Sexual Norms for Lesbian and Bisexual Women in a Culture Where Lesbianism Is Not Acceptable Enough: The Japanese Survey About Sexual Behaviors, STIs Preventive Behaviors, and the Value of Sexual Relations.
This study aimed to identify key factors preventing STIs among women who have sex with women in Japan. This description is based on survey and open-ended responses from participants. The questionnaire contained participants' background, sexual behavior, STI prevention behavior, experience and knowledge of STIs, and the value of sex with women. 104 responded, and 92 (88.5 %) reported having sexual experience with women. A variety of sexual behaviors were reported. Regarding STIs, 14.4% of participants had an STI in past. Almost half of the participants cited measures to prevent STIs included hygienic activities. Participants believed that sexual relations accompany partnership with females.
Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.
Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila
The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N = 684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention.
2014-2016 DoD Sexual Assault Prevention Strategy? e. Education and Training 1. Not at all 2. Small extent 3. Moderate extent 4. Large extent 5...challenges in implementing the elements of the DoD Sexual Assault Prevention Strategy? f. Not enough continuing education opportunities to enhance...continuing education credits for the Defense Sexual Assault Advocate Certification Program (D-SAACP). 43. Are you familiar with SAPR Connect
Yu, Buyi; Chen, Jingqi; Jin, Yichen; Zhang, Wenjing; Feng, Yanan; Zhao, Xiaoxia
The prevalence of any child sexual abuse (CSA) experience before the age of 16 years ranges from 10.2 to 35.2% in China, 1-5 but there has been no research so far exploring the level of awareness of CSA prevention and self-protection skills among Chinese children with hearing loss. The school based survey examines the CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills in Chinese children with hearing loss. Fifty-one students (30 boys, 21 girls) from 10 to 16 years old participated in the study. Children's CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills were tested by using anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was mainly designed based on previous Chinese CSA research questionnaires, the Personal Safety Questionnaire, and the 'What If' Situations Test (WIST). There were ten questions assessing the knowledge of CSA but none of the children could correctly answer all and seventy percent of the students could not answer more than five questions correctly. Only three students got the maximum skills score. If sexual abuse occurs, about fifty two percent of the children would report it to trusted adults and most of them would report it to their relatives. Girls received significantly higher scores than boys. Chinese children with hearing loss lack knowledge regarding child sexual abuse and the way to protect themselves. There is an urgent need to develop CSA prevention programs in the school for children with hearing loss in China. Parental training and parent-child interaction on CSA prevention should be developed and promoted as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
education so SARCs and VAs can maximize the tools they have for supporting male survivors of sexual assault. Familiarity with SAPRO Resources...an area where ongoing education about the value of the SVC/VLC program may ultimately bolster support options for survivors of sexual assault...Lower Response SARCs Demonstrate awareness of the impact of sexual assault on survivors 85 83 87 81 91 Facilitate education and training 82 81 77
formalized the individual states’ responsibilities to protect women from violence. Which included recognizing women as an equal gender in society...clear definition of violence against women as “any act of gender -based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or
Anderson, Patricia L.
School administrators should develop a clear policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment; create guidelines to implement the policy; and designate a key administrator to oversee and ensure compliance with laws related to sexual harassment. Lists steps for dealing with a claim, what teachers can do to protect themselves from claims, and what a…
McCall, George J.
Sexual assault prevention programming remains a confused, scattered, and sporadic enterprise with little scientific underpinning. Sexual assault prevention suffers because it neither fits the traditional crime prevention model, nor the traditional public health model of prevention programming. Traces political and technical consequences, and…
... org/ 2016/ 05/ sexual- assault- prevention- on- u- s- college- campuses- a- national- scan/ n Not Alone www. notalone. gov n CDC’s Report to the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual ... ...
Geist, R F
cases. Physicians must be educated and vigilant for sexually related injuries because people frequently will delay treatment and then provide misleading histories because of embarrassment.
Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah
Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447
Santelli, John S.; And Others
Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…
Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditio...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....
Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna
To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)
Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.
Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598
Using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework, this study examined university students who may seek access to healthcare through an on-campus student clinic for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from students enrolled in a general health education…
Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Robel, Erika; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A
Among women and gay and bisexual men, sexual assault is associated with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and negative sexual health outcomes. Although the mechanisms of these effects are potentially myriad, the current analyses examine the role of perceived partner pressure for condomless sex in mediating the association between adult sexual assault (ASA) and recent anal or vaginal sex without a condom. In a sample of 205 young adult women and gay and bisexual men, ASA was indirectly associated with condomless anal and/or vaginal sex via perceptions of partner pressure for condomless sex, χ 2 (1) = 5.66, p = .02, after controlling for race, age, gender and sexual identity, and relationship status. The elucidation of this relational mechanism points to several potential intervention and prevention strategies that may reduce actual and perceived pressure for sex without a condom, including strategies designed to facilitate the prioritization of health and safety over relational goals and the improvement of partner selection and perceptions of partner pressure. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam
At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.
Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo
Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.
Thacker, Rebecca A.
Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)
This study assesses the correlations of participation in a prevention program, Men Creating Attitudes for Rape-free Environments (Men CARE), and participants' attitudes and behavior toward sexual violence. The t-tests were used to determine the association, either by the intervention or the cohort, on attitudes and behaviors between the groups,…
Georgina Amayuela Mora
Full Text Available In Ecuador the profound social, have been creating the conditions for the development of new conceptions in the education of the sexuality. The necessity of taking actions in relation with the education of the sexuality is a challenge for the educators and the health personal. The objective of this paper is to offer psycho-pedagogical foundations for the prevention of adolescent pregnancy Theoretical and empiric methods were used in the present investigation, mainly. The work provides a system of psycho-pedagogical grounds to take into account in any proposal for adolescent pregnancy prevention.
Matocha, L K; Waterhouse, J K
Nurses' practices related to sexuality were examined using the Survey on Sexuality in Nursing Practice (SSNP). The sample consisted of 155 practicing, registered nurses from a variety of practice settings. Twenty percent of subjects indicated they were never involved in any sexuality-related activities and only about 12% addressed sexuality with a majority of their clients. Although subjects consistently identified sexuality as a necessary part of nursing practice, few addressed sexual concerns with clients. Weighted least squares analysis of 12 variables revealed that only those variables measuring practice setting and area, nurses' knowledge, responsibility, and comfort were useful predictors of nurses' practice related to sexuality.
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...
Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights ...
Smothers, Melissa Kraemer; Smothers, D. Brian
In this study, a nonprofit community mental health clinic developed a socioecological model of sexual abuse prevention that was implemented in a public school. The goal of the program was to promote and create community change within individuals and the school community by reducing tolerance of sexual violence and sexual harassment. Participants…
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
Bränström, Richard; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pachankis, John E; Link, Bruce G
To determine whether fundamental cause theory (which posits that, in societal conditions of unequal power and resources, members of higher-status groups experience better health than members of lower-status groups because of their disproportionate access to health-protective factors) might be relevant in explaining health disparities related to sexual orientation. We used 2001 to 2011 morbidity data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, a representative general population-based study in Sweden. A total of 66 604 (92.0%) individuals identified as heterosexual, 848 (1.2%) as homosexual, and 806 (1.1%) as bisexual. To test fundamental cause theory, we classified diseases in terms of preventability potential (low vs high). There were no sexual orientation differences in morbidity from low-preventable diseases. By contrast, gay or bisexual men (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 1.93) and lesbian or bisexual women (adjusted OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.10) had a greater risk of high-preventable morbidity than heterosexual men and women, respectively. These differences were sustained in analyses adjusted for covariates. Our findings support fundamental cause theory and suggest that unequal distribution of health-protective resources, including knowledge, prestige, power, and supportive social connections, might explain sexual orientation health disparities.
... Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Many ... is the only 100% effective way to prevent HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy. The correct and consistent use of male latex ...
Edwards, Keith E.
The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa
Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…
Robinson, R B; Frank, D I
This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.
In recent years, an accumulation of Japanese research about sexual harassment and a number of very public court cases involving prominent public figures placed the issue of sexual harassment in the media spotlight. Japan was forced to recognise sexual harassment as a national problem, and not an issue, which was confined to the Western world. In April 1999, the Japanese government realised the need to amend existing laws to include sexual harassment under article twenty-one of the Equal Oppor...
The phenomenon of child sexual abuse (CSA) remains topical in. Zimbabwe. Statistics, literature and debate reflect not only increased scientific interest in child sexual abuse and its potential effects but also growing public concern about this form of child maltreatment. The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and.
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.
Hobson, Charles J.; Guziewicz, Jennifer
Reports on a survey concerning thirteen recommended sexual harassment preventive/protective practices at U.S. colleges and universities. A majority of responding institutions had formal sexual harassment policies, offered counseling to student victims, and investigated all complaints. Relatively fewer schools provided student access to faculty…
2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assault Prevention and Response- Related Responders Statistical Methodology Report Additional copies of this report...from: http://www.dtic.mil/ Ask for report by ADA630235 DMDC Report No. 2015-039 February 2016 2015 QUICKCOMPASS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION...Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) is indebted to numerous people for their assistance with the 2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assault Prevention and
The paper examined the prevalence of sexual assault and the need for preventive measures in Nigeria. As currently being reported in most national daily newspapers, the incidence of sexual is daily in the increase and many cases are still not reported. As part of the objectives, the study involved the review of literature, ...
Cierniak, Katie; Heiman, Julia R.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
For roughly three decades, policymakers have sought to reduce sexual violence by reliance on a criminal justice approach in which sexually violent acts are dealt with after they occur. Recognizing that prevention efforts could be more valuable, as they work to stop the problem before it begins, researchers have begun to implement a primary…
Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Møhl, Bo; Bay-Nielsen, Morten
To determine the incidence of pain related sexual dysfunction 1 year after inguinal herniorrhaphy and to assess the impact pain has on sexual function. In contrast to the well-described about 10% risk of chronic wound related pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy, chronic genital pain, dysejaculation......, and sexual dysfunction have only been described sporadically. The aim was therefore to describe these symptoms in a questionnaire study. A nationwide detailed questionnaire study in September 2004 of pain related sexual dysfunction in all men aged 18-40 years undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy between October...... 2002 and June 2003 (n=1015) based upon the nationwide Danish Hernia Database collaboration. The response rate was 68.4%. Combined frequent and moderate or severe pain from the previous hernia site during activity was reported by 187 patients (18.4%). Pain during sexual activity was reported by 224...
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) remain an important public health challenge among Nigerian students. Abuja University is located in a region of high STDs prevalence. However, it is not clear what students do to minimize their risk of contracting STDs. The purpose of the study was to explore sexual practices that ...
Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921
Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.
Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.
Gacoin, Andrée E.
Sexuality education as an HIV prevention strategy is positioned as a way to empower youth in relation to their sexual identities and behaviours. While the youth subject is recognized as complex, the underlying premise is that identity can be targeted "through" sexuality education. In this paper, I present data from an ethnographic…
Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K
To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.
Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B; Denardi, Kathleen A; Walker, Dave P
Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.
Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991
Schwartz, I L
Sexual assault of women in the United States may have a prevalence rate of 25% or more. Moreover, the majority of survivors of sexual assault know their assailants. Consequences of assault may be severe and long-term, including fear and anxiety, depression, suicide attempts, difficulties with daily functioning and interpersonal relationships, sexual dysfunction, and a whole range of somatic complaints. Recent evidence implicates societal factors, such as acceptance of rape myths, rigid sex role stereotyping beliefs, and acceptance of violence as a legitimate means for obtaining compliance in interpersonal relationships, in the etiology of sexual violence against women. I present a model for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of rape. Primary prevention represents a program of anticipatory guidance in a developmental framework. Secondary prevention entails identification of and early intervention in dysfunctional families. Tertiary prevention consists of the appropriate treatment of the survivor of sexual assault to prevent or minimize subsequent physical and psychological problems. This preventive framework may be incorporated into the practice of clinical preventive medicine and primary care.
... 1-02. Emergency. A situation that requires immediate intervention to prevent the loss of life, limb... cases. (c) The Director of the Defense Human Resources Activity (DoDHRA), under the authority, direction... the development of investigative policy in support of sexual assault prevention and response. (f) The...
Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia
This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…
Sex-workers play an important role in the spread of sexually trans:mitted diseases (STDs) and this article tries to show that they can also play an important role in their prevention. Community participation by sex-workers in the prevention of STDs can also decrease the incidence thereof.
Anderson, Gwendolyn D
Child sexual abuse affects thousands of children in the United States and is vastly underreported. Tertiary prevention policies, primarily in the form of sex offender registries and community notification programs, have received the most attention and funding. Few policies have focused on school-based prevention. One recently passed law in Illinois mandates all K-5 public schools to implement sexual abuse prevention programs. The law was championed by a young social worker, Erin Merryn. Through the multiple streams framework, this article examines the unique set of political circumstances, united with Merryn's advocacy, which created the opportunity for the law to pass.
Quilter, Laura; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Marrazzo, Jeanne
Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important part of the care of the HIV-infected individual. STIs have been associated with increased risk of transmission and acquisition of HIV. Among HIV-infected persons, treatment failures and high recurrence rates of some STIs are more common. Despite the recognized importance of prevention and discussion of sexual health, rates of screening for STIs are suboptimal. Moreover, rates of STIs such as syphilis continue to increase particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM). This review focuses on the most common STIs seen among HIV-infected individuals and recommendations for screening and prevention.
Of the 120 students (26.7%) who became sexually active a month before the survey, 34 (28.3%) had multiple sexual partners. Constituent condom use was reported in only 22 (19.8%) of the sexually active students. The use of unreliable methods for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases was common. There is an ...
McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget
Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Cody; Kramer, Alaina; Woolman, Kendra; Staecker, Emma; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol
Administrators from three workplaces were interested in conducting evidence-based sexual harassment prevention training for their employees, but they could devote little time during the workday to the training. A pilot program to evaluate the use of a 1-hour workshop that followed best practice recommendations and adult learning principles using job-related scenarios was designed. Participants' overall sexual harassment prevention knowledge scores significantly increased from before to after the workshop and were significantly higher after the workshop than those of a control group. The majority of participants also perceived that their workplaces were committed to employees understanding the sexual harassment policy, and that the workplace would seriously investigate claims and take corrective action. Even a brief workshop covering essential content using adult learning principles can be effective in sexual harassment prevention knowledge acquisition. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Donovan, B; Ross, M W
AIDS has Invigorated and distorted the study of sexual behaviour. Because that study began so recently, there remain many unanswered questions about why we have sex at all, why we do sex one way rather than another, or even how we define sex. Yet in every instance in which well-designed and adequately resourced behavioural Interventions have been Implemented, these have netted success in the form of falling HIV incidences or prevalences. But, despite these successes, such interventions remain patchy and poorly supported. Perhaps humankind's traditional aversion for the public discussion of sexual matters underlies this reticence. Or maybe a new era of "creeping absolutism"--in which biomedical advances are given premature credit for what they can achieve in HIV control--has arrived.
35 3. Analyzing Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network Website ....35 D. DEVLOPING THEMATIC WEBSITE ANALSIS METRIC (T- WAM...portable document format PLAIN Plain Language Action and Information Network RAINN Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network SARC sexual assault...the literature review. The Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN) website (http://www.rainn.org) was used to develop the WAM baseline and
Redes sociais e comportamento sexual: para uma visão relacional da sexualidade, do risco e da prevenção Social networks and sexual behaviour: towards a relational approach to sexuality, risk-taking behaviour and prevention practices
well as through a number of indicators related to the characterization of the network of sexual confidants, such as number, identity, gender, age and confidants' behaviour in terms of sexuality and risk-taking practices, we were able to draw a multidimensional portrait of the individuals' social networks. By carrying out several linear and logistic regression analyses, we were also able to evaluate the predictive power of network variables and their effect on the number of sexual partners, occasional sex and condom use. Data show that network factors are important to explain individuals' sexual behaviour. Confidence networks constituted by friends and orientated towards a more liberal sexual moral tend to allow for a greater sexual experimentalism, particularly in the case of women. On the other hand, the homology between confidants' and respondents' sexual behaviour seems relevant to explain condom use in occasional sex, especially in the case of men. Either by taking on a relational perspective or an epidemiological approach, the analysis of individuals' social networks constitutes a major feature for understanding and explaining the variety of sexual experiences and the infection risks that can be associated with sexual behaviour.
Fuertes Martín, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M Begoña; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Martínez Alvarez, José Luis; Fernández Fuertes, Andrés; Carcedo González, Rodrigo J
This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.
Imhoff, Laurel R; Brown, Jeanette S; Creasman, Jennifer M; Subak, Leslee L; Van den Eeden, Stephen K; Thom, David H; Varma, Madhulika G; Huang, Alison J
-sectional design prevented evaluation of causality. Although most women with fecal incontinence are at high risk for several aspects of sexual dysfunction, the presence of fecal incontinence does not prevent women from engaging in sexual activity. This indicates that sexual function is important to women with anal incontinence and should be prioritized during therapeutic management.
Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…
rape her). Perhaps we proffer the reason for the rape as tied to the place she was raped, or the time of the day, or the clothes she was wearing, or the fact that .... cultural factors. I have no doubt that such specialized efforts will yield much dividend in the prevention of sexual assaults among the very vulnerable groups. It.
Banyard, Victoria L.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Moynihan, Mary M.
Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly…
Somers, Cheryl L.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…
Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G
This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.
Allen, Ben T.
This booklet on sexual harassment on college campuses covers sexual harassment law, harassment prevention, protection from liability, and handling allegations. Chapter 1, "What Is Sexual Harassment?" defines the term and gives an overview of sexual harassment law. Chapter 2, "How Does Sexual Harassment Law Apply in Actual Situations?" illustrates…
On the basis of a representative survey carried out in 2007 of the Portuguese population aged between 18 and 65, this study investigates the impact of factors during the course of sexual life on risk-taking behavior and perceptions among 3055 heterosexual men and women. A number of sexual biography profiles were identified through cluster analysis of indicators related to the identity, number and sequence of partners throughout life. We discovered different profiles, from systematic occasional partnerships and use of paid sex, more frequent among men, to the single partner profile, which is more prevalent among women. By carrying out several linear regression analyses, we were able to evaluate the predictive impact of biographical factors on condom use and prevention behavior. Our results indicate that sexual biographies are more important in explaining the prevalence of condom use with different sexual partners. On the other hand, fear of infection and information on HIV transmission seem to influence the cognitive mobilization of prevention strategies and change of sexual behavior. However, condom use is still more dependent on sexual life pattern and interaction with sexual partners.
Brinkley, Dawn Y; Ackerman, Robert A; Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K
This research examined adolescents' written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10 th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12 th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly.
Vaughn R. Steele
Full Text Available Background: Modulation of sexual desires is, in some cases, necessary to avoid inappropriate or illegal sexual behavior (downregulation of sexual desire or to engage with a romantic partner (upregulation of sexual desire. Some have suggested that those who have difficulty downregulating their sexual desires be diagnosed as having a sexual “addiction”. This diagnosis is thought to be associated with sexual urges that feel out of control, high-frequency sexual behavior, consequences due to those behaviors, and poor ability to reduce those behaviors. However, such symptoms also may be better understood as a non-pathological variation of high sexual desire. Hypersexuals are thought to be relatively sexual reward sensitized, but also to have high exposure to visual sexual stimuli. Thus, the direction of neural responsivity to sexual stimuli expected was unclear. If these individuals exhibit habituation, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be diminished; if they merely have high sexual desire, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be increased. Neural responsivity to sexual stimuli in a sample of hypersexuals could differentiate these two competing explanations of symptoms. Methods: Fifty-two (13 female individuals who self-identified as having problems regulating their viewing of visual sexual stimuli viewed emotional (pleasant sexual, pleasant-non-sexual, neutral, and unpleasant photographs while electroencephalography was collected. Results: Larger P300 amplitude differences to pleasant sexual stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli, was negatively related to measures of sexual desire, but not related to measures of hypersexuality. Conclusion: Implications for understanding hypersexuality as high desire, rather than disordered, are discussed.
Steele, Vaughn R; Staley, Cameron; Fong, Timothy; Prause, Nicole
Modulation of sexual desires is, in some cases, necessary to avoid inappropriate or illegal sexual behavior (downregulation of sexual desire) or to engage with a romantic partner (upregulation of sexual desire). Some have suggested that those who have difficulty downregulating their sexual desires be diagnosed as having a sexual 'addiction'. This diagnosis is thought to be associated with sexual urges that feel out of control, high-frequency sexual behavior, consequences due to those behaviors, and poor ability to reduce those behaviors. However, such symptoms also may be better understood as a non-pathological variation of high sexual desire. Hypersexuals are thought to be relatively sexual reward sensitized, but also to have high exposure to visual sexual stimuli. Thus, the direction of neural responsivity to sexual stimuli expected was unclear. If these individuals exhibit habituation, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be diminished; if they merely have high sexual desire, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be increased. Neural responsivity to sexual stimuli in a sample of hypersexuals could differentiate these two competing explanations of symptoms. Fifty-two (13 female) individuals who self-identified as having problems regulating their viewing of visual sexual stimuli viewed emotional (pleasant sexual, pleasant-non-sexual, neutral, and unpleasant) photographs while electroencephalography was collected. Larger P300 amplitude differences to pleasant sexual stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli, was negatively related to measures of sexual desire, but not related to measures of hypersexuality. Implications for understanding hypersexuality as high desire, rather than disordered, are discussed.
During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims ar...... as the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to sexual assault. Multidisciplinary centers as WDSAC may be the strategy for preventing the serious disability of the posttraumatic stress disorder following sexual assault.......During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims...... are under the circumstances of trust, safety and interdependence offered care, treatment and medical examination including a standardized forensic examination. From 1999 to 2004 the Center has received 523 victims, 338 (64%) of who were seen by the physician. 349 (67%) victims have reported the case...
Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann
This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…
Gacoin, Andrée E.
Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…
Watson, Ryan J; Fish, Jessica N; Allen, Aerielle; Eaton, Lisa
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, yet we know little about how HIV-negative BMSM of different sexual orientations access HIV prevention strategies. Identity development, minority stress, and disclosure theories suggest that for people of different sexual orientations, disclosure of sexual identity may be related to health behaviors. We performed a latent class analysis on a sample of 650 BMSM (M age = 33.78, SD = 11.44) from Atlanta, Georgia, to explore whether sexual orientation, disclosure of sexual identity, and relationship status were related to HIV prevention strategies, including awareness of PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) and PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) and frequency of HIV testing. We found three distinct BMSM classes referred to as (1) closeted bisexuals, (2) sexual identity managers, and (3) gay, out, and open; all classes primarily engaged in casual sex. Classes differed in their awareness and access to HIV prevention strategies. The closeted bisexual class was least aware of and least likely to access HIV prevention. Findings have important implications for future research, namely the consideration of sexual identity and disclosure among BMSM. With this knowledge, we may be able to engage BMSM in HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention services.
Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina; Krumeich, Anja; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Pastrana-Salcedo, Eduardo; van den Borne, Hubertus
This paper reports on an ethnographic study in Cartagena, Colombia. Over a seven-month fieldwork period, 35 men and 35 women between 15 and 60 years of age discussed the social context of HIV/AIDS through in-depth interviews, life histories and drawing. Participants considered the transgression of traditional gender roles as prescribed by machismo a major risk factor for HIV infection. In addition, they integrated public-health concepts of risk groups with these long-standing constructions of gender roles and sexuality-related stigma to create the notion of 'AIDS carriers'. The bricolage between machismo, public health and sexuality-related stigma that participants created and consequent preventive measures (based on an avoidance of sex with people identified as 'AIDS carriers') was a dynamic process in which participants were aware that changes in this particular interpretation of risk were necessary to confront the local epidemic.
Coffelt, Tina A; Hess, Jon A
This study examines sexual communication by describing the content of sexual disclosures within marital relationships and assessing the association between sexual disclosures and relational outcomes, specifically relational satisfaction and closeness. A survey administered to 293 married individuals (58% female) who had an average age of 40 years (range = 20-73), 13.7 years of marriage (range = 1 month to 54 years), and who reported high levels of relational satisfaction assessed the relation between the content of sexual disclosures and satisfaction and closeness. While sexual disclosures are made infrequently, positive affect and sexual preferences are disclosed more than negative topics and disclosing sexual information is positively related to relationship satisfaction, rρ(280) =.26, p <.001; and closeness, rs(280) =.475, p <.01. Therapists can use these findings to show clients the positive relation between revealing sexual information and relationship satisfaction and closeness, as reported by individuals experiencing relationship satisfaction.
Ekbia, Hamid R.
Abstract Objective: Sexual assault is prevalent among college students. In response, universities have implemented prevention education initiatives. These interventions, however, often ignore the broader sociocultural context in which sexual violence occurs. This calls for innovative approaches in prevention education, which address the broader context. Computer games provide such an opportunity by providing simulated real-life scenarios, nonlinear narratives, and an interactive medium. We report the development and pilot testing of “Campus Craft,” a game prototype that focuses, among other things, on sexual assault prevention. Materials and Methods: The prototype was developed through a participatory design process; students, educators, and subject matter experts helped design and develop scenarios, game mechanics, and learning objectives. The prototype was evaluated by college students (n=141) in a multi-method approach. The evaluation encompassed issues of usability, game mechanics, attitudes, and learning outcomes. Results: Findings indicated that participants rated various aspects of the game positively. Additionally, use of “Campus Craft” contributed to differences in student learning of prevention concepts between the pre- and post-test such that students scored higher on the post-test. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that, on average, students learned several core concepts related to sexual consent and rape culture through gameplay. Results suggest that computer-based gaming may be a viable avenue for sexual assault prevention education. Findings demonstrate that this approach could be effective in increasing student knowledge and understanding of factors that contribute to sexual assault in college. Future research is needed to corroborate findings and better understand the feasibility of using this approach among larger samples of college students. PMID:26181803
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Thom, Bridgette; Schinke, Steven Paul; Hopkins, Jessica
Rates of drug use among sexual-minority youths are disproportionately high. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. This study developed and tested a web-based drug abuse prevention program for sexual-minority youths. A sample (N = 236) of sexual-minority youths was recruited via Facebook. Online, all youths completed pretests; youths randomly assigned to the intervention received a 3-session prevention program; and all youths completed posttest and 3-month follow-up measurements. At 3-month follow-up and compared to youths in the control arm, intervention-arm youths reported less stress, reduced peer drug use, lower rates of past 30-day other drug use, and higher coping, problem solving, and drug-use refusal skills. Outcome data suggest the potential of tailored intervention content to address sexual-minority youths' drug use rates and related risk factors. Moreover, study procedures lend support to the feasibility of using the Internet to recruit sexual-minority youths, collect data, and deliver intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Witherow, Marta Parkanyi; Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Seals, Samantha R; Sarver, Dustin E; Parisi, Kathryn E; Bugan, Antal
Relational intimacy is hypothesized to underlie the association between female sexual functioning and various sexual outcomes, and married women and women with sexual dysfunction have been generally absent from prior studies investigating these associations, thus restricting generalizability. To investigate whether relational intimacy mediates sexual outcomes (sexual satisfaction, coital frequency, and sexual distress) in a sample of married women with and without impaired sexual functioning presenting in clinical settings. Using a cross-sectional design, 64 heterosexual married women with (n = 44) and without (n = 20) impaired sexual functioning completed a battery of validated measurements assessing relational intimacy, sexual dysfunction, sexual frequency, satisfaction, and distress. Intimacy measurements were combined using latent factor scores before analysis. Bias-corrected mediation models of the indirect effect were used to test mediation effects. Moderated mediation models examined whether indirect effects were influenced by age and marital duration. Patients completed the Female Sexual Function Index, the Couple's Satisfaction Index, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and the Miller Social Intimacy Test. Mediation models showed that impaired sexual functioning is associated with all sexual outcomes directly and indirectly through relational intimacy. Results were predominantly independent of age and marital duration. Findings have important treatment implications for modifying interventions to focus on enhancing relational intimacy to improve the sexual functioning of women with impaired sexual functioning. The importance of the role relational intimacy plays in broad sexual outcomes of women with impaired sexual functioning is supported in clinically referred and married women. Latent factor scores to improve estimation of study constructs and the use of contemporary mediation analysis also are
Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan
Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…
Coggon, David; Harris, E. Clare; Brown, Terry; Rice, Simon; Palmer, Keith T
AIms To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Methods Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardised proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. Results The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes), and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters, and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), “other alcohol-related diseases” (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267), and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for HIV/AIDS were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95%CI 369-1890, in men; 804, 95%CI 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95%CI 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Conclusions Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers. PMID:20407041
Coggon, D; Harris, E C; Brown, T; Rice, S; Palmer, K T
To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes) and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), 'other alcohol-related diseases' (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267) and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95% CI: 369-1890, in men; 804, 95% CI: 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95% CI: 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers.
Diarsvitri, Wienta; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Neeman, Teresa; Oktavian, Antonius
When it comes to sexuality and norms, young Indonesians are becoming more open. Concern about this is related to the rapid increase in HIV prevalence in Indonesia, especially in Papua and West Papua Provinces. While much research has been conducted among youth who have left school, little is known about senior high school students' sexuality and sexual practices in these provinces. Using qualitative and quantitative data, we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexuality, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion among 1082 Year 11 students from 16 senior high schools in both provinces. Findings suggest that around 38.3% of students reported having had sexual intercourse and 36.5% of these having had their first sexual encounter before they were 15 years old. Furthermore, contraceptive use among sexually active students was very low. Around 32% of female students who reported having had sexual intercourse also reported having an unintended pregnancy and the majority of them had had unsafe abortions. The paper points to the implications of students' high-risk sexual behaviours for HIV prevention.
Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G
Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.
Worldwide, approximately 300,000 people have AIDS, and there are 50-100 infections for each case. Responsible sexual behavior is crucial for prevention, since sexual transmission is the principal route of contracting AIDS. The major causes of maternal mortality in the 15-39 year age group in Latin America are complications from induced abortion which is also responsible for 40% of global maternal mortality, i.e., 200,000 women die because of induced abortion complications out of 500,000 women who succumb to pregnancy- and birth-related caused annually. In the 1980s 38% of deaths in Chile were related to abortion of women who died in reproductive age. In developing countries almost 50% of hospital admissions occur because of abortion sequelae. Infant mortality is higher in 20-year old mothers giving birth compared with the 20-29 age group. 40,000 children are born/year in Chile to mothers 20. In 1980 these births made up 16.7% of all births. 45% of births of mothers 20 are illegitimate. These young mothers are often unprepared for the parental role: 80% of children hospitalized for malnutrition were children of adolescent mothers according to a survey. The Catholic Church's view opposing contraceptives and sexuality outside of marriage conflicts with contemporary opinion backed by mass media favoring sexuality as leading to personal enrichment and advocating contraception. More than 60% of boys and more than 30% of girls start sexual relations 20. Young people do not use contraceptives because of misinformation, difficulty in getting appropriate information, and male machismo. AIDS prevention mandate sex education stressing responsible sexuality with abstinence, condom use, and monogamy.
