WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventing severe forms

  1. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food‐protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Severe forms of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, Emanuel; Lins, Maria das Graças Moura

    To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Data sources: Search in the Medline database using the terms “severe food allergy,” “anaphylaxis and food allergy,” “generalized urticaria and food allergy,” and “food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome” in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Summary of data: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Operative treatment of severe forms of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovic, V

    1981-10-01

    Hypospadias is a polymorphic congenital malformation. Aside from the main defect-partial hypoplasia of the urethra--there are other associated malformations: meatal stenosis, penile curvature, penoscrotal skin malformations (pterygiae), partial aplasia of the ventral prepuce, and a large dorsal prepuce. Severe forms are accompanied by hypoplasia of the penis. Hypospadias can be divided into simple forms (anterior hypospadias), in which the meatus is located on the distal half of the penis, and severe forms (posterior hypospadias), in which the meatus is located on the proximal half of the penis, the penoscrotal border, scrotal sulcus, or perineum, either primarily or after elongation and chordectomy. The differences are not only morphological but have practical significance. These two types of hypospadias differ as to operative procedure, complications, and operative results, and cannot be compared with each other. Thus hypospadias must not be considered a single entity, as is often done in the literature, as this may lead to misinterpretation of results. Severe forms of hypospadias are a special problem which require more sophisticated corrective procedures; they are associated with a greater incidence of complications and the aesthetic result is not as good as in the other group. After disappointing results using the Denis-Browne, Cecil, and Broadbent methods, we modified Grob's preputial tube-plasty 15 years ago. This technique enables reconstruction of the urethra with a sufficiently large, well-vascularized, non-hair-bearing preputial skin. The new urethra is long and large enough, and grows along with the penis, avoiding secondary curvature. The incidence of postoperative fistulas is low, and secondary closure is simple and safe. The aesthetic result is also satisfactory. The disadvantage of this method, namely the three-stage operative procedure, is compensated for by the low incidence of fistulas, lower operative risk, and shorter duration of each operation

  5. [Severe hemorrhagic form of Rift Valley Fever in Mauritania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushab, M B; Savadogo, M; Sow, M S; Fall-Malick, F Z; Seydi, M

    2015-03-01

    We report three severe cases of hemorrhagic form of Rift Valley Fever which have been observed in the Hospital of Aïoun (two cases) and in the regional hospital of Tidjikdja (one case). The disease manifested itself by an infectious syndrome, an early infectious syndrome (on the second day) with onset of hemorrhagic complications and disorder of consciousness ranging from an agitation to deep coma. The biological examinations showed a severe anemia. Multiple organ failures were also observed. Of the three patients treated one died. Therefore, the management of both suspected and confirmed cases must be initiated as soon as possible in order to control organ damages and prevent fatality. There is no specific treatment. The importance of the epidemiological survey must be emphasized to avoid outbreaks and control any epidemic due to this virus.

  6. Severe form of Legionnaires' disease in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijević Ilija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Legionnaires' disease (LD is a pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila (LP. The disease occurs more often in immunocompromised persons and can be manifested by severe pneumonia, multiple organ failure and has a high mortality. Case report. Immunocompetent patient, male, 53- year old, with severe form of LB had fever, cough, weakness and diarrhea as the initial symptoms of the disease. Laboratory results showed increased number of leukocytes, increased values of acute phase proteins, liver enzymes and hyponatremia. Computed tomography of the chest showed the marked inflammatory lesions on both sides. Pathohystological analysis of the samples retrieved by bronchoscopy pointed to a pneumonia, and diagnosis of LD was confirmed by positive urine test for LP antigen. Later, the disease was complicated by acute adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Treatment with antibiotics (erythromycin, rifampicin, azithromycin combined with ARDS treatment led to a clinical recovery of the patient together with complete resolution of inflammatory lesions seen on chest radiography. Conclusion. In severe pneumonias it is necessary to consider LD in differential diagnosis, perform tests with aim of detecting LP and apply adequate antibiotic treatment in order to accomplish positive outcome of the therapy and prevent complications.

  7. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  8. A severe form of Crouzon's Syndrome: clinical and radiological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Ahmad M.

    2003-01-01

    Craniofacial dysostosis (Crouzon's syndrome) is a well defined, dominantly inherited disorder, described by Crouzon in 1912. It is characterized by several deformities involving the skull,face and eyes. This case report details a rare form of Crouzon's syndrome in which proptosis was so severe that globes were completely proptotic outside the patient's extremely shallow orbits, and the eyelids were undeveloped bilaterally and replaced by small folds of skin. It appears that this is the first report of such a severe form of Crouzon's syndrome. (author)

  9. Preventing drug resistance in severe influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Hana; Deecke, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of influenza. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic for new strains of influenza since there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply periodic treatment. During treatment the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. We combine a mathematical model of severe influenza with a model of drug resistance to study emergence of drug resistance during a long-lasting infection. We apply periodic treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. We compare the efficacy of the two drugs in reducing emergence of drug resistant mutants and examine the effect of treatment frequency on the emergence of drug resistant mutants.

  10. Determination of benefit of early identification of severe forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aims: A pilot study to determine benefits of early identification of severe forms of malaria in peripheral centres was carried out in 3 rural communities of South Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: The study area is located in the rain forest belt of South Eastern Nigeria with high temperature and humidity. It is a typical ...

  11. Antigens for a Vaccine that Prevents Severe Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duffy, Patrick E

    2008-01-01

    .... The long-term objective of this project is to identify and prepare the malaria parasite forms causing severe anemia and then apply functional genomics and bioformatics tools to identify 15 to 30...

  12. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  13. Prevention of heavy missiles during severe PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1994-01-01

    For future pressurized water reactors, which should be designed against core melt down accidents, missiles generated inside the containment present a severe problem for its integrity. The masses and geometries of the missiles as well as their velocities may vary to a great extend. Therefore, a reliable proof of the containment integrity is very difficult. To overcome this problem the potential sources of missiles are discussed. In section 5 it is concluded that the generation of heavy missiles must be prevented. Steam explosions must not damage the reactor vessel head. Thus fragments of the head cannot become missiles endangering the containment shell. Furthermore, during a melt-through failure of the reactor vessel under high pressure the resulting forces must not catapult the whole vessel against the containment shell. Only missiles caused by hydrogen explosions might be tolerable, but shielding structures which protect the containment shell might be required. Here further investigations are necessary. Finally, measures are described showing that the generation of heavy missiles can indeed be prevented. In section 6 investigations are explained which will confirm the strength of the reactor vessel head. In section 7 a device is discussed keeping the fragments of a failing reactor vessel at its place. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs

  14. Is the chemical prevention of gingivitis necessary to prevent severe periodontitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiham, A

    1997-10-01

    Gingival inflammation seldom causes discomfort, social embarrassment or loss of function. As most sites with gingival inflammation do not progress to severe periodontal disease, gingivitis should not be considered a public health problem. Periodontitis is always preceded by gingivitis. But most gingivitis remains stable for years without progressing to periodontitis. The number of gingivitis sites that do convert is small. The levels of oral cleanliness achieved by the majority of populations in industrialized countries are below the threshold for severe destructive periodontal disease of personal and public health concern. Because methods of measuring the progression of periodontal disease are unreliable, definitive answers regarding conversion of gingivitis to severe periodontitis are lacking. Gingival inflammation frequently remains contained; most gingivitis remains stable for years without progressing to periodontitis. Decreasing gingivitis does reduce shallow pocketing, but the effect on severe periodontitis is not clear. Although the underlying justification for the reduction of plaque is to reduce gingival inflammation to prevent or reduce severe periodontitis and tooth loss, the basis for the approach is equivocal. A reasonably high level of plaque appears to be compatible with acceptably low levels of periodontal disease. Reducing nonspecific plaque levels to such levels is therefore a rational goal. The conventional methods of controlling periodontal disease involve mechanical removal of plaque and calculus. A complimentary ecological approach, using chemicals, would be to alter the environment of the pocket to prevent growth of putative pathogens. Any ecological approach should be sensitive to the dangers of disrupting the natural ecology of dental plaque. Some antimicrobial and antimetabolic agents such as fluoride, chlorhexidine and triclosan and zinc citrate can selectively suppress certain organisms or inhibit bacterial proteases implicated in

  15. Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis for Prevention Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document outlines the development of a high fidelity, best estimate nuclear power plant severe transient simulation capability that will complement or enhance the integral system codes historically used for licensing and analysis of severe accidents. As with other tools in the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Toolkit, the ultimate user of Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis and Prevention (ESTAP) capability is the plant decision-maker; the deliverable to that customer is a modern, simulation-based safety analysis capability, applicable to a much broader class of safety issues than is traditional Light Water Reactor (LWR) licensing analysis. Currently, the RISMC pathway’s major emphasis is placed on developing RELAP-7, a next-generation safety analysis code, and on showing how to use RELAP-7 to analyze margin from a modern point of view: that is, by characterizing margin in terms of the probabilistic spectra of the “loads” applied to systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and the “capacity” of those SSCs to resist those loads without failing. The first objective of the ESTAP task, and the focus of one task of this effort, is to augment RELAP-7 analyses with user-selected multi-dimensional, multi-phase models of specific plant components to simulate complex phenomena that may lead to, or exacerbate, severe transients and core damage. Such phenomena include: coolant crossflow between PWR assemblies during a severe reactivity transient, stratified single or two-phase coolant flow in primary coolant piping, inhomogeneous mixing of emergency coolant water or boric acid with hot primary coolant, and water hammer. These are well-documented phenomena associated with plant transients but that are generally not captured in system codes. They are, however, generally limited to specific components, structures, and operating conditions. The second ESTAP task is to similarly augment a severe (post-core damage) accident integral analyses code

  16. Treatment of severe forms of paracoccidioidomycosis: is there a role for corticosteroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Gil; Campos, Aléia F; Netto, Lucas C; Gonçalves, Luiz G; Machado, Luis R; Mimicos, Evanthia V; França, Francisco O S; Gryschek, Ronaldo C B

    2012-08-01

    Despite their immunosuppressive effects, corticosteroids have long been used as adjunct therapy (aCST) in the treatment of infectious diseases. The rationale is that in certain infections it is necessary to decrease the exacerbated host's inflammatory response, which can otherwise result in tissue damage and organ dysfunction. In fact, a major concern in treating paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the host's intense inflammatory response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which can be further intensified by antifungal therapy. Depending on its localization, this immunological phenomenon may be life threatening or result in permanent sequels, as is the case for some patients with cerebral or laryngeal involvement. However, the literature on aCST in paracoccidioidomycosis treatment is scarce and as a result we present our recent experience in the management of four patients with severe PCM manifestations, i.e., cerebral paracoccidioidal granuloma, laryngeal stenosis, compressive abdominal mass, and exacerbated inflammatory response with tissue destruction. In addition to the antifungal therapy, these patients required aCST, which probably promoted their clinical improvement and/or prevented serious complications. We suggest that aCST: (a) can potentially help in the management of selected cases of severe forms of PCM, particularly when there is a risk of acute complications, and (b) that it can be used safely provided that the risk-benefit ratio is carefully weighed. Well-controlled, prospective studies of aCST in the treatment of severe cases of paracoccidioidomycosis are needed to better define its role in the management of PCM.

  17. Severe head injury in children - a preventable but forgotten epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hazardous or compromised environment.' As such, injury must be regarded as a disease, with identifiable causative factors. Severe head injury in a child is a sociological disaster that crosses all ... biochemical monitoring, measurement of arterial oxygen and ... three or more organ systems, musculoskeletal injuries occurred ...

  18. Severe accident prevention and mitigation: A utility perspective - EDF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Current plans have excellent safety records and are cost competitive. For future plants, excellence in safety will remain a prerequisite, as well as increased cost competitiveness. When contemplating solutions to Severe Accident challenges, cost effectiveness is essential in the decision making process. This cost effectiveness must be understood not only in terms of capital cost, but also of Operation and Maintenance costs as well as absence of additional risks to plant operators. Examples are given to illustrate the recommended approach

  19. Lipid Fingerprinting in Mild versus Severe Forms of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Yasmin Gueuvoghlanian-Silva

    Full Text Available The blood serum lipid profile of women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM is still under study. There are no data on the serum lipid profile of GDM patients with more severe (insulin treated compared to milder forms (diet treated GDM. The aim of our study was to analyze the blood serum lipid profile of patients with milder versus more severe forms of GDM and to compare these findings with those of healthy pregnant women. This cross-sectional analytical study included 30 insulin-treated GDM, 30 diet-only GDM and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum lipid was extracted from the 90 participants and their lipid profiles were analyzed by lipid fingerprinting using liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 143 parent ions were differentially represented in each of the three groups, belonging to the following classes: Glycerophospholipids, Sterol Lipids, Sphingolipids, Prenol Lipids, Fatty Acyls and Glycerolipids. There were significant differences in the lipid profiles of healthy pregnant women compared to GDM patients and also between milder versus more severe forms of GDM. There are marked differences in lipid fingerprinting between healthy pregnant women compared to those with GDM in the third trimester. Moreover, the lipid profile of women with more severe forms of GDM differs considerably from that of women with milder forms of GDM. These findings may be useful to help clarify the pathogenesis of milder and more severe forms of GDM.

  20. Adjunctive therapy for cerebral malaria and other severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    John, Chandy C; Kutamba, Elizabeth; Mugarura, Keith; Opoka, Robert O

    2010-01-01

    Severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum causes more than 800,000 deaths every year. Primary therapy with quinine or artesunate is generally effective in controlling P. falciparum parasitemia, but mortality from cerebral malaria and other forms of severe malaria remains unacceptably high. Long-term cognitive impairment is also common in children with cerebral malaria. Of the numerous adjunctive therapies for cerebral malaria and severe malaria studied over the past five decades, only one (...

  1. Natural Disasters under the Form of Severe Storms in Europe: the Cause-Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available For more than 100 years, from 1900 to 2008, there were almost 400 storms natural disasters in Europe, 40% of which occurred in the 1990s. The international prognoses for the world weather suggest a tendency toward increasing in frequency and intensity of the severe storms as the climate warms. In these circumstances, for a researcher in the field of Environmental Economics, a natural question occurs, on whether people can contribute to reducing the frequency and the magnitude of severe storms that produce disastreous social and economic effects, by acting on their causes. In researching an answer to support the public policies in the field, a cause-effect analysis applied to Europe might make a contribution to the literature in the field. This especially considering the fact that international literature regarding the factors influencing global warming contains certainties in regard to the natural factors of influence, but declared incertitudes or skepticism in regard to anthropogenic ones. Skepticism, and even tension arised during the international negotiations in Copenhagen (December 2009 in regard to the agreement for limiting global warming, with doubts being raised about the methods used by experts of the International Climate Experts Group (GIEC, and thus the results obtained, which served as a basis for the negotiations. The object of critics was in regard to the form, and at times in regard to the content. It was not about contesting the phenomenon of Global warming during the negotiations, but the methods of calculation. The methodology relies on qualitative (type top down and quantitative (type correlations bottom up cause-effect analysis of the storm disasters in Europe. Based on the instruments used, we proposed a dynamic model of association of the evolution of storm disasters in Europe with anthropogenic factors, with 3 variants. Results: The diagram cause-effect (Ishikawa or fishbone diagram and quantitative correlation of sub

  2. Bernard Organ Failure Score in estimation of most severe forms of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glišić Tijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite intensive research, efforts and clinical investigations on pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP and system morbidity during the illness onset, mortality is still very high in the group of severe forms. A significantly high number of patients show moderate, self-limited forms of illness, with a minimal degree of systemic or local complications, with full recovery. However, some of them have a severe form, followed by a high percent of morbidity and mortality, and system organ failure. The distinction between mild and severe forms of AP within 24-48 hours of hospital admission is very important for the treatment of these patients. The usage of multifactorial scoring systems holds a lot of promise, reaching reliability in the disease severity estimation of approximately 70-80%. Objective. The main purpose of this prospective study was to assess the correlation of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II and the Bernard Organ Failure Score (BOFS scoring systems in estimation of disease severity and outcome prediction. Methods. Sixty patients with AP participated in the study, all of them scored with the APACHE II and BOFS scores. The results were used for integration of laboratory and clinical parameters. Results. In our study, we had a highly significant correlation between the APACHE II and BOFS scores from the disease onset until the end of treatment. There was a highly significant correlation between these two scores and the serum C-reactive protein concentration level. Conclusion. The concept of the BOFS score has more advantages than the APACHE II score in the patients with severe forms of AP with organ dysfunction.

