim of the research article is to study the dry sliding wear behaviour of epoxy with different wt.% of organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT) filled nanocomposites. An orthogonal array (L 9 ) was used to investigate the influence of tribological parameters. The results indicate that the sliding distance emerges as the most significant factor affecting wear rate of epoxy nanocomposites. Experimental results showed that the inclusion of 5 wt.% OMMT nanofiller increased the wear resistance of the epoxy nanocomposite significantly. Furthermore, the worn surfaces of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the wear mechanisms and to correlate them with the wear test results.

  12. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  13. Fundamentals of friction and wear on the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Gnecco, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an updated review on the development of scanning probe microscopy and related techniques, and the availability of computational techniques not even imaginable a few decades ago. The 36 chapters cover instrumental aspects, theoretical models and selected experimental results, thus offering a broad panoramic view on fundamental issues in nanotribology which are currently being investigated. Compared to the first edition, several topics have been added, including triboluminescence, graphene mechanics, friction and wear in liquid environments, capillary condensation, and multisc

  14. Pavement wear and airborne dust pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Snilsberg, Brynhild

    2008-01-01

    In several large cities in Norway the traffic volume is high. The use of studded tires and other friction enhancing measures during winter leads to significant pavement wear, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of airborne particulate matter, often exceeding the limits set in the ambient air regulation. This represents a nuisance or health risk for people being exposed to the pollution. According to regulations set by the European Union particulate matter is measured and regulate...

  15. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike L. Fulcher; Kenneth L. Knittel

    2004-06-08

    The work performed on this program was to develop wear resistant, tough FM composite materials with efforts focused on WC-Co based FM systems. The materials were developed for use in mining industry wear applications. Components of interest were drill bit inserts for drilling blast holes. Other component applications investigated included wear plates for a variety of equipment such as pit shovels, wear surfaces for conveyors, milling media for ball milling operations, hydrocyclone cones, grader blades and dozer teeth. Cross-cutting technologies investigated included hot metal extrusion dies, drill bits for circuit board fabrication, cutting tools for cast iron and aluminum machining. An important part of the work was identification of the standard materials used in drilling applications. A materials trade study to determine those metals and ceramics used for mining applications provided guidance for the most important materials to be investigated. WC-Co and diamond combinations were shown to have the most desirable properties. Other considerations such as fabrication technique and the ability to consolidate shifted the focus away from diamond materials and toward WC-Co. Cooperating partners such as Kennametal and Kyocera assisted with supplies, evaluations of material systems, fabricated parts and suggestions for cross-cutting technology applications for FM architectures. Kennametal provided the raw materials (WC-Co and Al-TiCN powders) for the extent of the material evaluations. Kyocera shared their research into various FM systems and provided laboratory testing of fabricated materials. Field testing provided by partners Superior Rock Bit and Brady Mining and Construction provided insight into the performance of the fabricated materials under actual operational conditions. Additional field testing of cross-cutting technology, the extrusion of hot metals, at Extruded Metals showed the potential for additional market development.

  16. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  17. Features wear nodes mechanization wing aircraft operating under dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М. Хімко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  The conducted researches of titanic alloy ВТ-22 at dynamic loading with cycled sliding and dynamic loading in conditions of rolling with slipping. It is established that roller jamming in the carriage increases wear of rod of mechanization of a wing to twenty times. The optimum covering for strengthening wearied sites and restoration of working surfaces of wing’s mechanization rod is defined.

  18. An alternative treatment of occlusal wear: Cast metal occlusal surface

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar; Aman Arora; Reena Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Acrylic resin denture teeth often exhibit rapid occlusal wear, which may lead to decrease in the chewing efficiency, loss of vertical dimension of occlusion, denture instability, temporomandibular joint disturbances, etc. There are various treatment options available like, use of highly cross linked acrylic teeth, amalgam or metal inserts on occlusal surface, use of composite, gold or metal occlusal surface, etc. Several articles have described methods to construct gold and metal occlusal sur...