Jozkowski, Kristen N
Sexual assault is prevalent in the United States, particularly among college women. Prevention programs are implemented to combat assault, yet rates have not changed for five decades. A course designed to deconstruct contextualized factors contributing to assault was developed as an alternative prevention initiative. The current study assessed the effectiveness of the course compared with a traditional program via in-depth interviews with students. Findings indicated that students in the course were more likely to acknowledge underlying determinants of sexual assault and articulate how such behaviors could lead to assault. The course could be an effective approach to sexual assault prevention education. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen
Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…
Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B
Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This digest reviews effective strategies currently used by schools to combat sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is considered any unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that interferes with the life of the target individual. Experts agree that sexual harassment is about power, not sex. A serious effort to keep a school free of sexual harassment…
Shoop, Robert J.
A "boilerplate" sexual harassment policy embedded in the district policy manual is insufficient. Schools need a comprehensive sexual harassment prevention program addressing authority, accountability, responsibility, and training. Since the vast majority of sexual harassment in schools is student-to-student, training efforts should not be limited…
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.
Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined this…
Full Text Available In the world there are tendencies of early entering into sexual relations and simultaneous withdrawal of the age of marriage, an increase in the number of early pregnancies and abortions among minors. Existing programs for the prevention of risky sexual behavior are ineffective, since they are one-time, narrowly focused. The author presents the results of an experiment on the prevention of risky sexual behavior in adolescents based on the formation of their ideas of parenting and child-parent relations, and through the prism of this topic, allowing to build an image of reproductive behavior in the present and future. The program is designed taking into account the psychology of modern adolescents, in accordance with the principles of awareness and responsibility, is based on a restorative approach and resource approach to the formation of psychological readiness for parenthood M.E. Lantsburg. The program for the development of psychological preparedness for parenting in adolescents has two targets: the nearest: preventing adolescent pregnancy and reducing its negative consequences in the event of an early pregnancy, and strategic - preparing for the planning and birth of the coveted child in the future. The results prove that the adolescents' views about the family depend both on the experiences they experienced in their own childhood and on the trends in the social and political space discussed in this topic. The study showed that adolescents' views on sexual relations, family and parenthood can be purposefully influenced through a program based on the knowledge of age-related psychology, resource and recovery approaches and using interactive methods of teaching relevant to this age group.
Arbeit, Miriam R
Sexual violence continues to present a problem on college campuses nationwide and among members of the U.S. military. This study attended to patterns of response in how students (cadets) at the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) discussed sexual and romantic relationships, both potential and actual, in order to examine how, if at all, they enact their sexuality-related values. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze semistructured interviews with three male and three female cadets from each of the 4 years of the undergraduate program, in which they are intended to become "leaders of character" who will serve as Army officers. Findings indicated limitations in cadets' access to developing and implementing sexuality-related skills within this context. Cadets' fear and distrust erected barriers to their pursuing their desires; the ways in which cadets avoided getting in trouble for sexual harassment or sexual assault shifted responsibility from a potential perpetrator onto a potential victim; and cadets were caught in dilemmas regarding romantic relationships as sources of both emotional support and social stigma. These findings have implications for promoting gender equity and for preventing sexual violence at this institution and at others like it, including both university campuses and other military settings.
Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma
Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.
Mindel, Adrian; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra
The present review assesses the protection that condoms offer against sexually transmissible infections (STI) and the impact that social, political and religious opinion in the USA has had in the past 8 years on promoting condoms for safer sex. Condoms offer protection against most STI. However, the degree of protection depends on correct and consistent use, the type of sexual activity and the biological characteristics of different infections. Cross-sectional and case-control studies and other observational data provide the majority of evidence for STI prevention. Condoms provide a high level of protection against those infections that are transmitted mainly via infected secretions, including HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Protection against those infections transmitted via skin and mucous membrane contact, including Herpes simplex virus infection and human papilloma virus, appears to be less. The Bush administration, driven by conservative political, social and religious elements in the USA, has mounted a concerted campaign to undermine the role of the condom in health-promotion activities in the USA and overseas by undervaluing and misrepresenting scientific data, and through a sustained and well-funded promotion of abstinence-only education. However, this has lead to considerable controversy and disillusionment with abstinence-only education, both at home and abroad, and there is now incontrovertible evidence that abstinence-only programs are ineffectual.
LeVasseur, J J
Many studies have suggested that merely warning people about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urging the use of condoms as protection will not result in widespread use of condoms. Regular condom use appears to be grounded in knowledge of its effectiveness, perception of STD risk, and belief in a partner's acceptance. But these are not the only barriers to condom use. Negotiating condom use often comes at a sensitive stage in intimate relationships, when individuals prefer to avoid such discussions and simply to trust the powerful and compelling feelings of mutual attraction. This review will consider (1) the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STD transmission, (2) barriers to the use of condoms, and (3) recommended strategies to promote acceptance and use of condoms by heterosexual women.
Menopause and the climacteric period are associated with adverse risk factors for the development of vulvovaginal atrophy‑ related ... option and is the current standard of care for vulvovaginal atrophy‑related sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Sexual .... A score of Г2.5 and below density indicates osteoporosis.
There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.
Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.
This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…
Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina
The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…
Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.
The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…
Iverson, Susan V.
Among the numerous approaches that are employed to prevent sexual violence, the performance of scenarios has become one of the "promising practices" in U.S. postsecondary education. This article describes findings from a pilot study to analyze scripts used for theatre-based sexual violence prevention programs. Employing the method of…
Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Moody, Raymond L.; Grov, Christian
Emerging research supports the notion that sexual compulsivity (SC) and hypersexual disorder (HD) among gay and bisexual men (GBM) might be conceptualized as comprising three groups—Neither SC nor HD; SC only, and Both SC and HD—that capture distinct levels of severity across the SC/HD continuum. We examined data from 370 highly sexually active GBM to assess how the three groups compare across a range of risk factors for HIV infection. Comparisons focused on psychosexual measures—temptation for condomless anal sex (CAS), self-efficacy for avoiding CAS, sexual excitation and inhibition—as well as reports of actual sexual behavior. Nearly half (48.9 %) of this highly sexually active sample was classified as Neither SC nor HD, 30 % as SC Only, and 21.1 % as Both SC and HD. While we found no significant differences between the three groups on reported number of male partners, anal sex acts, or anal sex acts with serodiscordant partners, the Both SC and HD group reported higher numbers of CAS acts and CAS acts with serodiscordant partners and also had a higher proportion of their anal sex acts without condoms compared to the SC Only group. Our findings support the validity of a three-group classification system of SC/HD severity in differentiating psychosexual and HIV-related sexual risk behavior outcomes in a sample of GBM who report similarly high levels of sexual activity. Notwithstanding the need for sex positive HIV prevention programs, interventions that attempt to help Both SC and HD men deal with distress and address their psychosexual needs specifically may derive HIV prevention benefits. PMID:25750052
Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J
Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.
Fisher, Colleen M.
Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…
Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, P
Hostility towards relationships is one prominent characteristic symptom for disorders of sexual preference (ICD-10) and paraphilias (DSM-IV). Paraphilic symptoms sometimes progress to obsessive or addictive- like forms leading to a loss of self-control but can occur also as single incidents or as episodic events. Besides constitutional aspects, problems in the development of close relationships to primary caregivers (attachment) play an important role in the development of these disorders. Actual relationship- and self-confidence problems often trigger the severity of disturbance, especially in the episodic forms of paraphilia. For patients who are in conflict with the law, cognitive-behavioral therapeutic approaches with the aim to minimize self-deception regarding the effects of the paraphilic behavior have become more and more relevant. Regarding the medical treatment, anti-hormonal therapy plays an important role, but also treatment with serotonergic agents and naltrexone are used. Only little can be advised in terms of prevention; general psycho-hygiene (regarding the parent-child relationship) is recommended. Beside these general measures, institutions which offer special treatment for people in danger to become delinquents may be able to prevent serious harm for possible victims of abuse.
Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.
Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…
Sun, Chyng; Bridges, Ana; Johnson, Jennifer A; Ezzell, Matthew B
Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the associations between pornography and dyadic sexual encounters: What role does pornography play inside real-world sexual encounters between a man and a woman? Cognitive script theory argues media scripts create a readily accessible heuristic model for decision-making. The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences. To test this, we surveyed 487 college men (ages 18-29 years) in the United States to compare their rate of pornography use with sexual preferences and concerns. Results showed the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he was to use it during sex, request particular pornographic sex acts of his partner, deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and have concerns over his own sexual performance and body image. Further, higher pornography use was negatively associated with enjoying sexually intimate behaviors with a partner. We conclude that pornography provides a powerful heuristic model which is implicated in men's expectations and behaviors during sexual encounters.
Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in postmenopausal women, often underdiagnosed, inadequately treated, frequently overlooked, and most often impairing the quality of life of these women. To provide clinicians with current information on vulvovaginal atrophy‑related sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women.
Robinson, Rachel B.; Frank, Deborah I.
Examined self-esteem and sexuality in 141 male and 172 female adolescents. Found no differences in self-esteem of males versus females. Sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem for either gender. Pregnant teenagers did not have different self-esteem levels from nonpregnant. Males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem…
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee
Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…
Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P
We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Zhang, Yue; Chen, Fang; Ding, Fan; Lin, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Naipeng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wang; Zhang, Hongbo
This study aimed to investigate the status of multiple sexual partners and unprotected sexual behaviors and related influencing factors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV-positive men having sex with men aged 18 years or older, living in Chengdu, Chongqing or Guangzhou were recruited by using the " snowballing" sampling method. Participants completed the questionnaire on computers, after filling in the Informed Consent Form. Content of the study would include social demographic characteristics, number of sexual partners, sexual behaviors, and the symptoms assessment on depression and anxiety.χ(2)-test,t-test and non-conditional Multiple logistic Regression methods were used to examine the risky sexual behaviors with multiple sexual partners among the participants engaged in this project. Mean age of the 501 participants was (30.24±7.70) years old. In the past 6 months, 17.4% (87/501) of them had engaged in unprotected sexual behavior with two or more sexual partners. Factors at risk would include: being married (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 0.77-4.84), divorced or widowed (OR=3.94, 95%CI: 1.66-9.36), having primary male sexual partners (OR=5.04, 95%CI: 1.08-23.54) and casual or commercial male sexual partners (OR=2.54, 95%CI: 1.34-4.80) in the past 6 months, drinking alcohol (OR=3.00, 95%CI: 1.37-6.62) or Rush (alkyl nitrite) (OR=3.53, 95%CI: 1.72-7.23) during sexual acts, sharing their HIV-infection status to their partly primary male sexual partners (OR=1.84, 95%CI:0.78-4.33) or not (OR=2.68, 95% CI: 1.25-5.73), and having high sexual sensation seeking scores (OR=1.09, 95%CI: 1.03-1.15). Unprotected sexual behaviors with multiple sexual partners among HIV-positive MSM played an important role in expediting the HIV transmission. Development of intervention programs to minimize the risk sexual behaviors and setting up efficient medical and biological measures in controlling the HIV transmission were in urgent need.
Sexual risk related behaviour among youth living with HIV in central Uganda: implications for HIV prevention. ... Of the 283 respondents who desired to get married in future, 40% preferred negative marriage partners. Only 31% (39/126) of respondents in boy/girl relationships had disclosed their HIV status to their partners.
1 B. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS ........................2 C. LITERATURE REVIEW... LITERATURE REVIEW Delving into the systematic distinctions between the civilian and military justice systems requires establishing a general understanding...proclamation of sexual prowess, riddles and songs that denigrate women, and pornographic posters and movies are also evident symbols of the archetypal culture
Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani
One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.
The drug-related death of Dianne Brimble on the P&O cruise liner Pacific Sky in 2002 triggered a wide-ranging review of the safety on board cruise ships operating in the Australian market. This column assesses the frequency of recent sexual assaults on cruise ships and examines the findings and recommendations of the Brimble inquest, focusing on the Commonwealth government's response to those recommendations. The problem of jurisdiction on flag of convenience registered ships is discussed, with emphasis on a possible co-operative arrangement between Australian police and foreign flag states. It seems likely that the United States and Canadian models of cruise ship regulation to enhance passenger safety will in part be introduced in Australia.
Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay
This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitising game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has im...
Full Text Available Esther Mugweni,1 Stephen Pearson,2 Mayeh Omar2 1UCL Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, 2The Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Background: Concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role in sustaining the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe. Married couples are at an increased risk of contracting HIV from sexual networks produced by concurrent sexual partnerships. Addressing these partnerships is an international HIV prevention priority. Methods: Our qualitative study presents the socioeconomic factors that contribute to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships among married people in Zimbabwe. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008 to understand the organizations of concurrent sexual partnerships. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results: Our study indicates that relationship dissatisfaction played a key role in the engagement of concurrent sexual partnerships. Depending on the source of the dissatisfaction, there were four possible types of concurrent sexual relationships that were formed: sex worker, casual partner, regular girlfriend or informal polygyny which was referred to as “small house”. These relationships had different levels of intimacy, which had a bearing on practicing safer sex. Participants described three characteristics of hegemonic masculinity that contributed to the sources of dissatisfaction leading to concurrent sexual activity. Similarly, various aspects of emphasized femininity were described as creating opportunities for the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. Economic status was also listed as a factor that contributed to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships. Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction was indicated as a contributing factor to the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. There were several
Beckett, Megan K.; Elliott, Marc N.; Martino, Steven; Kanouse, David E.; Corona, Rosalie; Klein, David J.; Schuster, Mark A.
Objective To examine timing of parent-child discussions about sexual topics relative to child-reported sexual behavior. Design Longitudinal study of employed parents and their children, with an initial survey followed by subsequent surveys 3, 6, and 12 months later. Participants 141 parents, along with their children (13–17 years), who were control participants in a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate a worksite-based intervention to improve parent-adolescent communication. Main Outcomes Parent and child reports of discussion of up to 24 sexual topics and child-reports on pre-sexual and sexual acts (ranging from hand-holding to sexual intercourse) that occurred before the first survey and in the intervals between subsequent pairs of surveys. Results The sexual topics, as reported by both parents and children, tend to group into three sets. The first includes topics such as girls’ bodies and menstruation, and typically coincides with children’s’ presexual stage (handholding, kissing). The second set includes topics such as birth control efficacy and refusing sex, and typically coincides with the pre-coital (genital touching and oral sex). The third set typically occurs when children have initiated intercourse. Over half of parents and children in the sample say that they have not discussed birth control efficacy, resisting partner pressure for sex, STD symptoms, condom use, choosing birth control, or partner condom refusal before a child is engaged in genital touching; more than 40% of children have intercourse before any discussion about STD symptoms, condom use, choosing birth control, or partner condom refusal. Conclusions Many parents and adolescents do not talk about important sexual topics prior to adolescents’ sexual debut. Clinicians can facilitate this communication by providing parents with information about sexual behavior of adolescents. Clinicians can also address these issues one-on-one or consider other ways of getting the information
Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.
"Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…
Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas
The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt).
Kamal, S. M. Mostafa
This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…
Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.
Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…
A cross-sectional study design was used to assess sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices among students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia, in 2009. Among 1 220 students eligible for the study, approximately 29% reported experience of sex (36.3% of the males and 9.3% of the females). Of the total sexually ...
Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.
Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…
Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori
News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…
Ounce of Prevention Fund.
This pamphlet discusses the problems of child sexual abuse, and introduces the Heart to Heart program created by the Ounce of Prevention Fund in Illinois. The pamphlet begins with reflections of adolescents who were sexually abused during childhood, and presents statistical information on this issue. It also discusses the various effects of…
Shoveller, Jean A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Savoy, Daphne M.; Pietersma, W. A. Wia
Most primary prevention research has attempted to explain sexual health outcomes, such as sexually transmitted infections, by focusing on individual characteristics (e.g. age), qualities (e.g. knowledge levels), and risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected intercourse). Emerging evidence indicates that population-level health outcomes are unlikely to be…
The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and economic divides. Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long consequences and is a serious problem on individuals, families and societies. Social workers by nature of their work, intervene at the individual, family and societal level. This paper will explore the ...
Dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse) and sexual violence are prevalent from the middle school years throughout adolescence, peak in young adulthood, and are associated with multiple poor physical and mental health consequences. By offering universal education and brief anticipatory guidance with all adolescent patients about healthy and unhealthy relationships and sexual consent, health care providers can help promote healthy adolescent sexual relationships, ensure youth know about available resources and supports for relationship abuse and sexual violence (including how to help a friend), and facilitate connections to victim service advocates, both for prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andra Teten
This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003).
Lee, Young-Me; Florez, Elizabeth; Tariman, Joseph; McCarter, Sarah; Riesche, Laren
To understand the influential factors related to sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents and to evaluate common factors across successful sexual education programs for this population. Despite a rapid increase in cases of STIs/HIV among Asian-American populations, there remains a need for a comprehensive understanding of the influential factors related to risky sexual behaviors for this population. An integrative literature review was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles and government resources were analyzed. Five influential factors were identified: family-centered cultural values, parental relationship, acculturation, gender roles, and lack of knowledge and information about sex and STIs. Only two sexual educational programs met the inclusion criteria and provided evidence towards effectiveness: Safer Choices and Seattle Social Development Project. The findings of this study indicate an urgent need for culturally sensitive sexual education programs that incorporate the identified influential factors, especially cultural values in order to reduce risky sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Rosalind; Bekan Homawoo, Brigitte; McClamroch, Kristi; Wise, Benjamin; Coles, F. Bruce
Objectives We assessed public views about the acceptability of and need for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and sexual health-related educational messaging in local campaigns. Methods A 28-item state-added module was included in the 2008 New York Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey (n=3,751). Respondents rated acceptability of venues/dissemination channels and messaging and agreement with attitudinal/need statements. Additional data were analyzed from a separate state survey with individual county samples (n=36,257). We conducted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable modeling analyses. Results Each venue was acceptable to more than three-quarters of respondents (range: 79% for billboards to 95% for teaching STD prevention in high school). All message areas were acceptable to at least 85% of respondents (acceptability rating range: 85% to 97%). More than 70% agreed that there is a need for more open discussion about STDs. Bivariate analyses identified areas where messaging tailored to specific subgroups may be helpful (e.g., 26% of white people, 44% of African Americans, and 45% of Hispanic people agreed with the statement, “I need ideas about how to talk to my partner about protection from STDs”). Little geographic variation was seen. Results of multivariable modeling on opposition showed limited interaction effects. Conclusion These data provide key information about current community norms and reflect the public's approval for hearing and seeing more about sexual health and STDs in a range of public forums. PMID:23450887
Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.
Objectives: Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model…
...-2012-0003] RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in... regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and assault in DHS confinement... Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities.'' 77 FR 75300. The NPRM required commenters to submit...
Nystrom, Robert J; Duke, Jessica E A; Victor, Brad
Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input, the Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan was released in 2009. The plan focuses on development of young people and embraces sexuality as a natural part of adolescent development. The plan's five goals and eight objectives guide the work of state agencies and partners addressing youth sexual health. Oregon's development of a statewide plan can serve as a framework for other states and entities to address all aspects of youth sexual health.
Rhodes, Frank H. T.
Discusses sexual harassment on college campuses. Focuses on harassing behavior that stems from power relationships and harassing behavior among peers. Describes how Cornell University is addressing these problems. (ABL)
Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael
Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.
Harper, Gary W; Riplinger, Andrew J; Neubauer, Leah C; Murphy, Alexandra G; Velcoff, Jessica; Bangi, Audrey K
Most new HIV infections in Kenya occur among young people. The purpose of this study was to understand ecological factors that influence HIV-related sexual risk and resilience among young people in rural Kenya and to elicit their ideas for HIV prevention interventions. Nine focus groups (N = 199) were conducted with both female (55%) and male (45%) participants (ages 14-24 years) living in rural communities in Kenya. Findings were organized into thematic areas related to the following systems of influence: (i) intrapersonal (substance use, HIV knowledge), (ii) interpersonal (peer pressure, lack of parent-child communication, interpersonal sexual violence), (iii) institutional/community (pornography, transactional sex, 'idleness', lack of role models) and (iv) socio-cultural/policy (Kikuyu culture, Western influence, religious beliefs, HIV-related stigma and gendered sexual scripts). Results regarding the types of HIV prevention programs that participants believed should be developed for young people in rural Kenya revealed seven primary themes, including (i) HIV prevention community/group workshops, (ii) condom distribution, (iii) job skills trainings, (iv) athletic and social clubs, (v) HIV-related stigma reduction campaigns, (vi) community-wide demonstrations and (vii) other HIV/AIDS activities led by young people. Implications for the development of culturally and developmentally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for young people in rural Kenya are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs. It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED, with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1 in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2 in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar
Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0038 TITLE: Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Albert I. King CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0038 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Albert King, John...TR-7340). Army research lab Aberdeen proving ground MD weapons and materials research directorate. (2015) 11. Reneer, D.V., Hisel, R.D., Hoffman
Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.
Cooper, B; Toskin, I; Kulier, R; Allen, T; Hawkes, S
Throughout the last decade substantial research has been undertaken to develop evidence-based behaviour change interventions for sexual health promotion. Primary care could provide an opportunistic entry for brief sexual health communication. We conducted a systematic review to explore opportunistic sexual and reproductive health services for sexual health communication delivered at primary health care level. We searched for studies on PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Jstor, Scopus/Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EBSCO, CINAHL, PsychoInfo, and Web of Knowledge. Both published and unpublished articles were reviewed. All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials were included. Participants of all ages, from adolescence onwards were included. Brief (10-60 minutes) interventions including some aspect of communication on sexual health issues were included. Data were extracted by two reviewers independently using a standardised form. Interventions differed from each other, hence meta-analysis was not performed, and results are presented individually. A total of 247 articles were selected for full-text evaluation, 31 of which were included. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV were less often reported in the intervention group compared with the control group. Condom use was higher in most studies in the intervention group. Numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse were lower in the intervention groups. There is evidence that brief counselling interventions have some effect in the reduction and prevention of STIs/HIV. Some questions could not be answered, such as the effect over time and in different settings and population groups. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
This IFR proposes standards and procedures to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children (UCs) in ORR's care provider facilities. DATES: This IFR is effective on December 24, 2014. ORR care provider facilities must be in compliance with this IFR by June 24, 2015 but encourages care provider facilities to be in compliance sooner, if possible. HHS will work with facilities to implement and enforce the standards contained in this rule. Comments on this IFR must be received on or before February 23, 2015.
Sampaio Filho, Francisco Jucier Luz; de Sousa, Pedro Ricardo Mesquita; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Nóbrega, Maria de Fátima Bastos; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa
Alcohol use has been a major precipitating cause of situations of vulnerability in adolescence. The study aims to analyze the risk perception about the relationship of adolescent alcohol use and sexual behavior. The subjects were ten adolescents between 14 and 19, students from a public school in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach based on the technique of focus group and systematized by means of five workshops. Teenagers recognize the risk between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior and emphasize that drinking facilitates the relations between sexual peers and indicate the influence of media in this process. The perception of adolescents and their relation to alcohol abuse and its consequences is particularly relevant to the implementation of public policies for preventing and fighting alcohol consumption at this stage of growth and development.
Forrest, J D; Silverman, J
Ninety-three percent of public school teachers in five specialties-biology, health education, home economics, physical education and school nursing--who teach grades 7-12 report that their schools offer sex education or AIDS education in some form. Almost all the teachers believe that a wide range of topics related to the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be taught in the public schools, and most believe these topics should be covered by grades 7-8 at the latest. In practice, however, sex education tends not to occur until the ninth or 10th grades. Moreover, there is often a gap between what teachers think should be taught and what actually is taught. For example, virtually all the teachers say that school sex education should cover sexual decision-making, abstinence and birth control methods, but only 82-84 percent of the teachers are in schools that provide instruction in those topics. The largest gap occurs in connection with sources of birth control methods: Ninety-seven percent of teachers say that sex education classes should address where students can go to obtain a method, but only 48 percent are in schools where this is done. Forty-five percent of teachers in the five specialties currently provide sex education in some form. The messages they most want to give to their students are responsibility regarding sexual relationships and parenthood, the importance of abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become sexually active, and information about AIDS and other STDs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Beier, Klaus M; Grundmann, Dorit; Kuhle, Laura F; Scherner, Gerold; Konrad, Anna; Amelung, Till
Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee
Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Hiv/aids – related knowledge and sexual behaviour among secondary school students in Benin city. ... International Journal of Health Research ... 1917 students (48.7% male and 51.3% female; age: 11-24 years) systematically selected from 13 secondary schools in Benin City to assess HIV/AID related knowledge and ...
HIV/AIDS and related sexual behavior among commercial motorcyclists. METHODOLOGY. This study was carried out in Sagamu, the headquarters of Sagamu Local ... assessed the demographic characteristics, awareness of and HIV/AIDS related behaviour commercial motorcyclists. Statistical analysis. Data were analysed ...
Moffatt, Lyndsay; Norton, Bonny
Recent research has documented the persistence of unequal gender relations and homophobia in young people's lives. Feminist post-structural theories of gender and socio-cultural theories of learning suggest educators need to understand students' constructions of gender relations, masculine/feminine desires, and sexuality if they hope to challenge…
Robb, L A; Doverspike, D
The interaction between the likelihood of males engaging in sexual harassment and the effectiveness of a 1-hr. sexual harassment-prevention training was explored in a laboratory study. An interaction of scores on the Likelihood to Sexually Harass Scale and training condition for 90 undergraduate men was found, such that sexual harassment-prevention training had a small negative effect on the attitudes of males with a high proclivity to harass.
Voisin, Dexter R; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph J
Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with STI-related risk factors in numerous cross sectional studies. However, no current studies have examined whether sexual sensation seeking is longitudinally related to a broad spectrum of STI-related factors such as consistent condom use, number of sexual partners, frequency of partner sexual communication, self-efficacy to refuse sex, and fear of condom negotiation. We explored these relationships over a 12-month period among a sample of 715 African American females attending three STI clinics in Georgia that were recruited into a larger randomized clinic intervention study. Utilizing A-CASI technology to assess all self-reported measures and employing general estimation equations while controlling for age, peer norms, school enrollment and employment, major results indicated that higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower percent of condom use in the last 14 and 60 days, lower consistent condom use and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower partner sexual communication, diminished self-efficacy to refuse sex, and a higher fear of condom negotiation. Findings suggest that STI/HIV prevention/intervention programs should assess for and target sexual sensation seeking behaviors in such efforts.
Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben
In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…
Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women.
Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236
Pletcher, Beth A
The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to working to ensure that workplaces and educational settings in which pediatricians spend time are free of sexual harassment. The purpose of this statement is to heighten awareness and sensitivity to this important issue, recognizing that institutions, clinics, and office-based practices may have existing policies.
Although illegal, sexual harassment is frequent in the American workplace and extremely disruptive and costly to employees and employers alike. Most organizational responses to the problem have been hard line, short term, after-the-fact measures that inform, threaten, or discipline employees. What is needed, however, is a training program with an…
Dec 1, 2006 ... Condom use with casual partners increased from 53% among the men and 46% among the women before the diagnosis ... Conclusions. The ART had an overall positive effect on health with no increase of sexual risk behaviour. ... were calculated by a statistician using the computer program for binominal ...
.... Ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and d. Ways to... consent. There is no consent where the person is sleeping or incapacitated, such as due to age, alcohol or... information about a sexual assault comes to the commander's or law enforcement official's attention from a...
Matusitz, Jonathan; Breen, Gerald Mark
This paper is an examination of how Inoculation Theory can be applied in the prevention of sexual harassment in the medical setting. The basic tenet of the theory is the study of the processes through which we withstand and oppose attitude transformation during social interactions that may influence or change our attitudes. More importantly, this paper analyzes sexual harassment as a pervasive phenomenon in the medical setting. As such, it defines what sexual harassment is, explains the prevalence of sexual harassment between the physician and the patient, describes some of the general studies conducted in medical settings, provides a case scenario of doctor-patient sexual harassment, and identifies some key consequences to doctors, patients, and society.
Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; ter Bogt, Tom F M
This study investigated: (1) the prevalence and development of 2 receptive (sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] use and sexual information seeking) and 2 interactive (cybersex and general social networking site [SNS] use) online behaviors in adolescence; (2) whether development of these behaviors predict adolescents' body and sexual self-perceptions; and (3) whether parental strategies regarding adolescents' Internet use reduce engagement in sex-related online behaviors. Four-wave longitudinal data among 1132 seventh- to 10th-grade Dutch adolescents (mean age at wave 1: 13.95 years; 52.7% boys) were collected. Developmental trajectories of sex-related online behaviors were estimated by using latent growth curve modeling. Self-perception outcomes at wave 4 and parental strategies predicting online behaviors were investigated by adding regression paths to growth models. Boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM. Patterns for girls' SEIM use and boys' and girls' sexual information seeking and cybersex were consistently low. SNS use, however, was a common, daily activity for both. Higher initial levels and/or faster increases in sex-related online behaviors generally predicted less physical self-esteem (girls' SNS use only), more body surveillance, and less satisfaction with sexual experience. Private Internet access and less parental rule setting regarding Internet use predicted greater engagement in sex-related online behaviors. Although most sex-related online behaviors are not widespread among youth, adolescents who engage in such behaviors are at increased risk for developing negative body and sexual self-perceptions. Particular attention should be paid to adolescents' SNS use because this behavior is most popular and may, through its interactive characteristics, elicit more critical self-evaluations. Prevention efforts should focus on parents' role in reducing risky sex-related online behaviors. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Rancourt, Kate M; Flynn, Michelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is associated with sexual and relational consequences for women and their partners. Greater perceived quality of sexual communication has been associated with women's lower pain during intercourse and with couples' better sexual and relational well-being. Whether couples' collaborative (eg, expressing feelings or problem solving) and negative (eg, withdrawing or criticizing) sexual communication patterns (SCPs) are differentially associated with couples' adjustment to PVD is unknown. To examine associations between collaborative and negative SCPs and women's pain and the sexual and relationship adjustment of women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 87) and their partners completed the Sexual Communication Patterns Questionnaire and measurements of pain (women only), sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and relationship satisfaction. (i) Numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function, (iii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, (iv) Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, and (v) Couple Satisfaction Index. When women reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. When women reported greater negative SCP, they reported less relationship satisfaction and had partners who reported greater sexual distress. When partners reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher relationship satisfaction and had female partners who were less sexually distressed. When partners reported higher negative SCP, they also reported less relationship satisfaction. There were no associations between SCP and women's or partners' sexual functioning or women's pain. Collaborative SCP may benefit couples' sexual and relational well-being, whereas negative SCP may impede sexual and relational adjustment to PVD. Findings
Full Text Available Introduction: The passage from childhood to adulthood is the period when health habits and sexual behaviors start to form. Thus, the topics of sexual health and reproductive health should be approached with priority during this period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of students of the medical faculty with respect to sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods.Methods: The questionnaire that contains 23 headings created by the researchers after relevant literature reviews was administered to the third-semester students of the Izmir Katip Celebi University Medical Faculty in face-to-face interviews after obtaining their verbal consent. The study data was analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 demo software bundle. Conditions in which the p-value was under 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Results: The mean age of the students that participated in the study (n=104 was 21.88 ± 1.9 years of age, 51% (n=53 of the students were female, and 49.0% (n=51 were male. Among the students, 93% stated that they had received education about preventing pregnancy. Two of the most well-known prevention methods by the participants were condoms in 99.0% (n=103 and oral contraceptives in 95.2% (n=99. The rate of correct answers given about all of the risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (sex workers, polygamy, homosexuality, being sexually active, substance addiction was 22.1% (n=23.Conclusion: Identifying the level of knowledge in the youth about STDs in early periods, determining the services they require, cooperating with related institutions to review the adequacy of information online, and educating youth about STDs are important in preventing these diseases and also in the treatment of existing diseases before they lead to more problems.