  3. The development of practice guidelines for the treatment of severe plaque form psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuls, P. I.; Bossuyt, P. M.; van Everdingen, J. J.; Witkamp, L.; Bos, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and introduce evidence-based guidelines for the selection of 5 commonly used treatment modalities--UV-B, photochemotherapy, methotrexate, acitretin, and cyclosporine--for adult patients with severe plaque form psoriasis. PATIENTS AND SETTING: Patients, residents, and

  4. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prosecuting activity relating to human trafficking certifies that the presence of the alien in the United... trafficking in persons. 214.11 Section 214.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 214.11 Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons...

  5. [Etiopathogenesis of aplastic anemia and of the severe form treated with immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulley, F L; Lotério, H A; Massumoto, C M; Llacer, P E; Chamone, D de A

    1989-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is a condition characterized by bone marrow hipoplasia and pancytopenia. Various etiologic agents are related to the acquired form of this disease but in many cases the causative agents remain obscure. Severe aplastic anemia has been treated by immunosuppression and allogeneic marrow transplantation.

  6. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  7. Albumin administration prevents neurological damage and death in a mouse model of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodret, Simone; Bortolussi, Giulia; Schreuder, Andrea B.; Jasprova, Jana; Vitek, Libor; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Muro, Andres F.

    2015-01-01

    Therapies to prevent severe neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus are phototherapy and, in unresponsive cases, exchange transfusion, which has significant morbidity and mortality risks. Neurotoxicity is caused by the fraction of unconjugated bilirubin not bound to albumin (free

  8. Expression and crystallization of several forms of the Propionibacterium shermanii transcarboxylase 5S subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pamela R; Zheng, Run; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; van den Akker, Focco; Carey, Paul R; Yee, Vivien C

    2004-03-01

    The dimeric outer 5S subunit of transcarboxylase has been expressed in three different forms and crystallized: native 5S, 5S-His(6) and selenomethione-5S-His(6). All the crystals have an orthorhombic space group, but while native 5S forms primitive orthorhombic crystals, 5S-His(6) crystals are either C-centered or primitive and SeMet-5S-His(6) crystals are C-centered. Crystallization of native 5S requires the addition of lithium sulfate, whereas this salt prevented crystallization of 5S-His(6). All 5S crystals diffract to approximately 2.0 A resolution with synchrotron radiation. Efforts are under way to solve the structure of SeMet-5S-His(6) using MAD.

  9. The characteristics of severe forms of psoriasis on pigmented skins: A retrospective study of 102 cases in Dakar, Senagal

    OpenAIRE

    Maodo Ndiaye; Fatimata Ly; Pauline Dioussé; Moussa Diallo; Assane Diop; Boubacar Ahy Diatta; Suzanne Oumou Niang; Assane Kane; Mame Thierno Dieng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Severe forms of psoriasis can be life-threatening for patients. Our objective was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic aspects and outcome of severe forms of psoriasis. Methodology: A 18 years retrospective study conducted in the department of Dermatology at Le Dantec hospital listed all the severe forms of psoriasis. Results: We have collected 102 cases of severe forms. The sex ratio was 1.55 and the average age of 47 years. The family histories of ps...

  10. Attachment Style and Less Severe Forms of Sexual Coercion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzas, Gery C; McCabe, Marita P; Karantzas, Kellie M; Pizzirani, Bengianni; Campbell, Hilary; Mullins, Ellie R

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance) is associated with the more subtle and less severe forms of sexual coercion, such as verbal threats and partner manipulation. This is despite the fact that past research has indicated some of the relationship behaviors exhibited by insecurely attached individuals represent behaviors indicative of either the perpetration or victimization of less severe forms of sexual coercion. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association between attachment style and less severe forms of sexual coercion. Our search, which included published journal papers, book chapters, and theses published between January 1970 and October 2014, yielded 1091 records. Examination of these records against exclusion criteria yielded 11 studies that focused on the associations between attachment orientation and perpetration of sexual coercion (n = 3), sexual coercion victimization (n = 3), or both perpetration and victimization (n = 5). Findings revealed that attachment anxiety appeared to be more consistently associated with being the victim of sexual coercion than attachment avoidance. In terms of perpetration, attachment avoidance was more consistently associated with sexual coercion. These findings were observed when examining the association between attachment dimensions and motives for sexual coercion. The findings also revealed gender to be a moderator for victimization. This review provides insights into how attachment style may influence the perpetration and victimization of sexual coercion.

  11. Natural Forms of Vitamin E as Effective Agents for Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Initial research on vitamin E and cancer has focused on α-tocopherol (αT), but recent clinical studies on cancer-preventive effects of αT supplementation have shown disappointing results, which has led to doubts about the role of vitamin E, including different vitamin E forms, in cancer prevention. However, accumulating mechanistic and preclinical animal studies show that other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol (γT), δ-tocopherol (δT), γ-tocotrienol (γTE), and δ-tocotrienol (δTE), have far superior cancer-preventive activities than does αT. These vitamin E forms are much stronger than αT in inhibiting multiple cancer-promoting pathways, including cyclo-oxygenase (COX)- and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-catalyzed eicosanoids, and transcription factors such as nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3). These vitamin E forms, but not αT, cause pro-death or antiproliferation effects in cancer cells via modulating various signaling pathways, including sphingolipid metabolism. Unlike αT, these vitamin E forms are quickly metabolized to various carboxychromanols including 13'-carboxychromanols, which have even stronger anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects than some vitamin precursors. Consistent with mechanistic findings, γT, δT, γTE, and δTE, but not αT, have been shown to be effective for preventing the progression of various types of cancer in preclinical animal models. This review focuses on cancer-preventive effects and mechanisms of γT, δT, γTE, and δTE in cells and preclinical models and discusses current progress in clinical trials. The existing evidence strongly indicates that these lesser-known vitamin E forms are effective agents for cancer prevention or as adjuvants for improving prevention, therapy, and control of cancer. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Effect of health education on severe thalassemia prevention and control in communities in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kimhaung; Fucharoen, Supan; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee

    2018-01-01

    Severe thalassemia diseases are a major health problem in Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, there has never been a significant program for prevention or control of severe thalassemia. We, therefore, studied the effect of a health education program on severe thalassemia prevention and control in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. A quasi-experimental study in several communities around Phnom Penh was done. The respective intervention and control group comprised 124 and 117 people, between 18 and 40 years of age, male and female. Pre- and post-tests using a validated and reliable questionnaire were performed in the intervention group and one test was done in the control group. A health education program was organized to give important information to the intervention group and, at the end of the process, to the control group. The outcomes were evaluations of their knowledge and attitude vis-à-vis severe thalassemia prevention and control, and participating in thalassemia screening. Among participants in the intervention group, 105 (84.7%) considered undergoing blood screening vs. 65 (55.6%) in the control group ( p -value < 0.001). In the intervention group, the respective mean scores for knowledge and attitude to a prevention and control program for severe thalassemia before and after health education were 2.6 VS 6.5 ( p -value < 0.001) and 4.6 VS 6.5 ( p -value < 0.001). The intention to undergo screening was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group. Knowledge and attitude towards prevention and control of severe thalassemia was significantly improved in the intervention group. Health education clearly heightens awareness and improves consideration of screening for prevention and control of severe thalassemia.

  13. [Review of several different forms of psychotherapy in treatment of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogg, W

    2000-02-01

    The present article endeavours to introduce, in a concise form, selected forms of psychotherapy for the treatment of depressions. In particular behaviour therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and a psychoanalytically oriented and inspired therapy, subsequently named psychodynamic therapy (PT), are described. The attempt to offer a brief presentation of these treatment methods follows essentially the descriptions of Elizabeth Schramm in her book "Interpersonelle Psychotherapie". We thank the author for giving her kind consent to our publication. Our main concern is to enable the reader to recognize the essential characteristics and differences between these treatment forms, so that he can give the depressive patient advice on the choice of an adequate treatment. The first three brief psychotherapies have been developed specifically for the treatment of depressions. The psychodynamically (psychoanalytically) oriented approach is the most frequently used. CT, BT and IPT in particular have in common that they offer a temporally limited, clearly structured treatment programme in the sense of a manual, and are thus teachable and conveyable and efficient with respect to costs. We would point out, however, that combinations between the different treatment forms are possible and that a strict distinction between the separate methods is chiefly of didactic value. Essential to all treatment methods is the empathic and supporting relation to the patient. The therapist should play an active role and should convey the hope that the patient can be helped. All the described treatment forms are suited for the treatment of light to moderately severe depressions, with or without concomitant psychopharmacological therapy. In psychodynamic therapy the tendency is to dispense with medication, whereas CB, CT and IPT tend to integrate the use of psychoactive drugs in their treatment schedules. In our opinion psychopharmacological treatment should on no

  14. System 80+TM PRA insights on severe accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnicum, D.J.; Jacob, M.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Weston, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The System 80 + design is ABB-CE's standardized evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design. It incorporates design enhancements based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) insights, guidance from the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD), and US NRC's Severe Accident Policy. Major severe accident prevention and mitigation design features of the System 80 + design are described. The results of the System 80 + PRA are presented and the insights gained from the PRA sensitivity analyses are discussed. ABB-CE considered defense-in-depth for accident prevention and mitigation early in the design process and used robust design features to ensure that the System 80 + design achieved a low core damage frequency, low containment conditional failure probability, and excellent deterministic containment performance under severe accident conditions and to ensure that the risk was properly allocated among design features and between prevention and mitigation. (author)

  15. Impact and prevention of severe exacerbations of COPD: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpin DMG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David MG Halpin,1 Marc Miravitlles,2 Norbert Metzdorf,3 Bartolomé Celli4 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK; 2Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 3Respiratory Medicine, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmBH & Co KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 4Pulmonary Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Severe exacerbations of COPD, ie, those leading to hospitalization, have profound clinical implications for patients and significant economic consequences for society. The prevalence and burden of severe COPD exacerbations remain high, despite recognition of the importance of exacerbation prevention and the availability of new treatment options. Severe COPD exacerbations are associated with high mortality, have negative impact on quality of life, are linked to cardiovascular complications, and are a significant burden on the health-care system. This review identified risk factors that contribute to the development of severe exacerbations, treatment options (bronchodilators, antibiotics, corticosteroids [CSs], oxygen therapy, and ventilator support to manage severe exacerbations, and strategies to prevent readmission to hospital. Risk factors that are amenable to change have been highlighted. A number of bronchodilators have demonstrated successful reduction in risk of severe exacerbations, including long-acting muscarinic antagonist or long-acting β2-agonist mono- or combination therapies, in addition to vaccination, mucolytic and antibiotic therapy, and nonpharmacological interventions, such as pulmonary rehabilitation. Recognition of the importance of severe exacerbations is an essential step in improving outcomes for patients with COPD. Evidence-based approaches to prevent and manage severe exacerbations should be implemented as part of targeted strategies for disease management. Keywords

  16. Animal Maltreatment as a Risk Marker of More Frequent and Severe Forms of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Betty Jo; Fitzgerald, Amy; Stevenson, Rochelle; Cheung, Chi Ho

    2017-07-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature documenting the co-occurrence of animal abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV), only a few studies have examined the relationship between animal maltreatment, types of IPV, and abuse severity. The results of those studies have been inconclusive and in some cases even contradictory. The current study contributes new findings to that specific segment of the literature and sheds some light on the inconsistent findings in previous studies. Data were gathered from 86 abused women receiving services from domestic violence shelters across Canada via a structured survey about pet abuse and the level and types of IPV perpetrated by abusive partners. Type and severity of IPV was measured using subscales of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the Checklist of Controlling Behaviors (CCB). Animal maltreatment was measured using the Partner's Treatment of Animals Scale (PTAS). Participants were divided into three groups: women who did not have pets during their abusive relationship ( n = 31), women who had pets and reported little or no animal maltreatment ( n = 21), and women who had pets and reported frequent or severe animal maltreatment ( n = 34). Examining within-group variations in experiences of IPV and pet abuse using a series of one-way between-groups ANOVA tests, this study provides evidence to support the conclusion that women who report that their partner mistreated their pets are themselves at significantly greater risk of more frequent and severe forms of IPV, most specifically psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The findings point to the urgency of better understanding and mitigating the unique barriers to leaving an abusive relationship faced by women with companion animals.

  17. BONE SEVERE FORM OF HYPERPARATHYROIDISM IN A PATIENT WITH ADENOMA OF PARATHYROID GLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Petrosyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperparathyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies. This disease leads to a violation of phosphorus-calcium metabolism and the washing out of calcium from bone tissue. Breach of the skeleton’s structure in hyperparathyroidism is often mistaken for metastatic bone damage, which leads to incorrect treatment tactics. In this work we present the clinical observation of a patient with an adenoma of the parathyroid gland and a severe bone form of hyperparathyroidism. Multiple lesions of bones with destruction of the cortical layer and the presence of the softtissue component were initially regarded as metastases in the bone. However, the morphological pattern of bone foci, as well as an elevated level of calcium and parathyroid hormone, made it possible to diagnose the bony form of hyperparathyroidism. The search for the cause of hyperparathyroidism revealed a tumor in the projection of the right lower parathyroid gland. Surgical removal of parathyroid adenoma led to the normalization of the level of calcium and parathyroid hormone. The article presents data of laboratory-instrumental methods of research and the results of surgical treatment of a patient.

  18. Update on the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia – focus on free fatty acid forms of omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirillo A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Pirillo,1,2 Alberico Luigi Catapano2,3 1Center for the Study of Atherosclerosis, Bassini Hospital, Cinisello Balsamo, Italy; 2IRCCS Multimedica, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Abstract: High levels of plasma triglycerides (TG are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, often associated with anomalies in other lipids or lipoproteins. Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG, particularly at very high levels, significantly increases also the risk of acute pancreatitis. Thus, interventions to lower TG levels are required to reduce the risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease. Several strategies may be adopted for TG reduction, including lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions. Among the available drugs, the most commonly used for HTG are fibrates, nicotinic acid, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (usually a mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA. These last are available under different concentrated formulations containing high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, including a mixture of EPA and DHA or pure EPA. The most recent formulation contains a free fatty acid (FFA form of EPA and DHA, and exhibits a significantly higher bioavailability compared with the ethyl ester forms contained in the other formulations. This is due to the fact that the ethyl ester forms, to be absorbed, need to be hydrolyzed by the pancreatic enzymes that are secreted in response to fat intake, while the FFA do not. This higher bioavailability translates into a higher TG-lowering efficacy compared with the ethyl ester forms at equivalent doses. Omega-3 FFA are effective in reducing TG levels and other lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients as well as in high cardiovascular risk patients treated with statins and residual HTG. Currently, omega-3 FFA formulation is under evaluation to establish whether, in high cardiovascular risk

  19. Review on Core Designs for Prevention of Severe Accidents in SFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Moohoon; Choi, Yong Won; Shin, Andong; Suh, Namduk

    2013-01-01

    Based on this characteristic of fast reactor core, potential impact of CDA (Core Disruptive Accident) caused by ATWS has been considered as an important safety issue, although it is extremely unlikely. In order to prevent and mitigate the severe accident, the fast reactor core has been designed with various safety features. In this paper, as a part of study to develop the domestic regulatory requirements and guidelines related to SFR core safety, international trends on safety features which have been considered in current SFR cores are reviewed. In order to develop the regulatory requirements and guidelines related to a SFR core design for prevention of CDA, the core safety features were reviewed. The safety features considered in current SFR cores have a function that prevents to progress into next step in accident sequences. The trends on current safety features are as follows: · 'passive shutdown systems' to prevent initiating events such as ULOF, UTOP, ULOHS, etc · 'core designs with low void effect' to prevent the large void reactivity insertion in initiating phase · 'specific provisions for core with conventional positive void effect' to prevent the core recriticality in transition phase Consequently, in regulatory review requirements and guidelines developed for SFR, contents for not only reduction of positive void effect but also features to ensure the safety of overall system should be reflected

  20. [School shootings in Germany: current trends in the prevention of severe, targeted violence in German schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.