  19. Investigation on two-body abrasive wear behavior of titanium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two-body abrasive wear behavior of Glass–Epoxy (G–E) composites has been evaluated by the addition of Titanium carbide (TiC) as a secondary reinforcement using pin-on disc equipment at an applied load of 5, 10 and 15N for various sliding distances (25, 50,75m) with 400 grit water proof Silicon Carbide (SiC) ...

  20. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    OpenAIRE

    Rostiny, Rostiny

    2007-01-01

    The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  1. International survey of contact lens prescribing for extended wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Woods, Craig A

    2012-02-01

    To determine the extent of extended wear (EW) contact lens prescribing worldwide and to characterize the associated demographics and fitting patterns. Up to 1000 survey forms were sent to contact lens fitters in up to 39 countries between January and March every year for five consecutive years (2006-2010). Practitioners were asked to record data relating to the first 10 contact lens fits or refits performed after receiving the survey form. Survey data collected since 1997 was also analyzed to assess EW fitting trends since that time. Details for lens modality were received for 107,094 rigid and soft lens fits of which 88,392 were for soft lens daily wear (DW) and 7470 were for soft lens EW. Overall, EW represents 7.8% of all soft lens fits, ranging from 0.6% in Malaysia to 27% Norway. Compared with DW fittings, EW fittings can be characterized as follows: older age (32.7 ± 13.6 vs. 29.4 ± 12.0 years for DW); males are over-represented; greater proportion of refits; 72% silicone hydrogel; higher proportion of presbyopia and spherical designs; and higher proportion of monthly lens replacement. Of those wearing EW lenses, 80% use multipurpose solutions, whereas 9% do not use any care system. Between 1997 and 1999, the rate of EW prescribing decreased from 5 to 1% of all soft lens fits; it increased to a peak of 12% in 2006, and settled back to 8% by 2010. EW prescribing has failed to break through the "glass ceiling" of 15% and is unlikely to become a mainstream lens wearing modality until the already low risks of ocular complications can be reduced to be equivalent to that for DW.

  2. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8.5. Figure 1. Typical appearance of wear scars on specimens. composite from the mould after curing. The cast of each composite is cured under a load of about 50 kg for 24 h ...... In similar fashion, for ZnO- filled E-glass fibre-based polyester composite, the arbitrary set of factor combination is taken i.e., A1B2C1D1E1 but.

  3. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  4. Wear mechanisms in powder metallurgy high speed steels matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordo, E.; Martinez, M. A.; Torralba, J. M.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The development of metal matrix composites has a major interest for automotive and cutting tools industries since they possess better mechanical properties and wear resistance than corresponding base materials. One of the manufacturing methods for these materials includes processing by powder metallurgy techniques. in this case, blending of both, base material and reinforcement powders constitute the most important process in order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of second phase particles. in the present work, composite materials of M3/2 tool steel reinforced with 2.5,5 and 8 vol% of niobium carbide have been prepared. In order to ensure a homogeneous mix, powders of both materials were mixed by dry high-energy mechanical milling at 200 r.p.m. for 40 h. After a recovering annealing, two routes for consolidate were followed die pressing and vacuum sintering, and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Pin-on-disc tests were carried out to evaluate wear behaviour in all the materials. Results show that ceramic particles additions improve wear resistance of base material. (Author) 9 refs

  5. Erosive wear of selected materials for fossil energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Thomas A.; Rawers, James C.; Tylczak, Joseph H.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    A number of materials have been evaluated to determine their erosion resistance for fossil energy applications. This is part of a larger program to study wear and corrosion at Albany Research Center. This paper will present the results for some of these materials, including FeAl, FeAl cermets, WC-Co cemented carbides, Si3N4-MoSi2, Si3N4, Stellite 6B, white cast irons and 440C steel. Trends in erosion rates due to material properties and erosive conditions will be presented. FeAl cermets performed well compared to the WC-Co cemented carbides. The interparticle spacing of the WC-Co cemented carbides correlated with the erosion rate. The erosion rate of the WC-Co cemented carbides decreased as the interparticle spacing decreased. It is important to realize that erosion resistance is not an intrinsic material property, but is a system response. A change in the wear environment can significantly alter the relative rankings of materials with respect to their wear rate. For example, at relatively low velocities, the carbides in the white cast irons are more erosion resistant than the matrix, while at higher velocities the matrix is more erosion resistant.