Coles, Jan; Dartnall, Elizabeth; Astbury, Jill
Primary care professionals (PCPs) are increasingly being expected to identify and respond to family and sexual violence as the chronic nature and severity of the long-term health impacts are increasingly recognized. This discussion paper reports the authors' expert opinion from their experiences running international workshops to prevent trauma among those who work and research sexual violence. It describes the burnout and secondary traumatic stress literature which provides the evidence supp...
Raw, M; McNeill, A
The key components of a strategy to prevent tobacco-related disease are outlined. These measures aim to increase the cessation of tobacco use and reduce its uptake. Components are wide-ranging, including a taxation policy, a ban on advertising and promotion, a comprehensive health promotion programme including advice from primary health care professionals and the development of campaigning skills, particularly by the medical profession. The prevention of tobacco-related disease has moved into the domain of campaigners and lobbyists at political, economic and international levels. The key target is countering the activities, especially the unethical trade practices, of the wealthy and powerful tobacco industry.
males is limited. The Department is now working to increase research-informed, gender -specific prevention techniques that address male specific...training must aim to prevent the broad range of sexual misconduct and unlawful discrimination . Gap between Standard and Existing Practices The Services...supervisor training to engage leaders in preventing male victimization and reducing associated stigma (objective 2) 11 • Gender -responsive treatment (to
Perry, Nicholas S; Huebner, David M; Baucom, Brian R; Hoff, Colleen C
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary relationships engage in condomless sex both within and outside their relationships and a majority of HIV transmission risk may actually occur within primary relationships. Sexual agreements regarding non-monogamy are a critical component to understanding HIV prevention in male couples. Relationship factors have been associated with how sexual agreements function and power is one dyadic construct likely to affect couple's maintenance of non-monogamy agreements. Multilevel modeling was used in a cross-sectional study of gay male couples (N = 566 couples) to examine associations between partners' demographic characteristics traditionally used to define relationship power, a scale of decision-making power, and outcomes related to sexual agreements, including investment, agreement breaks, and break disclosure. Results indicated that decision-making power relative to one's partner was not associated with any agreement outcome, contrary to hypotheses. However, controlling for decision-making power, demographic bases of power were variably associated with sexual agreements' functioning. Younger partners were less invested in and more frequently broke their agreements. Lower-earning partners broke their agreements more frequently, but also disclosed breaks more often. White men in white-minority relationships broke their agreement more often than their partners. Concordant HIV-positive couples were less invested in their agreements and HIV-positive men disclosed breaks more frequently. HIV prevention efforts for same-sex couples must attend to the social, developmental, and cultural influences that affect their agreements around non-monogamy.
Towards effective interventions for transgender people and their clients to prevent HIV infection and transmission : A study of the psychological determinants, sexual behavior s, and socio-demographic characteristics related to condom use and health care use
In Indonesia, transgender people (waria) have the second highest HIV prevalence (21.9%), the first being people who inject drugs (36.4%). To reduce HIV incidence among transgender people and prevent HIV transmission, they should have access to all prevention services including education, prevention
Bongardt, D. van de
In this dissertation it was investigated how various aspects of adolescents’ developing sexuality (behaviors, cognitions, emotions) are intertwined over time with adolescents’ relations with parents and peers. The overall goal of the six empirical studies, which utilized a multi-method approach
Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sanders, T.
There has been a significant increase in the focus on sex offending in recent years. This has occurred in both the academic and the public spheres. In attempting to understand sexual offending, this collection recognizes two different discourses that currently operate in relation to sex crime. At
Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R
Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.
Abnormal vaginal discharge due to reproductive tract infections (RTIs) is widely prevalent in the country. According to WHO, over 300 million new cases of sexually-transmitted infections (excluding HIV) occur each year. In addition to these, HIV infection is spreading rapidly in the country with over 3.7 million sero-positive cases (from zero) within 15 years.. The predominant mode of transmission of HIV is by heterosexual route. The multidrug regime for treatment is expensive (about $...
Colleen Joy Stieler-Hunt
Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitising game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken.
Full Text Available Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents aged 13–18 who had sexual initiations. Adolescents who failed to use any contraceptive method and/or condom during last sexual intercourse and who experienced multiple sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the study were taken as ‘at risk’. In view of these, the adolescents risk count ranged from zero to three – greater number indicates higher count of risky sexual practices. Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations and p<0.05 indicated a statistical significance. Results: It was found out that 301 of 633 (47.55%; 95% CI=43.62%, 51.45% adolescents experienced one or more risky sexual practices. High parental monitoring compared to low decreases the Incidence Rate of engaging in risky sexual practices by 28% (adjusted incidence rate ratio, or IRR=0.72; 95% CI=0.520, 0.986. Those who had a satisfactory level of SRH communications with their parents compared to poor communicators experianced less incidence rate of risky sexual practices which was marginal (adjusted IRR=0.82; 95% CI=0.637, 1.051. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the adolescents engaged in one or more risky sexual practices. Importantly, high parental monitoring decreases the likelihood of these risky practices. Therefore, parents need to be encouraged to keep an eye on their young children.
The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.
Full Text Available The research objective was to study the emotion of relationship jealousy in context of emotional attachment and sexuality. Two main theories that try to explain the nature of this complex emotional state are the evolutionary paradigm and the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis. According to evolutionary psychologists, jealousy is an evolved adaptation, activated by threats to a valuable relationship, functioning to protect it from partial or total loss. The "double-shot" hypothesis on the other hand emphasises the importance of different beliefs men and women hold about emotional vs. sexual infidelity. Slovenian data suggests that (a emotional infidelity is the primary jealousy trigger in both sexes; (b jealousy is influenced by the socio-cultural context (the degree of sexual permissiveness and sex role egalitarity seem to be of special importance, but not by characteristics of the individuals` early life situation; (c marital status influences the tendency towards sexual or emotional jealousy in romantic relationships; (d this tendency also depends on whether the individual comes from a rural or urban environment. Because the results seem to be affected by the linguistic formulation of jealousy and each infidelity type, special attention should be directed towards a precise conceptualisation of these terms. Beliefs about the typical relationship between the emotional and sexual aspect of human relations as well as participants` self-reports indicate that men find it a lot easier to separate both types of attachment than women. In Slovenia, the degree of sexual permissiveness as well as the degree of sex role egalitarity seem to be relatively high and comparable to certain other European countries. The results support the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis, but not the evolutionary theory of jealousy as a sex-specific innate module.
Alexander, Pamela C; Alexander, Elmore R; Warner, Stephanie
.... Based on the study findings, organizations with the best programs for prevention of sexual harassment had effective human relations strategies in which policies and training on sexual harassment...
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
To examine the relation between "sexting" (sending and sharing sexual photos online, via text messaging, and in person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, in which they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined-particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Although the media has portrayed sexting as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lijster, G.P.A. de; Felten, H.; Kok, G.; Kocken, P.L.
Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual
Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann
Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…
Sanz-Lorente, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón; Sanz-Valero, Javier
The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. ©María Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramón Castejón-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http
Faley, Robert H.
Reviewed 52 court cases to determine standards set by the courts for establishing a claim of sexual harassment under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Examined the gender-based nature of sexual harassment at work, employment-related consequences, and the extent of employer liability for acts of their employees. (Author)
Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Sánchez-García, Manuel; Martins, Ana; Cristina, Nunes
Under the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior, the objective of this study was to know the gender differences in the variables involved in the use of effective preventive measures in sexual relations against HIV in a sample of university students from Spain and Portugal. Furthermore, it is examined whether these factors produce different predictions concerning the adoption of safe sexual behaviour for young man and women in each country. The sample consisted of 683 university students, 319 Portuguese (64% female and 36% male) from the University of Algarve and 364 Spanish students (51% female and 49% male) from the University of Huelva. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire. The data revealed that there are gender differences which apply in both countries, highlighting that the young women have more positive attitudes, greater perceived behavioural control and intention of condom use than young men. However, they protect themselves less that their male counterparts: the percentage of females who say using condoms as a contraceptive method is less than the percentage of males, and especially with their steady partners. The results are discussed in relation to gender role norms, to have a steady partner or not, gender relations, the associated meaning to sexual relations for men and women and their implications for the design of sexual educational programmes for them.
Albery, Ian P; Lowry, Jessica; Frings, Dan; Johnson, Henry Lee; Hogan, Cassandra; Moss, Antony C
If sexual compulsivity and other addictive behaviours share common aetiology, contemporary proposals about the role of attentional processes in understanding addictive behaviours are relevant. To examine attentional biases for sex-related words among sexually active individuals and the relationship between sexual compulsivity and sexual behavioural engagement with attentional bias, 55 sexually active individuals completed a modified Stroop task and the sexual compulsivity scale. Findings showed attentional bias towards sex-related stimuli among sexually active participants. In addition, among those with low levels of sexual compulsivity, levels of attentional bias were the same across all levels of sexual experience. Among those with higher levels of sexual compulsivity, greater attentional bias was linked with lower levels of sexual experience. Attentional preference for concern-related stimuli varies as a function of the interaction between how long a person has been active sexually and how compulsive their sexual behaviour is. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Austin, S Bryn; Gordon, Allegra R; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Charlton, Brittany M; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Samnaliev, Mihail
Stigma against sexual minorities is well documented, but its long-term consequences for health-related quality of life (HRQL) are unknown. This study examined stigma-related predictors of sexual orientation disparities in HRQL and their contribution to young adult HRQL disparities. In 2013, participants (N=7,304, aged 18-31 years) reported sexual orientation (completely heterosexual [CH], mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian/gay). The EQ5D-5L, preference weighted for the U.S. population, was used to assess HRQL (range, -0.109 [worse than dead] to 1 [full health]). In prior waves conducted during adolescence, participants reported past-year bullying victimization (range, 1 [never] to 5 [several times/week]) and subjective social status (SSS) in their school (range, 1 [top] to 10 [bottom]). Analyses conducted in 2016 used longitudinal, multivariable linear and logistic regression to assess the contribution of bullying victimization and SSS in adolescence to sexual orientation disparities in HRQL in young adulthood, controlling for confounders and stratified by gender. Compared with CHs, both female and male sexual minorities reported more bullying victimization and lower SSS in adolescence and lower HRQL in young adulthood (HRQL score among women: mostly heterosexual, 0.878; bisexual, 0.839; lesbian, 0.848; CH, 0.913; HRQL score among men: mostly heterosexual, 0.877; bisexual, 0.882; gay, 0.890; CH, 0.925; all p-values bullying and SSS were added into multivariable models, orientation group effect estimates were attenuated substantially, suggesting bullying and lower SSS in adolescence partly explained HRQL disparities in young adulthood. Stigma-related experiences in adolescence may have lasting adverse effects on sexual minority health in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme
to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Pena, Juan; Goldberg, Vincent
The relationship among acculturation-related variables, past sexual activity, and subsequent sexual behavior was examined for a sample of Latino youth in the United States over a 12-month period. A subsample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health database was analyzed by means of a prospective design. History of sexual intercourse predicted subsequent sexual behavior over the ensuing 12 months. The acculturation-related variables were related to whether an adolescent reported being sexually active at Wave 1 but in a complex fashion. Among recent immigrants, youth from English-speaking homes were less likely to be sexually active than those from Spanish-speaking homes. The opposite was observed for youth who were born in the United States or who had resided in the United States most of their lives. PMID:15631566
It is well documented that initiation or puberty rites for girls are about sexuality, sex education, and sexuality education. However, very little has been revealed about the content of the sexuality education. This article aims to describe the content of sexuality education and sexual health information given to girls during the ...
Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.
Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…
Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer
Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…
Lazarus, Jeff; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich
To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union.......To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union....
Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem
In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…
Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to provide practical examples with respect to successful prevention of MSDs. Among the main findings of the literature review was that there is strong evidence that technical ergonomic measures can reduce ...
Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.
This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…
Nystrom, Robert J.; Duke, Jessica E.A.; Victor, Brad
Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input,...
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary preventio...
... victims, and hold offenders accountable. The Department of Justice's Office on Violence Against Women is... Proclamation Our Nation must continue to confront rape and other forms of sexual violence as a deplorable crime... Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, we recommit to building a society where no woman, man, or child...
Banyard, Victoria L.; Plante, Elizabethe G.; Moynihan, Mary M.
Recent research documents the problem of sexual violence across communities, often finding its causes to be embedded in community and cultural norms, thus demonstrating the need for community-focused solutions. In this article we synthesize research from community psychology on community change and prevention with more individually focused studies…
Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa
Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolenski, Derek J.; Morgan, Richard; Rosser, B. R. Simon
HIV prevention educators frequently encourage gay and bisexual men (GBM) to negotiate condom use prior to sexual engagement. Identifying groups of GBM based on their presexual agreements can aid efforts to tailor interventions. Using cross-sectional data from 1,188 GBM who reported having sex with a nonprimary sex partner in the 90 days prior to…
Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.
This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta
This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa
In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…
Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.
Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…
Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.
This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…
Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell
To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.
Daniel N. Jones; Aurelio José Figueredo; Erin Denise Dickey; W. Jake Jacobs
We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1) upset or bother (2) aversive emotional reactions (3) punitive impulses, and (4) punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher...
Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...
Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven
Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci
Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904
Ajuwon Ademola J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%. The majority (88.1% had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and
Mallet, Pascal; Herbé, Dominique
Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal study. They completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual knowledge and rape-supportive beliefs, and six months later completed them again. Sexual knowledge increased sharply between Time 1 and Time 2, whereas rape-supportive beliefs decreased during the same time. Boys obtained higher rape-supportive belief scores than girls. Regression analyses showed that sexual knowledge significantly predicted the level of rape-supportive beliefs six months later, independent of GPA and sex of participants. GPA accounted for a greater part of the variance in rape-supportive beliefs. This article discusses the importance of paying attention to the level of academic achievement of adolescents, as well as to their sexuality-specific knowledge, as a way of improving the efficiency of programs specializing in the prevention of adolescent sexual violence.
Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria
, et al. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women. J Sex Med 2017;14:366-379. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCartan, Kieran F; Merdian, Hannah L; Perkins, Derek E; Kettleborough, Danielle
This article discusses the ethical, practical, and moral issues surrounding secondary prevention efforts of child sexual abuse from a professional and practice-based perspective. Transcripts of a semistructured consultation event with n = 15 international experts on the secondary prevention of child sexual abuse were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The research identified four main critical areas linked to secondary prevention efforts, including, the psychology of self-reporting and disclosure; the interaction with and within existing legal, social, and professional frameworks; the scale and type of an appropriate response; and potential hurdles (i.e., within media, public, politics). The article outlines these areas, highlighting participant perspectives on risk-enhancing and mitigating factors for each domain.
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha
Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.
Daniel N. Jones
Full Text Available We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1 upset or bother (2 aversive emotional reactions (3 punitive impulses, and (4 punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher in Mating Effort more than those lower in Mating Effort. Higher Mating Effort also predicted greater temptation, intention, and likelihood to engage in punitive behaviors in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We discuss these data in light of individual differences in relations between reproductive strategy and romantic jealousy. Additionally, we point to the importance of controlling for co-linearity between reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity, and the need for addressing related methodological problems within jealousy research.
Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Pearce, Lisa D; Lerebours, Leonel; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brito, Maximo O
Ethnographic studies from numerous societies have documented the central role of male circumcision in conferring masculinity and preparing boys for adult male sexuality. Despite this link between masculinity, sexuality, and circumcision, there has been little research on these dynamics among men who have been circumcised for HIV prevention. We employed a mixed methods approach with data collected from recently circumcised men in the Dominican Republic (DR) to explore this link. We analyzed survey data collected six to 12 months post-circumcision (N = 293) as well as in-depth interviews conducted with a subsample of those men (n = 30). We found that 42% of men felt more masculine post-circumcision. In multivariate analysis, feeling more masculine was associated with greater concern about being perceived as masculine (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.25-2.32), feeling more potent erections post-circumcision (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26-4.03), and reporting increased ability to satisfy their partners post-circumcision (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.11-4.77). In qualitative interviews, these factors were all related to masculine norms of sexually satisfying one's partner, and men's experiences of circumcision were shaped by social norms of masculinity. This study highlights that circumcision is not simply a biomedical intervention and that circumcision programs need to incorporate considerations of masculine norms and male sexuality into their programming.
Colombino, Nicole; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Levenson, Jill; Jeglic, Elizabeth
Recently, legislative initiatives to prevent sex crime recidivism include the passage of child safety zones (also called loitering zones) that prohibit sex offenders from lingering near places where children congregate. The ability of policies such as these or residence restrictions to curb sexual recidivism depends on the empirical reality of sex offender perpetration patterns. As such, the current study sought to examine locations where sex offenders first come into contact with their victims and whether sex crime locations differ among those who perpetrate offenses against children as compared to those who perpetrate offenses against adults. Further, this study examined actuarial risk scores and recidivism rates among offenders who met victims in child-dense public locations to determine if these offenders are more at risk of re-offense. Descriptive analyses, based on archival sex offender file review (N=1557), revealed that offenders primarily cultivated their offenses in private residential locations (67.0%); relatively few offenders (4.4%) met their victims in child-dense public locations. Further, offenders who perpetrated crimes against children were more likely to meet victims within a residence, while those who perpetrate crimes against adults were more likely to encounter victims in a more public type of location (e.g., bar, workplace). Though only 3.7% of all offenders in this sample sexually recidivated, those who recidivated were more likely to have met their victim in a child-dense public location than those who did not recidivate. Current sex crime policies that focus only on where offenders live may fail to focus on where offenders go and, further, may misdirect efforts away from the place where sex crimes most often occur, namely, in the home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Braun, V; Gavey, N
Cervical cancer is a very common but largely preventable cancer. Despite considerable medical knowledge of risk and even causal factors, possible social-behavioural strategies for the primary prevention of cervical cancer have rarely been explored as a viable addition to cervical screening. We examine key policy documents and interview 18 key informants on cervical cancer prevention in New Zealand. Using a discourse analytic approach we identify and discuss two discourses (which we have labelled 'protectionism' and 'right to know') which inform positions on whether or not women should be provided with information regarding sexual risk factors for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer prevention policy in New Zealand, which largely reflects a protectionist discourse, suppresses sexual risk factor information and focuses exclusively on cervical screening. The right to know discourse informs an alternative position, which contends that women have a right to be informed about risk factors. We discuss these positions in relation to questions about women's rights, the principle of informed choice, and attempts to judge what is in women's 'best interests.'
Full Text Available Background & aim: The most important risk factor for one’s sexual health is high-risk sexual behavior. Implementation of educational programs has been considered as one of the most crucial interventions in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational program on the knowledge and attitude of female sex workers toward preventing high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods:This pretest-posttest, one-group study was conducted on 40 female sex workers, imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad prison in 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge- and attitude-related data. An educational program was designed after the pretest and conducted in four 70-minute sessions. Immediately and four weeks after the educational program, post-test was performed. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS version 16. Results: A positive significant increase was found in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of female sex workers immediately and four weeks after the program (P
Singh, Niharika; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Muralidharan, Vinata; Roy, Rupak; V, Jayprakash; Raman, Rajiv
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compromises quality of life. However, the available therapeutic options are limited. This has led to the identification of modifiable risk factors to prevent the development or alter the natural course and prognosis of AMD. The identification and modification of risk factors has the potential for greater public health impact on reducing morbidity from AMD. Likewise, identifying the imaging clues and genetic clues could serve as a guide to recognizing the propensity for progression to severe and end stages of the disease. Several attempts, both successful and unsuccessful, have been made for interventions that could delay the progression of AMD. Of these, pharmacological interventions have shown promising results. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 1 and 2 have shown the beneficial role of antioxidants in a selected group of patients. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.
Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S
The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy
The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.
Leichliter, Jami S; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan
Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a nonsystematic review of policy evidence for STD prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact STD prevention through social determinants of health. We also describe potential policy opportunity in these areas. It should be noted that we found gaps in policy evidence for some areas; thus, additional research would be useful for public health policy interventions for STD prevention.
Burns, Jean H; Pardini, Eleanor A; Schutzenhofer, Michele R; Chung, Y Anny; Seidler, Katie J; Knight, Tiffany M
An understanding of the demographic processes contributing to invasions would improve our mechanistic understanding of the invasion process and improve the efficiency of prevention and control efforts. However, field comparisons of the demography of invasive and noninvasive species have not previously been conducted. We compared the in situ demography of 17 introduced plant species in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to contrast the demographic patterns of invasive species with their less invasive relatives across a broad sample of angiosperms. Using herbarium records to estimate spread rates, we found higher maximum spread rates in the landscape for species classified a priori as invasive than for noninvasive introduced species, suggesting that expert classifications are an accurate reflection of invasion rate. Across 17 species, projected population growth was not significantly greater in invasive than in noninvasive introduced species. Among five taxonomic pairs of close relatives, however, four of the invasive species had higher projected population growth rates compared with their noninvasive relative. A Life Table Response Experiment suggested that the greater projected population growth rate of some invasive species relative to their noninvasive relatives was primarily a result of sexual reproduction. The greater sexual reproduction of invasive species is consistent with invaders having a life history strategy more reliant on fecundity than survival and is consistent with a large role of propagule pressure in invasion. Sexual reproduction is a key demographic correlate of invasiveness, suggesting that local processes influencing sexual reproduction, such as enemy escape, might be of general importance. However, the weak correlation of projected population growth with spread rates in the landscape suggests that regional processes, such as dispersal, may be equally important in determining invasion rate.
Aramburu Alegría, C
This paper reports on a study examining sexuality in females who remain partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons. Participants' self-view and sexual fluidity following their partners' transition from man to woman is examined. Sixteen females participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. An inductive process of data analysis was conducted, using the constant comparative method, an iterative process by which data are compared within and across subjects. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. Four themes related to sexuality emerged: (1) questioning of sexual orientation; (2) sexual orientation categorization; (3) relational fluidity without sexual relations; and (4) relational fluidity with sexual relations. Participants maintained a heterosexual identity, yet modified their self-view to include an identity that reflected their reformed relationship. The majority of the respondents reported sexual lives that were active or evolving. Others remained in relationships that no longer included sexual activity. The study findings highlight the potential fluidity within the sexual and relational lives of females, and can enhance healthcare providers' preparedness and efficacy with diverse populations. Providers are in a unique position to offer resources to patients who identify as sexually or gender-diverse, or who are in relationships with sexually or gender-diverse persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G
Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Been, L E; Hedges, V L; Vialou, V; Nestler, E J; Meisel, R L
Motivated behaviors, including sexual experience, activate the mesolimbic dopamine system and produce long-lasting molecular and structural changes in the nucleus accumbens. The transcription factor ΔFosB is hypothesized to partly mediate this experience-dependent plasticity. Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that overexpressing ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens of female Syrian hamsters augments the ability of sexual experience to cause the formation of a conditioned place preference. It is unknown, however, whether ΔFosB-mediated transcription in the nucleus accumbens is required for the behavioral consequences of sexual reward. We therefore used an adeno-associated virus to overexpress ΔJunD, a dominant negative binding partner of ΔFosB that decreases ΔFosB-mediated transcription by competitively heterodimerizing with ΔFosB before binding at promotor regions on target genes, in the nucleus accumbens. We found that overexpression of ΔJunD prevented the formation of a conditioned place preference following repeated sexual experiences. These data, when coupled with our previous findings, suggest that ΔFosB is both necessary and sufficient for behavioral plasticity following sexual experience. Furthermore, these results contribute to an important and growing body of literature demonstrating the necessity of endogenous ΔFosB expression in the nucleus accumbens for adaptive responding to naturally rewarding stimuli. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
These guidelines for the treatment of patients who have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on September 26-28, 2000. The information in this report updates the 1998 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 1998;47 [No. RR-1]). Included in these updated guidelines are new alternative regimens for scabies, bacterial vaginosis, early syphilis, and granuloma inguinale; an expanded section on the diagnosis of genital herpes (including type-specific serologic tests); new recommendations for treatment of recurrent genital herpes among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); a revised approach to the management of victims of sexual assault; expanded regimens for the treatment of urethral meatal warts; and inclusion of hepatitis C as a sexually transmitted infection. In addition, these guidelines emphasize education and counseling for persons infected with human papillomavirus, clarify the diagnostic evaluation of congenital syphilis, and present information regarding the emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and implications for treatment. Recommendations also are provided for vaccine-preventable STDs, including hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Full Text Available The objectives pursued within this paper aimed at the general examination of the European legislative act, and preventing child victimization by the enforcement of national and European law. Preventing victimization of children was approached on three main ways, namely the information, during the criminal proceedings, and at the end of these procedures. The conducted research is a novelty in the field, generally targeting the European normative act, the establishment and enforcement between Member States of complex of preventive measures, that needed to be taken internally first legislatively and then logistically by each Member State. Since internally the Romanian legislation does not provide many of the examined provisions, we believe that the work can be useful to the internal or European institutions working in the field, academic environment as a starting point in achieving other analysis and to the Romanian legislator. The essential contribution to the work, the originality, consists of the examined novelty items that will contribute to the improvement of future Romanian legislation in this particularly sensitive area.
Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior. As predicted, pure physical bullying was positively associated with the number of dating and sexual partners, primarily for adolescent boys. Adolescent girls with more dating partners had greater odds of being relational bully-victims, in line with predictions. Finally, adolescent girls with more sexual partners were at greater risk of being physically victimized by peers, and greater involvement with dating and sexual partners was associated with higher odds of being a physical bully-victim. Results are discussed with respect to evolutionary theory and research in which adolescent boys may display strength and athleticism through physical bullying to facilitate intersexual selection, whereas relational bullying may be employed as a strategy to engage in intrasexual competition with rivals for mates. Aggr. Behav. 43:111-122, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Coulter, Robert W S; Kinsky, Suzanne M; Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron D; Bauermeister, José A
Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, Psexual-orientation discrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population.
Caceres, C F; Rosasco, A M; Munoz, S; Gotuzzo, E; Mandel, J; Hearst, N
Between November 1989 and January 1990, a pilot study was conducted among state secondary school students and teachers in Lima Peru by questionnaires with the objective of determining their knowledge about human sexuality, sexual behavior, pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), AIDS, drug abuse, and sexual activity. 110 students (64 boys and 46 women) aged 13-18 of low and medium-low socioeconomic background from metropolitan Lima participated. 40 teachers (70% females) aged 40.1 + or - 9.3 years also took part. THe adolescent focus groups were anxious to talk openly about sexuality to dispel their doubts. The levels of knowledge reached 46% for human sexuality, 50% for physiology and pregnancy, 35% for STDs and preventive sexual behavior, 50-60% for AIDS (transmission and risk groups), and only 35% for prevention. 21 had heterosexual experiences: 19 males and 2 females. 6 youngsters had homosexual experiences: 4 males and 2 females, 3 of these also had heterosexual sex. 20 of students without sexual experience expressed on interest, in engaging in sexual behavior if they fell in love. 33 adolescents reported using alcohol, 1/4 of these had consumed more than 6 bottles the previous week. The report on drug use was low, because 32% failed to answer this question. 60-70% of the teachers knew about human sexuality, while 72% knew about AIDS. 76.5% of them considered sex education in schools inadequate. 88.2% thought that adolescents need an explicit preventive program which should start in primary school and continue through all grades. This would require additional school resources. The teachers deemed daily life more educational about sexuality than information from schools and universities. 52% said that AIDS education messages had to be clear about preventive sexual behavior. 32% believed that correct use of the condom had to be demonstrated in class. 78% identified the mass media for dissemination of AIDS information, and only 15% judged their knowledge
O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Brotto, Lori A; Majerovich, Jo Ann; Fletcher, Jason
Rates of sexual dysfunctions are high among adults, but little is known about problems in sexual functioning among adolescents. We completed a comprehensive assessment of problems in sexual functioning and related distress over a 2-year period among adolescents (16-21 years). A sample of 405 adolescents completed five online surveys over 2 years. The main outcome measures were clinical cutoff scores on the International Index of Erectile Function and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool for male adolescents and the Female Sexual Function Index for female adolescents. A secondary outcome was clinical levels of distress. The majority of sexually active adolescents (78.6% of the male and 84.4% of the female) reported a sexual problem over the course; rates did not differ significantly by gender. Common problems for males were low sexual satisfaction (47.9%), low desire (46.2%), and problems in erectile function (45.3%). Common problems for females were inability to reach orgasm (59.2%), low satisfaction (48.3%), and pain (46.9%). Models predicting problems over time showed increased odds among those not in a sexual relationship. Odds of reporting a distressing sexual problem decreased over time for female but not male adolescents. Problems in sexual functioning emerge early in individuals' sexual lives, are often distressing, and appear not to fluctuate over time. Additional efforts to identify key factors linked to onset will help elucidate possible mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Objective This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students’ sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the victim or both. Method Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol’s effects on aggressive and sexual behavior. Results Research suggests that alcohol consumption by the perpetrator and/or the victim increases the likelihood of acquaintance sexual assault occurring through multiple pathways. Alcohol’s psychological, cognitive and motor effects contribute to sexual assault. Conclusions Although existing research addresses some important questions, there are many gaps. Methodological limitations of past research are noted, and suggestions are made for future research. In addition, recommendations are made for college prevention programs and policy initiatives. PMID:12022717
Tragic incident of sexual violence and its dramatic conse- quences oblige the whole social community, and above all doctors and medical staff, to respecting, sympathy and care for the entire welfare of the injured person. For decades the issue of prevention of pregnancy after rape has been giving rise to medical and moral attention in the treatment of the victim, raising the questions Is such a practice justified and are the modern means, methods and procedures, kno...
This thesis explores cultural influences in high-risk behaviour among Egyptian substance users in the Middle Eastern, conservative, male-dominated and predominantly Muslim society in which they live. It investigates why they practice unprotected sex despite the risk of infection by blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), and the factors influencing their risk practices. The study seeks to inform policy and to improve methods of preventing BBVs/STI...
Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna
Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for
Ojo, Olumuyiwa; Verbeek, Jos H; Rasanen, Kimmo; Heikkinen, Jarmo; Isotalo, Leena K; Mngoma, Nomusa; Ruotsalainen, Eija
The workplace provides an important avenue to prevent HIV. To evaluate the effect of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV on high risk sexual behavior when delivered in an occupational setting. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up until March 2011 and CINAHL, LILACS, DARE, OSH Update, and EPPI database up until October 2010. Randomised control trials (RCTs) in occupational settings or among workers at high risk for HIV that measured HIV, sexual transmitted diseases (STD), Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), or risky sexual behaviour. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We pooled studies that were similar. We found 8 RCTs with 11,164 participants but one study did not provide enough data. Studies compared VCT to no VCT and education to no intervention and to alternative education.VCT uptake increased to 51% when provided at the workplace compared to a voucher for VCT (RR=14.0 (95% CI 11.8 to16.7)). After VCT, self-reported STD decreased (RR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.73)) but HIV incidence (RR=1.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.7)) and unprotected sex (RR=0.71 (0.48 to 1.06)) did not decrease significantly. .Education reduced STDs (RR = 0.68 (95%CI 0.48 to 0.96)), unprotected sex (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD)= -0.17 (95% CI -0.29 to -0.05), sex with a commercial sex worker (RR = 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96) but not multiple sexual partners (Mean Difference (MD) = -0.22 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.08) nor use of alcohol before sex (MD = -0.01 (95% CI of -0.11 to 0.08). Workplace interventions to prevent HIV are feasible. There is moderate quality evidence that VCT offered at the work site increases the uptake of testing. Even though this did no lower HIV-incidence, there was a decrease in self-reported sexual transmitted diseases and a decrease in risky sexual behaviour. There is low quality evidence that educational interventions decrease sexually
Venzo, Paul; Hess, Kristy
The theory of "symbolic annihilation" or "symbolic violence" has been used in academic literature to describe the way in which sexual minorities have been ignored, trivialized, or condemned by the media. This article aims to de-center research from issues of media representation to consider the capacity for minority groups to proactively use new media and its various avenues for interactivity, social networking, and feedback to fight social exclusion. This work suggests that new media has become a space in which the nominally marginal in society may acquire "social artillery"-a term used to describe how sexual minorities utilize their expanding and more readily accessible social connections in digital space to combat instances of homophobia. The research draws on the results of an inquiry into the relation between media and a regional youth social justice group in Australia tackling homophobia. The research demonstrates that the group is becoming increasingly adept and comfortable with using a cross-section of media platforms to fulfill their own objectives, rather than seeing themselves as passive subjects of media representation. This article argues that this sets an example for other socially excluded groups looking to renegotiate their relation with the media in regional areas.
de Lijster, Gaby P A; Felten, Hanneke; Kok, Gerjo; Kocken, Paul L
Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual harassment behavior were presented to secondary school students. We evaluated its effectiveness, using a cluster-randomized controlled design to assign schools to an experimental condition [n = 14 schools; 431 students (51 % female)] and a control condition [n = 11 schools; 384 students (51 % female)]. To measure the effects of the intervention at first post-test and 6-month follow-up, our multilevel analyses used a two-level random intercept model. Outcome measures were sexual harassment behaviors, behavioral determinants and distal factors influencing these behaviors. At post-test, students in the experimental group reported a reduced intention to commit sexual harassment behavior and higher self-efficacy in rejecting it. At post-test and follow-up there was a significant positive effect on social norms for rejecting sexual harassment behavior. At follow-up, sexual self-esteem was higher in students in the experimental group than in the control group. Effects on these determinants will benefit adolescents' future sexual behaviors. In combination, the play and lessons, possibly together with continued sexual health education and skills programs on social-emotional learning in subsequent school years, have potential for preventing sexual harassment behavior.
Dotson-Blake, Kylie P.; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.
Despite growing attention to the subject, a dearth of information exists regarding college students' perceptions and process of meaning-making related to the act of oral sex. Such perspectives and allied social sexual scripts can have considerable consequences on the sexuality and sexual health of older teens and college-aged populations. The…
van de Bongardt, D.; Bos, H.; Mouthaan, I.
In the literature, the Netherlands is known for its pragmatic and accepting approach of youth sexuality and young people’s sexual health. Comprehensive school-based sexual and relational education (SRE) is often assumed by scholars to be a key explanatory factor for the low prevalence rates of STIs,
Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael
Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…
Fleming, Paul J.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Barrington, Clare
Numerous studies have documented a relationship between masculine norms and men’s HIV-related sexual behaviors, but intervening upon this relationship requires a nuanced understanding of the specific aspects of masculine norms that shape men’s sexual behaviors. We integrate theories on masculinities with empirical HIV research to identify specific dimensions of masculine norms that influence men’s HIV-related sexual behaviors. We identify three major dimensions of masculine norms that shape men’s sexual behavior: 1) uncontrollable male sex drive, 2) capacity to perform sexually, and 3) power over others. While the existing literature does help explain the relationship between masculine norms and men’s sexual behaviors several gaps remain including: a recognition of context-specific masculinities, an interrogation of the positive influences of masculinity, adoption of an intersectional approach, assessment of changes in norms and behaviors over time, and rigorous evaluations of gender-transformative approaches. Addressing these gaps in future research may optimize prevention efforts. PMID:26696261
Delaying onset of sexuality could be a surer and safer way to protect health during adolescence. However, sexual and reproductive health programs that advocate abstinence only are likely to have few positive effects on young people. To better implement this strategy, sexual education for adolescents should be integrated.
Kontos, Pia; Grigorovich, Alisa; Kontos, Alexis P; Miller, Karen-Lee
Sexual citizenship and sexual rights scholarship have made important contributions to broadening citizenship and more fully accommodating rights related to sexuality. However, this scholarship has concentrated primarily on the sexuality and intimacy-related needs of younger people and those who are not cognitively impaired. Consequently, it has inadvertently served to marginalize persons living with dementia who reside in long-term residential care settings. We argue that supporting sexual rights for persons with dementia requires a particular human rights ontology for citizenship-one that recognizes that corporeality is a fundamental source of self-expression, interdependence, and reciprocal engagement. This is an ontology that underpins our model of relational citizenship and that grounds our articulation of an ethic of embodied relational sexuality. In our view, this ethic offers important direction for the development of policy, legislation, and clinical guidelines to support sexual rights for persons with dementia in long-term residential care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A
Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bernier, Adeline; Lefèvre, Marie; Henry, Emilie; Verdes, Ludmila; Acosta, Maria-Elena; Benmoussa, Amal; Mukumbi, Henri; Cissé, Mamadou; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie
The sexuality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is a key issue in the fight against HIV, as it influences both the dynamic of the epidemic and the quality of life of PLHIV. The present study examined the factors associated with cessation of sexual relations after HIV diagnosis among men and women in five countries: Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Romania and Ecuador. A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression and a separate gender analysis were performed. Among the 1413 participants, 471 (33%) declared that they stopped having sexual relations after their HIV diagnosis, including 318 women (42%) and 153 men (23%) (p sexual relations in the final multivariate model were mainly related with relational factors and the possibility of getting social support (e.g., needing help to disclose HIV serostatus, feeling lonely every day, not finding support in CBOs, not being in a couple). Men's sexual activity was more associated with their representations and their perception of the infection (e.g., thinking they will have their HIV infection for the rest of their life, perceiving the HIV infection as a mystery, perceiving the infection as serious). Furthermore, the following variables were associated with both men and women sexual behaviours: being older, having suffered from serious social consequences after serostatus disclosure and not being able to regularly discuss about HIV with their steady partner. Results suggested clear differences between men and women regarding cessation of sexual relations and highlighted the importance of implementing gender-based tailored interventions that promote safe and satisfying sexuality, as it is known to have a positive impact on the overall well-being of PLHIV.
Nankinga, Olivia; Misinde, Cyprian; Kwagala, Betty
masculine attitudes and roles that perpetuate unhealthy sexual behaviours and gender relations within marriage. It is also important to promote marital fidelity and better communication within union and to encourage women to take charge of their health jointly with their partners.
partners. Interventions promoting sexual health must effectively address negative masculine attitudes and roles that perpetuate unhealthy sexual behaviours and gender relations within marriage. It is also important to promote marital fidelity and better communication within union and to encourage women to take charge of their health jointly with their partners.
Worsley, Roisin; Bell, Robin J; Gartoulla, Pragya; Davis, Susan R
Low desire is the most common sexual problem in women at midlife. Prevalence data are limited by lack of validated instruments or exclusion of un-partnered or sexually inactive women. To document the prevalence of and factors associated with low desire, sexually related personal distress, and hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction (HSDD) using validated instruments. Cross-sectional, nationally representative, community-based sample of 2,020 Australian women 40 to 65 years old. Low desire was defined as a score no higher than 5.0 on the desire domain of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); sexually related personal distress was defined as a score of at least 11.0 on the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised; and HSDD was defined as a combination of these scores. The Menopause Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to document menopausal vasomotor symptoms. The Beck Depression Inventory-II was used to identify moderate to severe depressive symptoms (score ≥ 20). The prevalence of low desire was 69.3% (95% CI = 67.3-71.3), that of sexually related personal distress was 40.5% (95% CI = 38.4-42.6), and that of HSDD was 32.2% (95% CI = 30.1-34.2). Of women who were not partnered or sexually active, 32.4% (95% CI = 24.4-40.2) reported sexually related personal distress. Factors associated with HSDD in an adjusted logistic regression model included being partnered (odds ratio [OR] = 3.30, 95% CI = 2.46-4.41), consuming alcohol (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.16-1.89), vaginal dryness (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.66-2.61), pain during or after intercourse (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.27-2.09), moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.99-3.64), and use of psychotropic medication (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10-1.83). Vasomotor symptoms were not associated with low desire, sexually related personal distress, or HSDD. Given the high prevalence, clinicians should screen midlife women for HSDD. Strengths include the large size and representative nature of the
Urrutia, M Teresa; Concha, Ximena; Riquelme, Giselle; Padilla, Oslando
The human papilloma virus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection in young people and recognized as the most important risk factor for cervical cancer (CC). To describe the degree of knowledge that a group of Chilean teenagers have of HPV infection, CC, and its relationship with preventive behavior. This is an analytical study, with a random sample of 226 adolescents from three public schools of the Metropolitan Region in Santiago. A fifth of the interviewed students did not know there was a HPV vaccine. Multiple sexual partners was indicated as a risk factor of CC by 70.8% and of HPV infection by 78.3% of them; while 60.3% identified inheritance as a risk factor. HPV transmission through unprotected sexual relations was identified by 68.2% of the sample. Of sexually active adolescents, condom use during sexual relations was reported by 31.1%. The adolescents who use condoms significantly have more knowledge regarding the number of sexual partners and age of first sexual intercourse as a risk factor for CC. adolescents know about HPV transmission, however, the preventing conducts are not related to this information.
Emilio PINTOR HOLGUÍN
Full Text Available Action takes place in Spain in the mid?eighties (1987 with the change in Spanish society and the appearance of the first cases of AIDS in our country. From a comical sight, the adventures of a dermatologist particularly interested on sexually transmitted diseases prevention; especially in patients with risk behaviors, such as homosexuals, prostitutes and drug addicts injecting. The entire film revolves around the importance of condom use in preventing all sexually transmitted diseases.
the commanding officer of an accused servicemember. 21Army Regulation 600-20 defines sexual harassment as a form of gender discrimination that...SEXUAL ASSAULT Better Resource Management Needed to Improve Prevention and Response in the Army National Guard and Army...Resource Management Needed to Improve Prevention and Response in the Army National Guard and Army Reserve What GAO Found The Army National Guard
Rashidi, Sanaz; Dashti, Forouzandeh
Despite the most of treatment team efforts focused on the maintaining patient's life, attention to sexual issues don't be considered. This stud is designed to determine the sexual behavior pattern and related factors in women with breast cancer. This descriptive- correlation study was performed on 90 women that diagnosed with breast Cancer that was admitted to sayed-al- shohada hospital of Isfahan in 2010. Sampling method was available (non- random sampling) and Sexual Behavior Pattern determined with 3 domains: sexual identity, sexual role and sexual function. Data collection tools, was a questionnaire that made by the researcher and was used after determining the validity and reliability. For data analysis, was used of Descriptive- analytic statistics, frequency and ANOVA and Pearson correlation analytical tests in the SPSS statistical software (version 16). Cases had 60% of Desirable sexual identity, 50% of Desirable sexual role, 40% Desirable sexual function and were be able to play 47.61% Desirable sexual behavior. Participants that their husbands had Elementary education had more desirable sexual behavior (pSexual behavior than of were working and retired (psexual behavior (psexual behavior pattern that is one of the important aspects of health, Provide valuable information to nurses and medical team and will be enhance the quality of provided services. Adopt appropriate strategies and interventions to promote sexual health, breast cancer is recommended.
Garrity, Stacy E
An unacceptably large percent of women experience sexual assault during their collegiate years and efforts to eliminate sexual assault exist in various forms at numerous universities. The only way to effectively decrease the occurrence of rape on college campuses is to stop the perpetrators. This review examined established sexual assault prevention programs designed for college men to determine if an ideal educational program exists, or if one can be established, to effectively change male attitudes and behaviors about sexual assault. A library search of scientific databases yielded seven studies, published from 2000 to 2007, that met inclusion criteria. Through a variety of interventions, a measurable number of formerly held attitudes about rape myth and the role of the bystanders in an assaultive situation were effectively changed immediately postintervention in several studies. In addition, one study demonstrated sustained behavioral change. These results can effectively be used to provide education for forensic and school-based nurses to guide practice for development of educational programs to successfully change harmful attitudes and beliefs that contribute to rape. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Dawood, Naseema; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kay; Chohan, Ebrahim
This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) in relation to HIV/AIDS. Questionnaires were personally administered to a saturation sample of 90 adolescents with MMR drawn from one specialised educational institution in Durban, South Africa. The study revealed critical gaps and erroneous beliefs regarding knowledge of HIV/AIDS, especially with regard to its existence, transmission and cure. Participants indicated a high degree of exposure to various sources of information, particularly media messages. The results indicate that gender-role prescriptions and prevailing social constructions of immorality have had a negative influence on the attitudes and behaviour of participants, particularly with regard to sexual practices and preventative risk behaviours. Furthermore, the sample was found to have low levels of self-efficacy in relation to sexual negotiation and decision-making, more specifically with regard to condom use. It should be noted, however, that only a small proportion of the sample was sexually active and the use of contraceptives was accordingly found to be extremely low. The findings are discussed against the backdrop of the empirical literature on HIV/AIDS, developmental theory, and pertinent theories and models of health behaviour. This study may help to promote a better understanding of the psycho-educational dynamics of HIV infection in this special group of adolescents, and also help to inform attempts to tailor suitable educational programmes, as well as promote further research to add to our knowledge as we address the problems of HIV/AIDS among this group.
Martinson, Amber A; Sigmon, Sandra T; Craner, Julia; Rothstein, Ethan; McGillicuddy, Morgan
To fully understand the negative impact of sexual trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) upon adult intimacy-related functioning, cognitive models designed to investigate implicit processing of stimuli with emotional content are warranted. Using an emotional Stroop paradigm, the present study examined the impact of sexual trauma history (childhood sexual abuse and/or adult sexual assault) and a PTSD diagnosis on the implicit processing of 3 types of word stimuli: intimacy, sexual trauma, and neutral. Based on the results of a structured clinical interview and a behavioral-specific sexual trauma questionnaire, participants (n = 101; 74 females, 27 males) were placed in 3 groups: sexual trauma only (n = 33), sexual trauma and PTSD (n = 33), and controls (n = 35). Results indicated that men and women with a history of sexual trauma and a current PTSD diagnosis had increased latency for intimacy-related words and trauma words compared to controls, whereas individuals with only a history of sexual trauma did not differ from controls. Thus, it appears that the presence of symptoms associated with a diagnosis of PTSD is important for implicit processing of intimacy stimuli, rather than having a history of sexual trauma alone. Avoidance, a key feature of PTSD, may strengthen this relationship. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms by which individuals with a history of sexual trauma and PTSD experience intimacy difficulties.
Gottlieb, Sami L; Low, Nicola; Newman, Lori M; Bolan, Gail; Kamb, Mary; Broutet, Nathalie
An estimated 499 million curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) occurred globally in 2008. In addition, well over 500 million people are estimated to have a viral STI such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) at any point in time. STIs result in a large global burden of sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health consequences, including genital symptoms, pregnancy complications, cancer, infertility, and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as important psychosocial consequences and financial costs. STI control strategies based primarily on behavioral primary prevention and STI case management have had clear successes, but gains have not been universal. Current STI control is hampered or threatened by several behavioral, biological, and implementation challenges, including a large proportion of asymptomatic infections, lack of feasible diagnostic tests globally, antimicrobial resistance, repeat infections, and barriers to intervention access, availability, and scale-up. Vaccines against HPV and hepatitis B virus offer a new paradigm for STI control. Challenges to existing STI prevention efforts provide important reasons for working toward additional STI vaccines. We summarize the global epidemiology of STIs and STI-associated complications, examine challenges to existing STI prevention efforts, and discuss the need for new STI vaccines for future prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Factores psicosociales y culturales en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual Psychosocial and cultural factors in the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases
Full Text Available El artículo trata de las dimensiones psicosociales y culturales de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Sobre la base de resultados de una investigación cualitativa realizada entre hombres y mujeres de sectores populares (jóvenes y adultos en el Gran Buenos Aires, la autora discute cómo las nociones legas acerca de las ETS (sus síntomas, vías de transmisión, consecuencias y las normas culturales sobre el comportamiento sexual y las relaciones de género afectan la habilidad de las personas para considerarse en riesgo y/o adoptar conductas de prevención. También se discuten las implicancias de estos hallazgos en términos de estrategias apropiadas para promover conductas de cuidado de la salud sexual y reproductiva.The article deals with the psychosocial and cultural dimensions of sexually transmitted diseases. Based on results from a qualitative study with lower-class males and females (young and adult from a neighbourhood in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the author discusses how lay beliefs (about symptoms, transmission, consequences and norms regarding sexual matters and gender relations affect people's ability to consider themselves at risk and/or adopt preventive behaviors. Implications of research results for the design of culturally appropriate strategies to promote sexual and reproductive health are also provided.
Friedman, Allison L; Kachur, Rachel E; Noar, Seth M; McFarlane, Mary
Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes. Titles and abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 researchers. The review yielded 26 articles representing 16 unique STD testing and/or prevention campaigns. Most campaigns were developed using formative research and social marketing or behavioral theory. Most campaigns (68.75%) used posttest-only or pretest-posttest designs without comparison groups for evaluation; only 5 campaigns used control groups, and these proved challenging (i.e., achieving necessary exposure and avoiding contamination). Nearly all campaigns found differences between exposed and unexposed individuals on one or more key behavioral outcomes. Several campaigns found dose-response relationships. Among evaluations with uncontaminated control groups whose campaigns achieved sufficient exposure, sustained campaign effects were observed among targeted populations. Current findings suggest that campaigns can impact targeted STD-related behaviors and add to the evidence that greater exposure is associated with greater behavior change.
Besoain, Felipe; Perez-Navarro, Antoni; Caylà, Joan A; Aviñó, Constanza Jacques; de Olalla, Patricia García
Advances in the development of information and communication technologies have facilitated social interrelationships, but also sexual contacts without appropriate preventive measures. In this paper, we will focus on situations in which people use applications to meet sexual partners nearby, which could increase their chance of exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI). How can we encourage users to adopt preventive measures without violating their privacy or infringing on the character of the application? To achieve the goal of preventing STI, we have used the design and creation methodology and have developed a prototype software package. This prototype follows the RESTful services principles and has two parts: an Android OS application with emphasis on ubiquitous computing and designed according to General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns (GRASP), and a server with a web page. To choose the preventive messages, we performed a test in 17 men who have sex with men (MSM). Our software sends preventive notifications to users when it detects situations such as the activation of particular applications on their smartphones, or their proximity to areas with a high probability of intercourse (hot zones). The underlying idea is the same as that for warning messages on cigarette packets, since users read the message just when they are going to smoke. The messages used have been selected from a list that has been rated by the users themselves. The most popular message is "Enjoy sex and enjoy life. Do not expose yourself to HIV". The user is unaware of the software, which runs in the background. Ubiquitous computing may be useful for alerting users with preventive and educational messages. The proposed application is non-intrusive because: 1) the users themselves decide to install it and, therefore, users' privacy rights are preserved; 2) it sends a message that helps users think about taking appropriate preventive measures; and 3) it works in the
Salwen, Jessica K; O'Leary, K Daniel
Four hundred and fifty-three married or cohabitating couples participated in the current study. A meditational model of men's perpetration of sexual coercion within an intimate relationship was examined based on past theories and known correlates of rape and sexual coercion. The latent constructs of adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style were examined. Adjustment problem variables included perceived stress, perceived low social support, and marital discord. Maladaptive relational style variables included psychological aggression, dominance, and jealousy. Sexual coercion was a combined measure of men's reported perpetration and women's reported victimization. As hypothesized, adjustment problems significantly predicted sexual coercion. Within the meditational model, adjustment problems were significantly correlated with maladaptive relational style, and maladaptive relational style significantly predicted sexual coercion. Once maladaptive relational style was introduced as a mediator, adjustment problems no longer significantly predicted sexual coercion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1 discussions were polarized, 2 opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3 the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality.
Borges, Angela M; Banyard, Victoria L; Moynihan, Mary M
Although more universities are developing policies for students regarding consent for sexual behavior in response to the problem of sexual violence on campus, many students seem either unaware of these policies or what they mean for actual behavior. Policies are only as effective as peoples' understanding and use of them. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of a prevention education program focused on teaching students about consent. Two hundred and twenty undergraduates, composing a control group, a shorter treatment group, and a longer one, participated in the study. The findings showed the greatest knowledge gain for participants in the longer treatment group that included a discussion of the policy and participation in an activity dealing with its implications. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Im, Young Lim; Park, Kyung Min
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a sexuality education coaching program given to elementary school students in terms of sex-related knowledge and attitude. The participants were elementary school students in S city (Experimental group=21, Control group=23). Data were collected and the program was conducted from Feb. 15 to Apr. 15, 2013. The experimental group of 21 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades who received the sexuality education coaching program, 10 sessions in the three weeks. The control group of 23 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades from another school received, 2 sessions in the three weeks on sexuality education including physiology and sexual abuse prevention. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, independent t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, and utilized the SPSS program. The experimental group showed significantly better sex-related knowledge and sex-related attitudes than the control group. Therefore, individualized approach with emphasis on the differences of their level of understanding and strengths should be considered in providing sexuality education coaching programs for elementary school students.
Hust, Stacey J T; Adams, Paula M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Ren, Chunbo; Lei, Ming; Ran, Weina; Marett, Emily Garrigues
Among the existing sexual assault prevention efforts on college campuses, few use mass communication strategies designed to simultaneously entertain and educate. Although many entertainment-education efforts are guided by social cognitive theory, other theories may be useful in entertainment-education design. Previous research has found that social cognitive theory and social norms theory can successfully influence participants' perceived norms and efficacy related to sexual assault reduction; however, whether such results can be replicated in a naturalistic setting and the extent to which the guiding theoretical foundation may influence outcomes remain unknown. We used a pre- and posttest field experiment with college students in residence halls to assess how different theoretical foundations may influence effects. Over the course of a semester, the participants viewed eight mini-magazines developed using (1) social cognitive theory, (2) social norms theory, (3) a combination of both theoretical frameworks, or (4) a control condition with no sexual assault prevention messaging. Participants in the combined content condition had greater levels of self-efficacy related to sexual assault prevention and more accurate norm perceptions. There were also effects for the mini-magazines developed with only one theoretical framework. Overall, we found that multiple theories can effectively guide entertainment-education message development.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending an STI clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt). PMID:22282323
McKellar, Kerry; Little, Linda; Smith, Michael A; Sillence, Elizabeth
Objective Sexual health professionals are key stakeholders in implementing sexual health intervention programmes, yet their views are largely absent from the literature. Sexual health professionals provide a unique perspective on teen sexual health issues as they engage in confidential discussions with a wide range of teenagers. This study aimed to provide an in-depth exploration of professionals' perceptions of teenagers' sexual health information seeking practices and barriers. Furthermore, the research provided a unique re-examination of key predictors of risky sexual behaviours, which have been highlighted by previous research. Methods Nine semi-structured interviews were undertaken with sexual health professionals to explore their perceptions of teenagers' sexual health information seeking practises and barriers. Subsequently the professionals rank ordered the 57 factors identified in previous research in terms of their perceived importance in predicting risky sexual behaviours. Results Four themes emerged: "society and media"; "environment and family"; "peer influences"; and "the self". The rank order task confirmed that 33 of the 57 factors were perceived as highly important by sexual health professionals. Conclusion Society, peers, environment and family are perceived as barriers to teenagers seeking reliable sexual health information, but these are dependent on the individual person. An individual with higher self-esteem is more confident in seeking sexual health information and applying this knowledge appropriately. Self-esteem was also identified as a key perceived predictor of risky sexual behaviours. Therefore, there is scope for intervention programmes targeting self-esteem and knowledge, so teenagers have the confidence to seek out sexual health information and to make their own informed sexual health decisions.
Benson, Donna J.; Thomson, Gregg E.
Thirty percent of undergraduate women sampled at the University of California, Berkeley, reported having received unwanted sexual attention from at least one male instructor during their college years. Their reactions suggest that the prevalence of sexual harassment has a cumulative effect of eroding women's commitment to careers in male-dominated…
Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.
During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes
Sieving, Renee E.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J.; Beckman, Kara J.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Garwick, Ann W.; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Plowman, Shari; Resnick, Michael D.; Secor-Turner, Molly
Importance Preventing early pregnancy among vulnerable adolescents requires innovative and sustained approaches. Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce pregnancy risk among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. Objective To evaluate sexual risk behaviors and related outcomes with a 24-month postbaseline survey, 6 months after the conclusion of the Prime Time intervention. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Community and school-based primary care clinics. Participants Of 253 sexually active 13- to 17-year-old girls meeting specified risk criteria, 236 (93.3%) completed the 24-month follow-up survey. Intervention Offered during an 18-month period, Prime Time includes case management and youth leadership programs. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported consistency of condom, hormonal, and dual-method contraceptive use with most recent male sex partner and number of male sex partners in the past 6 months. Results At 24-month follow-up, the intervention group reported significantly more consistent use of condoms, hormonal contraception, and dual-method contraception than the control group. Intervention participants also reported improvements in family connectedness and self-efficacy to refuse unwanted sex, and reductions in the perceived importance of having sex. No between-group differences were found in the number of recent male sex partners. Conclusions and Relevance This study contributes to what has been a dearth of evidence regarding youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful but few efforts have emphasized a dual approach of strengthening sexual and nonsexual protective factors while addressing risk. Findings suggest that health services grounded in a youth development framework can lead to long-term reductions in sexual risk among vulnerable youth. PMID:23440337
Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F
During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salvatierra, Javier; Segura, Eddy; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hall, Eric; Klausner, Jeffrey; Caceres, Carlos; Coates, Thomas
Role-based sexual identities structure male same-sex partnerships and influence HIV/STI epidemiology among MSM in Latin America. We explored shifting relationships between sexual roles, identities and practices among MSM in Lima, Peru, and implications for HIV/STI prevention. Patterns of HIV/STI epidemiology reflected differential risks for transmission within role-based partnerships with relatively low prevalences of HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 but higher prevalences of urethral gonorrhea/chlamydia among activo MSM compared with moderno and pasivo participants. Qualitative analysis of how MSM in Peru integrate sexual identities, roles, and practices identified four key themes: pasivo role as a gay approximation of cultural femininity; activo role as a heterosexual consolidation of masculinity; moderno role as a masculine reconceptualization of gay identity; and role-based identities as social determinants of partnership, network, and community formation. The concept of role-based sexual identities provides a framework for HIV prevention for Latin American MSM that integrates sexual identities, practices, partnerships, and networks. PMID:22614747
Eraslan, Defne; Yalınay Dikmen, Pınar; Ilgaz Aydınlar, Elif; Incesu, Cem
Depression and anxiety are two phenomena that affect quality of life as well as sexual function. Depression and anxiety levels are reported to be high in migraine sufferers. We aimed to understand whether sexual function in women with migraine was associated to migraine-related disability and frequency of migraine attacks, and whether this relationship was modulated by depressive and anxiety symptoms. As migraine is more commonly seen in females, a total of 50 women with migraine were included. The diagnosis of migraine with or without aura was confirmed by two specialists in Neurology, according to the second edition of International Headache Society (IHS) International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) in 2004. Migraine disability assessment scale score, female sexual function index scores, Beck depression inventory score and Beck anxiety inventory scores. Mean MIDAS score was 19.3 ± 12.8, and mean number of migraine attacks per month were 4.3 ± 2.7. Mean Female Sexual Function Index score was 20.9 ± 5.9 and 90% of patients had sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction was not related to MIDAS score or frequency and severity of attacks. No relationship between sexual function and anxiety was found, whereas severity of depressive symptoms was closely related to sexual function. Depressive symptoms affected all dimensions of sexual function, except for pain. Sexual dysfunction seemed to be very common in our patients with migraine, while not related to migraine related disability, frequency of attacks and migraine severity or anxiety. The most important factor that predicted sexual function was depression, which was also independent of disease severity and migraine related disability. While future larger scale studies are needed to clarify the exact relationship, depressive and sexual problems should be properly addressed in all patients with migraine, regardless of disease severity or disability.
Ian W Holloway
Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.
The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128
In this article, Cris Mayo examines the relationship among anti-LGBTQ policies, gay marriage, and sexuality education. Her concern is that because gay marriage is insufficiently different from heterosexual marriage, adding it as an issue to curriculum or broader culture debate elides rather than addresses sexual difference. In other words,…
violence as part of their strategy in Berlin, Hungary, Poland, Romania, East Prussia, and Bulgaria and Germany used sexual violence throughout Eastern...nanking: The forgotten holocaust of World War II. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Cohen, Dara K. 2011. Causes of sexual violence during civil war: Cross
Nelson, Deborah B; Zhao, Huaqing; Corrado, Rachel; Mastrogiannnis, Dimitrios M; Lepore, Stephen J
Ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women is extremely prevalent and poses a significant risk for unintended pregnancy (UP). Ineffective contraception involves the use of the withdrawal method or the inconsistent use of other types of contraception (i.e., condoms and birth control pills). This investigation examined violence exposure and psychological factors related to ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women. Young, nonpregnant sexually active women (n = 315) were recruited from an urban family planning clinic in 2013 to participate in a longitudinal study. Tablet-based surveys measured childhood violence, community-level violence, intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Follow-up surveys measured type and consistency of contraception used 9 months later. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed violence and psychological risk factors as main effects and moderators related to ineffective compared with effective use of contraception. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that childhood sexual violence and low self-esteem were significantly related to ineffective use of contraception (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.69, confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.18-6.17, and aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28-0.93; respectively), although self-esteem did not moderate the relationship between childhood sexual violence and ineffective use of contraception (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.08-1.84). Depressive symptoms were not related to ineffective use of contraception in the multivariate model. Interventions to reduce UP should recognize the long-term effects of childhood sexual violence and address the role of low self-esteem on the ability of young sexually active women to effectively and consistently use contraception to prevent UP.