  1. Interaction of malaria with a common form of severe thalassemia in an Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, A.; Premawardhena, A.; Arambepola, M.; Samaranayake, R.; Allen, S. J.; Peto, T. E. A.; Fisher, C. A.; Cook, J.; Corran, P. H.; Olivieri, Nancy F.; Weatherall, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    In many Asian populations, the commonest form of severe thalassemia results from the coinheritance of HbE and β thalassemia. The management of this disease is particularly difficult because of its extreme clinical diversity; although some genetic and adaptive factors have been identified as phenotypic modifiers, the reasons remain unclear. Because the role of the environment in the course of severe thalassemia has been neglected completely and because malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has been prevalent in Sri Lanka, we carried out a pilot study of patients with HbE β thalassemia that showed high frequencies of antibodies to both parasite species and that 28.6% of the children had DNA-based evidence of current infection with P. vivax. Malarial antibodies then were assessed in patients with HbE β thalassemia compared with those in age-matched controls. There was a significant increase in the frequency of antibodies in the thalassemic patients, particularly against P. vivax and in young children. There was also a higher frequency in those who had been splenectomized compared with those with intact spleens, although in the latter it was still higher than that in the controls. The thalassemic patients showed significant correlations between malaria antibody status and phenotype. Patients with HbE β thalassemia may be more prone to malaria, particularly P. vivax, which is reflected in their clinical severity. Because P. vivax malaria is widespread in Asia, further studies of its interaction with HbE β thalassemia and related diseases are required urgently as a part of ongoing thalassemia control programs. PMID:19841268

  2. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in...

  3. Persistent effects of a pedagogical device targeted at prevention of severe hypoglycaemia: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfeldt, Sam; Johansson, Calle; Carlsson, Eric; Hammersjö, Jan-Ake

    2005-10-01

    To study the long-term use of self-study material in type 1 diabetes patient education targeted at the prevention of severe hypoglycaemia. Randomized 1:1:1 control study in three local hospitals. We studied 332 type 1 diabetes patients from the geographic population, aged 2.6-18.9 y at entry. The intervention group received a videotape and brochure in which interviewed patients, parents and medical experts reviewed in detail practical skills for self-control and treatment, with the aim of preventing severe hypoglycaemia. There were two control groups: one received a videotape and brochure with general diabetes information and the other only traditional treatment. Primary endpoints were severe hypoglycaemia needing assistance by another person and HbA1c. Dissemination, reading/viewing level, patients' attitudes and extra contact with caregivers were also investigated. At 24 mo, 249 subjects provided data. The yearly incidence of severe hypoglycaemia decreased at 24 mo from 42% to 25% (difference 17%, 95% CI 3-31, p = 0.0241) in the intervention group, but not in controls. HbA1c remained unchanged. Video use during months 13-24 was higher in the intervention group than in controls (p = 0.0477), ranging from 1-15 (median 2) times, among 37% of patients (months 1-12, 100%). Higher future use was anticipated for intervention material (p = 0.0003). Extra caregiver contact was related to severe hypoglycaemia (p = 0.0009). The cost of the material was quality video programmes and brochures may reach high dissemination levels and, when targeted, contribute to the prevention of severe hypoglycaemia over a longer period of time, being a cost-effective complement to traditional care.

  4. Are c.436G>A mutations less severe forms of Lafora disease? A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène-Marie Lanoiselée

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lafora disease is a form of progressive myoclonic epilepsy with autosomal recessive transmission. Two genes have been identified so far: EPM2A and NHLRC1, and a third gene, concerning a pediatric onset subform, has been recently proposed. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman of Turkish origin with an unusual disease course. Clinical onset was at the age of 19 years with tonic–clonic seizures, followed by cognitive impairment; EEG was in favor of Lafora disease, and the mutation c.436G>A (a missense mutation substituting aspartic acid in asparagine in the NHLRC1 gene confirmed this diagnosis. After 5 years of evolution, the patient only has moderate cognitive impairment. Some NHLRC1 mutations, particularly c.436G>A, are associated with a slower clinical course, but there are conflicting data in the literature. This case strengthens the hypothesis that the c.436G>A mutation in the NHLRC1 gene leads to less severe phenotypes and late-onset disease.

  5. Calcimimetic NPS R-568 prevents parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, M; Nagano, N; Furuya, Y; Chin, J; Nemeth, E F; Fox, J

    2000-01-01

    Calcimimetic NPS R-568 prevents parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (secondary HPT) in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is characterized by multiglandular hyperplasia. In this study, we investigated the effects of the calcimimetic NPS R-568 on the parathyroid gland in rats with CRI induced by ligation of the renal arteries and severe secondary HPT induced by dietary phosphorus loading. Six days after surgery, high-phosphorus diet feeding was started, and NPS R-568 was administered to the rats for 56 days either by daily gavage (30 or 100 micromol/kg) or by continuous subcutaneous infusion (20 micromol/kg. day). After 54 days, serum PTH levels in vehicle-treated CRI rats were 1019 vs. 104 pg/mL in sham-operated controls. Infusion of NPS R-568 maintained serum PTH at levels comparable with those of sham-operated controls, whereas daily gavage also prevented much of the increase in CRI controls and decreased PTH levels intermittently in a dose-dependent fashion. Parathyroid gland enlargement was caused predominantly by hyperplasia. Total cell number per kg body wt was 3.5-fold higher in vehicle-treated CRI rats than in sham-operated controls. Both infusion and high-dose gavage of NPS R-568 completely prevented the increase in parathyroid cell number. These results demonstrate that the calcimimetic compound NPS R-568 can prevent both the increase in serum PTH levels and parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with CRI and severe secondary HPT. Moreover, these changes occurred despite decreases in serum 1, 25(OH)2D3 and increases in serum phosphate, suggesting a dominant role for the calcium receptor in regulating parathyroid cell proliferation.

  6. Hatha Yoga as a Form of Physical Activity in the Context of Lifestyle Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabara Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is interrelated with health, physical fitness, and quality of life. The role physical activity plays in the context of lifestyle disease prevention is indisputable. Physical exercises of yoga (hatha yoga are a type of recreational physical activity classified as a form of body and mind fitness. Hatha yoga training consists of slow or fast and smooth entering into, holding, and exiting yoga postures called “asanas”. Besides asanas, a yoga class may also include breathing exercises (pranayama and relaxation exercises. The aim of this paper is to analyse the benefits of regular hatha yoga training in the light of scientific studies in regard to primary and secondary prevention of lifestyle diseases (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory system diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and diseases of the musculoskeletal system in particular. The results of the analysis revealed that regular hatha yoga training including pranayama (breathing exercises produced a reduction in blood pressure and heart rate, improved respiratory functions, decreased blood glucose levels and body mass, as well as improving functional fitness and self-perceived quality of life. Therefore, hatha yoga as a form of physical activity can be a useful intervention for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory system diseases, metabolic diseases, and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, including back pain.

  7. Severe accident analysis to prevent high pressure scenarios in the EPR TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarian, G.; Gandrille, P.; Gasperini, M.; Klein, R.

    2010-01-01

    The EPR TM has incorporated several design features in order to specifically address major severe accident safety issues. In particular, it was designed with the objective to transfer high pressure core melt scenarios into a low pressure scenario with high reliability so that a high pressure vessel failure can be practically eliminated. It is the key issue in the defense-in-depth approach, for a postulated severe accident with core melting, to prevent any risk of containment failure due to possible Direct Containment Heating or due to reactor vessel rocketing which results from vessel failure at high pressure. Temperature-induced steam generator tube rupture, which could lead to a radiological containment bypass, has also to be prevented. On the basis of the analysis of the main high pressure core melt scenarios which are calculated with the MAAP4.07 code which was developed to support the EPR TM, this paper explores the benefits of primary depressurization by dedicated valves on transient evolutions. It specifically addresses the thermal response of the structures by sensitivity studies involving the timing of valve actuation. It outlines that a grace period of at least one hour is available for a delayed valve actuation without inducing excessive loads and without increasing the risk of a temperature-induced steam generator tube rupture. (authors)

  8. Correlation between patient and clinician assessments of depression severity in the PREVENT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W; Li, Thomas; Kornstein, Susan G; Friedman, Edward S; Rothschild, Anthony J; Pedersen, Ron; Ninan, Philip; Keller, Martin

    2010-05-15

    The degree of agreement between patient- and clinician-rated scales of depressive severity varies widely. This study analyzed agreement between commonly used depression rating scales in the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression with Venlafaxine Extended Release (ER) for Two Years (PREVENT) trial. The PREVENT trial was a multiphase, randomized, double-blind study of patients with recurrent major depressive disorder. This secondary analysis evaluated acute (10weeks) and continuation phase (6months) data. Pearson correlation coefficients at each acute-phase (weekly) and continuation-phase (monthly) visit were calculated for patient-rated (30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Rated [IDS-SR30] and clinician-rated (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D17] and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity [CGI-S]) measures and for response and remission. Data from 1,047 patients were analyzed. The respective correlation coefficients at baseline, week 10, and month 6 were: IDS-SR30: HAM-D17: 0.46, 0.75, 0.70; and for IDS-SR30: CGI-S 0.28, 0.67, 0.65. Agreement between IDS-SR30- and HAM-D17-defined remission and response was relatively poor: week 10, 0.52 and 0.34, respectively; month 6, 0.45 and 0.32, respectively. These findings suggest that patient-rated measures of depression severity do not correspond strongly with clinician ratings, and are particularly poor prior to the initiation of treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between patient and clinician assessments of depression severity in the PREVENT study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W.; Li, Thomas; Kornstein, Susan G.; Friedman, Edward S.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Pedersen, Ron; Ninan, Philip; Keller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree of agreement between patient- and clinician-rated scales of depressive severity varies widely. This study analyzed agreement between commonly used depression rating scales in the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression with Venlafaxine Extended Release (ER) for Two Years (PREVENT) trial. Methods The PREVENT trial was a multiphase, randomized, double-blind study of patients with recurrent major depressive disorder. This secondary analysis evaluated acute (10 weeks) and continuation phase (6 months) data. Pearson correlation coefficients at each acute-phase (weekly) and continuation-phase (monthly) visit were calculated for patient-rated (30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Rated [IDS-SR30] and clinician-rated (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D17] and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity [CGI-S]) measures and for response and remission. Results Data from 1,047 patients were analyzed. The respective correlation coefficients at baseline, week 10, and month 6 were: IDS-SR30: HAM-D17: 0.46, 0.75, 0.70; and for IDS-SR30: CGI-S 0.28, 0.67, 0.65. Agreement between IDS-SR30- and HAM-D17-defined remission and response was relatively poor: week 10, 0.52 and 0.34, respectively; month 6, 0.45 and 0.32, respectively. Conclusions These findings suggest that patient-rated measures of depression severity do not correspond strongly with clinician ratings, and are particularly poor prior to the initiation of treatment. PMID:20304503

  10. VITAMIN DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN: MAIN CAUSES, FORMS, AND MEANS OF PREVENTION IN INFANTS AND PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Yu. Volkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture deals with the main causes of development of hypo vitaminoses in infants and preschool children, with the emphasis made on the lack of pathognomonic signs of vitamin in sufficiency, showing the demands for the essential vitamins, and describing the natural sources of their entering the human body. The authors compare the composition of various multivitamin preparations registered in Russian the liquid dosage form convenient for use in 1ctoc7cyearcold children.Key words: avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, prevention, infants, children.

  11. The characteristics of severe forms of psoriasis on pigmented skins: A retrospective study of 102 cases in Dakar, Senagal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maodo Ndiaye

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe forms of psoriasis can be life-threatening for patients. Our objective was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic aspects and outcome of severe forms of psoriasis. Methodology: A 18 years retrospective study conducted in the department of Dermatology at Le Dantec hospital listed all the severe forms of psoriasis. Results: We have collected 102 cases of severe forms. The sex ratio was 1.55 and the average age of 47 years. The family histories of psoriasis were reported in 5 patients. Arterial hypertension was noted in 10 patients, diabetes in 4 patients and obesity in 6 patients. Smoking and alcoholism were found respectively in 10 cases and 7 cases. The average duration of the lesions was 2 years. Phytotherapy was reported in 62 patients (62%. Pruritus was present in 86 patients (84%. The clinical forms of psoriasis were: erythroderma in 76 cases (74.5%, psoriatic arthritis in 14 cases (13.7% and a pustular form in 12 cases (11%. HIV serology was positive in 12 patients. All patients had received a treatment with topical corticosteroids and emollients. Methotrexate was initiated in 57 patients and retinoids in 27 cases. The outcome was favorable in 67 patients (65%. We recorded 6 deaths (6%. Conclusion: The large use of oral phytotherapy medicines and inappropriate treatment precipitated or speeded up the occurrence of severe forms of psoriasis among our patients.

  12. 28 CFR 1100.31 - Procedures for protecting and providing services to victims of severe forms of trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases to the victim. Other forms of mental health... sexually transmitted diseases in cases involving sexual assault or trafficking into the sex industry, as... services to victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons in federal custody. 1100.31 Section 1100.31...

  13. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMizuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin (OT is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults.Method: Eighty-one adults (50 women and 31 men with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p=0.014. Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p=0.027. A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p=0.031. Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress.

  14. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: PWR, large dry containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K.R.; Hsu, C.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Cho, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Maly, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in PWRs with large dry containments have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of risk assessments performed specifically for the Zion plant and from assessments of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the large dry containment to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a PWR with a large dry containment, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were identified. The report is issued to provide focus to the analyst examining an individual plant. The report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic tributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Zion and other PWRs with large dry containments. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance

  15. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: PWR, ice-condenser containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.J.; Perkins, K.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Cho, N.; Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Maly, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions which have been found to be important in either preventing and mitigating severe accidents in PWRs with ice-condenser containments have been identified. Thus features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of risk assessments performed specifically for the Sequoyah plant and from assessments of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the ice-condenser containment to sever accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a PWR with an ice-condenser containment, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. The report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Sequoyah and other PWRs with ice-condenser containments. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance. 14 tabs

  16. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR, Mark II containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Hsu, C.J.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark II containments (BWR Mark II's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Limerick and Shoreham plants and from other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark II to severe-accident containment loads were also noted. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark II, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Mark II plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance

  17. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  18. The combined benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in preventing crashes and reducing crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing injury crashes, due to improved stability and braking performance. Both aspects may prevent crashes but may also reduce the crash severity when a collision occurs. However, it is still unknown to what extent the reductions in injury crashes with ABS may be due to a combination of these mechanisms. Swedish hospital and police reports (2003-2012) were used. The risk for permanent medical impairment (RPMI) was calculated, showing the risk of at least 1 or 10% permanent medical impairment. In total, 165 crashes involving ABS-equipped motorcycles were compared with 500 crashes with similar motorcycles without ABS. The analysis was performed in 3 steps. First, the reduction in emergency care visits with ABS was calculated using an induced exposure approach. Secondly, the injury mitigating effects of ABS were investigated. The mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ were analyzed for different crash types. The distributions of impairing injuries (PMI 1+) and severely impairing injuries (PMI 10+) were also analyzed. In the third step, the total reduction of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists was calculated by combining the reductions found in the previous steps. An additional analysis of combined braking systems (CBS) together with ABS was also performed. The results showed that emergency care visits were reduced by 47% with ABS. In the second step, it was found that the mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ with ABS were 15 and 37% lower, respectively. Finally, the third step showed that the total reductions in terms of crash avoidance and mitigation of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists with ABS were 67 and 55%, respectively. However, PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ leg injuries were not reduced by ABS to the same extent. Indications were found suggesting that the benefits of ABS together with CBS may be greater than ABS alone. This article indicated that motorcycle ABS reduced impairing injuries

  19. Understanding the Social Networks That Form within the Context of an Obesity Prevention Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N=79 completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children’s mean age was 4.2 years (SD=0.9, and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI≥85th percentile. Parents were predominantly mothers (97%, with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD=5.4, and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI≥25. Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t=2.08; P<.05. This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.

  20. Improving preventive service delivery at adult complete health check-ups: the Preventive health Evidence-based Recommendation Form (PERFORM cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moineddin Rahim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effectiveness of a single checklist reminder form to improve the delivery of preventive health services at adult health check-ups in a family practice setting. Methods A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted at four urban family practice clinics among 38 primary care physicians affiliated with the University of Toronto. Preventive Care Checklist Forms© were created to be used by family physicians at adult health check-ups over a five-month period. The sex-specific forms incorporate evidence-based recommendations on preventive health services and documentation space for routine procedures such as physical examination. The forms were used in two intervention clinics and two control clinics. Rates and relative risks (RR of the performance of 13 preventive health maneuvers at baseline and post-intervention and the percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient were compared between the two groups. Results Randomly-selected charts were reviewed at baseline (n = 509 and post-intervention (n = 608. Baseline rates for provision of preventive health services ranged from 3% (fecal occult blood testing to 93% (blood pressure measurement, similar to other settings. The percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient at the end of the intervention was 48.9% in the control group and 71.7% in the intervention group. This is an overall 22.8% absolute increase (p = 0.0001, and 46.6% relative increase in the delivery of preventive health services per patient in the intervention group compared to controls. Eight of thirteen preventive health services showed a statistically significant change (p Conclusion This simple, low cost, clinically relevant intervention improves the delivery of preventive health services by prompting physicians of evidence-based recommendations in a checklist format that incorporates existing practice patterns. Periodic updates

  1. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community-dwelling women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We evaluated the effect of two programs for the prevention of falls leading to acute hospital admission in a population of elderly community-dwelling Danish residents. Methods: This was a factorial, pragmatic, intervention study. We included 9605 community-dwelling city......, or no intervention. Results: The Calcium and Vitamin D program was followed by 50.3% and the Environmental and Health Program by 46.4%. According to a multivariate analysis including age, marital status and intervention program, female residents who followed the Calcium and Vitamin D Program had a 12% risk reduction...... in severe falls (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; pfalls leading to acute hospitalization in community-dwelling elderly females in a northern European region known to be deficient in vitamin D....