  6. Physical and Constructive (Limiting) Criterions of Gear Wheels Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    We suggest using a generalized model of friction - the model of elastic-plastic deformation of the body element, which is located on the surface of the friction pairs. This model is based on our new engineering approach to the problem of friction-triboergodynamics. Friction is examined as transformative and dissipative process. Structural-energetic interpretation of friction as a process of elasto-plastic deformation and fracture contact volumes is proposed. The model of Hertzian (heavy-loaded) friction contact evolution is considered. The least wear particle principle is formulated. It is mechanical (nano) quantum. Mechanical quantum represents the least structural form of solid material body in conditions of friction. It is dynamic oscillator of dissipative friction structure and it can be examined as the elementary nanostructure of metal’s solid body. At friction in state of most complete evolution of elementary tribosystem (tribocontact) all mechanical quanta (subtribosystems) with the exception of one, elasticity and reversibly transform energy of outer impact (mechanic movement). In these terms only one mechanical quantum is the lost – standard of wear. From this position we can consider the physical criterion of wear and the constructive (limiting) criterion of gear teeth and other practical examples of tribosystems efficiency with new tribology notion – mechanical (nano) quantum.

  7. A discussion on the measurement of grinding media wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Peres Massola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Comminution operations are the most expensive and energy consuming in the mineral industry. Any action aiming at reducing the costs associated with that step is welcome, and lowering the consumption of grinding media figures among the main concerns related to decreasing comminution costs. To reach that goal, it is necessary to know and understand the wear mechanisms that take place during the grinding process, as well as to consider the details of such process like the inhomogeneous feed and the interaction between mineral slurry and grinding media. Wet grinding can also add a corrosive component to total wear mechanism, and then wear rates are expected to rise from synergies between corrosive and abrasive components. Though corrosion phenomena are broadly accepted to happen in wet grinding – even when the ball alloy has high chromium content – studies on verifying its importance are scarce. Tests in laboratory mills can simulate most of the conditions present in the industrial mill, despite being inexpensive and much faster than the tests performed with industrial equipment.

  8. Tribopolymerization as an anti-wear mechanism. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furey, M.J.

    1996-04-01

    The primary objective of this activity is to obtain the necessary data which would enhance, promote, and encourage the introduction of advanced lubrication technology into the marketplace. This includes (a) defining specific but different applications, (b) establishing the limits or ranges of applied loads, speeds, and temperatures over which the concept of tribopolymerization would work in reducing wear and/or friction, (c) continuing in efforts to understand the film-forming process (this rates to (b) above), using this knowledge to develop new and even more effective additives, and (d) exploring possible connections with private and investment companies for the licensing and marketing of products which will reduce friction and wear in a variety of applications. Progress was made in several different but connected areas. These included (a) establishing of load/velocity limits of selected monomers for ceramic lubrication, (b) the discovery of new and effective monomers designed for higher temperature anti-wear applications, (c) improvements and modifications of the high load/high speed pin-on-disk machine, (d) the initiation of related or spin-off projects designed to get their advanced technology into the marketplace, (e) the filing of three new patent applications, and (f) collaborative research with Dr. Kajdas--the co-inventor with Dr. Furey--on tribopolymerization as a novel and effective approach to the boundary lubrication of ceramics and steel. These and other elements of progress made during the first Quarter of 1996 are discussed briefly.