Schelar, Erin; Polis, Chelsea B; Essam, Timothy; Looker, Katharine J; Bruni, Laia; Chrisman, Cara J; Manning, Judy
Worldwide, women face sexual and reproductive health (SRH) risks including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) combine protection against two or more SRH risks into one product. Male and female condoms are the only currently available MPT products, but several other forms of MPTs are in development. We examined the global distribution of selected SRH issues to determine where various risks have the greatest geographical overlap. We examined four indicators relevant to MPTs in development: HIV prevalence, herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence (HSV-2), human papillomavirus prevalence (HPV) and the proportion of women with unmet need for modern contraception. Using ArcGIS Desktop, we mapped these indicators individually and in combination on choropleth and graduated symbol maps. We conducted a principal components analysis to reduce data and enable visual mapping of all four indicators on one graphic to identify overlap. Our findings document the greatest overlapping risks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and we specify countries in greatest need by specific MPT indication. These results can inform strategic planning for MPT introduction, market segmentation and demand generation; data limitations also highlight the need for improved (non-HIV) STI surveillance globally. MPTs are products in development with the potential to empower women to prevent two or more SRH risks. Geographic analysis of overlapping SRH risks demonstrates particularly high need in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study can help to inform strategic planning for MPT introduction, market segmentation and demand generation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MacKillop, James; Celio, Mark A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kahler, Christopher W; Operario, Don; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M
The discipline of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics to systematically characterize decision-making preferences. Two forms of behavioral economic decision making are of relevance to HIV risk behavior: delay discounting, reflecting preferences for immediate small rewards relative to larger delayed rewards (i.e., immediate gratification), and probability discounting, reflecting preferences for larger probabilistic rewards relative to smaller guaranteed rewards (i.e., risk sensitivity). This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV spread continues at high rates from infected persons to their sexual partners. In 2009, an estimated 2.6 million new infections occurred globally. People living with HIV (PLHIV receiving treatment are in contact with health workers and therefore exposed to prevention messages. By contrast, PLHIV not receiving ART often fall outside the ambit of prevention programs. There is little information on their sexual risk behaviors. This study in Mombasa Kenya therefore explored sexual behaviors of PLHIV not receiving any HIV treatment. Results Using modified targeted snowball sampling, 698 PLHIV were recruited through community health workers and HIV-positive peer counsellors. Of the 59.2% sexually-active PLHIV, 24.5% reported multiple sexual partners. Of all sexual partners, 10.2% were HIV negative, while 74.5% were of unknown HIV status. Overall, unprotected sex occurred in 52% of sexual partnerships; notably with 32% of HIV-negative partners and 54% of partners of unknown HIV status in the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis, controlling for intra-client clustering, showed non-disclosure of HIV status (AOR: 2.38, 95%CI: 1.47-3.84, p Conclusions High-risk sexual behaviors are common among PLHIV not accessing treatment services, raising the risk of HIV transmission to discordant partners. This population can be identified and reached in the community. Prevention programs need to urgently bring this population into the ambit of prevention and care services. Moreover, beginning HIV treatment earlier might assist in bringing this group into contact with providers and HIV prevention services, and in reducing risk behaviors.
Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Kafka, Martin P; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas
Paraphilic disorders (PAs) and sexual preoccupation are known risk factors for recidivism in sexual offenders. Nonparaphilic sexual excessive behaviors-so-called paraphilia-related disorders (PRDs), like paraphilias, are also characterized by sexual preoccupation and volitional impairment and can be diagnosed in paraphilic men. The prevalence and clinical significance of PRDs in sexual homicide perpetrators, however, is unknown. We investigated the relationship between PAs and PRDs retrospectively in a sample of 161 sexual murderers. Four groups were compared: men without a PA or a PRD diagnosis, men with at least one PRD but no PA, men with at least one PA but no PRD, and finally, those with a combination of both (PA+PRD). The PA+PRD group had the most lifetime cumulative sexual impulsivity disorders, more developmental problems, the highest persistent frequency of sexual activity, the highest number of previous sexual offences, more sexual sadism, and compulsive masturbation. Men of the PRD subsample had suffered more from childhood sexual abuse, showed more promiscuity, psychopathy, and alcohol problems. The use of the PRD concept in this special offender group should be further investigated with prospectively designed studies.
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds
Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.
Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…
Seidman, Dominika; Hemmerling, Anke; Smith-McCune, Karen
Worldwide, there continues to be a large unmet need for family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention methods. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) is a general term encompassing any single prevention methodology targeting more than one STI (including HIV) and/or pregnancy. While innovation has been slow over the past several decades, recent scientific advances have resulted in new products entering clinical trials. This review focuses primarily on multipurpose technologies that are designed to prevent pregnancy and HIV. To examine the current state of MPTs, we outline key discoveries of biologic mechanisms that influence susceptibility of the female genital tract to HIV and STIs, and review the effects of hormonal contraception on HIV susceptibility. We discuss the state of currently available HIV prevention strategies for women, and their interactions with hormonal contraceptive products. Finally, we describe MPTs currently in preclinical and clinical trials and propose ongoing questions requiring research to help advance the field. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan
Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…
Murphy, Molly; Bennett, Nicole; Kottke, Melissa
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a persistent problem in the United States, yet few youth-oriented CSEC prevention tools exist. The objectives of this project were to develop an educational website about CSEC for adolescents and evaluate it through pre- and posttests of adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about CSEC. Results demonstrated increases in participants' CSEC knowledge and decreases in their tolerance of CSEC after navigating the website and viewing an embedded video. Qualitative and quantitative results suggest that CSEC is deemed an important issue by adolescents and web-based content is a relevant and useful mode through which to educate adolescents about CSEC. Consideration should be given to further exploration of this and other tools for CSEC prevention tailored to adolescents' needs and preferences.
Dembo, Richard; Rollie, Matthew; Childs, Kristina; Salvatore, Christopher
Studies of detained and incarcerated adolescent offenders in the United States indicate that these juveniles have an elevated risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, many more arrestees enter the “front end” of the juvenile justice system than are detained or incarcerated, and research into the STD risk profiles and service needs of this larger group is lacking. An expansion of STD testing (including of asymptomatic youths), prevention, and treatment is needed, as is improved knowledge about gender- and race-specific services. A pilot program in Florida has shown that juvenile justice and public health systems can collaborate to implement STD testing among new arrestees. With integrated linkages to treatment and prevention after release, this model could greatly reduce the STD burden in this underserved, high-risk population. PMID:19372535
Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann
Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…
Okomo, Uduak; Ogugbue, Miriam; Inyang, Elizabeth; Meremikwu, Martin M
Female sexual dysfunction is the persistent or recurring decrease in sexual desire or arousal, the difficulty or inability to achieve an orgasm, and/or the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse. Impaired sexual function can occur with all types of female genital mutilation (FGM) owing to the structural changes, pain, or traumatic memories associated with the procedure. To conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized studies into the effects of sexual counseling with or without genital lubricants on the sexual function of women living with FGM. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, African Index Medicus, SCOPUS, LILACS, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, and other databases were searched to August 2015. The reference lists of retrieved studies were checked for reports of additional studies, and lead authors contacted for additional data. Studies of girls and women living with any type of FGM who received counselling interventions for sexual dysfunction were included. No relevant studies that addressed the objective of the review were identified. Despite a comprehensive search, the authors could not find evidence of the effects of sexual counseling on the sexual function of women living with FGM. Studies assessing this intervention are needed. CRD42015024593. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.
Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…
Svetlana V. Doubova
Full Text Available Abstract Background Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in Mexico are a public health problem; 33.4 % of adolescent girls and 14.7 % of boys report not having used any protection at their first intercourse. The fertility rate is 77 births/1000 girls aged 15–19 years. The infrequent contact of adolescents with health services and the limited extent of school sex and reproductive health education require the support of innovative strategies. The objective of this paper is to present the design of an internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. Methods A field trial with intervention and comparison group and with ex-ante and ex-post measurements will be conducted in two public secondary schools. Adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age will participate. The intervention will be conducted in one school and the second school will serve as a comparison group where the investigators will observe the usual sex education provided by the school. The intervention will be delivered using an internet web page that includes four educational sessions provided during a 4 week period. Follow-up will last 3 months. Information on the study variables will be obtained through an Internet-based self-applied questionnaire and collected on three occasions: 1 when the adolescents enter the study (baseline, 2 once the intervention is completed (at 1 month and 3 after 3 months of follow-up (at the fourth month. There will be three outcome variables: 1 knowledge in regard to sexually transmitted infections, 2 attitudes regarding condom use, and 3 self-efficacy toward consistent condom use. The generalized linear model will be used to assess changes in each outcome variable controlling for baseline measures and for study covariates. Discussion The design and evaluation of an Internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents is important in order to provide a new, large
Doubova, Svetlana V; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo
Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in Mexico are a public health problem; 33.4 % of adolescent girls and 14.7 % of boys report not having used any protection at their first intercourse. The fertility rate is 77 births/1000 girls aged 15-19 years. The infrequent contact of adolescents with health services and the limited extent of school sex and reproductive health education require the support of innovative strategies. The objective of this paper is to present the design of an internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. A field trial with intervention and comparison group and with ex-ante and ex-post measurements will be conducted in two public secondary schools. Adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age will participate. The intervention will be conducted in one school and the second school will serve as a comparison group where the investigators will observe the usual sex education provided by the school. The intervention will be delivered using an internet web page that includes four educational sessions provided during a 4 week period. Follow-up will last 3 months. Information on the study variables will be obtained through an Internet-based self-applied questionnaire and collected on three occasions: 1) when the adolescents enter the study (baseline), 2) once the intervention is completed (at 1 month) and 3) after 3 months of follow-up (at the fourth month). There will be three outcome variables: 1) knowledge in regard to sexually transmitted infections, 2) attitudes regarding condom use, and 3) self-efficacy toward consistent condom use. The generalized linear model will be used to assess changes in each outcome variable controlling for baseline measures and for study covariates. The design and evaluation of an Internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents is important in order to provide a new, large-scale, easily implemented preventive tool. The
Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise
Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schry, Amie R; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W
We sought to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Women (Time 1: n = 574; Time 2: n = 88) who reported consuming alcohol at least once during the assessment timeframe participated. Social anxiety, alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and sexual victimization were assessed twice, approximately two months apart. Logistic regressions were used to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization at both time points. Longitudinally, women high in social anxiety were approximately three times more likely to endorse unwanted alcohol-related sexual experiences compared to women with low to moderate social anxiety. This study suggests social anxiety, a modifiable construct, increases risk for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Implications for clinicians and risk-reduction program developers are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yah, Clarence S; Simate, Geoffrey S; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs - including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases.
Yah, Clarence S.; Simate, Geoffrey S.; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M.
Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. Methods: We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. Results and Discussion: In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. Conclusions: A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs – including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases. PMID:29536957
Bel, Linda G J; Vollebregt, Anna M; Van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Fidder, Herma H; Ten Hove, Willem R; Vliet-Vlieland, Cornelia W; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; de Groot, Helena E; Both, Stephanie
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is likely to have an impact on sexual function because of its symptoms, like diarrhea, fatigue, and abdominal pain. Depression is commonly reported in IBD and is also related to impaired sexual function. This study aimed to evaluate sexual function and
Faride Peña; Teresita Castillo; Concepción Campo
Sexual violence, and particularly child sexual abuse, is a serious problem all over the world, México included. Given its importance, there are several preventive and care programs done by the government and the civil society all over the country but most of them are developed in urban areas even though these problems are especially serious in rural areas. Yucatán, a state in southern México, occupies one of the first places in child sexual abuse. Considering the above, the University Unit of...
Cooper, Keith; Shepherd, Jonathan; Picot, Jo; Jones, Jeremy; Kavanagh, Josephine; Harden, Angela; Barnett-Page, Elaine; Clegg, Andrew; Hartwell, Debbie; Frampton, Geoff; Price, Alison
Reducing sexually transmitted infections (STI) and teenage pregnancy through effective health education is a high priority for health policy. Behavioral interventions which teach skills to practice safer sex may reduce the incidence of STIs. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of school-based behavioral interventions in young people. We developed an economic model to estimate the total number of STI cases averted, consequent gain in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and savings in medical costs, based on changes in sexual behavior. The parameters for the model were derived from a systematic literature search on the intervention effectiveness, epidemiology of STIs, sexual behavior and lifestyles, HRQoL and health service costs. The costs of providing teacher-led and peer-led behavioral interventions were €5.16 and €18 per pupil, respectively. For a cohort of 1000 boys and 1000 girls aged 15 years, the model estimated that the behavioral interventions would avert two STI cases and save 0.35 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Compared to standard education, the incremental cost-effectiveness of the teacher-led and peer-led interventions was €24,268 and €96,938 per QALY gained, respectively. School-based behavioral interventions which provide information and teach young people sexual health skills can bring about improvements in knowledge and increased self-efficacy, though these may be limited in terms of impact on sexual behavior. There was uncertainty around the results due to the limited effect of the intervention on behavioral outcomes and paucity of data for other input parameters.
Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias
The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Black, Amanda M; Patton, Declan A; Eliason, Paul H; Emery, Carolyn A
There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment. Valid evidence can assist with addressing the resistance caused by prevailing beliefs and could be essential in influencing rule changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weingarten, Christine; Rabago, Jina; Reynolds, Jasmine; Gates, Kalani; Yanagida, Evie; Baker, Charlene
Rates of childhood sexual abuse are unacceptably high, with potentially long-lasting consequences for those who have been victimized. Currently, there are a number of sexual violence prevention programs that have been developed to lower rates of victimization, increase awareness, and connect victims with resources. Within this area of research, there has been less focus on effective methods of program dissemination. For example, school-based sexual violence prevention programs have had positive outcomes; however, little is known about how these programs are disseminated. The train-the-trainer model of dissemination utilizes master trainers to equip others to implement programs, thereby allowing more adults to teach and subsequently more children to receive the program. This study used survey data from teachers and other school personnel (n = 127) to analyze the utility of a train-the-trainer model of dissemination for a sexual violence prevention program in the state of Hawai'i. Through responses of people who were trained to implement the program (59.8% of whom did implement), aspects of the training, the program itself, and factors affecting whether a person implemented the program were explored. Results suggest that time spent in training, job position, and time in that position predicted whether a person trained to implement the sexual violence prevention program followed through with teaching the program to students. Additionally, 54.7% of people who did implement the program had at least one student disclose sexual violence to them, indicating the importance of sexual violence prevention programming and dissemination of these programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hill, Danielle C; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Magill, Molly; Clarke, Jennifer G
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship. A cross-sectional design was used, and adolescent females (N = 179), recruited from social service agencies, were 18.9 years old on average and were 37.2% White, 19.3% Black, 37.9% multiracial, and 5.6% other. Regression results revealed that females who were physically assaulted and sexually victimized by their intimate partners did engage in more sex without condoms. Mediational analyses indicated that PTSD symptoms significantly influenced the relationship between (1) physical assault and risky sexual behavior and (2) sexual victimization and risky sexual behavior. Contrary to expectations, PTSD may act to reduce risk perhaps by reducing interest in sex. It is important to address victimization, PTSD, and sexual risk in young women. More work is needed to understand these complex relationships using longitudinal designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hojilla, J. Carlo; Koester, Kimberly A.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP Demonstration Project to assess how men who have sex with men (MSM) used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was ‘seasonal’ and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts. PMID:25835463
Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.
Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…
Lasry, Arielle; Sansom, Stephanie L; Wolitski, Richard J; Green, Timothy A; Borkowf, Craig B; Patel, Pragna; Mermin, Jonathan
The number of strategies to prevent HIV transmission has increased following trials evaluating antiretroviral therapy (ART), preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and male circumcision. Serodiscordant couples need guidance on the effects of these strategies alone, and in combination with each other, on HIV transmission. We estimated the sexual risk of HIV transmission over 1-year and 10-year periods among male-male and male-female serodiscordant couples. We assumed the following reductions in transmission: 80% from consistent condom use; 54% from circumcision in the negative male partner of a heterosexual couple; 73% from circumcision in the negative partner of a male-male couple; 71% from PrEP in heterosexual couples; 44% from PrEP in male-male couples; and 96% from ART use by the HIV-infected partner. For couples using any single prevention strategy, a substantial cumulative risk of HIV transmission remained. For a male-female couple using only condoms, estimated risk over 10 years was 11%; for a male-male couple using only condoms, estimated risk was 76%. ART use by the HIV-infected partner was the most effective single strategy in reducing risk; among male-male couples, adding consistent condom use was necessary to keep the 10-year risk below 10%. Focusing on 1-year and longer term transmission probabilities gives couples a better understanding of risk than those illustrated by data for a single sexual act. Long-term transmission probabilities to the negative partner in serodiscordant couples can be high, though these can be substantially reduced with the strategic use of preventive methods, especially those that include ART.
Mugwanya, Kenneth K.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K.; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M.
Background Limited data are available to assess sexual behavior by persons using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by persons using effective HIV prevention strategies, like PrEP, could offset HIV prevention benefits. Methods The Partners PrEP Study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral PrEP among heterosexual HIV-uninfected members of HIV serodiscordant couples, publicly reported efficacy for HIV prevention in July 2011 and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex unprotected by a condom during the 12 months after compared to before July 2011 to assess whether knowledge of PrEP efficacy for HIV prevention resulted in increased sexual risk behavior. Results We analyzed 56, 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected subjects (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months pre- versus 53 post-unblinding, reflecting no immediate change or change over time after July 2011 (p=0·66 and 0·25, respectively). There was a statistically significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners over time after July 2011 but the effect was modest (average of 6.8 unprotected sex acts per year versus 6.2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had unblinding not occurred, p=0·04). Compared to pre-July 2011, there was no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July 2011. Interpretation The transition from a blinded, placebo-controlled efficacy trial to all participants aware they were receiving active, efficacious PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study provided a “natural experiment” to evaluate sexual risk compensation. PrEP, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, may not result in substantial changes in risk-taking sexual behavior for heterosexual couples. PMID:24139639
Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F
It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Watter, Daniel N
Current sex therapy and sexual medicine protocols often ignore the existential dilemmas associated with sexual dysfunction and other problematic sexual problems. This oversight is especially apparent when assessing and treating the controversial phenomenon of hypersexuality, or "sexual addiction." A deeper understanding of the existential concept of death anxiety could offer an alternative treatment paradigm that might lead to a more effective treatment outcome. To explore the relation between the existential phenomenon of death anxiety and hypersexuality (ie, sexual addiction) and present an evaluation and treatment paradigm that is rooted in existential psychotherapy, a form of psychotherapy that is a deeply life-affirming and dynamic approach to therapy that focuses on concerns rooted in the individual's existence. A review of the literature focusing on the topics of hypersexuality, death anxiety, and existential psychotherapy was undertaken and a treatment paradigm is offered. Current treatment protocols for hypersexuality and sexual addiction were reviewed, as were current concepts in existential therapy. These were integrated into an assessment and treatment paradigm. Although sexual medicine and traditional sex therapy techniques can often alleviate sexual suffering, there are times when a more in-depth psychotherapy is needed to get to the root cause and ultimate assuagement of the presenting sexual symptoms. Existential psychotherapy is one such form of treatment that allows clinicians to probe the subterranean depths of the human psyche and make meaning of one's sexual behavior and its vagaries. Although certainly not all cases of hypersexuality are precipitated by a confrontation with mortality and death, there are cases in which sex is imbued with meaning as an antidote to the fear of death. Existential therapy is a form of treatment that could be particularly effective in many of these cases. Watter DN. Existential Issues in Sexual Medicine: The
Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174
Dunlap, Shannon L.; Taboada, Arianna; Merino, Yesenia; Heitfeld, Suzanne; Gordon, Robert J.; Gere, David; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.
We examined the sexual health change process experienced by 26 college student sexual health educators from three geographic regions of the United States who participated in a multisite arts-based sexual health prevention program. We conducted eight focus groups and used a phenomenological approach to analyze data. We drew from social cognitive…
Gunge, Vibeke B; Juul, Kirsten E; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc
The aim of this study was to examine sexual inactivity and occurrence of selected sexually transmitted infections in relation to body mass index. We used data from two large Danish population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in 1991-1995 (HPV study: 6869 women, aged 22-32 years) and in 200...
Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Noar, Seth M; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M
Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men's HIV risk.
Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey
The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl
Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in
Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W
Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased
Menezes, Aline Beckmann; Brito, Regina Célia Souza; Henriques, Alda Loureiro
Este estudo trata da relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Psicologia Evolucionista e da análise de diferentes elementos da sexualidade humana. Procurou-se discutir a literatura existente sobre os conceitos de gênero e de orientação sexual, com base nos quatro porquês da Etologia. Propõe-se a existência de múltiplas origens para a orientação sexual, sendo uma delas relacionada aos padrões típicos de gênero e à identidade de gênero. Isso levaria à i...
Eaton, Lisa A; Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert; Zohren, Larissa; Conway-Washington, Christopher
Novel interventions to address sexual risk taking and slow rates of STIs are urgently needed, in particular among black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. Serosorting, or limiting condomless sex acts to partners of the same HIV status, is commonly practised among MSM, yet can lead to STI and remains largely unaddressed by public health agencies. A two-arm, randomised controlled trial was conducted from 2012 to 2015. This trial assessed the effects of a single-session, sexual partner selection and risk decision intervention (experimental arm) versus a single-session, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based, sexual risk reduction intervention (control arm) on psychosocial measures, sexual risk taking and STI. At study follow-ups, multiple beneficial changes were observed on sexual risk beliefs measures (ie, changes in serosorting and condom use beliefs, and HIV risk perceptions) and sexual risk taking among the experimental arm relative to the control arm. Overall main effects, however, of the intervention on STI outcomes on year-long follow-ups were non-significant. There was evidence for short-term effects on STI outcomes, and self-report of multiple STIs and STI symptoms demonstrated positive effects over the follow-up period. Brief interventions to address sexual risk taking can result in short-term beneficial outcomes and can be incorporated into currently existing infrastructure at healthcare agencies. Additional intervention will be necessary for demonstrating long-term results. NCT02128594. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips, Gregory L; Bull, Sheana S; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian
Guy2Guy (G2G) is the first comprehensive HIV prevention program developed for sexual minority males as young as 14 years old and is delivered nationally via text messaging. Here, we report the results of the pilot randomized control trial. G2G was tested against an attention-matched "healthy lifestyle" control (eg, self-esteem). Both programs lasted 5 weeks and delivered 5 to 10 text messages daily. A 1-week booster was delivered 6 weeks subsequently. Participants were cisgender males ages 14 to 18 years old who were gay, bisexual, and/or queer and had an unlimited text messaging plan. Youth were recruited across the United States via Facebook and enrolled by telephone from October 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-day postintervention outcomes were condomless sex acts (CSA) and abstinence and, secondarily, HIV testing. We also examined these outcomes at intervention end and stratified them by sexual experience. At 90 days postintervention, there were no significant differences in CSAs or abstinence noted. Among participants who were sexually active at baseline, intervention participants were significantly more likely to report getting an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio = 3.42, P = .001). They were also less likely than control youth to be abstinent (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48, P = .05). CSAs were significantly lower for those in the intervention versus control at intervention end (incident rate ratio = 0.39, P = .04), although significance was lost once age was added to the analysis (incident rate ratio = 0.58, P = .26). G2G appears promising in increasing adolescent HIV testing rates. Sex-positive intervention messages appear to have increased the participants' comfort with having sex (ie, less abstinence) while not increasing their potential for HIV transmission (ie, more CSAs). Additional content or features may be needed to invigorate condom use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Advani, Pragati; Brewster, Abenaa M; Baum, George P; Schover, Leslie R
A randomized pilot trial evaluated the hypothesis that early intervention lessens sexual dysfunction in the first year on aromatase inhibitors. A secondary aim was comparing the efficacy of two vaginal moisturizers. Fifty-seven postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer starting aromatase inhibitors were randomized to three treatment groups. All received a handout on managing sexual and other side effects. The Usual Care group received no additional therapy. The Active Treatment groups received a 6-month supply of a vaginal moisturizer (hyaluronic acid-based in Active Group-H and prebiotic in Active Group-P) and a vaginal lubricant and dilator, plus access to an educational website and phone coaching. Questionnaires completed at baseline, 6, and 12 months included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Menopausal Sexual Interest Questionnaire (MSIQ), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R), and a menopausal symptom scale. Forty-nine women (86%) provided follow-up data. Mean age was 59 and 77% were non-Hispanic Caucasian. Sexual function was impaired at baseline, but remained stable over 12 months for all groups. The combined active treatment group had less dyspareunia (P = 0.07) and sexual distress (P = 0.02) at 6 months than the Usual Care group. At 6 months, the Active-H group improved significantly more than the Active-P group on FSFI total score (P = 0.04). Sexual counseling helped women maintain stable sexual function on aromatase inhibitors. Active intervention resulted in better outcomes at 6 months. This promising pilot trial suggests a need for more research on preventive counseling to maintain sexual function during aromatase inhibitor treatment.
Fayemi Mojisola M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females, selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79% abstained compared with the females (98%. Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sexual violence in war is associated with long-term mental health problems, little is known about its association with general functioning and the factors that explain this association. This study aims to illuminate the path from sexual violence to poor functioning. The prevalence of sexual violence among formerly abducted girls in Northern Uganda was assessed as well as the extent to which stigma and community relations explain the association between sexual violence and general functioning. Method In a cross-sectional analysis using data from the WAYS study (N = 210, baseline age 22.06, SD = 2.06, minimum-maximum 18–25, the extent of mediation of the association between sexual violence and general functioning was assessed in multiple regression models. Results Sexual violence was found to be associated with increased stigma, poor community relations, and poor general functioning. The association between sexual violence and general functioning was mediated by stigma and community relations. The bootstrap results indicated significant mediation by stigma of 47 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 35 to 78 % and by community relations of 67 % (95 % CI: 52 to 78 % in the association between sexual violence and general functioning. Conclusion Thus, poor functioning among formerly abducted girls is largely mediated by stigma and poor community relations. However, due to the relatively small effect sizes of the associations, targeted interventions to prevent impaired functioning may have only modest benefits to the formerly abducted girls. Interventions to alleviate the toxic effects of sexual violence in formerly abducted girls would benefit from a holistic approach that targets stigma and poor relationships within communities.
Bleakley, Amy; Khurana, Atika; Hennessy, Michael; Ellithorpe, Morgan
Parents, peers and media are informal sources of sexual information for adolescents. Although the content of sexual information communicated by these sources is known to vary, little is known about what adolescents report actually learning from each source. Data from 1,990 U.S.14-17-year-olds who participated in an online survey in 2015 were used to assess learning about four topics (sex, condoms, hormonal birth control and romantic relationships) from three informal sources (parents, peers, and television and movies). Gender and race differences in learning by source and topic were assessed using t tests. Following a factor analysis, learning about all topics was grouped by source, and regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between learning from each source and three outcomes: sexual activity, condom use and hormonal birth control use. Models included interactions between information sources and race and gender. White adolescents reported learning more from parents and less from media than black adolescents. Compared with males, females learned more about hormonal birth control and less about condoms from their parents, and more about relationships from peers and media. Learning from parents and from peers were positively associated with adolescents' sexual activity (unstandardized coefficients, 0.26 and 0.52, respectively). Learning from parents was positively associated with condom use (odds ratio, 1.5). Adolescents' learning about sex from informal sources varies by race and gender. Future research should examine whether sexual health interventions and message development can capitalize on these differences. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to
Bel, Linda G J; Vollebregt, Anna M; Van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Fidder, Herma H; Ten Hove, Willem R; Vliet-Vlieland, Cornelia W; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; de Groot, Helena E; Both, Stephanie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is likely to have an impact on sexual function because of its symptoms, like diarrhea, fatigue, and abdominal pain. Depression is commonly reported in IBD and is also related to impaired sexual function. This study aimed to evaluate sexual function and its association with depression among patients with IBD compared with controls. IBD patients registered at two hospitals participated. The control group consisted of a general practitioner practice population. The web-based questionnaire included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for women and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for men. Other variables evaluated were depression, disease activity, IBD-related quality of life, body image, and fatigue. In total, 168 female and 119 male patients were available for analysis (response rate 24%). Overall, patients with IBD did not significantly differ in prevalence of sexual dysfunctions from controls: female patients 52%, female controls 44%, male patients and male controls both 25%. However, men and women with an active disease scored significantly lower than patients in remission and controls, indicating impaired sexual functioning during disease activity. Significant associations were found between active disease, fatigue, depressive mood, quality of life, and sexual function for both male and female patients. The association between disease activity and sexual function was totally mediated by depression. Male and female IBD patients with an active disease show impaired sexual function relative to patients in remission and controls. Depression is the most important determinant for impaired sexual function in IBD. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane
Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships.
Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
cell bodies that may be related to impaired axoplasmic transport and its ultimate release into the surrounding extracellular matrix , which in turn...the expression of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H Elisa Kit, Encor Biotechnology , Gainesville, FL), glial fibrillary acidic protein...samples were assessed for temporal changes in the expression of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H Elisa Kit, Encor Biotechnology
Stanger, Michael A.
The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...
Dekker, I; Barling, J
The authors investigated the predictors of workplace sexual harassment in 278 male university faculty and staff (M age = 45 years). Workplace variables (perceptions of organizational sanctions against harassment and perceptions of a sexualized workplace) and personal variables (adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual harassment beliefs, perspective taking, and self-esteem) were studied as predictors of sexualized and gender harassment. Social desirability was controlled. Both organizational variables and beliefs about sexual harassment predicted gender harassment and sexualized harassment. Perspective taking, adversarial sexual beliefs, and sexual harassment beliefs moderated the effects of perceived organizational sanctions against harassment on sexualized harassment. Findings are discussed as they relate to organizational efforts to reduce or prevent sexual harassment.
Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui
The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes.
Masilo, Daniel Tuelo
Children have the right to be brought up in safe environments. However, this right is often infringed by people who are supposed to provide love, care, and protection to children. These people can include biological fathers, step-fathers, brothers, cousins, aunts, mothers, and uncles. Violation of children takes place in a variety of ways, however, for the purpose of this paper, the focus is on child sexual abuse within the family system. A literature review is adopted as the methodology for the discussions in this paper. The purpose of this paper is firstly to demonstrate that child sexual abuse happens within the family system in South Africa, and secondly, to argue that the prevention of child sexual abuse should start within the family system and this can be achieved by conducting educational social group work sessions on child sexual abuse with the family members.
Data on circumstances of sexual assault, survivor specific demographic characteristics and information on complications and interventions provided were collected by trained third year residents in obstetrics and gynecology using pretested questionnaire after respondent consent was taken. The collected data was cleaned, ...
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and .... With the help of local leaders, one of 4 in- terview teams approached ... Ethical clearance to conduct the study was sought from the Makerere University School ...
Students of Higher Education Institutions are assets of the society and change agents in filling the gap in the past and on whom the future generation is based. Neglecting their sexual and reproductive health can lead to high social and economic costs, both immediately and in the years ahead. This study tried to assess the ...
An exploratory study of men having sex with men (MSM) was conducted in central and southern Malawi in order to understand their socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and perceptions about confidentiality and stigma. A total of 97 men participated in the study of whom 84 (86.6%) were in the age group ...
Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Drake, Alison L; Matemo, Daniel; Unger, Jennifer A; McClelland, Raymond S; John-Stewart, Grace
Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying. Among 1252 women enrolled, 78.4% were married (of whom 15.1% were in polygamous unions), 1.4% had a known HIV-infected partner, and 33.6% had a partner of unknown HIV status. At enrollment, 58.5% reported sex in the past month (94.3% unprotected) and 4.5% reported forced sex. Odds of unprotected sex at enrollment was >11-fold higher in married than in unmarried women (P < 0.001) and lower among women who reported partners of unknown HIV status or HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected partners. Median time to postpartum resumption of sex was 7 weeks (interquartile range 4-12). Prevalence of unprotected sex in the past week increased from 6.6% to 60.0% between 2 and 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing was reported by 60.1% of women at enrollment and prevalence remained stable postpartum; vaginal drying was reported by 17.9% at enrollment and decreased to 6.1% at 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing and drying were associated with forced sex. High rates of unknown partner HIV status, polygamy, and less frequent condom use among pregnant/postpartum women underscore the need for female-controlled HIV prevention interventions. Vaginal washing and drying may present challenges to microbicide use.