  2. Is kyphoplasty better than vertebroplasty at restoring form and function after severe vertebral wedge fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landham, Priyan R; Baker-Rand, Holly L A; Gilbert, Samuel J; Pollintine, Phillip; Annesley-Williams, Deborah J; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The vertebral augmentation procedures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, can relieve pain and facilitate mobilization of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Kyphoplasty also aims to restore vertebral body height before cement injection and so may be advantageous for more severe fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty to restore vertebral height, shape, and mechanical function after severe vertebral wedge fractures. This is a biomechanical and radiographic study using human cadaveric spines. Seventeen pairs of thoracolumbar "motion segments" from cadavers aged 70-98 years were injured, in a two-stage process involving flexion and compression, to create severe anterior wedge fractures. One of each pair underwent vertebroplasty and the other kyphoplasty. Specimens were then compressed at 1 kN for 1 hour to allow consolidation. Radiographs were taken before and after injury, after treatment, and after consolidation. At these same time points, motion segment compressive stiffness was assessed, and intervertebral disc "stress profiles" were obtained to characterize the distribution of compressive stress on the vertebral body and neural arch. On average, injury reduced anterior vertebral body height by 34%, increased its anterior wedge angle from 5.0° to 11.4°, reduced intradiscal (nucleus) pressure and motion segment stiffness by 96% and 44%, respectively, and increased neural arch load bearing by 57%. Kyphoplasty caused 97% of the anterior height loss to be regained immediately, although this reduced to 79% after consolidation. Equivalent gains after vertebroplasty were significantly lower: 59% and 47%, respectively (pconsolidation, but these mechanical effects were similar for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. After severe vertebral wedge fractures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were equally effective in restoring mechanical function. However, kyphoplasty was better able to restore vertebral height

  3. Martensitic transformation in nanostructured TiNi shape memory alloy formed via severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K. [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan)]. E-mail: tsuchiya@pse.tut.ac.jp; Inuzuka, M. [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan); Tomus, D. [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan); Hosokawa, A. [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan); Nakayama, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington (United States); Morii, K. [Research and Development Laboratory, Daido Steel, Co., Ltd. (Japan); Todaka, Y. [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan); Umemoto, M. [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan)

    2006-11-25

    Martensitic transformation and mechanical behavior was investigated on TiNi shape memory alloy subjected to severe plastic deformation by cold rolling. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the sample to be a mixture of nanocrystalline and amorphous material after 40% cold rolling. Diffrential scaning calorimetry measurements and X-ray diffractometry suggested that the martensitic transformation was suppressed when the thickness reduction was over 25%. The pseudoelastic stress-strain curves of nanocrystalline/amorphous TiNi are characterized by the absence of a stress-plateau and by small hysteresis.

  4. Stepwise Reconstruction PROGRAMME of Bohunice V 1 NPP with Regard to SEVERE ACCIDENT Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, M.; Kerak, M.; Severa, M.

    1997-01-01

    Accident Management means - generally speaking - all measures taken to 'rectum the plant to a safe state and mitigate the consequences of accidents' in the design basis as well as the beyond design basis realm. Sometimes accident management is interpreted as reforming in particular to those actions which are taken to cope with beyond design basis accidents, i.e. in very unlikely situations. The objectives of the measures depend on the category of the accident: design basis accident: * to keep systems and the plant within the licensed limits beyond design basis accident: * to prevent severe core damage, especially at high pressure in the reactor pressurize vessel and or * to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents for the environment The system use is different: design basis accident: * operation of systems within design limits beyond design basis accident: * best use of all available systems even beyond their design limits assuming best estimate conditions for components and systems. With respect to the different system uses it is expedient to distinguish between measures to control accidents under design basis accident conditions or to manage beyond design basis accidents. The evaluation of a safety concept should give precedence to the systems fundamental roles in the design basis realm. beyond design basis -accident management should be seen as an additional, last-resort tool to cope with scenarios in the beyond design basis realm and should therefore be treated separately as a supplement to the 'normal' design basis measures

  5. Severed cuff inflation tubing of endotracheal tube: A novel way to prevent cuff deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrut K; Chaudhuri, Souvik; Joseph, Tim T; Kamble, Deependra; Gotur, Gopal; Venkatesh, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    A well-secured endotracheal tube (ETT) is essential for safe anesthesia. The ETT has to be fixed with the adhesive plasters or with tie along with adhesive plasters appropriately. It is specially required in patients having beard, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients or in oral surgeries. If re-adjustment of the ETT is necessary, we should be cautious while removal of the plasters and tie, as there may be damage to the cuff inflation system. This can be a rare cause of ETT cuff leak, thus making maintenance of adequate ventilation difficult and requiring re-intubation. In a difficult airway scenario, it can be extremely challenging to re-intubate again. We report an incidence where the ETT cuff tubing was severed while attempting to re-adjust and re-fix the ETT and the patient required re-intubation. Retrospectively, we thought of and describe a safe, reliable and novel technique to prevent cuff deflation of the severed inflation tube. The technique can also be used to monitor cuff pressure in such scenarios.

  6. IAEA Regional Workshop on Development and Validation of EOP/AMG for Effective Prevention/Mitigation of Severe Core Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Workshop contain 24 presented lectures. Authors deal with development and validation of emergency operating procedures as well as with accident management guidelines (EOP/AMG) for effective prevention and mitigation of severe core damage

  7. Sodium Thiosulfate Prevents Chondrocyte Mineralization and Reduces the Severity of Murine Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Nasi

    Full Text Available Calcium-containing crystals participate in the pathogenesis of OA. Sodium thiosulfate (STS has been shown to be an effective treatment in calcification disorders such as calciphylaxis and vascular calcification. This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of STS in a murine model of OA and in chondrocyte calcification.Hydroxyapatite (HA crystals-stimulated murine chondrocytes and macrophages were treated with STS. Mineralization and cellular production of IL-6, MCP-1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS were assayed. STS's effects on genes involved in calcification, inflammation and cartilage matrix degradation were studied by RT-PCR. STS was administered in the menisectomy model of murine OA, and the effect on periarticular calcific deposits and cartilage degeneration was investigated by micro-CT-scan and histology.In vitro, STS prevented in a dose-dependent manner calcium crystal deposition in chondrocytes and inhibited Annexin V gene expression. In addition, there was a reduction in crystal-induced IL-6 and MCP-1 production. STS also had an antioxidant effect, diminished HA-induced ROS generation and abrogated HA-induced catabolic responses in chondrocytes. In vivo, administration of STS reduced the histological severity of OA, by limiting the size of new periarticular calcific deposits and reducing the severity of cartilage damage.STS reduces the severity of periarticular calcification and cartilage damage in an animal model of OA via its effects on chondrocyte mineralization and its attenuation of crystal-induced inflammation as well as catabolic enzymes and ROS generation. Our study suggests that STS may be a disease-modifying drug in crystal-associated OA.

  8. Repeated influenza vaccination for preventing severe and fatal influenza infection in older adults: a multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Itziar; Domínguez, Ángela; Toledo, Diana; Chamorro, Judith; Astray, Jenaro; Egurrola, Mikel; Fernández-Sierra, María Amelia; Martín, Vicente; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Godoy, Pere; Castilla, Jesús

    2018-01-08

    The effectiveness of repeated vaccination for influenza to prevent severe cases remains unclear. We evaluated the effectiveness of influenza vaccination on preventing admissions to hospital for influenza and reducing disease severity. We conducted a case-control study in 20 hospitals in Spain during the 2013/14 and 2014/15 influenza seasons. Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who were admitted to hospital for laboratory-confirmed influenza were matched with inpatient controls by sex, age, hospital and admission date. The effectiveness of vaccination in the current and 3 previous seasons in preventing influenza was estimated for inpatients with nonsevere influenza and for those with severe influenza who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) or who died. We enrolled 130 inpatients with severe and 598 with nonsevere influenza who were matched to 333 and 1493 controls, respectively. Compared with patients who were unvaccinated in the current and 3 previous seasons, adjusted effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the current and any previous season was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13%-46%) in preventing admission to hospital for nonsevere influenza, 74% (95% CI 42%-88%) in preventing admissions to ICU and 70% (95% CI 34%-87%) in preventing death. Vaccination in the current season only had no significant effect on cases of severe influenza. Among inpatients with influenza, vaccination in the current and any previous season reduced the risk of severe outcomes (adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.76). Among older adults, repeated vaccination for influenza was twice as effective in preventing severe influenza compared with nonsevere influenza in patients who were admitted to hospital, which is attributable to the combination of the number of admissions to hospital for influenza that were prevented and reduced disease severity. These results reinforce recommendations for annual vaccination for influenza in older adults. © 2018 Joule Inc. or

  9. 28 CFR 1100.33 - Access to information and translation services for victims of severe forms of trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to information and translation... Trafficking in Persons § 1100.33 Access to information and translation services for victims of severe forms of... reasonable access to translation services and/or oral interpreter services in the event the victim is not...

  10. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish version of DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale- Child Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin Sapmaz, Şermin; Ergin, Dilek; Şen Celasin, Nesrin; Karaarslan, Duygu; Öztürk, Masum; Özek Erkuran, Handan; Köroğlu, Ertuğrul; Aydemir, Ömer

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorders. (5 th ed.) (DSM-5) Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale- Child Form. The scale was prepared by carrying out the translation and back translation of the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form. The study group consisted of 31 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and 99 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period. For the assessment, the Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was also used along with the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form. Regarding reliability analyses, Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as 0.941, while item-total score correlation coefficients were measured between 0.566 and 0.866. A test-retest correlation coefficient was calculated as r=0.711. As for construct validity, one factor that could explain 66.0 % of the variance was obtained. As for concurrent validity, the scale showed a high correlation with the SCARED. It was concluded that the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form could be utilized as a valid and reliable tool both in clinical practice and for research purposes.

  11. Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette

    2014-05-01

    According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE EFFICACY OF THE COSTS ON SEVERE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL INFECTION PREVENTION WITH PALIVIZUMAB IN PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus plays a significant role in etiology of respiratory infections in infants, and preterm children have muchhigher risk of severe course of the disease, than common population of children at the age less than 2 years old. Palivizumab is usedefficiently to prevent this infection. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the costs on palivizumab in preterm childrenin the Russian Federation. The assessment was based on meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. According to the World Health organization recommendations, the acceptable value of the variable «costs/efficacy» must not be higher than threefold of the gross domestic product per person. On the assumption of this fact, the coefficient «costs/efficacy» for the Russian Federation according to the 2011 year results must not be higher than 1140 thousand rubles per 1 extra year of life. Analysis from the position of health care system shows, that coefficient «costs/efficacy» with palivazumab usage in children with gestation age from 28 to 32 weeks rangesfrom 594,4 to 1030,4 thousand roubles per 1 extra year of life when starting the prophylaxis during first 6 month of life. Under the social perspective of the study (accounting for direct and indirect costs the coefficient «costs/efficacy» decreases to 515,8–951,8 thousands roubles per 1 extra year of life. Thereby, nowadays the prophylaxis of severe respiratory cyncytial infection with palivazumab is acceptable according to the economical point of view in preterm children with the gestation age 32 weeks and less when starting during first 6 months of life.

  13. Management of NPP severe accident by prevention of clad-softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Anil Kumar; Limaye, Sanjay Prabhakar; Bera, Subrata; Deo, Anuj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Specified Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) flow rate is testimony of clad reaching to temperature lower than its softening temperature during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in nuclear reactors. Coolant channel(s) of nuclear reactors with vertical fuel-assemblies e. g. LWRs gets voided in a short time as a result of double ended guillotine rupture in coolant pipeline. There is rapid and almost steep rise in clad temperature due to stored energy and decay heat if ECCS flow rate is less than a specified value. A computer program, based on moving mesh methodology, is developed to calculate rewetting velocity. The program is validated using experimental data. Numerical equations are solved by marching technique. The paper will bring out the fact that if coolant flow is less than a specified value the wet front will not reach the top of the clad. This will result some unrewetted clad portion. As the heating of this unrewetted clad is continued it may result softening of clad. If it happens in many channels the integrity of clad as a whole will be lost. There will be high probability that severe accident will take place. The paper presents a method to prevent softening and thus to ensure accident free operation of nuclear reactor. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the infliximab therapy of severe form of pediatric Crohn's disease in Poland: Retrospective, multicenter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwańczak, Barbara M; Ryżko, Józef; Jankowski, Piotr; Sładek, Małgorzata; Wasilewska, Agata; Szczepanik, Mariusz; Sienkiewicz, Edyta; Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna; Więcek, Sabina; Czaja-Bulsa, Grażyna; Korczowski, Bartosz; Maślana, Jolanta; Iwańczak, Franciszek; Kacperska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Registration of infliximab in Poland has increased chances to induce clinical remission and mucosal healing in the severe form of pediatric Crohn's disease. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the results and safety of infliximab therapy in the severe form of pediatric Crohn's disease. The study included 153 children with severe form of non-fistulizing Crohn's disease treated with infliximab. The clinical activity of Crohn's disease was assessed according to PCDAI scale, endoscopic scoring was graded according to SES-CD, body mass was measured with body mass index (BMI). Infliximab was administered at the dose 5 mg/kg body mass in the 0.2 and 6th week, and then, after clinical response, every 8 for the period of 12 months. One hundred thirty-six children (88.89%) achieved clinical response after induction therapy and 75.21% of children after the maintenance therapy. 39.68% of children achieved remission as graded with endoscopic scoring SES-CD. There was a statistically significant increase in body weight following the treatment. Side effects such as anaphylaxis, rash, and the activation of EBV infection appeared in 9 children at the time of infliximab injection. In other children the drug was well tolerated. Induction and maintenance therapy with infliximab resulted in clinical remission of Crohn's disease in 75.21% of children, and in the intestinal mucosa healing in 39.68% of children.

  15. A New Surgical Procedure "Dumbbell-Form Resection" for Selected Hilar Cholangiocarcinomas With Severe Jaundice: Comparison With Hemihepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Tian, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Li, Dajiang; He, Yu; Li, Zhihua; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a new surgical procedure, dumbbell-form resection (DFR), for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) with severe jaundice. In DFR, liver segments I, IVb, and partial V above the right hepatic pedicle are resected.Hemihepatectomy is recognized as the preferred procedure; however, its application is limited in HCCAs with severe jaundice.Thirty-eight HCCA patients with severe jaundice receiving DFR and 70 receiving hemihepatectomy from January 2008 to January 2013 were included. Perioperative parameters, operation-related morbidity and mortality, and post-operative survival were analyzed.A total of 21.1% patients (8/38) in the DFR group received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), which was significantly jaundice. However, its indications should be restricted.