  9. Predicting the Wear of High Friction Surfacing Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Woodward

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High friction surfacing (HFS is a specialist type of road coating with very high skid resistance. It is used in the UK at locations where there is significant risk of serious or fatal accidents. This paper considers the aggregate used in HFS. Calcined bauxite is the only aggregate that provides the highest levels of skid resistance over the longest period. No naturally occurring aggregate has been found to give a comparable level of in-service performance. This paper reviews the historical development of HFS in the UK relating to aggregate. In-service performance is predicted in the laboratory using the Wear test which subjects test specimens to an estimated 5–8 years simulated trafficking. Examples are given of Wear test data. They illustrate why calcined bauxite performs better than natural aggregate. They show how the amount of calcined bauxite can be reduced by blending with high skid resistant natural aggregates. Data from the Wear test can be related to every HFS laboratory experiment and road trial carried out in the UK for over the last 50 years. Anyone considering the prediction of HFS performance needs to carefully consider the data given in this paper with any other test method currently being considered or used to investigate HFS.

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Wear Degradation in Cylinder Liners

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-03-20

    Every mechanical system is naturally subjected to some kind of wear process that, at some point, will cause failure in the system if no monitoring or treatment process is applied. Since failures often lead to high economical costs, it is essential both to predict and to avoid them. To achieve this, a monitoring system of the wear level should be implemented to decrease the risk of failure. In this work, we take a first step into the development of a multiscale indirect inference methodology for state-dependent Markovian pure jump processes. This allows us to model the evolution of the wear level and to identify when the system reaches some critical level that triggers a maintenance response. Since the likelihood function of a discretely observed pure jump process does not have an expression that is simple enough for standard nonsampling optimization methods, we approximate this likelihood by expressions from upscaled models of the data. We use the Master Equation (ME) to assess the goodness-of-fit and to compute the distribution of the hitting time to the critical level.

  11. Statistical models for expert judgement and wear prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis studies the statistical analysis of expert judgements and prediction of wear. The point of view adopted is the one of information theory and Bayesian statistics. A general Bayesian framework for analyzing both the expert judgements and wear prediction is presented. Information theoretic interpretations are given for some averaging techniques used in the determination of consensus distributions. Further, information theoretic models are compared with a Bayesian model. The general Bayesian framework is then applied in analyzing expert judgements based on ordinal comparisons. In this context, the value of information lost in the ordinal comparison process is analyzed by applying decision theoretic concepts. As a generalization of the Bayesian framework, stochastic filtering models for wear prediction are formulated. These models utilize the information from condition monitoring measurements in updating the residual life distribution of mechanical components. Finally, the application of stochastic control models in optimizing operational strategies for inspected components are studied. Monte-Carlo simulation methods, such as the Gibbs sampler and the stochastic quasi-gradient method, are applied in the determination of posterior distributions and in the solution of stochastic optimization problems. (orig.) (57 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.)

  12. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  13. Wear behavior of human enamel against lithium disilicate glass ceramic and type III gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahreum; Swain, Michael; He, Lihong; Lyons, Karl

    2014-12-01

    The wear behavior of human enamel that opposes different prosthetic materials is still not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate and compare the friction and wear behavior of human tooth enamel that opposes 2 indirect restorative materials: lithium disilicate glass ceramic and Type III gold. Friction-wear tests on human enamel (n=5) that opposes lithium disilicate glass ceramic (n=5) and Type III gold (n=5) were conducted in a ball-on-flat configuration with a reciprocating wear testing apparatus. The wear pairs were subjected to a normal load of 9.8 N, a reciprocating amplitude of approximately 200 μm, and a reciprocating frequency of approximately 1.6 Hz for up to 1100 cycles per test under distilled water lubrication. The frictional force of each cycle was recorded, and the corresponding friction coefficient for different wear pairs was calculated. After wear testing, the wear scars on the enamel specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Type III gold had a significantly lower steady-state friction coefficient (P=.009) and caused less wear damage on enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Enamel that opposed lithium disilicate glass ceramic exhibited cracks, plow furrows, and surface loss, which indicated abrasive wear as the prominent wear mechanism. In comparison, the enamel wear scar that opposed Type III gold had small patches of gold smear adhered to the surface, which indicated a predominantly adhesive wear mechanism. A lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance were observed when human enamel was opposed by Type III gold than by lithium disilicate glass ceramic in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of halogen irradiance on short- and long-term wear resistance of resin-based composite materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhamra, Gurcharn S