Nilsson, Kent W; Comasco, Erika; Åslund, Cecilia; Nordquist, Niklas; Leppert, Jerzy; Oreland, Lars
The aim of the present study was to investigate MAOA gene-environment (G*E) interactions in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption. In the county of Västmanland, Sweden, all 17-18-year-old students were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire and provide a saliva sample during class hours. A total of 2263 students completed the questionnaire (77.4%) and a saliva sample was provided by 2131 participants. Failed MAOA u-variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotype analyses and internal non-responses left 851 boys and 735 girls (total n=1586) to be investigated. Alcohol use disorder identification test was used to measure hazardous alcohol consumption. MAOA u-VNTR was used to measure biological risk in interaction with poor family relations and experience of sexual abuse. The model was also adjusted for non-independent socioeconomic variables, separated parents, type of housing and parental unemployment. Results showed that the MAOA u-VNTR, in interaction with psychosocial risk factors, such as the quality of family relations and sexual abuse, was related to high alcohol consumption among adolescents. Girls, carrying the long MAOA u-VNTR variant showed a higher risk of being high alcohol consumers, whereas among boys, the short allele was related to higher alcohol consumption. The present study supports the hypothesis that there is a relation between MAOA u-VNTR and alcohol consumption and that this relation is modulated by environmental factors. Furthermore, the present study also supports the hypothesis that there is a sex difference in the G*E interaction. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N
Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Deniaud, F; Melman, C
Over the past few years in France, the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not decreased. Among the most frequent sexually transmissible diseases (STD) in France (condyloma, genitoanal herpes, chlamydia infections), certain STD, considered as negligible, have reappeared: gonorrhoea and syphilis affect male homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, men and women whose epidemiological profile remains to be determined. The health organization is not in favour of associating STD with HIV in its anti-aids strategy. However, acute STD are not only indicator of habits at risk for HIV, but are also potent co-factors of its sexual transmission. Fighting against HIV without creating a dialogue on STD is a waste of time and efficiency. From our experience with the STD, anonymous and free screening and the inter-disciplinary health education centres, we recommend the following: improved screening for HIV and other STD: concomitantly whenever possible, less invasive, free or reimbursed STD sampling, reliable and standardized techniques (polymerisation chain reaction or PCR and derivatives), itinerant screening for STD for persons who do not consult; ensured early, medical, social and psychological care of HIV and STD, emphasising the importance of compliance to treatment and prevention; ensured easy access and low cost of the male and female condoms; renewal and diversification of health relays, particularly in the private sector; staff training on STD and their epidemiological novelty; insisting on a transversal (HIV-other STD, curative-preventive, among others) and pragmatic approach (intervention studies resulting in local action); renewal of the information and advice for the public: information on the relationship between HIV and other STD, on the frequent STD that are lesser known, such as condyloma and chlamydia infections, emphasis on compliance to prevention measures (abstinence or use of condoms) during at least three months after a risk of HIV
Page, Kathleen R; Martinez, Omar; Nieves-Lugo, Karen; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Grieb, Suzanne Dolwick; Yamanis, Thespina J; Spear, Kaitlin; Davis, Wendy W
Sexual and gender minority Hispanics/Latinxs (henceforth: Latinxs) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical prevention approach which holds significant promise for at risk and vulnerable populations. We discuss barriers and facilitators to uptake of PrEP among sexual and gender minority Latinxs living in the U.S. through an ecosocial lens that takes into account structural, community, and individual contexts. The impact of immigration status on PrEP uptake emerges as a major and recurrent theme that must be understood and addressed by HIV prevention programs aiming to promote an inclusive strategy for sexual and gender minority Latinxs living in the U.S.
Witherow, Marta Parkanyi; Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Seals, Samantha R; Bugan, Antal
Researchers and practitioners have noted the importance of using clinical samples in sex therapy research. This study investigated the relationship between perceived levels of marital intimacy, sexual frequency, and sexual functioning among heterosexual married women. A clinical sample of 67 women completed the Couples Satisfaction Index (CSI), the Miller Social Intimacy Test (MSI), the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale (IOS), and the Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI-6). Data analyses revealed that marital intimacy acted as a predictor in univariate relationships on sexual frequency and sexual functioning but did not act as a mediator on sexual frequency and sexual functioning. Overall, these findings may further the discussion in the treatment of relational intimacy, sexual desire discrepancy, and female sexual dysfunction.
Full Text Available Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique
Ryan, Caroline A; Conly, Shanti R; Stanton, David L; Hasen, Nina S
HIV prevention in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) began when both data on HIV prevalence and the toolbox of interventions for prevention of sexual transmission were relatively limited. PEPFAR's early focus was on scaling-up information, education, and communication programs that included messaging on abstinence for youth and faithfulness primarily through nongovernmental organizations, including faith-based organizations. Additional activities included condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing. In epidemics concentrated within key populations, PEPFAR's prevention efforts focused on a minimum package of services including outreach, information, education, and communication programs, STI treatment (where appropriate), and condom promotion and distribution. As more epidemiological data became available and with experience gleaned in these early efforts, the need for tailored and flexible approaches became evident. The next iteration of prevention efforts still emphasized behavioral interventions, but incorporated a sharper focus on key epidemic drivers, especially multiple partners; a data-driven emphasis on high transmission areas and populations, including prevention with people living with HIV; and a more strategic and coordinated approach at the national level. Recently, the paradigm for prevention efforts has shifted yet again. Evidence that biomedical interventions such as male circumcision, treatment for prevention of vertical and horizontal transmission, and treatment itself could lead to declines in incidence has refocused PEPFAR's prevention portfolio. New guidance on sexually transmitted HIV focuses on combination prevention, emphasizing biomedical, behavioral and structural approaches. Landmark speeches by the President and the Secretary of State and new ambitious targets for PEPFAR point toward a new goal: an AIDS-free generation.
Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy; Schnoll, Jessica; Simkins-Strong, Emily; Pepler, Debra; MacPherson, Alison; Weiser, Jessica; Moran, Michelle; Jiang, Depeng
Although youth-led programs (YLP) have been successful in many areas of public health, youth leadership is rarely used in the prevention of peer aggression. A YLP to reduce bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression was compared experimentally with the board-mandated usual practice (UP). Four middle schools in an urban Canadian school…
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Objective: To assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). The programs deliver information about CSA and strategies to help children avoid it and encourage help seeking. Methods: Systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster…
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.
Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…
Arbeit, Miriam R.
The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…
Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.
A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…
Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina
Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social…
Igor A. Fourmanov
Full Text Available Background. Values of sexual relations repeatedly changed throughout various culturalhistorical periods. As a result of acquiring values and norms of sexual culture many actual requirements of the personthat were significant at certainontogenetic and sociogeneticstages couldget deprived of the relevance at further stages. As the sociocultural sexual development progresses the subsequent new values, highly significant for the given person are can be shaped. The system of values finds the reflexion in hierarchy and defines dynamics of sexual motives at different stages of the course of life. Objective. The objective is to define hierarchy, sexual and age distinctions in dispositional sexual motives in early adulthood. Design. The paper regards the issue of interrelation between sexual motivation and features of gender interpersonal relations. The sexual motivation was considered as interest in a general class of related incentives, all of which provide the same basic type of satisfaction associated with sexual expression. Eight specific types of incentives intrinsic to sexual expression that motivate sexual behaviourare studied: (1 feeling valued by the partner, (2 reinforcing partners value, (3 obtaining relief from stress or negative psychological states, (4 providing care and custody through sexual interaction to improve a partner’s psychological condition, (5 enhancing feelings of personal power, (6 feeling partner’s power, (7 feeling pleasure, and (8 productive fertility. Conclusion. Disregarding gender and age,the leading position in the hierarchy of sexual disposition motives is occupied by the motives of reinforcing partner’s value, pleasure and care, and subordination position, i.e. motives of comfort, personal value, power and submission. Females in comparison with males differ by higher intensity of submissionmotives and the partner’s significance, while males manifest more force of motive of production fertility. Within the
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
The National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative HIV/Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Trial provided a unique opportunity to test whether, with the community-based diffusion of HIV/sexually transmitted disease prevention information and an elevated understanding of HIV, the level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS in the community would be reduced. A total of 4510 market workers in Fuzhou, China, participated in the study, and longitudinal analyses included study samples of 3785 participants in the 12-month follow-up and 3716 participants in the 24-month follow-up. We graphically examined the change in HIV-related stigma indicators over time between control and intervention groups using boxplot and kernel density estimation. A logistic regression analysis with proportional odds model was further used to examine the intervention effect on HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. Compared with no change over time for the control group, the intervention successfully reduced the level of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes among the target population at the 12-month follow-up, and the effect increased by two-fold (with respect to odds ratios) at the 24-month follow-up. The intervention demonstrated positive attitude changes associated with HIV-related stigma. Our results show the importance of social norms, rather than simply individual behaviors, in developing and implementing stigma reduction campaigns.
Ha, Huy; Risser, Jan M H; Ross, Michael W; Huynh, Nhung T; Nguyen, Huong T M
This article examined the associations between three forms of homosexuality-related stigma (enacted, perceived, and internalized homosexual stigmas) with risky sexual behaviors, and to describe the mechanisms of these associations, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 451 MSM into a cross-sectional study conducted from August 2010 to January 2011. Data were adjusted for recruitment patterns due to the RDS approach; logistic regression and path analyses were performed. Participants were young and single; most had attended at least some college. Nine out of ten participants engaged in sexual behaviors at moderate to high risk levels. Compared to those who had no enacted homosexual stigma, men having low and high levels of enacted homosexual stigma, respectively, were 2.23 times (95 % CI 1.35-3.69) and 2.20 times (95 % CI 1.04-4.76) more likely to engage in high levels of sexual risk behaviors. In addition, there was an indirect effect of perceived homosexual stigma and internalized homosexual stigma on sexual risk behaviors through depression and drug and alcohol use. Our study provides valuable information to our understanding of homosexual stigma in Vietnam, highlighting the need for provision of coping skills against stigma to the gay community and addressing drinking and drug use among MSM, to improve the current HIV prevention interventions in Vietnam.
Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O
Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Gabarron, Elia; Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie Y S
Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of "tweeters" (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of "tweet" messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs-chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words "chlamydia" or "HIV", and the hashtags "#chlamydia" or "#HIV". Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words "chlamydia" and/or "HIV". Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A
We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.
Edson Duarte Moreira Junior
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the usual frequency of sexual activity and how older individuals cope with sexual problems. The objective was to study sexual activity, prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among middle-aged and older men and women in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population survey, by Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. METHODS: Interviews were held with 1,199 Brazilians aged 40-80 years (471 men and 728 women. The standardized questionnaire investigated demographics, general health, sexual behavior, attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Overall, 92.6% of men and 58.3% of women had had sexual intercourse during the preceding year. More than half of the men and women had done so more than once a week. Early ejaculation (30.3% was the commonest male sexual problem, followed by inability to reach orgasm (14.0%, erectile difficulties (13.1% and lack of sexual interest (11.2%. For women, the commonest sexual problems were lubrication difficulties (23.4% and lack of sexual interest (22.7%. Depression was a significant correlate of sexual problems, for men and women. More women than men had sought help for sexual problem(s from a healthcare professional. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of encouraging greater use of available healthcare services, including consultation with a medical doctor regarding sexual health. This should not only enable men and women to maintain satisfactory sexual function well into their later years, but may also result in overall improvement in the quality of healthcare.
Hewitt, Caroline; Cappiello, Joyce
To identify the essential competencies for prevention and care related to unintended pregnancy to develop program outcomes for nursing curricula. Modified Delphi study. National. Eighty-five nurse experts, including academic faculty and advanced practice nurses providing sexual and reproductive health care in primary or specialty care settings. Expert panelists completed a three-round Delphi study using an electronic survey. Eighty-five panelists completed the first round survey, and 72 panelists completed all three rounds. Twenty-seven items achieved consensus of at least 75% of the experts by the third round to comprise the educational competencies. Through an iterative process, experts in prevention and care related to unintended pregnancy reached consensus on 27 core educational competencies for nursing education. The competencies provide a framework for curricular development in an important area of nursing education. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.
Viseskul, Nongkran; Fongkaew, Warunee; Settheekul, Saowaluck; Grimes, Richard M
Studies of sexual behavior among HIV-infected Thai youth show conflicting results due to the different ages of the respondents. This study examined the relationships between sexual self-efficacy and risk behaviors among 92 HIV-positive Thai youth aged 14 to 21 years. A questionnaire previously validated in Thailand measured sexual self-efficacy. There were low levels of sexual activity with 13 respondents having sex in the last 6 months. The sexual self-efficacy scales were inversely related to the risk behaviors of having sex, having multiple partners, and drinking alcohol in the last 6 months. The scores of the sexual self-efficacy scale and its subscales were significantly lower in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. Sexual risk behaviors were significantly higher in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. These findings suggest that interventions to increase sexual self-efficacy should be emphasized as HIV-infected Thai youth reach late adolescence. © The Author(s) 2013.
La Torre, A; Giupponi, G; Duffy, D M; Pompili, M; Grözinger, M; Kapfhammer, H P; Conca, A
Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs: this article presents a critical review of the current literature. Although many studies have been published on sexual side effects of psychopharmacological treatment, only a minority relate to mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs. Most of these studies are not methodologically robust, few are RCTs and most did not use a validated rating scale to evaluate sexual functioning. In addition, many of the studies on sexual dysfunction associated with mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs are limited by other methodological flaws. While there is evidence to suggest that mood stabilizers, with some exceptions, negatively affect sexual functioning, there is still insufficient evidence to draw any clear conclusions about the effects of anxiolytic drugs on sexual function. There is some weak evidence to indicate that switching from enzyme-inducing to non-enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs, could be clinically useful. Some researchers recommend that sexual dysfunction in patients taking antiepileptic drugs should in general be treated according to standard guidelines for the management of sexual dysfunction, since reliable data on special populations is not available. However, specific approaches may be useful, but cannot yet be recommended until further validating research has been conducted. We did not find evidence supporting the use of any specific treatment strategy for sexual dysfunction associated with anxiolytic treatment. This study was conducted in 2013 using the paper and electronic resources of the library of the Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS) in Trento, Italy (http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793). The library has access to a wide range of databases including DYNAMED, MEDLINE Full Text, CINAHL Plus Full Text, The Cochrane Library, Micromedex healthcare series, BMJ Clinical Evidence. The full list of available journals can be viewed at http
Full Text Available Understanding how parent-child communication occurs within the cultural context is an important consideration in sexual health given that culture plays a major role in the development of various beliefs and attitudes. This qualitative study explores the perceived experiences of first-generation, immigrant rural Latino parents and youths (N = 19 about parent-child communication related to sexual health. Specifically, the article explores their perceptions on (a the process of such communication when and if it occurs; (b the content of such discussions when they occur; and (c whether the content of these discussions is based on gender or familial context. Results suggest that cultural norms are followed in regards to gender of both the parent and the youth, but often going against religious and father’s expectations, with the mothers discussing birth control facts in greater frequency. We discuss implications for Latino teen pregnancy prevention efforts.
Boarts, Jessica M; Bogart, Laura M; Tabak, Melanie A; Armelie, Aaron P; Delahanty, Douglas L
Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) must be close to perfect in order to maintain suppression of HIV viral load, and to prevent the development of drug resistant strains of HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) often report low levels of adherence. One variable that has been linked to poor adherence is perceived discrimination; however, research has generally not considered the possible unique effects of different types of discrimination on adherence. The present pilot study aimed to examine the association of three types of discrimination (due to HIV+ status, race, or sexual orientation) with adherence among 57 PLWH. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to demonstrate the relationships between each type of discrimination and self-reported adherence. Racial discrimination significantly predicted lower adherence levels, whereas sexual orientation- and HIV-related discrimination did not. Results underscore the importance of addressing discrimination issues, specifically racial, when designing interventions to improve adherence to HAART.
Cohen, Myron S; Gay, Cynthia; Kashuba, Angela D M; Blower, Sally; Paxton, Lynn
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has prolonged and improved the lives of persons infected with HIV. Theoretically, it can also be used to prevent the transmission of HIV. The pharmacology of ART in the male and female genital tract can be expected to affect the success of the intervention, and ART agents differ considerably in their ability to concentrate in genital tract secretions. Emergency ART is considered to be the standard of care after occupational exposures to fluids or tissues infected with HIV. More recently, ART for prophylaxis after nonoccupational HIV exposures has been widely used and most countries have developed specific guidelines for its implementation. However, developing clinical trials to prove the efficacy of ART postexposure prophylaxis has not been possible. Experiments with rhesus macaques suggest that therapy must be offered as soon as possible after exposure (within 72 hours) and must be continued for 28 days. Additional nonhuman primate experiments have demonstrated protection from HIV infection with ART preexposure prophylaxis, and several clinical trials are under way to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this approach. The degree to which ART offered to infected persons reduces infectiousness is of considerable public health importance, but the question has not been sufficiently answered. This article provides a review of the data on the use of ART to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV and identify challenges to improving and clarifying this approach.
Preventing Heat-related Illness or Death of Outdoor Workers Summary Outdoor workers in agricul- ture, construction, and other industries ... a great deal of exertional and environ- mental heat stress that may lead to severe illness or ...
Li, Xiufang; Zhang, Beichuan; Wang, Juan; Li, Yang; Li, Xianhong; Yu, Peiheng; Liu, Minghua; Liu, Xinqiao
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a high-risk group for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In China, the vast majority of MSM feel forced to marry or plan to marry women, according to traditional Chinese culture. Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM, called tongqi in mainland China, live with a high risk of STDs or HIV infection, but these risks are often ignored. Our investigation of this group of the women is a preliminary study that aims to understand the sexual health problems of tongqi and related factors. This study relied on website mobilization and was funded by tongqi. Participants were limited to women who had sex with MSM to whom they were married (in-GWs), whom they had divorced (ex-GWs), or with whom they were friends (GGFs). The data were collected using questionnaire software. A total 144 valid surveys were returned from 100 in-GWs, 33 ex-GWs, and 11 GGFs. Average respondent age was 32.8 ± 6.4 years (range 22 to 58 years). Among in-GWs and ex-GWs, over 95% learned that their husbands were MSM after marriage. More than half of respondents had had sex before marriage, and one-third of those women had sex partners other than their husbands. In addition, 35.3% of tongqi had STDs symptoms. About 50% participants had had oral sex with sex partners of MSM and 10% had had passive anal sex, with low condom use during both oral (9.7%) and anal sex (23.1%). Most tongqi had misunderstandings about STDs and HIV and less than 30% had undergone HIV screening. Among participants tested, 5.6% were HIV positive. A total 93.5% of respondents believed that laws should be established to protect the sexual rights of women. Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM face adverse sexual health issues and are susceptible to STDs and HIV infection. Measures must be taken to protect the rights and interests of tongqi in mainland China.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM are a high-risk group for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In China, the vast majority of MSM feel forced to marry or plan to marry women, according to traditional Chinese culture. Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM, called tongqi in mainland China, live with a high risk of STDs or HIV infection, but these risks are often ignored. Our investigation of this group of the women is a preliminary study that aims to understand the sexual health problems of tongqi and related factors. Methods This study relied on website mobilization and was funded by tongqi. Participants were limited to women who had sex with MSM to whom they were married (in-GWs, whom they had divorced (ex-GWs, or with whom they were friends (GGFs. The data were collected using questionnaire software. Results A total 144 valid surveys were returned from 100 in-GWs, 33 ex-GWs, and 11 GGFs. Average respondent age was 32.8 ± 6.4 years (range 22 to 58 years. Among in-GWs and ex-GWs, over 95% learned that their husbands were MSM after marriage. More than half of respondents had had sex before marriage, and one-third of those women had sex partners other than their husbands. In addition, 35.3% of tongqi had STDs symptoms. About 50% participants had had oral sex with sex partners of MSM and 10% had had passive anal sex, with low condom use during both oral (9.7% and anal sex (23.1%. Most tongqi had misunderstandings about STDs and HIV and less than 30% had undergone HIV screening. Among participants tested, 5.6% were HIV positive. A total 93.5% of respondents believed that laws should be established to protect the sexual rights of women. Conclusions Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM face adverse sexual health issues and are susceptible to STDs and HIV infection. Measures must be taken to protect the rights and interests of tongqi in mainland China.
Ma, Xiao-Yuan; Tian, Li-Xing; Liang, Hua-Ping
Trauma still represents one of the major causes of death worldwide. Despite the reduction of post-traumatic sepsis over the past two decades, the mortality of septic trauma inpatients is still high (19.5-23 %). Early prevention of sepsis development can aid in the subsequent treatment of patients and help improve their outcomes. To date, the prevention of trauma-related infection/sepsis has mainly included infection prevention (e.g., surgical management, prophylactic antibiotics, tetanus vaccination, immunomodulatory interventions) and organ dysfunction prevention (e.g., pharmaceuticals, temporary intravascular shunts, lung-protective strategies, enteral immunonutrition, acupuncture). Overall, more efficient ways should be developed to prevent trauma-related infection/sepsis.
Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H
The Female Sexual Function Index-desire subscale is the standard measure for clinical trials of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), but lacks items assessing sexually related behaviors and attitudes toward partner. Counting satisfying sexual events is criticized, but sexual behavior remains important. Mean treatment differences cannot define clinical significance; responder and remitter analyses help. We reviewed measures on sexual desire and sexual behavior relevant to HSDD, and how to assess clinical significance. We conducted a literature review of measures of sexual desire comparing expert-proposed criteria for dysfunctional desire, expert-developed scales, and scales from patient input. Commonly recognized symptoms of HSDD were identified. Results of HSDD trials and scale validation studies were evaluated to extract responder and remitter values. The utility of distribution-based measures of responders and remitters was assessed. Symptom relevance was evaluated as the proportion of symptom sets that included the item; responder and remitter cut points were determined by distribution-based methods. 12 Validated rating scales, 5 scales primarily derived from expert recommendations and 7 scales initially from patient input, and 5 sets of diagnostic criteria for conditions like HSDD were compared. Content varied highly between scales despite compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendations for patient-reported outcomes. This disunity favors an expert-recommended scale such as the Elements of Desire Questionnaire with each of the common items, plus a measure of frequency of sexual activity, eg, item in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Registrational drug trials, but not psychological treatment trials, usually give responder/remitter analyses, using dichotomized global impressions or anchor-based definitions. Distribution-based methods are more uniformly applicable to define responder and remitter status. The
Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria
Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
To elucidate the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders, a systematic review of the several articles on the childhood sexual abuse-related risk for developing substance problems in adolescence or adulthood is provided. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists. Six reviews, including 200 studies, were included. Results indicate that child sexual abuse is a statistically significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for substance problems. Other biological and psychosocial variables contribute to substance-related disorders, with sexual abuse conferring additional risk, either as a distal, indirect cause or as a proximal, direct cause. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.
Leander, Else-Marie Buch; Larsen, Per Lindsø; Munk, Karen
This article presents the first research study of guidelines in Danish childcare institutions for protecting children against sexual abuse (CSA), and staff against wrongful allegations of CSA. Worldwide, it represents one of few empirical studies of the unintended consequences of contemporary...
Kim, Ji-Su; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwak, Yeunhee
Adolescents in sexual minority groups are known to be at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases through risky sexual behavior. However, few studies have examined associations between sexual orientation and risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in Korean adolescents. Therefore, this cross-sectional study used raw data from the Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey to explore these relationships. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between risky sexual behavior and sexual orientation in adolescents. The participants were 6,884 adolescents who provided data regarding demographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and risky sexual behavior. The proportions of homosexual and bisexual subjects who used condoms, engaged in sexual intercourse after drinking alcohol, and experienced sexually transmitted diseases were higher relative to those of heterosexual subjects. Associations between homosexuality and bisexuality and sexually transmitted diseases and engagement in sexual intercourse after drinking remained after multivariate adjustment. Interventions to prevent risky sexual behavior should target sexual orientation, to improve sexual health and prevent sexually transmitted disease in homosexual and bisexual adolescents.
Bunnell, Rebecca; Ekwaru, John Paul; Solberg, Peter; Wamai, Nafuna; Bikaako-Kajura, Winnie; Were, Willy; Coutinho, Alex; Liechty, Cheryl; Madraa, Elizabeth; Rutherford, George; Mermin, Jonathan
The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on sexual risk behavior and HIV transmission among HIV-infected persons in Africa is unknown. To assess changes in risky sexual behavior and estimated HIV transmission from HIV-infected adults after 6 months of ART. A prospective cohort study was performed in rural Uganda. Between May 2003 and December 2004 a total of 926 HIV-infected adults were enrolled and followed in a home-based ART program that included prevention counselling, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for cohabitating partners and condom provision. At baseline and follow-up, participants' HIV plasma viral load and partner-specific sexual behaviors were assessed. Risky sex was defined as inconsistent or no condom use with partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus in the previous 3 months. The rates of risky sex were compared using a Poisson regression model and transmission risk per partner was estimated, based on established viral load-specific transmission rates. Six months after initiating ART, risky sexual behavior reduced by 70% [adjusted risk ratio, 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-0.7; P = 0.0017]. Over 85% of risky sexual acts occurred within married couples. At baseline, median viral load among those reporting risky sex was 122 500 copies/ml, and at follow-up, transmission from cohort members declined by 98%, from 45.7 to 0.9 per 1000 person years. Providing ART, prevention counseling, and partner VCT was associated with reduced sexual risk behavior and estimated risk of HIV transmission among HIV-infected Ugandan adults during the first 6 months of therapy. Integrated ART and prevention programs may reduce HIV transmission in Africa.
Bowman, Rachel A.; Scotti, Joseph R.; Morris, Tracy L.
Persons with developmental disabilities are at an increased risk for becoming victims of sexual abuse. Research has revealed that the largest group of identified perpetrators of sexual abuse is developmental disability service providers. The purpose of the present study was to develop, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of a sexual abuse…
Helland, Ylva; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Haugen, Mona-Iren; Kjeken, Ingvild; Zangi, Heidi
Men and women with rheumatic diseases report a significantly negative impact on multiple areas of life, including sexuality. Research indicates that patients want to discuss sexual issues with health professionals (HPs) in rheumatology care but these issues are rarely addressed in consultations. The objective of the present study was to explore patients' experiences of communication with HPs about disease-related sexual issues, their perceptions of the relevance of these issues in rheumatology care and their preferences for how these topics should be handled. A qualitative design was used and 18 semi-structured interviews were performed, including eight women and ten men with inflammatory rheumatic joint diseases, aged 29-62 years. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically. Four main themes were derived from the interviews: (i) relevance of sexual issues; (ii) vital conditions for communication; (iii) individual preferences in mode and timing of information and communication; and (iv) benefits of information and communication. The participants expressed that, although sexual issues are relevant, necessary conditions for good communication are largely lacking. HPs' knowledge, experience and personal skills, as well as having sufficient time were essential. HPs lack of initiating sexual topics contributed to uncertainty about whether their sexual challenges were disease related and whether it was a legitimate topic to discuss in rheumatology care. Patients wanted HPs to possess knowledge about possible disease-related challenges in sexual life and intimate relationships, and to facilitate communication about these aspects. There is a need to develop practice guidelines to enable HPs to integrate sexual issues as an aspect of healthcare delivery in a patient-friendly manner. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B
The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.
This nationally representative study, encompassing all single youth (15-24 years), was carried out on the subpopulation of Ethiopia DHS 2000 to determine the influences of socio-demographic characteristics on sexual behaviour, and assess the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS and other STIs. There were a total of 890 male and 3,988 female youth. 25.5% of males and 16.1% of females ever had sexual intercourse. Among these, 65.8% males and 24.6% females had two or more sexual partners in the last 12 months. Condom use in the last sexual act was reported by 22.7% and 10% of male and female youth. 19.4% of male and 22.2% of female youth who ever had sexual intercourse ever used family planning method. Although the majority of youth is aware of HIV/AIDS, awareness about other STIs is low. On binary logistic regression analysis, the odds of ever having sexual intercourse were higher for the employed and older youth. Male urban youth was more likely to ever have sexual intercourse than male rural youth (Adjusted OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.8-9.5). Male youth with some form of education were more likely to use condom (Adjusted OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.01-24.7). Female youth with some form of education, the risk of ever having sexual intercourse was reduced by 50% but they were more likely to report having 2 sexual partners in the last 12 months (Adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Female youth who had media exposure were more likely to report having 2 sexual partners in the last 12 months (Adjusted OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.3-6.8) but more likely to use condom during last sexual intercourse (Adjusted OR 15.7; 95% CI2.2-117). Among single Ethiopian youth the overall sexual activity is relatively lower than reported from other African countries but high risk sexual behaviour is common. Socio-demographic factors influence youth sexual behaviour.
Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Wong, Fiona; Liljestrand, Jerker
To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union. For this systematic review, we examined interventions that aimed at STI risk reduction and health promotion conducted in schools, clinics, and in the community for reported effectiveness (in changing sexual behavior and/or knowledge) between 1995 and 2005. We also reviewed study design and intervention methodology to discover how these factors affected the results, and we compiled a list of characteristics associated with successful and unsuccessful programs. Studies were eligible if they employed a randomized control design or intervention-only design that examined change over time and measured behavioral, biologic, or certain psychosocial outcomes. Of the 19 studies that satisfied our review criteria, 11 reported improvements in the sexual health knowledge and/or attitudes of young people. Ten of the 19 studies aimed to change sexual risk behavior and 3 studies reported a significant reduction in a specific aspect of sexual risk behavior. Two of the interventions that led to behavioral change were peer-led and the other was teacher-led. Only 1 of the 8 randomized controlled trials reported any statistically significant change in sexual behavior, and then only for young females. The young people studied were more accepting of peer-led than teacher-led interventions. Peer-led interventions were also more successful in improving sexual knowledge, though there was no clear difference in their effectiveness in changing behavior. The improvement in sexual health knowledge does not necessarily lead to behavioral change. While knowledge may help improve health-seeking behavior, additional interventions are needed to reduce STIs among young people.
Martin P. Kafka; Niels Habermann; Andreas Hill; Peer Briken; Wolfgang Berner
We investigated the relationship between paraphilias (PA), paraphilia-related disorders (PRD), and personality disorders retrospectively in a sample of 161 sexual murderers. Four groups were compared: (1) sexual murderers without a PA or a PRD diagnosis (n=47), (2) sexual murderers with at least one PRD but no PA (n=29), (3) murderers with at least one PA but no PRDs (n=29), and finally, (4) those with a combination of both (PA + PRD, n=56). The PA + PRD group showed a significantly higher pr...
Fleming, Paul J.; Barrington, Clare; Pearce, Lisa D.; Lerebours, Leonel; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brito, Maximo O.