  16. Probiotics: Prevention of Severe Pneumonia and Endotracheal Colonization Trial-PROSPECT: a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Deborah J; Johnstone, Jennie; Marshall, John C; Lauzier, Francois; Thabane, Lehana; Mehta, Sangeeta; Dodek, Peter M; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Pagliarello, Joe; Henderson, William; Taylor, Robert W; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Golan, Eyal; Herridge, Margaret; Wood, Gordon; Ovakim, Daniel; Karachi, Tim; Surette, Michael G; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Lamarche, Daphnee; Verschoor, Chris P; Duan, Erick H; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Arabi, Yaseen; Meade, Maureen

    2016-08-02

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may confer health benefits when ingested. Randomized trials suggest that probiotics significantly decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the overall incidence of infection in critically ill patients. However, these studies are small, largely single-center, and at risk of bias. The aim of the PROSPECT pilot trial was to determine the feasibility of conducting a larger trial of probiotics to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). In a randomized blinded trial, patients expected to be mechanically ventilated for ≥72 hours were allocated to receive either 1 × 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or placebo, twice daily. Patients were excluded if they were at increased risk of L. rhamnosus GG infection or had contraindications to enteral medication. Feasibility objectives were: (1) timely recruitment; (2) maximal protocol adherence; (3) minimal contamination; and (4) estimated VAP rate ≥10 %. We also measured other infections, diarrhea, ICU and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Overall, in 14 centers in Canada and the USA, all feasibility goals were met: (1) 150 patients were randomized in 1 year; (2) protocol adherence was 97 %; (3) no patients received open-label probiotics; and (4) the VAP rate was 19 %. Other infections included: bloodstream infection (19.3 %), urinary tract infections (12.7 %), and skin and soft tissue infections (4.0 %). Diarrhea, defined as Bristol type 6 or 7 stools, occurred in 133 (88.7 %) of patients, the median length of stay in ICU was 12 days (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 7-18 days), and in hospital was 26 days (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 14-44 days); 23 patients (15.3 %) died in the ICU. The PROSPECT pilot trial supports the feasibility of a larger trial to investigate the effect of L. rhamnosus GG on VAP and other nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Clinicaltrials

  17. Rifampin pharmacokinetics in children, with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, hospitalized for the management of severe forms of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIlleron Helen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifampin is a key drug in antituberculosis chemotherapy because it rapidly kills the majority of bacilli in tuberculosis lesions, prevents relapse and thus enables 6-month short-course chemotherapy. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children with tuberculosis, both human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected. Methods Fifty-four children, 21 human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 33 human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected, mean ages 3.73 and 4.05 years (P = 0.68, respectively, admitted to a tuberculosis hospital in Cape Town, South Africa with severe forms of tuberculosis were studied approximately 1 month and 4 months after commencing antituberculosis treatment. Blood specimens for analysis were drawn in the morning, 45 minutes, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 hours after dosing. Rifampin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For two sample comparisons of means, the Welch version of the t-test was used; associations between variables were examined by Pearson correlation and by multiple linear regression. Results The children received a mean rifampin dosage of 9.61 mg/kg (6.47 to 15.58 body weight at 1 month and 9.63 mg/kg (4.63 to 17.8 at 4 months after commencing treatment administered as part of a fixed-dose formulation designed for paediatric use. The mean rifampin area under the curve 0 to 6 hours after dosing was 14.9 and 18.1 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.25 1 month after starting treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children, respectively, and 16.52 and 17.94 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.59 after 4 months of treatment. The mean calculated 2-hour rifampin concentrations in these human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children were 3.9 and 4.8

  18. Neutronics aspects associated to the prevention and mitigation of severe accidents in sodium cooled reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumerouly, S.

    2010-01-01

    Among all the types of accidents to be considered for the safety licensing of a plant, some have a very low probability of occurrence but might have very important consequences: the severe accidents or Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDA). The studies on the scenario of these accidents are performed in parallel to the prevention studies. In this PhD report, two representative safety cases are studied: the Unprotected Loss Of Flow (ULOF) and the Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB). The objectives are to understand what causes the reactivity increase during these accidents and to find means to reduce the energetic release of the scenario (ULOF) or to find ways to trigger the core prior to the propagation of the accident (TIB). At first, the accidents are studied in static calculations with the ERANOS code system. The accidents are divided into several steps and the reactivity insertions at each step are explained. This study shows the importance of the removal of the structures as well as of the radial leakage changes during the core slumping-down. The study also gives the amounts of fuel to be ejected or of absorber to be injected in both accidents. These values give tracks to the following more accurate studies, the transient studies. The transient studies were performed with the SIMMER code system, coupling thermo-hydraulics and neutronics. SIMMER data and algorithms have been improved so as to better predict ERANOS results (former discrepancies were up to 1.5$). The SIMMER reactivity calculation is improved by 0.8$ with variations of reactivity due to the motion of materials correctly predicted. A new algorithm for the β-effective was implemented in SIMMER so as to be more accurate and easier to manage. SIMMER is then used to calculate the secondary phase of the ULOF, while the primary phase is calculated with ERANOS thanks to some assumptions. The assumptions are very much based on the fact that the movement of materials stops whenever the energy

  19. A prospective, comparative study of severe neurological and uncomplicated hand, foot and mouth forms of paediatric enterovirus 71 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabol, Yoann; Pean, Polidy; Mey, Channa; Duong, Veasna; Richner, Beat; Laurent, Denis; Santy, Ky; Sothy, Heng; Dussart, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we document the clinical characteristics and investigated risk factors for uncomplicated and severe forms of EV-A71 disease in Cambodian children. From March to July 2014 inclusive, all patients with suspicion of EV-A71 infection presenting to Kantha Bopha Hospitals in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap and confirmed by the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge were prospectively enrolled in this study. Throat swabs, rectal swabs and serum samples were collected from all consecutive patients with suspected EV-A71 infection. In addition, CSF was also collected from patients with suspected EV-A71 associated encephalitis. A total of 122 patients (29 with uncomplicated disease and 93 with severe disease) with confirmed EV-A71 infection with all available demographic and clinical data for clinical classification and further analysis were included in the study. In this prospective EV-A71 study in Cambodia, we confirmed the previously reported association of male gender and absence of mouth or skin lesions with severe disease. We also highlighted the strong association of neutrophils in blood, but also in CSF in patients with pulmonary oedema. More importantly, we identified new putative nutrition-related risk factors for severe disease. EV-A71 is an important cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. Further studies to determine the risk factors associated with severe EV-A71 disease are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Severe form of streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis of the upper limb - diagnostic and therapeutic challenge: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since delay in recognition and effective treatment of necrotizing fasciitis (NF caused by invasive group A streptococcus increases the mortality and disability, the early diagnosis and management of this disease are essential for a better outcome. We presented a patient with a severe form of streptococcal NF of the left upper limb in whom amputation was performed as a life saving procedure. Case report. A 65-year-old man, previously healthy, suffered an injury to his left hand by sting on a fish bone. Two days after that the patient got fever, redness, swelling and pain in his left hand. Clinical examination of the patient after admission indicated NF that spread quickly to the entire left upper limb, left armpit, and the left side of the chest and abdomen. Despite the use of aggressive antibiotic and surgical therapy severe destruction of the skin and subcutaneous tissues developed with the development of gangrene of the left upper limb. In this situation, the team of specialists decided that the patient must be operated on submited to amputation of the left arm, at the shoulder. After amputation and aggressive debridement of soft tissue on the left side of the trunk, the patient completely recovered. β-hemolytic streptococcus group A was isolated from the skin and tissue obtained during the surgery. Conclusion. In the most severe forms of streptococcal NF of the extremities, adequate multidisciplinary treatment, including limb amputation, can save the life of a patient.

  1. Regression of Severe Tungiasis-Associated Morbidity after Prevention of Re-Infestation: A Case Series from Rural Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Thielecke, Marlene; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela; Rogier, Christophe; Richard, Vincent; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a neglected tropical disease. Heavy infestation results in mutilation of the feet and difficulty in walking. We identified eight individuals with extremely severe tungiasis in rural Madagascar. To prevent reinfestation, four individuals received solid shoes and four received a daily application of an herbal repellent effective against Tunga penetrans. Over a period of 10 weeks the feet were examined and the severity of tungiasis-associated morbidity was measur...

  2. School Violence in Secondary Education in the Governorate of Mafraq: Forms, Causes and Prevention--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Mohammad S. Bani

    2014-01-01

    This study considers school violence. It was investigated in secondary schools in the governorate of Mafraq. The aim is to identify the forms and causes of the phenomenon; hence to come out with the preventive and remedial measures, accordingly. The study was conducted in one of the secondary schools selected randomly in the city of Mafraq in the…

  3. A novel and de novo deletion in the OCRL1 gene associated with a severe form of Lowe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; de Sousa, Erika; Vega, Cristina; Selgas, Rafael; Nevado, Julián

    2013-12-01

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked disorder. The mutation of the gene OCRL1 localized at Xq26.1, coding for the enzyme phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP2P) 5-phosphatase, is responsible for the phenotypic characteristics of the disease. We report a 22-year-old male with a severe form of OCRL syndrome, diagnosed on the basis of congenital cataracts, severe psychomotor and cognitive deficits, and renal tubular dysfunction without Fanconi syndrome. The patient presented low molecular weight proteinuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, rickets, and growth retardation and developed progressive renal failure. Genetic analysis showed a novel and de novo deletion of exons 10-13 in the OCRL1 gene.

  4. Preventing Schizophrenia and Severe Mental Illness: A Grand Challenge for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a leading cause of disability and health expenditure worldwide and is associated with homelessness, substance use, familial and social isolation, unemployment, involvement with the criminal justice system, stigma, and excess mortality. Prevention may be feasible through intervention with help-seeking "clinical high-risk"…

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin Sapmaz, Şermin; Ergin, Dilek; Özek Erkuran, Handan; Şen Celasin, Nesrin; Öztürk, Masum; Karaarslan, Duygu; Köroğlu, Ertuğrul; Aydemir, Ömer

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form for use among the Turkish population. The study group consisted of 30 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and 83 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period. For reliability analyses, the internal consistency coefficient and the test-retest correlation coefficient were measured. For validity analyses, the exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index for concurrent validity were measured. The Cronbach's alpha (the internal consistency coefficient) of the scale was 0.909, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.663. One factor that could explain 58.5% of the variance was obtained and was congruent with the original construct of the scale. As for concurrent validity, the scale showed high correlation with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index. It was concluded that the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form can be used as a valid and reliable tool.

  6. Successful Prednisolone Therapy in Elderly Patients with Severe Forms of Henoch–Schönlein Purpura Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiko Kato-Okada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recently, Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP has been observed in elderly people, although it was believed to be uncommon in these subjects. The increased risks of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD in adults in comparison with children were highlighted by different studies; however, limited data are available on the treatment of HSP nephritis in adults. Methods Between 2002 and 2008, five elderly Japanese patients (>65 years old (mean age, 68 years, ranging from 65 to 72 with severe forms of HSP nephritis were entered into a prospective study to evaluate prednisolone therapy on the outcome of nephropathy in terms of clinical symptoms and histopathological changes. The patients were considered at risk of developing chronic renal failure when they presented with a nephrotic syndrome and crescentic glomeruli. Results At the last follow-up, 4–10 years after initiation of the therapy, four patients had clinically recovered and one died of lung cancer. No patients developed ESRD. The clinical outcome seemed to be correlated with glomerular activity (massive proteinuria and crescent formation. In spite of a relatively large dose of prednisolone, a few adverse effects, such as insomnia and skin lesions, were observed. Discussion Our preliminary small study suggests that renal outcome as well as survival of elderly patients with severe forms of HSP might be altered by aggressive prednisolone therapy.

  7. The D173G mutation in ADAMTS-13 causes a severe form of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    KAUST Repository

    Lancellotti, S.

    2015-08-13

    Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare form of thrombotic microangiopathy, inherited with autosomal recessive mode as a dysfunction or severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin 1 repeats Nr. 13), caused by mutations in the ADAMTS-13 gene. About 100 mutations of the ADAMTS-13 gene were identified so far, although only a few characterised by in vitro expression studies. A new Asp to Gly homozygous mutation at position 173 of ADAMTS-13 sequence was identified in a family of Romanian origin, with some members affected by clinical signs of TTP. In two male sons, this mutation caused a severe (< 3 %) deficiency of ADAMTS-13 activity and antigen level, associated with periodic thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and mild mental confusion. Both parents, who are cousins, showed the same mutation in heterozygous form. Expression studies of the mutant ADAMTS-13, performed in HEK293 cells, showed a severe decrease of the enzyme’s activity and secretion, although the protease was detected inside the cells. Molecular dynamics found that in the D173G mutant the interface area between the metalloprotease domain and the disintegrin-like domain significantly decreases during the simulations, while the proline-rich 20 residues linker region (LR, 285–304) between them undergoes extensive conformational changes. Inter-domain contacts are also significantly less conserved in the mutant compared to the wild-type. Both a decrease of the inter-domain contacts along with a substantial conformational rearrangement of LR interfere with the proper maturation and folding of the mutant ADAMTS-13, thus impairing its secretion.

  8. Self-determined forms of motivation predict sport injury prevention and rehabilitation intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin K C; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-09-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine how motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) influenced athletes' intentions towards sport-injury rehabilitation (Study 1) and prevention behaviours (Study 2) using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a framework. A cross-sectional survey was employed. Elite athletes (Study 1: N=214; Study 2: N=533) completed the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire and psychometric measures of constructs from the TPB, with respect to their rehabilitation from sport injury in a hypothetical scenario (Study 1), or their injury prevention experiences (Study 2). Partial least squares path analytic models indicated acceptable fit of the hypothesised model in all samples, and consistently found in both studies that autonomous motivation from SDT was positively associated with attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control from the TPB, and these three TPB variables positively predicted intentions of injury rehabilitation and prevention. Controlled motivation from SDT was, unexpectedly, positively linked to intentions, but the effect was smaller than that for autonomous motivation. Motivational regulations from SDT might serve as sources of information that influence athletes' intentions through their impact on the attitude, perceived social norm and controllability of injury rehabilitation and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bundle Prevention Form Filling Completeness of Surgical Site Infection (SSI on Sectio Caesarea Patients in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adita Puspitasari Swastya Putri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs is an infection acquired during a patient undergoing treatment proedur and medical measures in health care facilities within ≥ 48 hours or within ≤ 30 days and infection was observed after the patients leaving the health care facility. The one of Hais what often happens is Surgical Site Infection (SSI so that SSI surveillance is needed for prevention and control of infection. Bundle prevention is an instrument used for data collection the incidence of SSI in Hospital X Surabaya. This study aims to look at the picture of existence, charging and completeness of bundle SSI prevention on patients sectio caesarea in Hospital X Surabaya. The study design used is cross sectional with a total sample of 47 patients were taken by simple random sampling on patients sectio caesarea in January-June 2016. The result showed that 64% of patient records status is not accompanied by SSI prevention bundle with charging and completeness of the data that is still below the predetermined standard that is equal to 80%. Although SSI surveillance is in conformity with the guidelines infection surveillance but there are still some shortcomings in terms of the accuracy of the data so that the information obtained is still not able to be reported as well. Keywords: surveillance, SSI, hospital

  10. Homology blocks of Plasmodium falciparum var genes and clinically distinct forms of severe malaria in a local population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorick, Mary M; Rask, Thomas S; Baskerville, Edward B; Day, Karen P; Pascual, Mercedes

    2013-11-06

    The primary target of the human immune response to the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), is encoded by the members of the hyper-diverse var gene family. The parasite exhibits antigenic variation via mutually exclusive expression (switching) of the ~60 var genes within its genome. It is thought that different variants exhibit different host endothelial binding preferences that in turn result in different manifestations of disease. Var sequences comprise ancient sequence fragments, termed homology blocks (HBs), that recombine at exceedingly high rates. We use HBs to define distinct var types within a local population. We then reanalyze a dataset that contains clinical and var expression data to investigate whether the HBs allow for a description of sequence diversity corresponding to biological function, such that it improves our ability to predict disease phenotype from parasite genetics. We find that even a generic set of HBs, which are defined for a small number of non-local parasites: capture the majority of local sequence diversity; improve our ability to predict disease severity from parasite genetics; and reveal a previously hypothesized yet previously unobserved parasite genetic basis for two forms of severe disease. We find that the expression rates of some HBs correlate more strongly with severe disease phenotypes than the expression rates of classic var DBLα tag types, and principal components of HB expression rate profiles further improve genotype-phenotype models. More specifically, within the large Kenyan dataset that is the focus of this study, we observe that HB expression differs significantly for severe versus mild disease, and for rosetting versus impaired consciousness associated severe disease. The analysis of a second much smaller dataset from Mali suggests that these HB-phenotype associations are consistent across geographically distant populations, since we find evidence suggesting

  11. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…

  12. Carbetocin versus oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in patients with severe preeclampsia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Osvaldo A; Gonzalez, Geneva M