    2009-02-01

    The Oregon Health Science University (OHSU) four-chamber oral wear simulator was used to examine the impact of halogen irradiance on the short- and long-term wear behavior of four-methacrylate resin-based composites (RBCs). The hypothesis proposed was that exacerbated wear would occur following the long-term wear of RBCs irradiated under non-optimized irradiance conditions.

  15. Formation of nano-laminated structures in a dry sliding wear-induced layer under different wear mechanisms of 20CrNi2Mo steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cun-hong; Liang, Yi-long; Jiang, Yun; Yang, Ming; Long, Shao-lei

    2017-11-01

    The microstructures of 20CrNi2Mo steel underneath the contact surface were examined after dry sliding. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and an ultra-micro-hardness tester were used to characterize the worn surface and dry sliding wear-induced layer. Martensite laths were ultra-refined due to cumulative strains and a large strain gradient that occurred during cyclic loading in wear near the surface. The microstructure evolution in dominant abrasive wear differs from that in adhesive wear. In dominant abrasive wear, only bent martensite laths with high-density deformation dislocations were observed. In contrast, in dominant adhesive wear, gradient structures were formed along the depth from the wear surface. Cross-sectional TEM foils were prepared in a focused ion beam (FIB) to observe the gradient structures in a dry sliding wear-induced layer at depths of approximately 1-5 μm and 5-20 μm. The gradient structures contained nano-laminated structures with an average thickness of 30-50 nm and bent martensite laths. We found that the original martensite laths coordinated with the strain energy and provided origin boundaries for the formation of gradient structures. Geometrically necessary boundaries (GNBs) and isolated dislocation boundaries (IDBs) play important roles in forming the nano-laminated structures.

  16. Backside Wear Analysis of Retrieved Acetabular Liners with a Press-Fit Locking Mechanism in Comparison to Wear Simulation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Puente Reyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backside wear due to micromotion and poor conformity between the liner and its titanium alloy shell may contribute to the high rates of retroacetabular osteolysis and consequent aseptic loosening. The purpose of our study was to understand the wear process on the backside of polyethylene liners from two acetabular cup systems, whose locking mechanism is based on a press-fit cone in combination with a rough titanium conical inner surface on the fixation area. A direct comparison between in vitro wear simulator tests (equivalent to 3 years of use and retrieved liners (average 13.1 months in situ was done in order to evaluate the backside wear characteristics and behavior of these systems. Similar wear scores between in vitro tested and retrieved liners were observed. The results showed that this locking mechanism did not significantly produce wear marks at the backside of the polyethylene liners due to micromotion. In all the analyzed liners, the most common wear modes observed were small scratches at the cranial fixation zone directly below the rough titanium inner surface of the shell. It was concluded that most of the wear marks were produced during the insertion and removal of the liner, rather than during its time in situ.