Ethnographic studies from numerous societies have documented the central role of male circumcision in conferring masculinity and preparing boys for adult male sexuality. Despite this link between masculinity, sexuality, and circumcision, there has been no research on these dynamics among men who have received a circumcision for HIV prevention. We employed a mixed methods approach with data collected from recently circumcised men in the Dominican Republic (DR) to explore this link. We analyzed survey data collected 6-12 months post-circumcision (N = 293) and in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of those men (n = 30). We found that 42% of men felt more masculine post-circumcision. In multivariate analysis, feeling more masculine was associated with greater concern about being perceived as masculine (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.25-2.32), feeling more potent erections post-circumcision (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26-4.03), and reporting increased ability to satisfy their partner post-circumcision (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.11-4.77). In qualitative interviews, these factors were all related to masculine norms of sexually satisfying one's partner and men's experiences of circumcision were shaped by social norms of masculinity. This study highlights that circumcision is not simply a biomedical intervention and that circumcision programs need to incorporate considerations of masculine norms and male sexuality into their programming. PMID:26942550
Barnhart, K; Furman, I; Devoto, L
To determine attitudes and practices regarding sexual relations during menstruation and vaginal spotting, a cross-sectional descriptive survey was performed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Materno Infantil, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. A total of 287 women and 206 men were randomly selected from an urban population. Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding sexual relations during vaginal bleeding were surveyed and stratified by educational level and other demographic characteristics. Overall, 70% of women and 72% of men were found to avoid sexual relations during menstruation. Fifty-four percent of women and 60% of men avoided sexual relations during vaginal spotting. Women with higher education (technical or university) were less likely to avoid sexual intercourse compared to those with a lower educational level (basic or secondary education) during menstruation (73% vs. 57%) and vaginal spotting (69% vs. 34%). Men with a higher educational level (university) avoided intercourse less frequently when their partner was spotting (48% vs. 64%). As many methods of contraception affect a woman's menstrual cycle, they therefore may affect the intimacy of a couple. Counseling and education regarding the menstrual cycle and expected alterations by a contraceptive method may reduce any negative impact of a contraceptive device on a couple's sexual life.
Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M
Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.
Esser, Stefan; Krotzek, Judith; Dirks, Henrike; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schadendorf, Dirk
Rising incidence rates of HIV and STIs (sexually transmitted infections) among MSM (men who have sex with men) in Germany since 2001 call for new approaches in medical prevention. The present study addresses appropriate parameters to identify those HIV-positive MSM who are at high risk for transmitting HIV and STIs. Over a two-year period, 223 HIV-positive MSM attending the HIV outpatient clinic at the University Medical Center Essen (Germany) were systematically surveyed with respect to their sexual behavior, substance abuse, and psychological well-being in the preceding year. Data analyzed included laboratory and clinical data from the time of the initial HIV diagnosis until January 2014. In HIV-positive MSM, a history of substance abuse, promiscuity, younger age, and known STIs was associated with a greater incidence of unprotected sexual intercourse and STIs. Apart from a detectable viral load, additional HIV-specific parameters associated with an increased HIV transmission risk included untreated HIV infection, adherence problems, changes in antiretroviral treatment over the preceding twelve months, known multiresistant HIV infection, and a higher CD 4 nadir. Despite routine quarterly monitoring of viral loads - the result thereof was communicated to patients - only 60 % of individuals assessed their HIV transmission risk correctly. In HIV-positive MSM, patient history and routine laboratory tests allow for the establishment of patient profiles that suggest sexual behavior associated with a high risk of HIV and STI transmission, thus offering new approaches for medical prevention. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…
Full Text Available Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32, medium (33-38, and positive (39-48. One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI 26.55. Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02, lubrication (p< 0.0001, orgasm (p= 0.002 and satisfaction (p= 0.002 were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle
We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.
Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M
Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour. We undertook a longitudinal analysis of data from the Partners PrEP Study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-uninfected partners of heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples (n=3163, ≥18 years of age). Efficacy for HIV prevention was publicly reported in July 2011, and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex-unprotected by a condom-during the 12 months after compared with the 12 months before July 2011, to assess whether knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy for HIV prevention caused increased sexual risk behaviour. We analysed 56 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected individuals (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months before unmasking versus 53 after unmasking; we recorded no immediate change (p=0·66) or change over time (p=0·25) after July, 2011. We identified a significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners after July, 2011, but the effect was small (average of 6·8 unprotected sex acts per year vs 6·2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had patients remained masked, p=0·04). Compared with before July, 2011, we noted no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July, 2011. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, might not result in substantial changes in risk
Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Bruscantini, Laura; Shikwane, Molatelo Elisa; Weiss, Stephen; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L
HIV-seroconversion during pregnancy is a serious concern throughout South Africa, where an estimated 35 to 40% of pregnant women have HIV/AIDS and drop-out is high at all stages of the prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) process. The likelihood of PMTCT success may be linked to partner support, yet male involvement in antenatal care remains low. This qualitative study examined the influence of pregnant couples' expectations, experiences and perceptions on sexual communication and male involvement in PMTCT. A total of 119 couples participated in a comprehensive intervention in 12 antenatal clinics throughout South Africa. Data were collected between December 2010 to June 2011 and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings point to the importance of sexual communication as a factor influencing PMTCT male involvement. Analysis of themes lends support to improving communication between couples, encouraging dialogue among men and increasing male involvement in PMTCT to bridge the gap between knowledge and sexual behaviour change.
Mc Grath, Margaret; Sakellariou, Dikaios
Despite recognition of the rights of disabled people to sexuality, occupational therapists continue to not address sexuality in practice. This failure can be understood as a consequence of social discourses relating to sexuality and disability and a professional discourse that values certain occupations over others. Given the importance of sexuality to the human experience and the evidence of the link between the opportunity for sexual expression and well-being, occupational therapists need to change their practice in relation to sexuality and disability. One method of achieving this change may be to adopt a rights-based approach to sexuality and disability. This article presents the possibilities offered by such an approach, discusses implications for occupational therapy practitioners, and proposes suggestions for future actions to ensure that the rights of disabled people to sexuality are embedded in occupational therapy practice. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Noden, Bruce H; Gomes, Aurelio; Ferreira, Aldina
The interactions between religious affiliation, education, HIV knowledge, and HIV-related sexual behaviors among African church youth are poorly understood. In this socio-demographic study, 522 unmarried youth 12-28 years old in rural central Mozambique were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Using binary logistic regression analysis, we used religious affiliation and education to measure influence on (1) HIV transmission and prevention knowledge and attitudes and (2) HIV-related sexual behaviors among youth. Religiously affiliated males were more likely than non-religious males to know when a condom should be used, respond correctly to HIV transmission questions and respond with less stigma to HIV-related scenarios. Increased levels of education among males corresponded significantly to increased knowledge of condom usage and HIV prevention strategies and less likelihood to respond with stigma. Only education levels influenced young female responses. Religious affiliation and education had minimal effects on sexual activity, condom usage, and multiple partnerships. African Independent Church/Zionist males were 1.6 times more likely to be sexually inexperienced than non-religious males but were also significantly less likely to use condoms (0.23, p=0.024). Non-religious youth were most likely to have visited sex workers and did not use condoms. These results suggest that religious affiliation, possibly as the result of educational opportunities afforded by religious-affiliated schools, is contributing to increased HIV transmission and prevention knowledge among youth in rural Central Mozambique but not influencing HIV-related sexual behavior. The need exists to strengthen the capacity of religious congregations to teach about HIV/AIDS and target non-religious youth with HIV transmission and prevention information.
Beck, Andrea M; Robinson, John W; Carlson, Linda E
Sexual dysfunction is the most significant long lasting effect of prostate cancer (PrCa) treatment. Despite the many medical treatments for erectile dysfunction, many couples report that they are dissatisfied with their sexual relationship and eventually cease sexual relations altogether. We sought to understand what distinguishes successful couples from those who are not successful in adjusting to changes in sexual function subsequent to PrCa treatment. Ten couples who maintained satisfying sexual intimacy after PrCa treatment and seven couples that did not were interviewed conjointly and individually. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. The theory that resulted suggests that individuals are motivated to engage in sex primarily because of physical pleasure and relational intimacy. The couples who valued sex primarily for relational intimacy were more likely to successfully adjust to changes in sexual function than those who primarily valued sex for physical pleasure. The attributes of acceptance, flexibility, and persistence helped sustain couples through the process of adjustment. Based on these findings, a new theory, the Physical Pleasure-Relational Intimacy Model of Sexual Motivation (PRISM) is presented. The results elucidate the main motives for engaging in sexual activity-physical pleasure and/or relational intimacy-as a determining factor in the successful maintenance of satisfying sexual intimacy after PrCa treatment. The PRISM model predicts that couples who place a greater value on sex for relational intimacy will better adjust to the sexual challenges after PrCa treatment than couples who place a lower value on sex for relational intimacy. Implications of the model for counselling are discussed. This model remains to be tested in future research.
Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D
The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. ©Shauna Stahlman, James R Hargreaves, Laurel Sprague, Anne L Stangl, Stefan D Baral. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 26.04.2017.
Postrado, L T; Nicholson, H J
The Girls Incorporated, formerly Girls Clubs of America, program in Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, which was initiated in 1985, was evaluated to obtain information about sexual behavior and attitudes related to pregnancy, educational and career expectations, and sociodemographic characteristics, and to ascertain the effectiveness of 2 components for girls aged 12-14 in delaying early sexual involvement. The theoretical base of intervention is discussed and delineation of 3 themes recurrent in the literature. Program interventions are also described. The 2 program components evaluated were Will Power/Won't Power which taught skill in general and specific assertiveness, and Growing Together, which facilitated communication between parents and daughters. The sample consisted of 412 virgin girls 12-14 years, of which 25% did not participate in either program, from communities in which the adolescent pregnancy rate was higher than the national average. Participants were required to have completed 1 complete year which included before and after surveys. 257 participated in Will Power/Won't Power; 84 in Growing Together; and 46 in both programs. Participants and nonparticipants were similar in background characteristics. The profile was one of primarily African American 12 year olds of a Protestant religion. Growing Together participants were slightly different and less likely to engage in early sexual intercourse. The findings of the bivariate and logistic regression analyses were that nonparticipants were 2.5 times more likely to initiate sexual intercourse during the study year than participants in Growing Together, but this was only marginally statistically significant. It is suggested however that when controlling for age, religion, race and having contact with a pregnant teen that Growing Together participation contributed to a delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse. Participation in Will Power did not account for any differences in likelihood of initiating
Sexual self-schema is a relatively new cognitive term developed to connote the cognitive self-view that is developed through sexual experience, whilst influencing sexual behaviour and attitudes. Originally developed by Andersen and Cyranowski (1994) as a measure of women’s sexual self-view, this construct was subsequently extended for use with men (Andersen et al., 1999). These two initial investigations gave rise to separate measures for women and men, and although the sub-scales of these me...
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming
This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviors among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviors including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases...
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs and unplanned pregnancies affect adolescent sexual health and are serious public health concerns. They result from sexual intercourse in adolescence, which is usually associated with multiple partners, unprotected sex, and condom misuse. This behavior is related to socio-ecological factors that influence lifestyles. The YOURLIFE project aims to find out what young people think and feel about relationships, love and sexuality, and to assess the associations between these thoughts and attitudes, adolescents´ social factors, and sexual health. Materials and Equipment: An international school-based study with a cross-sectional and optional subsequent longitudinal design. Three on-line questionnaires designed for adolescents aged 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 respectively will be used. A matching coding system will allow longitudinal follow-up when adolescents reply to follow-up surveys. Questionnaires will include questions related to socio-demographic data; information/communication technologies; leisure time; parental supervision; influences of parents/friends; information sources; messages perceived; and sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and opinions. The second and third questionnaire for participants aged 15/16 and 17/18 will also contain variables concerning sexual behavior. Schools will be able to use their results to tailor educational approaches targeting the needs of their students. Multivariate analyses will be performed using the larger international dataset.Expected Impact of the study on Public Health: The YOURLIFE project will collect comprehensive information about the socio-ecological determinants of the sexual risk-taking of schooled adolescents worldwide. Effective preventive programs could be subsequently designed and tailored to the specific determinants of adolescents from different schools and settings and also, when analyzed globally, to public health professionals.
Carlos, Silvia; Osorio, Alfonso; Calatrava, María; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; de Irala, Jokin
Sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies affect adolescent sexual health and are serious public health concerns. They result from sexual intercourse in adolescence, which is usually associated with multiple partners, unprotected sex, and condom misuse. This behavior is related to socio-ecological factors that influence lifestyles. The YOURLIFE project aims to find out what young people think and feel about relationships, love, and sexuality, and to assess the associations between these thoughts and attitudes, adolescents' social factors, and sexual health. An international school-based study with a cross-sectional and optional subsequent longitudinal design. Three online questionnaires designed for adolescents aged 13/14, 15/16, and 17/18, respectively, will be used. A matching coding system will allow longitudinal follow-up when adolescents reply to follow-up surveys. Questionnaires will include questions related to sociodemographic data; information/communication technologies; leisure time; parental supervision; influences of parents/friends; information sources; messages perceived; and sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes, and opinions. The second and third questionnaires for participants aged 15/16 and 17/18 will also contain variables concerning sexual behavior. Schools will be able to use their results to tailor educational approaches targeting the needs of their students. Multivariate analyses will be performed using the larger international dataset. The YOURLIFE project will collect comprehensive information about the socio-ecological determinants of the sexual risk-taking of schooled adolescents worldwide. Effective preventive programs could be subsequently designed and tailored to the specific determinants of adolescents from different schools and settings, and also, when analyzed globally, to public health professionals.
Full Text Available In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1 socioeconomic factors, 2 beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3 sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832 aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%, girls (n = 391, 52% and boys (n = 360, 48% completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively. Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01, had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02, perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01 and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01. Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03. Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01. In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and
Li, Wenwei; Jiang, Junjun; Su, Jinming; Liang, Bingyu; Deng, Wei; Huang, Jiegang; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Zang, Ning; Liao, Yanyan; Meng, Sirun; Ye, Li; Liang, Hao
Rural-to-urban migrants are at high risk of HIV infection. The goal of this survey was to explore the commercial sexual behavior and condom use among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. A cross-sectional survey on male rural-to-urban migrants in western China was conducted. Among all the subjects surveyed, 140 (7.4%) had commercial sexual behavior, which is associated with being aged older than 24 years, being of Han or other ethnic minorities, being divorced, separated, or widowed, having experienced drug abuse, having had heterosexual behavior, having had casual sexual partners, having had sex with a homosexual, and being from Xinjiang. A total of 31.4% of them never use condoms when buying sex. Not using condoms is associated with being from Chongqing, having a high school or above education, and having commercial sex monthly. Commercial sexual behavior and not using condoms are common among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Strategies and appropriate education should be developed to prevent HIV transmission due to high-risk sexual behaviors.
Enns, Eva Andrea; Kao, Szu-Yu; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Kahn, Judith; Farris, Jill; Kulasingam, Shalini L
Mathematical models are important tools for assessing prevention and management strategies for sexually transmitted infections. These models are usually developed for a single infection and require calibration to observed epidemiological trends in the infection of interest. Incorporating other outcomes of sexual behavior into the model, such as pregnancy, may better inform the calibration process. We developed a mathematical model of chlamydia transmission and pregnancy in Minnesota adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We calibrated the model to statewide rates of reported chlamydia cases alone (chlamydia calibration) and in combination with pregnancy rates (dual calibration). We evaluated the impact of calibrating to different outcomes of sexual behavior on estimated input parameter values, predicted epidemiological outcomes, and predicted impact of chlamydia prevention interventions. The two calibration scenarios produced different estimates of the probability of condom use, the probability of chlamydia transmission per sex act, the proportion of asymptomatic infections, and the screening rate among men. These differences resulted in the dual calibration scenario predicting lower prevalence and incidence of chlamydia compared with calibrating to chlamydia cases alone. When evaluating the impact of a 10% increase in condom use, the dual calibration scenario predicted fewer infections averted over 5 years compared with chlamydia calibration alone [111 (6.8%) vs 158 (8.5%)]. While pregnancy and chlamydia in adolescents are often considered separately, both are outcomes of unprotected sexual activity. Incorporating both as calibration targets in a model of chlamydia transmission resulted in different parameter estimates, potentially impacting the intervention effectiveness predicted by the model.
Hall, Grace Chela; Young, Alicia; Krakauer, Chloe; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Cummings, Vanessa; Mayer, Kenneth; Koblin, Beryl
HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN 061) study data of Black MSM were analyzed to determine characteristics associated with having transgender sexual partners (TGP) and the association of having TGP with sexual risk. Of 1,449 cisgender MSM, 343(24%) reported also having TGP. MSM with TGP were more likely to be older, have a sexual orientation other than homosexual, have a history of incarceration, or have insufficient funds for necessities, but less likely to be HIV positive or report sex with men to health care providers. MSM with TGP were 3.67 times more likely to recently have 5+ new partners and 2.02 times more likely to report 6+ condomless sexual acts. Since MSM with TGP reported not disclosing sex with men to health care providers, these men may need tailored HIV prevention and care. Future studies should examine differing sexual risks MSM take with sexual partners with different gender identities.
YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.
Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in ‘stalls’ or ‘domestic service’ tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499
Interference by extended family members, especially husbands' mothers, and male authoritarian roles emerged as hindrances to effective communication between couples. The implications for HIV prevention regarding gender differences and the role of families in couples' communication are discussed. African Journal of ...
work with MSM in these settings where MSM is illegal. The available evidence however highlights to multiple opportunities for interventions that may reduce health risk. In a study in South Africa, Parry et al. (2008) have reported high HIV knowledge, low prevention practice and associated drug use among. MSM. Baral et al.
Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.
The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…
Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M
"Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yin, Lu; Wang, Na; Vermund, Sten H; Shepherd, Bryan E; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu
Prevention intervention trials have been conducted to reduce risk of sexual transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but the findings were inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate overall efficacy of prevention interventions on unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse (UVAI) among PLWHA from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). RCTs of prevention interventions among PLWHA published as of February 2012 were identified by systematically searching thirteen electronic databases. The primary outcome was UVAI. The difference of standardized mean difference (SMD) of UVAI between study arms, defined as effect size (ES), was calculated for each study and then pooled across studies using standard meta-analysis with a random effects model. Lower likelihood of UVAI was observed in the intervention arms compared with the control arms either with any sexual partners (mean ES: -0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.32, -0.11) or with HIV-negative or unknown-status sexual partners (mean ES and 95% CI: -0.13 [-0.22, -0.04]). Short-term efficacy of interventions with ≤ 10 months of follow up was significant in reducing UVAI (1-5 months: -0.27 [-0.45, -0.10]; 6-10 months: -0.18 [-0.30, -0.07]), while long-term efficacy of interventions was weaker and might have been due to chance (11-15 months: -0.13 [-0.34, 0.08]; >15 months: -0.05 [-0.43, 0.32]). Our meta-analyses confirmed the short-term impact of prevention interventions on reducing self-reported UVAI among PLWHA irrespective of the type of sexual partner, but did not support a definite conclusion on long-term effect. It is suggested that booster intervention sessions are needed to maintain a sustainable reduction of unprotected sex among PLWHA in future risk reduction programs.
De Frène, V; Verhofstadt, L; Loeys, T; Stuyver, I; Buysse, A; De Sutter, P
How are objective characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and PCOS-related concerns associated with the sexual and relational satisfaction of PCOS women and their partners? Both objective PCOS characteristics (parity, women's body mass index (BMI) and current unfulfilled wish to conceive) and PCOS-related concerns (women's infertility-related and acne-related concerns) were associated with sexual and/or relational satisfaction, although some associations differed for PCOS women and their partners. There is some evidence indicating an association between objective PCOS characteristics and sexual satisfaction of PCOS women, but this evidence is conflicting, scarce, and often validated questionnaires have not been used to evaluate sexual satisfaction. No evidence is available about the association of: (i) PCOS with relational satisfaction; (ii) PCOS-related concerns with sexual and relational satisfaction; and (iii) PCOS with sexual and relational satisfaction as experienced by partners of PCOS women. We set up a cross-sectional study from April 2007 until April 2009, including 31 overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS and at a reproductive age as well as their partners with whom they had a committed intimate relationship at the time of recruitment. The study was performed at the fertility center of the Ghent University Hospital. Objective PCOS characteristics were registered and PCOS-related concerns were evaluated by the PCOS Questionnaire. Sexual (SS) and relational (RS) satisfaction were measured by the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ). Dyadic statistical analyses were performed using linear mixed models (α sexual and relational satisfaction, with a significantly stronger association in PCOS women than in their partners (p(SS) = 0.015 and p(RS) = 0.009). A higher BMI tended to be associated with lower and higher satisfaction levels (sexual and relational) in PCOS women and their partners, respectively, with a significantly stronger
Rafaella Queiroga Souto
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument was a specially designed form based on existing information in the IAE records. Data was recorded in SPSS, version 17, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Male individuals (n = 85; 62%, under the age of 20 (n = 112; 81.8% were the main victims. The notification of sexual violence was carried out by the parents (n = 34; 24.8%, mostly by the mother (n = 27; 19.7%, and the police stations were the most frequent location to express the complaint (n = 134; 97.8%. The violence was committed by a single perpetrator (n = 78; 56.9%, who was known by the victim (n = 88; 64.2%. The crime of rape was confirmed in (n = 48 35% of cases. Conclusion: The men, most of them young, are the main victims of indecent assault, and violence is committed by one individual, member of the victim’s social circle.
Grewe, Mary E.; Taboada, Arianna; Dennis, Alexis; Chen, Elizabeth; Stein, Kathryn; Watson, Sable; Barrington, Clare; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.
Theatre-based interventions have been used in health promotion with young people to address HIV and sexual health. In this study, we explored the experience of undergraduate student performers participating in a theatre-based HIV prevention and sexual health education intervention for high school students in the USA. Undergraduate students…
Mpofu, Sibonginkosi; Odimegwu, Clifford; De Wet, Nicole; Adedini, Sunday; Akinyemi, Joshua
One of the reasons for the perpetuation of female circumcision is that it controls female sexuality. In this study, the authors examined the relationship between female circumcision and the sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. Data on women who were aware of circumcision and were circumcised were extracted from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey of 2008-09 as well as the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008. The sample size was 7,344 for Kenya and 16,294 for Nigeria. The outcome variables were age at first intercourse and total lifetime number of sexual partners. The study hypothesis was that women who were circumcised were less likely to have initiated sex early and to have only one sex partner. Cox proportional hazards regression and Poisson regression were used to examine the relations of female circumcision and other selected variables to sexual behavior. No association was observed between female circumcision and the outcomes for sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. The argument of sexual chastity is insufficient to sustain the perpetuation of female circumcision.
Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa
Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…
La Torre, A; Giupponi, G; Duffy, D; Conca, A; Catanzariti, D
Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of cardiovascular drugs: this article is a critical review of the current literature. Many studies have been published on this topic. Most of these studies are not methodologically robust, few are RCTs and most did not use a validated rating scale to evaluate sexual functioning. In addition, other methodological flaws limit greatly the conclusions of these studies. Most studies relate to male populations and only a few have been conducted on women. Also, the majority of studies on sexual dysfunction induced by cardiovascular drugs relate to antihypertensive drugs. While there is evidence to suggest that older antihypertensive drugs (diuretics, beta-blockers, centrally acting agents) have a negative impact on erectile function, newer agents seem to have either neutral (ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists) or beneficial effects (i. e., angiotensin receptor blockers, nebivolol). Other cardiovascular drugs analyzed in this review also appear to have an inhibitory action on sexual function. For men, there is some weak evidence supporting the use of specific treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction associated with these drugs. This study was conducted in 2014 using the paper and electronic resources of the library of the "Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS)" in Trento, Italy (http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793). The library has access to a wide range of databases including DYNAMED, MEDLINE Full Text, CINAHL Plus Full Text, The Cochrane Library, Micromedex healthcare series, BMJ Clinical Evidence. The full list of available journals can be viewed at http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793 or at the APSS web site (http://www.apss.tn.it). In completing this review, a literature search was conducted using the key words "cardiovascular", "adrenergic beta antagonist", "α1-adrenoceptor antagonist", "angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor", "angiotensin receptor antagonist", "angiotensin receptor blocker", "beta blocker
Rosenberg, Shoshana M; Tamimi, Rulla M; Gelber, Shari; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Bober, Sharon L; Kereakoglow, Sandra; Borges, Virginia F; Come, Steven E; Schapira, Lidia; Partridge, Ann H
Sexual dysfunction is a known complication of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer and an important determinant of quality of life. However, few studies have explored how treatment and other factors affect sexual functioning in young breast cancer survivors. Four hundred sixty-one premenopausal women with stage 0 through III breast cancer were surveyed an average of 1 year after diagnosis as part of a prospective cohort study of women who were aged ≤40 years at diagnosis. Sexual interest and dysfunction were assessed using the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES). Mean CARES scores were compared and multiple regression models were fit to assess treatment and a range of menopausal and somatic symptoms in relation to sexual functioning. Mean CARES sexual interest and dysfunction scores were both highest (indicating poorer functioning) among women who received chemotherapy and were amenorrheic from treatment. After accounting for menopausal and somatic symptoms, treatment-associated amenorrhea remained associated with decreased interest but was no longer an independent predictor of dysfunction. In the multivariable analysis, independent predictors of dysfunction included vaginal pain symptoms, poorer body image, and fatigue. Sexual interest was associated with vaginal pain symptoms, body image, and weight problems. Factors associated with decreased sexual functioning in young breast cancer survivors can often be ameliorated. The current findings have implications for premenopausal women with other types of cancer who might be experiencing amenorrhea because of chemotherapy or surgery. Increased awareness and early intervention is essential to help improve sexual functioning and associated quality of life for all young cancer survivors. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Smith, D E; Moser, C; Wesson, D R; Apter, M; Buxton, M E; Davison, J V; Orgel, M; Buffum, J
It is apparent that a significant degree of sexual concern exists in male and female heroin addicts in the predrug, drug and postdrug periods. The Sexual Concerns and Substance Abuse Project recommends that each opiate abuser entering in to treatment has a brief sex history taken and, if a primary or secondary sexual dysfunction is discovered, then additional evaluation is indicated. Furthermore, the Project stresses the importance of educating the patient to the physiological, as well as psychological, relationship between heroin-related sexual dysfunction and concomitant side effects. For example, in women chronically abusing high doses of heroin, one may not only see a reduction of sexual desire and performance, but also irregular menstrual cycles, and occasionally, amenorrhea, as a result of the depressive effects of the opiate on pituitary hormones. The woman may misinterpret this physiological effect and believe that such changes in her menstrual cycle are irreversible, and that she is sterile. Following the evaluation and patient education phase, the findings obtained from the evaluation of the drug cycle, as it relates to the sociosexual response cycle, should be incorporated into the overall treatment approach for counseling the opiate abuser. When a specific sexual dysfunction exists, particularly if it predates the heroin involvement, referral to a qualified sex therapist is often indicated, to work in co-therapy with the drug counselor and the referring physician. Greater awareness of heroin-related sexual dysfunction may help reduce the relapse rate back to heroin as well as improve the quality of the individual's life during the recovery period.
Steiner, Riley J; Liddon, Nicole; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rasberry, Catherine N; Sales, Jessica M
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), specifically intrauterine devices and implants, offers an unprecedented opportunity to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents because it is highly effective even with typical use. However, adolescent LARC users may be less likely to use condoms for preventing sexually transmitted infections compared with users of moderately effective contraceptive methods (ie, oral, Depo-Provera injection, patch, and ring contraceptives). To compare condom use between sexually active female LARC users and users of moderately effective contraceptive methods. Cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of US high school students in grades 9 through 12. Descriptive analyses were conducted among sexually active female students (n = 2288); logistic regression analyses were restricted to sexually active female users of LARC and moderately effective contraception (n = 619). The analyses were conducted in July and August 2015. Contraceptive method at last sexual intercourse was assessed by 1 item-respondents could select birth control pills; condoms; an intrauterine device or implant; injection, patch, or ring; withdrawal or other method; or not sure. A separate item asked whether respondents used a condom at last sexual intercourse. We created an indicator variable to distinguish those reporting use of (1) LARC (intrauterine device or implant), (2) oral contraceptives, and (3) Depo-Provera, patch, or ring. Among the 2288 sexually active female participants (56.7% white; 33.6% in 12th grade), 1.8% used LARC; 5.7% used Depo-Provera, patch, or ring; 22.4% used oral contraceptives; 40.8% used condoms; 11.8% used withdrawal or other method; 15.7% used no contraceptive method; and 1.9% were not sure. In adjusted analyses, LARC users were about 60% less likely to use condoms compared with oral contraceptive users (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 0.42; 95
McEachern, Adriana G.
Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…
Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah
Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…
Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)
Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah
Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems.
Nawyn, S J; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Hughes, T L
While workplace sexual harassment has received a great deal of attention in both the popular media and scientific literature, less attention has been directed to the differential occurrence of sexual harassment among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual men and women, and the relationships between these experiences and alcohol-related outcomes. Additionally, the distribution of alcohol-related outcomes of non-sexual forms of workplace harassment among these groups have not been adequately explored. Using data from a university-based study of workplace harassment and alcohol use (N = 2492), we focus on exposure to workplace harassment and alcohol-related outcomes for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to heterosexual men and women. Lesbian/bisexual women did not differ significantly from heterosexual women in their experiences of workplace harassment. However, stronger linkages between harassment and increased alcohol consumption and problems were found for lesbian and bisexual women than for heterosexual women. Gay/bisexual men, on the other hand, experienced significantly more sexual harassment than heterosexual men, but did not report a corresponding increase in alcohol use and abuse. Implications for future research on sexual identity, alcohol use, and workplace harassment are discussed.
Liana Fortunato Costa
de distanciamiento y autoritarismo. Una mejor comprensión de la violencia presente en las relaciones familiares de ese adolescente es fundamental, porque una característica de eses sujetos es la falta de habilidad social, y ese aspecto proviene de un proceso pobre de vinculación con sus padres.This text deals with a qualitative research about family relations of the sexual offender adolescent, with emphasis on the paternal figures, and is based on the interviews that precede the offer of a group intervention with the adolescents and their families. The interviews were conducted with seven adolescents and their mothers. Three nuclei results were interpreted: the family interaction of this adolescent is organized to guarantee the survival of the family; this adolescent presents an intense and paradoxical relation with his mother; there is an extremely poor living relation and affective link with the father. We conclude that the intra-family sexual violence made by the adolescents is linked with the family affective dynamics of distance and authoritarianism. A better comprehension of the violence present in the family relations of this adolescent is of fundamental importance because one of their characteristics is the lack of social ability, which originates from a poor process of linking with their parents.
Sweet, Richard; Russell, Pam
This memo is an update of a previous memo to the Special Committee on Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. It lists the suggestions that have been submitted by Committee members to staff as of February 21, 1991; and includes suggestions made since the January 24, 1991 meeting of the Special Committee. The suggestions are broken down…
Farrell, Brenda S; Wasleski, Marilyn K; Chan, Joanna; Davis, Pawnee A; Harms, K. N; Johnson, Wesley A; La Due Lake, Ronald; Miller, Amanda K; Weissman, Cheryl A
.... Though not required to do so, the Coast Guard has established a similar policy. This statement addresses implementation and oversight of DoD's and the Coast Guard's programs to prevent and respond to sexual assault incidents...