    2011-11-01

    In patients with severe preeclampsia there is an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage, but the hemodynamic changes associated with severe preeclampsia make the management of any kind of bleeding particularly troublesome. There are many pharmacological options for the management of postpartum hemorrhage, oxytocin being the first line of treatment. There is as yet no evidence about the safety and efficacy of using carbetocin, an oxytocin agonist, in these patients. We aimed to compare oxytocin with carbetocin for the routine prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in patients with severe preeclampsia. We performed a prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial in 60 women with severe preeclampsia, recruited between July and September 2010. The women were randomized to receive either oxytocin or carbetocin during the third stage of labour. The primary outcome measure was postpartum hemorrhage requiring additional uterotonics, and the secondary outcome measures were the difference in hemoglobin levels between groups, the development of oliguria, and hemodynamic status (mean arterial pressure and heart rate) after administration of the drug. Carbetocin was as effective as oxytocin in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in women with severe preeclampsia. Carbetocin had a safety profile similar to that of oxytocin, and it was not associated with the development of oliguria or hypertension in this cohort. Carbetocin is an appropriate alternative to oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in women with severe preeclampsia. Considering that it appears not to have a major hemodynamic effect in women with severe preeclampsia and that it uses a lower volume per dose than oxytocin, it should be considered a valid option in the management of the third stage of labour in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  13. Severe forms of fibromyalgia with acute exacerbation of pain: costs, comorbidities, and length of stay in inpatient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeyke T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobias Romeyke,1,2 Elisabeth Noehammer,1 Hans Christoph Scheuer,2 Harald Stummer1,3 1Institute for Management and Economics in Health Care, University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT, Hall in Tirol, Austria; 2Waldhausklinik Deuringen, Acute Hospital for Internal Medicine, Pain Therapy, Complementary, and Individualized Patient-Centered Medicine, Stadtbergen, Germany; 3Institute for Management and Innovation in Healthcare, University Schloss Seeburg, Seekirchen/Wallersee, Austria Background and purpose: As a disease of the musculoskeletal system, fibromyalgia is becoming increasingly important, because of the direct and indirect costs to health systems. The purpose of this study of health economics was to obtain information about staff costs differentiated by service provider, and staff and material costs of the nonmedical infrastructure in inpatient care.Patients and methods: This study looked at 263 patients who received interdisciplinary inpatient treatment for severe forms of fibromyalgia with acute exacerbation of pain between 2011 and 2014. Standardized cost accounting and an analysis of additional diagnoses were performed.Results: The average cost per patient was €3,725.84, with staff and material costs of the nonmedical infrastructure and staff costs of doctors and nurses accounting for the highest proportions of the costs. Each fibromyalgia patient had an average of 6.1 additional diagnoses.Conclusion: Severe forms of fibromyalgia are accompanied by many concomitant diseases and associated with both high clinical staff costs and high medical and nonmedical infrastructure costs. Indication-based cost calculations provide important information for health policy and hospital managers if they include all elements that incur costs in both a differentiated and standardized way. Keywords: fibromyalgia, DRG, cost, length of stay, comorbidities, interdisciplinary care, inpatient care, musculoskeletal, pain

  14. Severe crouch gait in spastic diplegia can be prevented: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillermin, C; Rodda, J; Rutz, E; Shore, B J; Smith, K; Graham, H K

    2011-12-01

    We studied the prevalence of severe crouch gait over a 15-year period in a defined population of children with spastic diplegia and Gross Motor Function Classification System levels II and III, to determine if there had been a decrease following changes to the management of equinus gait. These changes were replacing observational with three-dimensional gait analysis, replacing single level with multilevel surgery, and replacing gastrocsoleus lengthening with gastrocnemius recession. Of 464 children and adolescents with spastic diplegia who underwent three-dimensional gait analysis, 27 had severe crouch gait. Seventeen of these had been managed by isolated lengthening of the gastrocsoleus. Following changes in the management of equinus gait, the prevalence of severe crouch gait decreased from 25% and stabilised at a significantly lower rate, fluctuating between 0% and 4% annually (p spastic diplegia.

  15. Clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure compared to other forms of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougol, Amir; Dugum, Mohannad; Dudekula, Anwar; Greer, Phil; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2017-08-07

    To assess differences in clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure (RF) compared to other forms of organ failure (OF) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Using a prospectively maintained database of patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to a tertiary medical center between 2003 and 2016, those with evidence of persistent OF were classified to renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, or multi-organ (2 or more organs). Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, etiology of acute pancreatitis, and clinical outcomes were prospectively recorded. Differences in clinical outcomes after development of isolated RF in comparison to other forms of OF were determined using independent t and Mann-Whitney U tests for continues variables, and χ 2 test for discrete variables. Among 500 patients with acute pancreatitis, 111 patients developed persistent OF: mean age was 54 years, and 75 (67.6%) were male. Forty-three patients had isolated OF: 17 (15.3%) renal, 25 (21.6%) respiratory, and 1 (0.9%) patient with cardiovascular failure. No differences in demographics, etiology of acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome scores, or development of pancreatic necrosis were seen between patients with isolated RF vs isolated respiratory failure. Patients with isolated RF were less likely to require nutritional support (76.5% vs 96%, P = 0.001), ICU admission (58.8% vs 100%, P = 0.001), and had shorter mean ICU stay (2.4 d vs 15.7 d, P failure. None of the patients with isolated RF or isolated respiratory failure died. Among patients with SAP per the Revised Atlanta Classification, approximately 15% develop isolated RF. This subgroup seems to have a less protracted clinical course compared to other forms of OF. Isolated RF might be weighed less than isolated respiratory failure in risk predictive modeling of acute pancreatitis.

  16. Evaluation of a cavity flooding strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure in a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Je, Moo Sung; Park, Chang Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, TaeJon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-01

    As a part of the evaluation of accident management strategies for severe accident prevention or mitigation in a station blackout scenario for YGN 3 and 4, an external vessel cooling strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure has been estimated using the MAAP4 computer code. The sensitivity studies have been performed such as actuating timings and the number of spray pumps used. To explore external vessel cooling strategies, containment spray pumps were actuated by varying time spanning core uncovery, core melting and relocation of molten core material. It was shown that flooding of the reactor cavity using the containment spray system may prevent reactor vessel failure but may not prevent the failure of the relocation of molten core material during the station blackout sequence of YGN 3 and 4. Reactor vessel failure can be prevented by external vessel cooling using condensed water from the operation of two containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pump at the time of core uncovery. (Author) 46 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Regression of severe tungiasis-associated morbidity after prevention of re-infestation: a case series from rural Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielecke, Marlene; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela; Rogier, Christophe; Richard, Vincent; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a neglected tropical disease. Heavy infestation results in mutilation of the feet and difficulty in walking. We identified eight individuals with extremely severe tungiasis in rural Madagascar. To prevent reinfestation, four individuals received solid shoes and four received a daily application of an herbal repellent effective against Tunga penetrans. Over a period of 10 weeks the feet were examined and the severity of tungiasis-associated morbidity was measured. Within this period, the severity score for acute tungiasis decreased 41% in the shoe group and 89% in the repellent group. The four major inflammation-related symptoms disappeared in the four patients of the repellent group, but only in two patients of the shoe group. Those observations indicate that cases with extremely severe tungiasis, associated morbidity almost totally disappears within 10 weeks if the feet are protected by a repellent. Wearing shoes reduced acute morbidity only marginally.

  18. Design measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents at advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with the current nuclear energy systems. New generations of nuclear power plants are being developed, building upon this background of experience. During the last decade, requirements for equipment specifically intended to minimize releases of radioactive material to the environment in the event of a core melt accident have been introduced, and designs for new plants include measures for preventing and mitigating a range of severe accident scenarios. The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Impact of Severe Accidents on Plant Design and Layout of Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was jointly organized by the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Safety to review measures which are being incorporated into advanced water cooled reactor designs for preventing and mitigating severe accidents, the status of experimental and analytical investigations of severe accident phenomena and challenges which support design decisions and accident management procedures, and to understand the impact of explicitly addressing severe accidents on the cost of nuclear power plants. This publication is intended to provide an objective source of information on this topic. It includes 14 papers presented at the Technical Committee meeting held in Vienna between 21-25 October 1996. It also includes a Summary and Findings of the Working Groups. The papers were grouped in three sections. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  19. Assessment of preemptive treatment to prevent severe candidiasis in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piarroux, Renaud; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Balvay, Patrick; Tran, Véronique; Blasco, Gilles; Millon, Laurence; Boillot, Annie

    2004-12-01

    To assess the efficacy of a preemptive antifungal therapy in preventing proven candidiasis in critically ill surgical patients. Before/after intervention study, with 2-yr prospective and 2-yr historical control cohorts. Surgical intensive care unit (SICU) in a university-affiliated hospital. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients, 478 in the prospective group and 455 in the control group, with SICU stay > or =5 days. During the prospective period, systematic mycological screening was performed on all patients admitted to the SICU, immediately at admittance and then weekly until discharge. A corrected colonization index was used to assess intensity of Candida mucosal colonization. Patients with corrected colonization index > or =0.4 received early preemptive antifungal therapy (fluconazole intravenously: loading dose 800 mg, then 400 mg/day for 2 wks). End points of this study were the frequency of proven candidiasis, especially SICU-acquired candidiasis. During the retrospective period, 32 patients of 455 (7%) presented with proven candidiasis: 22 (4.8%) were imported and 10 (2.2%) were SICU-acquired cases. During the prospective period, 96 patients with corrected colonization index > or =0.4 of 478 received preemptive antifungal treatment and only 18 cases (3.8%) of proven candidiasis were diagnosed; all were imported infections. Candida infections occurred more frequently in the control cohort (7% vs. 3.8%; p = .03). Incidence of SICU-acquired proven candidiasis significantly decreased from 2.2% to 0% (p test). Incidence of proven imported candidiasis remained unchanged (4.8% vs. 3.8%; p = .42). No emergence of azole-resistant Candida species (especially Candida glabrata, Candida krusei) was noted during the prospective period. Targeted preemptive strategy may efficiently prevent acquisition of proven candidiasis in SICU patients. Further studies are being performed to assess cost-effectiveness of this strategy and its impact on selection of azole

  20. The journey from traffic offender to severe road trauma victim: destiny or preventive opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok M Ho

    Full Text Available Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences.Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15, and intensive care admission (ICU or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male, 1955 (18.9% had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4% had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2% required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6% died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7% patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.05, severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14-1.15, and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08-1.11. Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death--all in a 'dose-related' fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0 and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6 compared to before the trauma event.Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or death.

  1. The journey from traffic offender to severe road trauma victim: destiny or preventive opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M; Rao, Sudhakar; Burrell, Maxine; Weeramanthri, Tarun S

    2015-01-01

    Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences. Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA) State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15), and intensive care admission (ICU) or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male), 1955 (18.9%) had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4%) had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2%) required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6%) died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7%) patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.05), severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14-1.15), and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08-1.11). Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death--all in a 'dose-related' fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0) and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6) compared to before the trauma event. Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or death.

  2. Severe Hemorrhage from the Umbilical Cord at Birth: A Preventable Cause of Neonatal Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neetu; Suresh, Gautham

    2013-01-01

    Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe...

  3. Screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency can prevent severe neonatal jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouh, A A; Imseeh, G; Abu-Osba, Y K; Hamdan, J A

    1992-01-01

    Infants with the severe variant of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may develop hyperbilirubinaemia sufficiently severe to cause kernicterus and death, acute haemolysis on exposure to oxidant stress, congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia and, rarely, increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. In spite of these potential problems, G6PD deficiency is often not included among screening programmes for inherited disorders. In a comprehensive screening and educational programme, we tested around 34,000 infants for G6PD deficiency. Of the total group, 18.4% (24.5% boys and 11.8% girls) were deficient. Forty-two of the 6246 (0.67%) G6PD-deficient infants required exchange transfusion. None of them developed kernicterus. By contrast, of 4755 infants who had not been screened because they were born at home, three developed kernicterus. In addition, four G6PD-deficient infants had developed kernicterus in the 20-month period prior to the screening programme. None of the hyperbilirubinaemic infants had blood group incompatibility or any other identifiable cause of hyperbilirubinaemia. To avoid this disastrous result, we believe that neonatal screening for G6PD deficiency, together with a comprehensive education programme, is advisable in those parts of the world where the severe variant of G6PD deficiency is prevalent.

  4. Dental Health Behavior in the Prevention of Pulmonary TB at Health Centre in Several Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indirawati Tjahja Notohartojo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary TB is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. Dental health professionals such as dentists and dental nurses are in charge of health personnel to prevent, treat, cure, teeth the mouth, so as not to arise or aggravate toothache. In doing their job as dental health workers is expected to use gloves or masks, and always wash their hands to avoid the transmission of pulmonary TB disease. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted involving 78 dental health professionals in 50 primary health centers that were chosen in six districts in three provinces of Banten, South Kalimantan and Gorontalo. Data were obtained by interviews and processed using SPSSResults: More than 90% dental health workers in work wore masks gloves and washed their hands after work. There was a signifi cant relationship between exercise with dental health professionals with a p value of 0.007, which means a signifi cant. Conclusion: In performing their duties, dental health workers have already used personal protective equipment such asmasks, gloves, and washed their hands and did enough exercise. Recommendation: need to increase knowledge about pulmonary TB in dental health professionals.

  5. Prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing sub-acute rehabilitation after severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are encouraged to seek information about the former life of patients with severe brain injury. This article...... knowledge about PU care and performing the activities. However, our observations revealed one important additional aspect; a very distinct impression that the healthcare professionals were committed to learning about the patients' former life and actively used this knowledge in their planning and provision...

  6. Severe hemorrhage from the umbilical cord at birth: a preventable cause of neonatal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Suresh, Gautham

    2013-01-01

    Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe that umbilical cord bleeding from errors in cord clamping could be an important cause of acute blood loss in the delivery room and that it may result in significant clinical morbidity, especially in extremely premature infants.

  7. Pastoral care and religious support as a part of treatment of religious patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care and religious support in hospital treatment of a 73-year-old patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis. Case report. The 73- year-old, highly religious patient with severe form of osteoarthritis was admitted at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, due to heterogeneous problems in the activities of daily living. The patient walked with difficulty using a stick, suffered pain, and was anxious and depressive. In order to objectively demonstrate effects of both pastoral care and religious support in this patient we performed multiple treatment with reversal design, in which the basic treatment consisting of hospital care, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy (the treatment A was alternatively changed with the treatment that included combination of the basic treatment and religious support provided by religious physiatrist and physiotherapist (the treatment B or combination of the basic treatment and pastoral care provided by military priest (the treatment C. The treatment A was applied three times and lasted two weeks, every time. Treatments B and C were applied once and lasted three weeks, each. The order of the treatments was: A→B→A→C→A. During the whole treatment period the patient’s condition was assessed by several measuring scale: the level of depression by The Hamilton Rang Scale for Depression and The Zung Self Rating Depression Scale; the level of anxiety by The Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scale; the functional capability of

  8. Pastoral care and religious support as a part of treatment of religious patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurović, Aleksandar; Sovilj, Saša; Đokić, Ivana; Brdareski, Zorica; Vukomanović, Aleksandra; Ilić, Nataša; Milavić-Vujković, Merica

    2017-01-01

    Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care and religious support in hospital treatment of a 73-year-old patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis. The 73- year-old, highly religious patient with severe form of osteoarthritis was admitted at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, due to heterogeneous problems in the activities of daily living. The patient walked with difficulty using a stick, suffered pain, and was anxious and depressive. In order to objectively demonstrate effects of both pastoral care and religious support in this patient we performed multiple treatment with reversal design, in which the basic treatment consisting of hospital care, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy (the treatment A) was alternatively changed with the treatment that included combination of the basic treatment and religious support provided by religious physiatrist and physiotherapist (the treatment B) or combination of the basic treatment and pastoral care provided by military priest (the treatment C). The treatment A was applied three times and lasted two weeks, every time. Treatments B and C were applied once and lasted three weeks, each. The order of the treatments was: A→B→A→C→A. During the whole treatment period the patient’s condition was assessed by several measuring scale: the level of depression by The Hamilton Rang Scale for Depression and The Zung Self Rating Depression Scale; the level of anxiety by The Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scale; the functional capability of patient by The Barthel Index and The

  9. Etiology and severity of various forms of ocular war injuries in patients presenting at an Army Hospital in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Naqvi, Syed Abid; Malik, Sidra; Zulfiqaruddin, Syed; Anwar, Syeda Birjees; Nayyar, Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the etiology and severity of various forms of ocular war injuries in patients presenting at an Army Hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar over four years period from June 2012 through March 2016, Two hundred ten consecutive soldiers who presented with ocular war injuries were included for analysis after taking written informed consent. A predesigned proforma was used to record patient’s demographic details along with the cause, side, type and severity of injury, ocular trauma score was also recorded at presentation. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.34±5.35 years. All of them were males. Left side was more frequently involved (n=126, 60.0%) and the most frequent underlying cause was IED blast injury (n=114, 54.3%). Closed globe injuries were more frequent and were recorded in 120 (57.1%) patients. Upon assigning Ocular Trauma Score, Grade-V (28.6%) injuries were the most frequent followed by Grade-I (25.7%), Grade III (25.7%), Grade II (11.4%) and Grade IV (8.6%). When stratified for the type of injury, OTS Grade I injuries were highest (60.0%) among patients with open globe injuries, hence poorer prognosis, while OTS Grade V injuries were highest (50.0%) among patients with closed globe injuries (p=0.000). Conclusion: IED blast injuries are most frequently encountered ocular war injuries often involving soldiers in the age group 20-30 years. These open globe injuries had worst clinical presentation to begin with and poorer prognosis than closed globe injuries. PMID:28083061

  10. Severe Hemorrhage from the Umbilical Cord at Birth: A Preventable Cause of Neonatal Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe that umbilical cord bleeding from errors in cord clamping could be an important cause of acute blood loss in the delivery room and that it may result in significant clinical morbidity, especially in extremely premature infants.