  17. Wear Particles Promote Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Inflammation via the Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Pathway in Macrophages Surrounding Loosened Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weishen Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prosthesis loosening is closely associated with chronic inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages, which are activated by wear particles or inflammatory stimulants such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are critical regulators of inflammation, but their enzymatic sources in response to wear particles and their effects on peri-implant LPS-tolerance remain unclear. Methods: Three ROS-related enzymes—nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX-1 and -2 and catalase—were investigated in interface membrane tissues and in titanium (Ti particle-stimulated macrophages in vitro. The generation of ROS and downstream inflammatory effects were measured with or without pre-incubation with apocynin, an NOX inhibitor. Results: Pre-exposure to Ti particles attenuated NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, indicating that wear particles suppress immune response, which may lead to chronic inflammation. NOX-1 and -2 were highly expressed in aseptically loosened interface membranes and in macrophages stimulated with Ti particles; the particles induced a moderate amount of ROS generation, NF-κB activation, and TNF-a secretion in macrophages, and these effects were suppressed by apocynin. Conclusion: Wear particles induce ROS generation through the NOX signaling pathway, resulting in persistent inflammation and delayed loosening. Thus, the suppression of NOX activity may be a useful strategy for preventing prosthesis loosening.

  18. New oil condition monitoring system, Wearsens® enables continuous, online detection of critical operating conditions and wear damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Mauntz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new oil sensor system is presented for the continuous, online measurement of the wear in turbines, industrial gears, generators, hydraulic systems and transformers. Detection of change is much earlier than existing technologies such as particle counting, vibration measurement or recording temperature. Thus targeted, corrective procedures and/or maintenance can be carried out before actual damage occurs. Efficient machine utilization, accurately timed preventive maintenance, increased service life and a reduction of downtime can all be achieved. The presented sensor system effectively controls the proper operation conditions of bearings and cogwheels in gears. The online diagnostics system measures components of the specific complex impedance of oils. For instance, metal abrasion due to wear debris, broken oil molecules, forming acids or oil soaps, result in an increase of the electrical conductivity, which directly correlates with the degree of contamination of the oil. For additivated lubricants, the stage of degradation of the additives can also be derived from changes in the dielectric constant. The determination of impurities or reduction in the quality of the oil and the quasi continuous evaluation of wear and chemical aging follow the holistic approach of a real-time monitoring of an alteration in the condition of the oil-machine system. Once the oil condition monitoring sensors are installed on the wind turbine, industrial gearbox and test stands, the measuring data can be displayed and evaluated elsewhere. The signals are transmitted to a web-based condition monitoring system via LAN, WLAN or serial interfaces of the sensor unit. Monitoring of the damage mechanisms during proper operation below the tolerance limits of the components enables specific preventive maintenance independent of rigid inspection intervals.

  19. Improvement of wear resistance for C45 steel using plasma nitriding, nitrocarburizing and nitriding/ manganese phosphating duplex treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, T. V.; Kusmič, D.; Pospíchal, M.; Dobrocký, D.

    2017-02-01

    This article focuses on effect of plasma nitriding, nitrocarburizing and nitriding/manganese phosphating duplex treatments to wear resistance of C45 steel substrate. The wear test “ball on disc” was conducted to evaluate the coefficient of friction and wear rate using the BRUKER UMT-3 tribometer. The analysis results indicated that nitrocarburizing obtained the best wear resistance; the worst wear resistance was plasma nitriding. Manganese phosphating coating enabled to reduce the coefficient of friction enhanced wear resistance nitrided layer. The used surface treatments also improve non-equal wear of tempered surface over the sliding track.

  20. The influence of nominal stress on wear factors of carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK-OPTIMA® Wear Performance) against zirconia toughened alumina (Biolox® delta ceramic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew; Horton, Henrietta; Unsworth, Anthony; Briscoe, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone is an attractive alternative to ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene in artificial joints, but little has been published on the influence of stress on the wear factor. We know that in ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, the wear factor reduces as the normal stress increases, which is counter-intuitive but very helpful in the case of non-conforming contacts. In this study, carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK-OPTIMA ® Wear Performance) has been investigated in a pin-on-plate machine under steady loads and under stresses typical of hip and knee joints. At stresses below about 6 MPa, wear factors are between 10 and a 100 times lower than for ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene but at higher stresses the wear factors increase substantially. © IMechE 2014.