Full Text Available
Background: An educational intervention on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs accompanied by a multimedia exhibition was proposed in order to verify the effectiveness of an exhibition as a tool for prevention, to increase awareness in youth and to evaluate whether it yielded changes in the sexual behaviour of its’ visitors. The Target population were high schools and university students.
Methods: The Exhibition consisted of a historical overview and four other sections: biological and clinical aspects, epidemiology, prevention and a section called the Red Zone with clear and explicit images relating to STDs. The exhibition was supported by three observational studies carried out on about2000 students of two High Schools and the university in the city of Cassino, Italy. Data collection took place through three different types of “ad hoc” questionnaires. The Statistical analysis carried out was that typical of cross-sectional surveys. We utilized the statistical program Epi-Info 3.5.
Results: Regarding survey 1, 48% of 529 students taking part said that the exhibition had contributed “enough” for them to acquire new knowledge, 75.2% had already had sexual intercourse and 37.7% of them did not change their sexual habits. Relative to survey 2, 583 responded to the pre test and 403 posttests returned. Regarding knowledge, data obtained from processing of pre-tests showed how 63.9% of the sample did not know how many STDs existed, whilst this value dropped in post test answers to 49.2% . AIDS was the best known disease (96% whilst other STDs were little known. The educational intervention partly increased these percentages. With regard to sexual practices although 43% of the sample claimed to have already had sexual intercourse (66% male and 34% female. The family doctor is seen by a high percentage of young people (70% - 68.6% as the first figure which should address an
Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R
Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111
Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R
Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse.
McKenney, Sarah J.; Bigler, Rebecca S.
Sexually objectifying messages about girls and women are common in U.S. popular culture. As a consequence of exposure to such messages, girls may develop "internalized sexualization," or internalization of the belief that sexual attractiveness to males is an important aspect of their identity. We hypothesized that internalized…
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-Fu; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg
AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early preventive intervention to reduce HIV-related risk behavior. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) program, a preventive intervention for rural African American parents and their 11-year-olds, was specially designed to deter early sexual onset and the initiation and escalation of alcohol and drug use among rural African American preadolescents. A clustered-randomized prevention trial was conducted, contrasting families who took part in SAAF with control families. The trial, which included 332 families, indicated that intervention-induced changes occurred in intervention-targeted parenting, which in turn facilitated changes in youths' internal protective processes and positive sexual norms. Long-term follow up assessments when youth were 17 years old revealed that intervention-induced changes in parenting practices mediated the effect of intervention-group influences on changes in the onset and escalation of risky sexual behaviors over 65 months through its positive influence on adolescents' self-pride and their sexual norms. The findings underscore the powerful effects of parenting practices among rural African American families that over time serve a protective role in reducing youth's risk behavior, including HIV vulnerable behaviors.
Daniel Eduardo Jones
Full Text Available El artículo analiza las expectativas y experiencias relativas a la primera relación sexual de adolescentes, a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas individuales a 22 varones y 22 mujeres, de entre 15 y 19 años de edad, pertenecientes a estratos socioeconómicos medios y residentes en Trelew, una ciudad de 100 mil habitantes en la Patagonia argentina. Se centra en los papeles esperados y las vivencias de presiones para la iniciación sexual. Los papeles esperados para varones y mujeres reflejan expectativas de género asimétricas y pueden favorecer acciones coercitivas por parte de parejas y amistades. Estas coerciones pueden ser interpretadas a partir del tipo de vínculo con la persona con que debutan sexualmente y la influencia de las redes de pares en tanto público interesado en dicho evento. El análisis de los testimonios tiene a la teoría de los guiones sexuales como marco de referencia, y considera las dimensiones de género y edad de las y los entrevistados.The article analyses the expectations and experiences related to the first sexual relation of teenagers. The research is based on individual semi-structured interviews with 22 men and 22 women aged from 15 to 19 , belonging to the middle class layer from Trelew, a city of 100,000 inhabitants in the Argentinean Patagonia. The article focuses on the expected roles and experiences of pressure for sexual initiation. Desired roles for girls and boys regarding their first sexual relation reflect asymmetric gender expectations and can lead to coercive actions of partners and friends. These coercions can be interpreted considering the relations with the sexual partner and the influence of teenagers' networks as a public interested in the first sexual relation. The testimonies are analyzed within a sexual scripting theory, and considering gender and age of the interviewed actors.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To explore the association among HIV status; negative psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, and hostility; and risky sexual behaviors (multiple sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse in a Chilean sample of men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods This study had a cross-sectional design and a sample of 325 MSM whose ages ranged from 18 to 64 years (mean: 30.8; standard deviation: 9.8. Association tests (chi-squared and group mean comparisons (Student’s t-tests and F-tests were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were found for condom use or for the number of sexual partners between HIV-positive men and those who are not infected. In both groups, about 50% reported sexual encounters without condom use in the past six months. There were statistically significant differences in symptoms associated with depression between the two groups. Conclusions These results reveal the need to strengthen messages about the importance of condom use, as the only way to prevent HIV, and as a means of preventing HIV infection and reinfection, in national prevention and self-care programs for sexually active subjects. More studies are needed in Latin America to advance HIV prevention efforts for the MSM population. The data generated by this study can be used to inform the development of HIV prevention programming strategies and interventions targeting the MSM population in Latin America.
Aviv, Alex; Levine, Joseph; Shelef, Assaf; Speiser, Nili; Elizur, Avner
Studies focusing on Patient-Therapist sexual relations have been carried out mainly in the U.S. This study comes to broadly explore this phenomenon in Israel. An indirect questionnaire was sent to all 1,817 psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers who are members of the Israeli Psychiatric Association, Psychologists Association and Psychotherapy Association, respectively. 29% of the responding therapists reported that at least one of their patients had experienced sexual relations with the most recent, former therapist. The design of our survey made it impossible for us to conduct a follow-up after termination of therapy and to differentiate intercourse from nonintercourse sexual exploitation. Similar numbers of the gender of the exploiting therapist and exploited patients were obtained for both the indirect current Israeli study and previous U.S. studies. This may suggest that such parameters are influenced by common norms regarding the relationships between men and women of both societies, and from the psychotherapeutic dyadic situation.
Smith, S K
Qualitative, interpretive research was conducted with ten adult women who felt that their experiences of learning about themselves as female and sexual had been harmful. The term "victimizing sexualization" was developed to identify this experience, and a thematic description of these women's experiences was derived. Components of their experiences were described within four major categories, including perceptions and descriptions directly related to abuse experiences, home and family environments, community and cultural characteristics, and longer term personal impacts. This article reports on two of the major thematic categories: perceptions and descriptions related to abuse experiences and home and family environment. Findings of this study establish "victimizing sexualization" as a meaningful women's health construct with important connections to feminist perspectives on women's lives.
Anthony C Little
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals both display and assess multiple signals. Two prominently studied traits are symmetry and sexual dimorphism, which, for many animals, are proposed cues to heritable fitness benefits. These traits are associated with other potential benefits, such as fertility. In humans, the face has been extensively studied in terms of attractiveness. Faces have the potential to be advertisements of mate quality and both symmetry and sexual dimorphism have been linked to the attractiveness of human face shape. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that measurements of symmetry and sexual dimorphism from faces are related in humans, both in Europeans and African hunter-gatherers, and in a non-human primate. Using human judges, symmetry measurements were also related to perceived sexual dimorphism. In all samples, symmetric males had more masculine facial proportions and symmetric females had more feminine facial proportions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the claim that sexual dimorphism and symmetry in faces are signals advertising quality by providing evidence that there must be a biological mechanism linking the two traits during development. Such data also suggests that the signalling properties of faces are universal across human populations and are potentially phylogenetically old in primates.
behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.
Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement
To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents’ sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents’ sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures—communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed. PMID:23440475
The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue.
Berman, Ariel K; Knight, Raymond A
The present study explored the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the adaptation of male juveniles who subsequently sexually offended (JSOs; n = 178; age, M = 16.05 years, SD = 0.27, range = 12-22). It examined multiple levels of interpersonal closeness between the perpetrators of sexual abuse and their JSO victims. JSOs who were sexually abused by older children or adults who cohabitated with them for at least 3 months reported higher levels of emotional dysregulation, callousness/manipulativeness, and sexualization than did both JSOs who were sexually abused by someone they had never lived with and JSOs who reported no experiences of sexual abuse. Implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H
The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission.
Souleymanov, R; Huang, Y-T
MISM (i.e. men who use the Internet to seek sex with men) has emerged in public health literature as a population in need of HIV prevention. In this paper, we argue for the importance of rethinking the dominant notions of the MISM category to uncover its ethnocentric and heteronormative bias. To accomplish this, we conducted a historical, epistemological and transnational analysis of social sciences and health research literature (n = 146) published on MISM between 2000 and 2014. We critically unravel the normative underpinnings of 'westernised' knowledge upon which the MISM category is based. We argue that the essentialist approach of Western scholarship can homogenise MISM by narrowly referring to behavioural aspects of sexuality, thereby rendering multiple sexualities/desires invisible. Furthermore, we argue that a Eurocentric bias, which underlies the MISM category, may hinder our awareness of the transnational dynamics of sexual minority communities, identities, histories and cultures. We propose the conceptualisation of MISM as hybrid cultural subjects that go beyond transnational and social boundaries, and generate conclusions about the future of the MISM category for HIV prevention and health promotion.
Oswalt, Sara B; Wyatt, Tammy J
Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based on sexual orientation with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in higher risk sexual behavior than people with opposite sex partners. However, few of these studies were large, national sample studies that also include those identifying as unsure. To address that gap, this study examined the relationship of sexual orientation and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2009 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment was used to examine sexual health related responses from heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students (N = 25,553). Responses related to sexual behavior, safer sex behaviors, prevention and screening behaviors, and diagnosis of sexual health related conditions were examined. The findings indicated that sexual orientation was significantly associated with engaging in sexual behavior in the last 30 days. Sexual orientation was also significantly associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months, with unsure men having significantly more partners than gay, bisexual and heterosexual men and heterosexual men having significantly less partners than gay, bisexual and unsure men. Bisexual women had significantly more partners than females reporting other sexual orientations. Results examining the associations between sexual orientation and safer sex, prevention behaviors, and screening behaviors were mixed. Implications for practice, including specific programmatic ideas, were discussed.
... even today, too many women, men, and children suffer alone or in silence, burdened by shame or unsure... of sexual assault during college. For some groups, the rates of violence are even higher--Native...
Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Celum, Connie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Wasserheit, Judith
Observational and biological data provide compelling evidence of the importance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV transmission, but only one of nine intervention trials has shown an effect. This article reviews the observational studies, critically examines the nine randomized
Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Colaneri, Anthony S
Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from more than 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (a) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (b) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment which occurs at school and which occurs in college students' workplaces, and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings.
Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Colaneri, Anthony S.
Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from over 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (1) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (2) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment that occurs at school and that occurs in college students’ workplaces and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings. PMID:26983588
Thomas, Charles L.; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of program interventions in a school-based teen pregnancy program on hypothesized constructs underlying teens' attitudes toward sexuality. An important task related to this purpose was the validation of the constructs and their stability from pre- to postintervention measures. Data from 1,136…
Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz
The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…
Nijland, E. A.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Davis, S. R.
Objectives: Study to compare the effects of tibolone and raloxifene on health-related quality of life, sexuality and vaginal atrophy. Methods: A double-blind, randomized study was conducted in 308 osteopenic, but otherwise healthy, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years) who received tibolone 1.25
Using data from a survey of 1,120 young people in the city of Lagos, the study shows that mothers are more involved in discussing sexuality related matters with their children than fathers, and where fathers are involved alone or in conjunction with mothers, the child is likely to be male. The study further shows that while ...
Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert
Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…
Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.
The higher prevalence of health problems in homosexual compared to heterosexual populations is usually understood as a consequence of minority stress. We hypothesized that differential rates of health problems also could result from sexual orientation-related differences in coping styles. We
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Mironova, Polina; Bethell, Jennifer; Manion, Ian
Child sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors are associated, but it remains unclear if the strength of this association differs in boys and girls. In a systematic review of this association in children and youth, we identified 16 relevant studies, all cross-sectional surveys of students. The association is stronger in boys specific to suicide…
Haissig, B E
Concentrations of glucose, sucrose, soluble reducing sugars, starch and total non-structural carbohydrate were determined during propagation of cuttings from sexually mature Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees. Such cuttings rarely initiate adventitious roots whatever the method or duration of propagation. Terminals, needles, and upper and basal stem segments of cuttings were analyzed at Day 0 and every 2 days for 18 days. Comparison of the results with those of earlier studies with cuttings of P. banksiana seedlings, which root readily, indicated pronounced differences in carbohydrate concentrations and partitioning between the two types of cutting. Compared with those from seedlings, cuttings from sexually mature trees exhibited: (1) more total non-structural carbohydrate in each tissue at Day 0; (2) decreasing rather than increasing total carbohydrate (mainly starch) concentrations in each tissue during propagation; (3) different carbohydrate concentration ratios in each tissue during propagation; and (4) higher sucrose concentrations in terminals during propagation, relative to concentrations at Day 0. Cuttings from sexually mature trees also differed from cuttings of seedlings in having a much lower rate of dry matter accumulation during propagation. These findings suggest that the poor rooting ability of cuttings from sexually mature P. banksiana is not attributable to a lack of total carbohydrate, but that the rooting abilities of cuttings from seedlings and from sexually mature trees differ because of differences between the two types of cutting in rates of net photosynthesis and starch metabolism. The difference in starch metabolism becomes apparent during the first 2 days of propagation.
Smith, Kelly B; Pukall, Caroline F
Despite the impact of provoked vulvar pain on women's sexuality and the partnered sexual context in which the pain typically occurs, partners have not been included widely in research. To examine sexual and relationship functioning of male partners of women with provoked vulvar pain symptoms using a controlled design and to assess the impact of the pain on their relationship. Fifty male pain partners and 56 male controls completed questionnaires to assess sexual communication, sexual functioning/satisfaction, sexual esteem, relationship adjustment, and psychological health. Participants also completed numeric rating scales to assess the importance of sex to them and the extent to which they felt their relationship matched a satisfying relationship. To assess the relational impact of vulvar pain, pain partners were asked to indicate whether the pain had impacted their relationship, and, if yes, rated this impact. Main outcome measures included the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Sexuality Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and numeric rating scales. Pain partners reported significantly poorer sexual communication and erectile function and less sexual satisfaction compared with controls. They also reported significantly less affectional expression within their relationships and were more likely than controls to report a discrepancy between their relationship and their idea of a satisfying relationship. Almost 73% (n = 32/44) of pain partners reported a negative relational impact of vulvar pain. No significant differences in sexual desire, orgasmic function, sexual esteem, relationship satisfaction and consensus, psychological health, or importance of sex were found between groups. Provoked vulvar pain partners appear negatively impacted with regard to some sexual and physical aspects of their relationship. As one of the few controlled studies to investigate partner
Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.
Kuete, Martin; Yuan, Hongfang; He, Qian; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Ndognjem, Tita Pale; Yang, Fan; Hu, ZhiZong; Tian, BoZhen; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, HuiPing; Xiong, ChengLiang
The sexual and reproductive health of people living with HIV is fundamental for their well-being. Antiretroviral therapy and reproductive technologies have significantly improved quality of life of people living with HIV in developed countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the epicenter of HIV, the sexual practices and fertility of women infected with HIV have been understudied. To assess the sexual behavior, fertility intentions, and awareness of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in pregnant women with HIV-negative partners in Yaounde Central Hospital (Yaounde, Cameroon). A cross-sectional survey using a semistructured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted at the antenatal unit and HIV clinic in 2014. Ninety-four pregnant women infected with HIV provided consistent information on (i) sociodemographic characteristics, (ii) sexual and fertility patterns, (iii) awareness of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and (iv) their unmet needs. Although sexual desire had significantly changed since their HIV diagnosis, the women were highly sexually active. Approximately 19% of women had more than one sexual partner and 40% had regular unprotected sex during the 12-month period before the interviews (P sexual intercourse and inconsistent condom use to delay pregnancy, but the abortion rate remained high. Age, marital status, and education affected women's awareness of mother-to-child transmission (P children and future pregnancies (rs = -0.217; P = .036). HIV-infected women living with HIV-negative partners in Cameroon expressed high sexual and fertility intentions with several unmet needs, including safer sexual practices and conception. Incorporating and supporting safe sexual educational practices and conception services in maternal care can decrease risky sexual behavior and vertical transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja
The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of their relationship with parents, their global self-esteem, and their experience with various sexual behaviors. Sexually experienced adolescents (n = 168) evaluated their sexual experiences using six emotions. Path model results showed that a higher-quality relationship with parents at T1 predicted higher levels of self-esteem at T2, which in turn predicted less experience with sexual behaviors and more positive sexual emotions at T3. The indirect over-time path from relationship quality through self-esteem to adolescents' sexual emotions was significant; the indirect path to adolescents' experience with sexual behaviors was not significant at the .05 level. No significant age or gender differences were found in the path models. The findings indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in adolescent sexuality and that parents can contribute to positive sexual experiences of adolescents indirectly--through the enhancement of self-esteem--by fostering a high-quality relationship with their children. Implications for theory, future research, and strategies to promote healthy and positive youth sexuality are discussed.
Dec 17, 2012 ... involved alone or in conjunction with mothers, the child is likely to be male. The study further shows that while PCC may not ... remains a leading cause of death and 76 percent of all AIDS related death in the world were recorded in ... like Nigeria (Esiet and Oyebola 2004). This study set out with the aim of.
Results: Less than half (49%) had good nutrition-related knowledge of cancer prevention. ... cereals and grains (χ2 = 13.724; p= 0.000), legumes/nuts (χ2 = 17.268; p = 0.000), meat (χ2= 22.972; p = 0.000), fish χ2 = 23.017; p = 0.000), pastry snacks (χ2 = 36.159; p = 0.000) and sugary drinks (χ2= 6.432; p = 0.011).
Anyanwu, Philip Emeka; Fulton, John
Although sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global health problem affecting every region of the world, the higher prevalence and mortality rate of STIs in developing countries of the world, like Nigeria, make them serious public health issues in this region. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and perception of young adults in Nigeria on the role of condom (both male and female condoms) as a preventive measure against STIs during heterosexual and homosexual intercourse. Data was collected from participants selected from the northern and southern Nigeria using self-administered questionnaire specifically designed for this study. Knowledge of condom efficacy in STI prevention was satisfactory. However, knowledge and practice of the correct use of condom was poor. Only 47.1% of the 102 participants in this study reported correct condom use of wearing condoms before staring intercourse and removing condoms after ejaculation. As a strategy to include the experiences, knowledge and perception of men who have sex with men, this study asked the question on condom use during anal sex. Only 24.4% of the male participants indicated they have never had anal sex while for females, the percentage was more than half (53.5%). Condom use during anal sex was low with only 20.6% of participants reporting condom use during anal sex. Negative perceptions about condom use - such as that condom use promotes sexual promiscuity, and not using condoms with steady sexual partners - were significant in this study. Also, condom use errors were common in this study. There is a wide gap in knowledge of correct condom use in this population. There is need for interventions that address the issue of condom use during anal and same-sex sexual intercourse in this population.
Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G
To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Marks, Gary; Crepaz, Nicole; Senterfitt, J Walton; Janssen, Robert S
To compare the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors in HIV persons aware of their serostatus with that in HIV persons unaware of their status in the United States and to discuss implications for HIV prevention programs. A meta-analysis was conducted on 11 independent findings. Six findings compared HIV(+) aware persons with independent groups of HIV(+) unaware persons (between-group comparisons), and 5 findings compared seroconverting individuals before and after being notified of their HIV status (within-subject comparisons). Outcomes were self-reported unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAV) during specified recall periods. The analysis integrating all 11 findings indicated that the prevalence of UAV with any partner was an average of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45%-60%) lower in HIV persons aware of their status relative to HIV(+) persons unaware of their status. There was a 68% reduction (95% CI: 59%-76%) after adjusting the data of the primary studies to focus on UAV with partners who were not already HIV(+). The reductions were larger in between-group comparisons than in within-subject comparisons. Findings for men and women were highly similar. The prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior is reduced substantially after people become aware they are HIV(+). Increased emphasis on HIV testing and counseling is needed to reduce exposure to HIV(+) from persons unaware they are infected. Ongoing prevention services are needed for persons who know they are HIV(+) and continue to engage in high-risk behavior.
Basen-Engquist, K; Parcel, G S
Using data from a cross-sectional, statewide survey of 1,720 Texas ninth graders in 13 school districts, a model of psychosocial predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sexual risk behavior was tested. Predictor variables in the model, based on variables from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Social Learning Theory, were attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions. Attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy predicted 36.4% of the variance in the intention to limit the number of sexual partners and the same variables plus intention predicted 24.6% of the variance in number of sexual partners in the past year. Attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy regarding condom use predicted 17.0% of the variance in condom use intentions; these variables plus intentions predicted 19.0% of the variance in condom use frequency. Attitudes, norms, and intentions were directly related to the number of sexual partners, while self-efficacy ad condom use intentions were directly related to frequency of condom use.
Taris, T.W.; Semin, G.R.
The moderator effect of gender on (i) the relation between adolescents' sexual experience on the one hand; and (ii) their orientations towards the type of relational and emotional commitment that they expect to be present before engaging in a sexual relationship, and (iii) having a steady partner on
Uses data from an evaluation of a high school sexuality education program to examine gender relations and production of difference. Participating schools incorporated teaching and learning that normalized sexual diversity and explored HIV-related discrimination and homophobia. Discussion of gender, power, and menstruation and heterosexism and…
Williamson, I. R.
This is a chapter in an edited book which dealt with inequalities in the British education system. Because of several policy developments relating to both lesbian and gay rights and educational provision, the chapter has become a little dated. However, at the time the book was well-received and was included on the reading lists of a number of teacher training programmes in the UK. The book received a very favourable review in the Australian publication Journal of Educational Enquiry (Raduntz...
Full Text Available Background: The United Nations Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS of 2006 stressed the need to strengthen policy and programme linkages between HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH. However, the effectiveness and best practices for strengthening SRH and HIV linkages are poorly researched in the context of family-planning services. In Cape Town, HIV-prevention services have been integrated into family-planning services. There are two models of service configuration: dedicated stand-alone reproductive health clinics and family planning services located in comprehensive primary-care facilities.Objective: To describe how reproductive health services are integrating HIV prevention and care strategies and to measure the coverage and quality of these integrated services.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured interviews with facility managers; a facility-based checklist; and a patient record review to assess the availability of resources, training, access, quality and integration.Results: Facilities in Cape Town are equipped adequately to offer integrated HIV-prevention and SRH services. Overall there was poor coverage of integrated services with 54% of family planning clients having a known HIV status; 47% being screened for a sexually transmitted infection and 55% being offered HIV counselling and testing and receiving condoms. Quality and continuity of care seemed better at the dedicated clinics than at the comprehensive facilities,supported by better training coverage.Conclusion: Engaging middle-level management is crucial with regard to improving integration within a well-resourced setting.
Robbers, Gianna Maxi Leila; Morgan, Alison
Continuing international conflict has resulted in several million people seeking asylum in other countries each year, over half of whom are women. Their reception and security in overburdened camps, combined with limited information and protection, increases their risk and exposure to sexual violence (SV). This literature review explores the opportunities to address SV against female refugees, with a particular focus on low-resource settings. A systematic literature review of articles published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Databases including Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature from key refugee websites were searched. Studies were reviewed for quality and analysed according to the framework outlined in the UNHCR Guidelines on Prevention and Response of Sexual Violence against Refugees. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 studies addressed prevention, 14 studies response and 8 addressed both. There are limited numbers of rigorously evaluated SV prevention and response interventions available, especially in the context of displacement. However, emerging evidence shows that placing a stronger emphasis on programmes in the category of engagement/participation and training/education has the potential to target underlying causes of SV. SV against female refugees is caused by factors including lack of information and gender inequality. This review suggests that SV interventions that engage community members in their design and delivery, address harmful gender norms through education and advocacy, and facilitate strong cooperation between stakeholders, could maximise the efficient use of limited resources.
Leeker, Olivia; Carlozzi, Al
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of participant sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on emotional responses to emotional and sexual infidelity. Participants (72 lesbian women, 114 heterosexual women, 53 gay men, and 57 heterosexual men) completed a demographic form, continuous emotion ratings in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, the Infidelity Expectations Questionnaire (IEQ), and the Triangular Love Scale. Sex, sexual orientation, and commitment and intimacy among partners were significant predictors of various emotional responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. Alternatively, passion among partners and expectations about a partner's likelihood of committing infidelity were not significant predictors of emotional reactions to infidelity. Across participants, sexual infidelity elicited more distressing feelings than emotional infidelity. Group differences were also found, with women responding with stronger emotions to emotional and sexual infidelity than men, and heterosexuals rating emotional and sexual infidelity as more emotionally distressing than lesbian and gay individuals. Sex and sexual orientation differences emerged regarding the degree to which specific emotions were reported in response to sexual and emotional infidelity. Clinical implications are offered, including how mental health professionals might use these findings to help clients cope with the negative effects of infidelity on romantic relationships. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle
Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs.
(InVisibilidade do género na sexualidade juvenil: propostas para uma nova concepção sobre a educação sexual e a prevenção de comportamentos sexuais de risco Gender (invisibility in juvenile sexuality: proposals for a new conception about sexual education and prevention against risky sexual behaviors
Full Text Available Neste artigo pretendemos mostrar como o género é um conceito determinante e imprescindível quando se trabalham as questões da sexualidade juvenil, particularmente quando se aborda a sexualidade das jovens adolescentes. A literatura feminista tem alertado para a continuidade dos discursos de vitimização, de medo e de moralidade que continuam a servir, em muitos casos e em muitos países, para justificar conteúdos de programa de educação sexual nas escolas e de campanhas de prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, essencialmente sobre o HIV. Contudo, depois de analisar esses discursos, nota-se claramente a ausência de um discurso emancipador sobre a sexualidade feminina adolescente. Apesar da epidemia do HIV e de o número crescente de mulheres heterossexuais (de todas as faixas etárias, das mais jovens às mais idosas a serem infectadas implicar a necessidade de uma atenção redobrada, esse problema não pode justificar discursos reguladores e tradicionais da sexualidade feminina. São necessários novos discursos emancipadores e de empowerment das jovens adolescentes, de responsabilização de jovens do sexo masculino pelas questões da reprodução e da construção de um projecto igualitário e, ao mesmo tempo, de programas e de campanhas informadas pelo conhecimento existente relativamente às questões do género e à assimetria entre os sexos na vivência da sexualidade.In this article we intend to show how gender is a determining and indispensable concept when juvenile sexual issues are discussed; particularly when we approach the adolescent female sexuality. The feminist literature has been alerting us for the discourse on victimization, fear and morality which, in many cases and in many countries, still justifies contents of sexual education programs in schools and campaigns for prevention against sexually transmissible diseases, especially HIV. However, after analyzing those speeches, it is very clear that they
Full Text Available Behavioral patterns, including sexual behavioral patterns, are usually understood as biological adaptations increasing the fitness of their carriers. Many parasites, so-called manipulators, are known to induce changes in the behavior of their hosts to increase their own fitness. Such changes are also induced by a parasite of cats, Toxoplasma gondii. The most remarkable change is the fatal attraction phenomenon, the switch of infected mice’s and rat’s native fear of the smell of cats toward an attraction to this smell. The stimuli that activate fear-related circuits in healthy rodents start to also activate sex-related circuits in the infected animals. An analogy of the fatal attraction phenomenon has also been observed in infected humans. Therefore, we tried to test a hypothesis that sexual arousal by fear-, violence-, and danger-related stimuli occurs more frequently in Toxoplasma-infected subjects. A cross-sectional cohort study performed on 36,564 subjects (5,087 Toxoplasma free and 741 Toxoplasma infected showed that infected and noninfected subjects differ in their sexual behavior, fantasies, and preferences when age, health, and the size of the place where they spent childhood were controlled (F(24, 3719 = 2.800, p < .0001. In agreement with our a priori hypothesis, infected subjects are more often aroused by their own fear, danger, and sexual submission although they practice more conventional sexual activities than Toxoplasma-free subjects. We suggest that the later changes can be related to a decrease in the personality trait of novelty seeking in infected subjects, which is potentially a side effect of increased concentration of dopamine in their brain.
Træen, B.; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, S. W.
-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011...... was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts....
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Hakimi, Sevil; Aminian, Elham; Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-; Bastani, Parvin; Mohammadi, Marzieh
Overactive bladder syndrome is a common and annoying complication worldwide that could negatively affect the quality of life of afflicted individuals. We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of overactive bladder syndrome and its relation to sexual function in healthy menopausal women. This cross-sectional study was done on 340 women aged 45-60 years in Tabriz, northwest Iran, during 2015-2016. Data were collected using a demographic data questionnaire, the Overactive Bladder Syndrome Score, and the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire. Fifty-six (16.5%), 63 (18.5%), and 10 (2.9%) of the participating women had mild, moderate, and severe overactive bladder syndrome, respectively. Predictors of overactive bladder included: night sweats, central prolapse, episiotomy, varicose disease, illiteracy or education at the primary level, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and lack of physical activity. We found a significant difference between the women with and without overactive bladder with respect to the total score and sub-domain scores related to sex partner (p = 0.029) and sexual interest (p = 0.049). The prevalence of overactive bladder was quite high in this study. Since sexual dysfunction is not an easy topic to talk about and can affect women's quality of life, physicians should consider talking about these issues besides urinary issues to all middle-aged women.
Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W
We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.
Popov, Stefan P; Mateva, Nonka G; Iliev, Yanko T; Dechev, Ivan D; Karalilova, Rositsa V
Sexual fears, sometimes in the form of phobias, lead to aversive or sexually avoidant behavior blocking sexual closeness and resulting in deep personal and interpersonal distress. To determine the types of sexual fears and aversive behavior in young people of reproductive age (students) and their degree of markedness as to encourage a further implementation of prevention programs and interventions. The study included 116 fifth-year medical students in Plovdiv Medical University. Of these, 55 men and 61 women were assessed with the Sexual Aversion Scale, a 30-item self-rating questionnaire. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria of sexual aversion were used. The statistical analyses used were descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test. Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior are mild to moderate, mean score of 1.54 ± 0.04, without statistically significant gender differences. Both sexes have established fear-related sexual aversive motives of sexual behavior related to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. Women have significantly higher average scores for the following statements: fear of sexual intercourse (1.61 vs 1.25), avoidance of situations in which they may be involved sexually (1.95 vs 1.51), avoidance of genital sexual contact (1.44 vs 1.16), fear of catching a sexually transmitted disease (2.46 vs 2.09 ), fear of pregnancy (2.61 vs 2.15) and concerns what other people think of them (2.34 vs 1.93 ). Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior were mild to moderate. In both sexes similar fears--aversive or blocking patterns of sexual behavior were found, mainly associated with the fear of unwanted pregnancy and the risk of HIV infection, more expressed in women.
Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E
This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.