  11. Severe acute dehydration in a desert rodent elicits a transcriptional response that effectively prevents kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacManes, Matthew David

    2017-08-01

    Animals living in desert environments are forced to survive despite severe heat, intense solar radiation, and both acute and chronic dehydration. These animals have evolved phenotypes that effectively address these environmental stressors. To begin to understand the ways in which the desert-adapted rodent Peromyscus eremicus survives, reproductively mature adults were subjected to 72 h of water deprivation, during which they lost, on average, 23% of their body weight. The animals reacted via a series of changes in the kidney, which included modulating expression of genes responsible for reducing the rate of transcription and maintaining water and salt balance. Extracellular matrix turnover appeared to be decreased, and apoptosis was limited. In contrast to the canonical human response, serum creatinine and other biomarkers of kidney injury were not elevated, suggesting that changes in gene expression related to acute dehydration may effectively prohibit widespread kidney damage in the cactus mouse. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Outcomes of severe uveitic glaucoma treated with Baerveldt implant: can blindness be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Annelie N; Cornelissen, Michiel F; Webers, Carroll A B; Erckens, Roel J; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate long-term outcomes on efficacy and safety of severe uveitic glaucoma treated with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI). A retrospective study of 47 eyes of 47 patients with uveitic glaucoma treated by a BGI between September 2002 and September 2015. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, course of the uveitis, visual acuity (VA) and complications. Mean IOP dropped from 30.6 ± 8.1 mmHg with 3.6 ± 1.1 glaucoma medications at baseline to 10.6 ± 4.3 mmHg with 1.0 ± 1.3 glaucoma medications after a mean follow-up of 63.6 ± 43.1 months. In the majority of cases, IOP remained stable during follow-up. However, especially in several patients with viral uveitis, episodes with IOP peaks were observed during a flare-up despite a functioning implant. These peaks remained below preoperative levels. During follow-up, 16 patients (34%) experienced a clinically significant VA loss, mainly because of late-stage glaucoma or hypotony maculopathy. Early postoperative complications were transient choroidal effusion (n = 5), shallow/flat anterior chamber (n = 4), hyphaema (n = 2) and suprachoroidal haemorrhage (n = 1). The most important late postoperative complication was hypotony maculopathy (n = 5), three of these in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. The BGI is an effective and safe treatment for patients with refractive secondary glaucoma due to uveitis. In a majority of patients, VA remains stable and a low and stable IOP is maintained over time with an acceptable number of complications. In particular, patients with viral uveitis and glaucoma should be closely monitored for IOP peaks that may occur during episodes of a flare-up of uveitis, whereas at the other end of the spectrum, patients with JIA seem much more prone to hypotony maculopathy. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Preventing Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Children. A Randomized Trial of Mite-Impermeable Bedcovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare S; Foden, Philip; Sumner, Helen; Shepley, Elizabeth; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela

    2017-07-15

    Allergen exposure in sensitized individuals with asthma interacts with viruses to increase the risk of asthma exacerbation. To evaluate the use of house dust mite-impermeable bedding and its impact on severe asthma exacerbations in children. We randomized mite-sensitized children with asthma (ages 3-17 yr) after an emergency hospital attendance with an asthma exacerbation to receive mite-impermeable (active group) or control (placebo group) bed encasings. Over a 12-month intervention period, the occurrence of severe asthma exacerbations was investigated. Of 434 children with asthma who consented, 286 (mean age, 7.7 yr; male sex, 65.8%) were mite sensitized, and 284 were randomized (146 to the active group and 138 to the placebo group). At 12 months, significantly fewer children in the active group than in the placebo group had attended the hospital with an exacerbation (36 [29.3%] of 123 vs. 49 [41.5%] of 118; P = 0.047). In the multivariable analysis, the risk of emergency hospital attendance was 45% lower in the active group (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.85; P = 0.006) than in the placebo group. The annual rate of emergency hospital attendance with exacerbations was 27% lower in the active group than in the placebo group, but this did not reach significance (estimated marginal mean [95% CI], active, 0.38 [0.26-0.56] vs. placebo, 0.52 [0.35-0.76]; P = 0.18). No difference between the groups in the risk of prednisolone use for exacerbation was found (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.58-1.17; P = 0.28). Mite-impermeable encasings are effective in reducing the number of mite-sensitized children with asthma attending the hospital with asthma exacerbations but not the number requiring oral prednisolone. This simple measure may reduce the health care burden of asthma exacerbations in children. Clinical trial registered with www.isrctn.com (ISRCTN 69543196).

  14. Secondary benefit of maintaining normal transcranial Doppler velocities when using hydroxyurea for prevention of severe sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafuri, Djamila Labib; Chaturvedi, Shruti; Rodeghier, Mark; Stimpson, Sarah-Jo; McClain, Brandi; Byrd, Jeannie; DeBaun, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    In a retrospective cohort study, we tested the hypothesis that when prescribing hydroxyurea (HU) to children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) to prevent vaso-occlusive events, there will be a secondary benefit of maintaining low transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity, measured by imaging technique (TCDi). HU was prescribed for 90.9% (110 of 120) of children with SCA ≥5 years of age and followed for a median of 4.4 years, with 70% (n = 77) receiving at least one TCDi evaluation after starting HU. No child prescribed HU had a conditional or abnormal TCDi measurement. HU initiation for disease severity prevention decreases the prevalence of abnormal TCDi velocities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  16. A Comparative Study Between Strain And Stress Based Forming Limit Analysis By Applying Several Phenomenological Yield Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butuc, Marilena C.; Vincze, Gabriela T.; Gracio, Jose J.; Barata da Rocha, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present work aims at analyzing a comparative study between the strain-based forming limit criterion (FLD) and the stress-based forming limit criterion (FLSD), under linear and complex strain paths. The selected material is an AA5182-0 aluminium alloy. Some relevant remarks about stress-based forming limit criterion concept are presented

  17. Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in children with severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G; Mahlangu, J; Kulkarni, R; Nolan, B; Liesner, R; Pasi, J; Barnes, C; Neelakantan, S; Gambino, G; Cristiano, L M; Pierce, G F; Allen, G

    2015-06-01

    Prophylactic factor replacement, which prevents hemarthroses and thereby reduces the musculoskeletal disease burden in children with hemophilia A, requires frequent intravenous infusions (three to four times weekly). Kids A-LONG was a phase 3 open-label study evaluating the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a longer-acting factor, recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc), in previously treated children with severe hemophilia A (endogenous FVIII level of hemophilia A. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Measuring personality functioning in older adults: construct validity of the Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Debast, Inge; van Alphen, S P J

    2017-07-01

    The dimensional personality disorders model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 section III conceptually differentiates impaired personality functioning (criterion A) from the presence of pathological traits (criterion B). This study is the first to specifically address the measurement of criterion A in older adults. Moreover, the convergent/divergent validity of criterion A and criterion B will be compared in younger and older age groups. The Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF) was administered in older (N = 171) and younger adults (N = 210). The factorial structure was analyzed with exploratory structural equation modeling. Differences in convergent/divergent validity between personality functioning (SIPP-SF) and pathological traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5; Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire) were examined across age groups. Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, Responsibility, Self-Control, and Social Concordance were corroborated as higher order domains. Although the SIPP-SF domains measured unique variation, some high correlations with pathological traits referred to overlapping constructs. Moreover, in older adults, personality functioning was more strongly related to Psychoticism, Disinhibition, Antagonism and Dissocial Behavior compared to younger adults. The SIPP-SF construct validity was demonstrated in terms of a structure of five higher order domains of personality functioning. The instrument is promising as a possible measure of impaired personality functioning in older adults. As such, it is a useful clinical tool to follow up effects of therapy on levels of personality functioning. Moreover, traits were associated with different degrees of personality functioning across age groups.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection through the Oral Route Promotes a Severe Infection in Mice: New Disease Form from an Old Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barreto-de-Albuquerque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral transmission of Chagas disease has been documented in Latin American countries. Nevertheless, significant studies on the pathophysiology of this form of infection are largely lacking. The few studies investigating oral route infection disregard that inoculation in the oral cavity (Oral infection, OI or by gavage (Gastrointestinal infection, GI represent different infection routes, yet both show clear-cut parasitemia and heart parasitism during the acute infection. Herein, BALB/c mice were subjected to acute OI or GI infection using 5x10(4 culture-derived Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. OI mice displayed higher parasitemia and mortality rates than their GI counterparts. Heart histopathology showed larger areas of infiltration in the GI mice, whereas liver lesions were more severe in the OI animals, accompanied by higher Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase serum contents. A differential cytokine pattern was also observed because OI mice presented higher pro-inflammatory cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF serum levels than GI animals. Real-time PCR confirmed a higher TNF, IFN-γ, as well as IL-10 expression in the cardiac tissue from the OI group compared with GI. Conversely, TGF-β and IL-17 serum levels were greater in the GI animals. Immunolabeling revealed macrophages as the main tissue source of TNF in infected mice. The high mortality rate observed in the OI mice paralleled the TNF serum rise, with its inhibition by an anti-TNF treatment. Moreover, differences in susceptibility between GI versus OI mice were more clearly related to the host response than to the effect of gastric pH on parasites, since infection in magnesium hydroxide-treated mice showed similar results. Overall, the present study provides conclusive evidence that the initial site of parasite entrance critically affects host immune response and disease outcome. In light of the occurrence of oral Chagas disease outbreaks, our results raise important implications in terms

  20. Preschool Children’s Memory for Word Forms Remains Stable Over Several Days, but Gradually Decreases after Six Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Ruth Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on word learning has focused on children’s ability to identify a target object when given the word form after a minimal number of exposures to novel word-object pairings. However, relatively little research has focused on children’s ability to retrieve the word form when given the target object. The exceptions involve asking children to recall and produce forms, and children typically perform near floor on these measures. In the current study, 3- to 5-year-old children were administered a novel test of word form that allowed for recognition memory and manual responses. Specifically, when asked to label a previously trained object, children were given three forms to choose from: the target, a minimally different form, and a maximally different form. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at three post-training delays: 10 minutes (short-term, 2 to 3 days (long-term, and 6 months to 1 year (very long-term. However, children performed worse at the very long-term delay than the other time points, and the length of the very long-term delay was negatively related to performance. When in error, children were no more likely to select the minimally different form than the maximally different form at all time points. Overall, these results suggest that children remember word forms that are linked to objects over extended post-training intervals, but that their memory for the forms gradually decreases over time without further exposures. Furthermore, memory traces for word forms do not become less phonologically specific over time; rather children either identify the correct form, or they perform at chance.

  1. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2000-08-01

    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  3. Carbetocin for prevention of postcesarean hemorrhage in women with severe preeclampsia: a before-after cohort comparison with oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, B; Aya, Agm; Aubry, E; Ripart, J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the incidence of the use of additional uterotonics before and after the change of carbetocin to oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean delivery in women with severe preeclampsia. This was an observational retrospective before-and-after study. Operating room, postoperative recovery area. Sixty women with severe preeclampsia undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia; American Society of Anesthesiologists 3. Observational study. Blood pressure, heart rate, and biological data (hemoglobin, platelets, haptoglobin, prothrombin time index, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, blood uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum urea, serum creatinine, and albumin). The incidence of additional uterotonic administration in the carbetocin and oxytocin groups was 15% and 10%, respectively (P=.70). As carbetocin appears to be as effective and safe as oxytocin in preeclamptic women, its advantages make it a good uterotonic option in this particular setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ROLE OF PASSIVE SAFETY FEATURES IN PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF SEVERE PLANT CONDITIONS IN INDIAN ADVANCED HEAVY WATER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIKAS JAIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor ‘AHWR’ is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  5. Role of Passive Safety Features in Prevention And Mitigation of Severe Plant Conditions in Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.; Dhiman, M.; Kulkarni, P. P.; Vijayan, P. K.; Vaze, K. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2013-10-15

    Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor 'AHWR' is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  6. Maternal early warning systems-Towards reducing preventable maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity through improved clinical surveillance and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwise, Lisa C; Lipkind, Heather S

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing awareness of obstetric safety initiatives, maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in the United States have continued to increase over the past 20 years. Since results from large-scale surveillance programs suggest that up to 50% of maternal deaths may be preventable, new efforts are focused on developing and testing early warning systems for the obstetric population. Early warning systems are a set of specific clinical signs or symptoms that trigger the awareness of risk and an urgent patient evaluation, with the goal of reducing severe morbidity and mortality through timely diagnosis and treatment. Early warning systems have proven effective at predicting and reducing mortality and severe morbidity in medical, surgical, and critical care patient populations; however, there has been limited research on how to adapt these tools for use in the obstetric population, where physiologic changes of pregnancy render them inadequate. In this article, we review the available obstetric early warning systems and present evidence for their use in reducing maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. We also discuss considerations and strategies for implementation and acceptance of these early warning systems for clinical use in obstetrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidized, Regenerated Cellulose Adhesion Barrier Plus Intrauterine Device Prevents Recurrence After Adhesiolysis for Moderate to Severe Intrauterine Adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huihua; Qiao, Lin; Song, KaiJing; He, Yuanli

    2017-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of an oxidized, regenerated cellulose adhesion barrier (Interceed; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) combined with an intrauterine device (IUD) versus an IUD alone for preventing adhesion recurrence following hysteroscopic adhesiolysis for moderate to severe intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). Retrospective case series (Canadian Task Force classification III). Tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients undergoing treatment for moderate to severe IUAs. The severity of IUA was determined based on the American Fertility Society scoring system (mild, moderate, or severe). All cases of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis were reviewed. Seventy-six women with moderate to severe IUAs treated between March 2009 and August 2015 were included. After hysteroscopic adhesiolysis, 35 patients were treated with an IUD alone (group 1), and 41 patients were treated with Interceed plus an IUD (group 2). A second hysteroscopy was performed in all cases three months after the initial hysteroscopy and both groups achieved significant reduction in adhesion scores and grade, especially in group 2 (scores, p < .001; grade, p = .039). Compared with group 1, menstruation dysfunction, pregnancy rate, and live birth rate in group 2 improved with no statistical difference (menstruation improvement, p = .764; pregnancy rate, p = .310; live birth rate, p = .068). However, an adhesion-free uterine cavity was regained significantly owing to the fewer operations in group 2 compared with group 1 (median, 3 vs 4; p = .001). The interval from initial hysteroscopy to conception was significantly shorter in group 2 (median, 12 months vs 51 months; p < .001). For moderate to severe IUAs, Interceed combined with an IUD may be an alternative approach for reducing adhesion recurrence after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [The effects of dancing on the brain and possibilities as a form of rehabilitation in severe brain injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg-Turtiainen, Marjo

    2013-01-01

    Very little research has been done on the effect of dancing on the rehabilitation of patients having a severe brain injury. In addition to motor problems, the symptom picture of the sequelae of severe brain injuries often involves strong fatigability, reduced physiological arousal, disturbances of coordination of attention, difficulties of emotional control and impairment of memory. This review deals with the neural foundation of dancing and the possibilities of dancing in the rehabilitation of severe brain injuries.

  9. Prophylactic magnesium sulphate in prevention of eclampsia in women with severe preeclampsia: randomised controlled trial (PIPES trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Maurya, Dilip Kumar; Manikandan, K; Suriya J, Yavana; Habeebullah, Syed; Raghavan, S Soundara

    2017-10-03

    Optimum dose, route and duration of use of prophylactic magnesium sulphate in women with severe pre-eclampsia is still controversial. We compared the efficacy and safety of 'low-dose Dhaka' regime with 'Loading dose only' regime for seizure prophylaxis in severe preeclampsia using a randomised controlled trial in 402 women. The incidence of eclampsia in the 'low-dose Dhaka' regime group was 1.49% and that in the 'Loading dose only regime' was 2.98% (p = .321). In the low-dose Dhaka regime, injection site abscess and respiratory depression occurred in one woman each. Neonatal outcomes such as Apgar score at 5 minutes (5.0% vs. 8.05% p = .251) and perinatal mortality (20.4% vs. 21.9%, p = .724) were similar in both groups. Loading dose only regime may be considered an effective alternative regime for the prevention of eclampsia in women with severe preeclampsia. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Efficacy of therapeutic short regime magnesium sulphate in eclampsia has already been reported. Data regarding prophylactic short regime in women with preeclampsia is sparse. What the results of this study add: We have shown that short regime of magnesium sulphate using only the loading dose in the prevention of seizure in preeclampsia is an effective alternative to the low-dose Dhaka regime. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: The short regime is less resource-intensive. Further larger studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of this short regime and to establish its cost-effectiveness.

  10. Red peppers with moderate and severe pungency prevent the memory deficit and hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Daily, James W; Park, Sunmin

    2015-01-01

    Dementia induced by β-amyloid accumulation impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis, but red pepper extract improves glucose homeostasis. We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of different red pepper extracts improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats with β-amyloid-induced dementia. Male diabetic rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of β-amyloid (25-35) (AD) or β-amyloid (35-25, non-plaque forming), at a rate of 3.6 nmol/day for 14 days (Non-AD). AD rats were divided into four dietary groups receiving either 1% lyophilized 70% ethanol extracts of either low, moderate and severe pungency red peppers (AD-LP, AD-MP, and AD-SP) or 1% dextrin (AD-CON) in Western diets (43% energy as fat). The ascending order of control memory deficit measured by passive avoidance test and water maze test. Furthermore, the accumulation of β-amyloid induced glucose intolerance, although serum insulin levels were elevated during the late phase of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All of the red pepper extracts prevented the glucose intolerance in AD rats. Consistent with OGTT results, during euglycemic hyperinulinemic clamp glucose infusion rates were lower in AD-CON than Non-AD-CON with no difference in whole body glucose uptake. Hepatic glucose output at the hyperinsulinemic state was increased in AD-CON. β-amyloid accumulation exacerbated hepatic insulin resistance, but all red pepper extract treatments reversed the insulin resistance in AD rats. The extracts of moderate and severe red peppers were found to prevent the memory deficit and exacerbation of insulin resistance by blocking tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid accumulation in diabetic rats with experimentally induced Alzheimer's-like dementia. These results suggest that red pepper consumption might be an effective intervention for preventing age-related memory deficit.

  11. Favism, the commonest form of severe hemolytic anemia in Palestinian children, varies in severity with three different variants of G6PD deficiency within the same community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, N Scott; Sirdah, Mahmoud M; Shubair, Mohammad E; Nelson, Benjamin E; Al-Kahlout, Mustafa S; Al-Tayeb, Jamal M; Aboud, Lina N; Shaban, Maysaa Abu; Luzzatto, Lucio; Prchal, Josef T

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common genetic abnormality known to predispose to acute hemolytic anemia (AHA), which can be triggered by certain drugs or infection. However, the commonest trigger is fava beans (Vicia faba) ingestion, causing AHA (favism), which may be life-threatening especially in children. G6PD deficiency is genetically highly heterogeneous, as nearly 200 different mutations have been observed. We have investigated the hematological features of acute favism in the Palestinian Gaza community that is characterized by the polymorphic coexistence of three different G6PD deficiency genes (G6PD A-, G6PD Cairo, G6PD Med). We have found by comparison to the general population (485 adults and 466 newborns) that children with favism, in terms of relative frequency, G6PD A- was under-represented, whereas G6PD Med was over-represented. We also found that the severity of anemia was significantly greater with G6PD Med and G6PD Cairo than with G6PD A-; and with G6PD Cairo, compared to the other two variants, there was greater hyperbilirubinemia, as well as persistence of mild anemia and reticulocytosis for as long as 4months after recovery from favism. This is the first report determining a differential impact of different G6PD mutations on the clinical features of favism in the same population and the same environment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Child sexual abuse and women's sexual health: the contribution of CSA severity and exposure to multiple forms of childhood victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Céline; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women from the province of Quebec. Results suggest that child sexual abuse survivors were more likely to report having experienced other forms of childhood victimization than were women without child sexual abuse. Women with a history of both child sexual abuse and multiple forms of victimization were at greater risk of experiencing more adverse outcomes, including risky sexual behaviors, sexual problems, and negative sexual self-concept. Regression analyses revealed that child sexual abuse was significantly related to indicators of sexual health outcomes even when controlling for the effect of single forms of victimization. Clinically, interventions optimizing sexual health may be particularly helpful for a subgroup of child sexual abuse survivors.

  13. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crewther Sheila G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  14. The Impact of Rurality on 30-Day Preventable Readmission, Illness Severity, and Risk of Mortality for Heart Failure Medicare Home Health Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Carlson, Erin; Popoola, Taiye; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of rurality on 30-day preventable readmission, and the illness severity and risk of mortality for 30-day preventable readmissions. We analyzed heart failure Medicare beneficiaries who received home health services for postacute care after hospital discharge in 2009. The study was a cross-sectional design with the unit of analysis as the home health episode for postacute care. Data sources included the following: Medicare Beneficiary Summary File, Medicare Provider Analysis Review, Outcome Assessment Information Set, Home Health Agency Research Identifiable File, and Area Health Resources File. The dependent variables were 30-day preventable readmission, and the extreme/major level of illness severity and of risk of mortality for a 30-day preventable readmission. The key independent variable was rurality defined as remote rural, adjacent rural, and micropolitan areas, with urban areas in the reference group. Home health beneficiaries in remote rural areas had 27% lower 30-day preventable readmission than those in urban areas. Home health beneficiaries in adjacent rural areas were 33% less likely to have high illness severity at readmission due to a preventable condition than those in urban areas. Geographical location affects preventable readmission and illness severity of preventable readmission. Patients' geographic location along with patients' risk factors should be taken into consideration in the risk adjustment model for the financial incentive program that penalizes home health agencies with high preventable readmissions. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  16. Examining Concurrent Validity and Predictive Utility for the Addiction Severity Index and Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Jennifer; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Knight, Kevin; Meason, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Treatment providers need tools that are designed to identify risk, treatment needs, and monitor client engagement. These are essential components in substance abuse treatment for offender populations. In this study, the authors evaluated a flexible set of one-page modular assessments known as the Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms and…

  17. Reduced Expression of FOXP3 and Regulatory T-Cell Function in Severe Forms of Early-onset Autoimmune Enteropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Nicolette; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Begue, Bernadette; Verdier, Julien; Neven, Benedicte; Patey, Natacha; Torgerson, Troy T.; Picard, Capucine; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Ruemmele, Corinne; Rings, Edmond Hhm; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Piloquet, Hugues; Biver, Armand; Breton, Anne; Ochs, Hans D.; Hermine, Olivier; Fischer, Alain; Goulet, Olivier; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Ruemmele, Frank M.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the pathophysiology of early onset forms of autoimmune enteropathy (AIE). AIE has been associated with mutations in FOXP3-a transcription factor that controls regulatory T-cell development and function. We analyzed the molecular basis of neonatal or early

  18. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  19. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS) Short Forms with Out-of-Home Care Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.; Stevens, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a need for brief progress monitoring measures of behavioral and emotional symptoms for youth in out-of-home care. The Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al. in Manual of the peabody treatment progress battery. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 2010) is one measure that has clinician and youth short forms…

  1. δ-Tocotrienol, a natural form of vitamin E, inhibits pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and prevents pancreatic cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Kazim; Centeno, Barbara A; Coppola, Domenico; Trevino, Jose; Sebti, Said M; Malafa, Mokenge P

    2017-05-09

    The growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by the activation and growth of tumor-initiating cells in distant organs that have stem-like properties. Thus, inhibiting growth of these cells may prevent PDAC growth and metastases. We have demonstrated that δ-tocotrienol, a natural form of vitamin E (VEDT), is bioactive against cancer, delays progression, and prevents metastases in transgenic mouse models of PDAC. In this report, we provide the first evidence that VEDT selectively inhibits PDAC stem-like cells. VEDT inhibited the viability, survival, self-renewal, and expression of Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors in 3 models of PDAC stem-like cells. In addition, VEDT inhibited the migration, invasion, and several biomarkers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in PDAC cells and tumors. These processes are critical for tumor metastases. Furthermore, in the L3.6pl orthotopic model of PDAC metastases, VEDT significantly inhibited growth and metastases of these cells. Finally, in an orthotopic xenograft model of human PDAC stem-like cells, we showed that VEDT significantly retarded the growth and metastases of gemcitabine-resistant PDAC human stem-like cells. Because VEDT has been shown to be safe and to reach bioactive levels in humans, this work supports investigating VEDT for chemoprevention of PDAC metastases.

  2. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  3. Morphological characterization of mycorrhizae formed between three Terfezia species (desert truffles) and several Cistaceae and Aleppo pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitouni-Haouar, Fatima El-Houaria; Fortas, Zohra; Chevalier, Gerard

    2014-07-01

    Six Cistaceae species, Helianthemum ledifolium, Helianthemum lippii, Fumana procumbens, Cistus albidus, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, and Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) were inoculated with three mycorrhizal desert truffles, Terfezia leptoderma, Terfezia boudieri, and Terfezia claveryi under greenhouse conditions, on soil originating from desert truffle natural habitat in Algeria. The syntheses have led to the formation of typical endomycorrhizae in annual Cistaceae (H. ledifolium) and perennial ones (H. lippii and F. procumbens) and an ectomycorrhiza with a less developed sheath in Cistus species and Aleppo pine. These results demonstrate the plasticity of Terfezia species to form different mycorrhizal types. The formation of an endomycorrhiza with H. ledifolium and F. procumbens and a sheathing ectomycorrhiza with P. halepensis inoculated by T. leptoderma in in vivo culture conditions was obtained for the first time.

  4. The effect of LED-light action on microbial colony forming ability of several species of staphylococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Permyakova, Natalia F.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) now is widespread for treatment of the various skin infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes or Staphylococcii spp. We used PDT for influence on opportunistic microflora of human skin presented by Staphylococcus hominis, S. warnery, S. epidermidis S. aureus 209 P, S. aureus 69. Species S. epidermidis, S. aureus 209 P, S. hominis to some extent reduced colonies forming ability under action of dual wavelength LED-light (442 nm and 597 nm). For species S. warnery, S. aureus 69 the increase in CFU number under action of light relative to control was characteristic. Our experiments have shown, that phototherapy can be used for treatment of diseases associated with S. aureus 209 P. The doze 8 J/cm2 caused reduction in CFU of this species on 40% relative to control.

  5. Mutations in linker for activation of T cells (LAT) lead to a novel form of severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchelli, Chiara; Moretti, Federico A; Carmo, Marlene; Adams, Stuart; Stanescu, Horia C; Pearce, Kerra; Madkaikar, Manisha; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Nicholas, Adeline K; Woods, C Geoffrey; Kleta, Robert; Beales, Phil L; Qasim, Waseem; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2017-02-01

    Signaling through the T-cell receptor (TCR) is critical for T-cell development and function. Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a transmembrane adaptor signaling molecule that is part of the TCR complex and essential for T-cell development, as demonstrated by LAT-deficient mice, which show a complete lack of peripheral T cells. We describe a pedigree affected by a severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype with absent T cells and normal B-cell and natural killer cell numbers. A novel homozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding for LAT was identified in this kindred. Genetic, molecular, and functional analyses were used to identify and characterize the LAT defect. Clinical and immunologic analysis of patients was also performed and reported. Homozygosity mapping was used to identify potential defective genes. Sanger sequencing of the LAT gene showed a mutation that resulted in a premature stop codon and protein truncation leading to complete loss of function and loss of expression of LAT in the affected family members. We also demonstrate loss of LAT expression and lack of TCR signaling restoration in LAT-deficient cell lines reconstituted with a synthetic LAT gene bearing this severe combined immunodeficiency mutation. For the first time, the results of this study show that inherited LAT deficiency should be considered in patients with combined immunodeficiency with T-cell abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ forming oxidised hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel for prevention of epidural fibrosis after laminectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M H; Yang, K C; Sun, Y H; Chen, Y C; Yang, S H; Lin, F H

    2017-11-13

    Post-operative epidural fibrosis is a biological response after laminectomy that may lead to clinical symptoms, such as radicular pain. An ideal material for prevention of epidural fibrosis should be able to inhibit fibroblast adhesions and reduce formation of scar tissue. An injectable hydrogel would be the material of choice for this purpose, since it could fill an irregular surgical defect completely, gelate in situ and be delivered in a minimally-invasive manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the cytocompatibility and anti-adhesive effect of an oxidised hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide (oxi-HA/ADH) hydrogel. Different cell types present in the spine were used to test the cytocompatibility of the hydrogel. The hydrogel extraction medium had no deleterious effects on neural cells (PC-12), but reduced fibroblasts viability (NIH/3T3). Although the hydrogel did not change the release of lactate dehydrogenase from myoblasts (C2C12) and Schwann cells (RSC96), the extraction medium concentration slightly affected the mitochondrial activity of these two cell types. qPCR showed that the hydrogel down-regulated S100a and P4hb expression in NIH/3T3 cells, supporting the hypothesis that the hydrogel might inhibit fibroblast activity. The animal study showed a reduction of scar tissue formation as well as severity of adhesion between scar tissue and the dura mater in a rat laminectomy model. Superficially, the peel-off test showed significantly decreased tenacity. In conclusion, the oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel is a promising injectable and thermosensitive material for prevention of post-operative epidural fibrosis.

  7. Enhanced 911/global position system wizard: a telemedicine application for the prevention of severe hypoglycemia--monitor, alert, and locate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassau, Eyal; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J; Zisser, Howard C

    2009-11-01

    Intensive insulin therapy has an inherent risk of hypoglycemia that can lead to loss of consciousness, cardiac arrhythmia, seizure, and death ("dead-in-bed syndrome"). This risk of hypoglycemia is a major concern for patients, families, and physicians. The need for an automated system that can alert in the event of severe hypoglycemia is evident. In engineering systems, where there is a risk of malfunction of the primary control system, alert and safety mechanisms are implemented in layers of protection. This concept has been adopted in the proposed system that integrates a hypoglycemia prediction algorithm with a global position system (GPS) locator and short message service such that the current glucose value with the rate of change (ROC) and the location of the subject can be communicated to a predefined list. Furthermore, if the system is linked to the insulin pump, it can suspend the pump or decrease the basal insulin infusion rate to prevent the pending event. The system was evaluated on clinical datasets of glucose tracings from the DexCom Seven system. Glucose tracings were analyzed for hypoglycemia events and then a text message was broadcast to a predefined list of people who were notified with the glucose value, ROC, GPS coordinates, and a Google map of the location. In addition to providing a safety layer to a future artificial pancreas, this system also can be easily implemented in current continuous glucose monitors to help provide information and alerts to people with diabetes.

  8. Practice of implementation of innovative means of teaching in forming of preventive thinking in students of higher medical educational establisments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biletska E.M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of construction of a holistic methodological system of training future doctors considered in the article, is impossible outside the context of integration processes taking place in modern education and needs a careful study of international experience. The research aim is to develop a system of innovative means of education for the formation of preventive thinking in students of higher medical educational establishment, concerning professionally oriented undergraduate preparation of doctors. Analysis of the results allowed to determine the characteristic features of innovative means, forms and teaching methods, specificity of their use in interactive educational environment, this against the background of meticulous work of the teaching staff of the department of general hygiene of Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy provides the efficiency of educational process which integrates personal, creative, social and educational purposes. The suggested innovative methods are involved in the general system of modern education in higher school being effectively used for providing a high level of professional training in teaching of academic subject area "Hygiene and Ecology".

  9. Clinical Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer from Benin (2005-2013: Effect of Time-Delay to Diagnosis on Clinical Forms and Severe Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Capela

    Full Text Available Buruli Ulcer (BU is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions, lesions' size (>15 cm diameter or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions. There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0-67.5, while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0-120.0 (p = 0.009, and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0-548.0. On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56-217.5; p = 0.09, larger lesions (diameter >15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-120; p = 0.92 or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30-150; p = 0.20, when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, small lesions (diameter ≤15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and focal

  10. Clinical Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer from Benin (2005-2013): Effect of Time-Delay to Diagnosis on Clinical Forms and Severe Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, Carlos; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Houezo, Jean G.; Fiodessihoué, René; Dossou, Ange D.; Costa, Patrício; Fraga, Alexandra G.; Menino, João F.; Silva-Gomes, Rita; Ouendo, Edgard M.

    2015-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions), lesions’ size (>15cm diameter) or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions). There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque) the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0–67.5), while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0–120.0) (p = 0.009), and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0–548.0). On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56–217.5; p = 0.09), larger lesions (diameter >15cm) (median 60 days; IQR 30–120; p = 0.92) or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30–150; p = 0.20), when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), small lesions (diameter ≤15cm) (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and

  11. Morbidity of mansoni schistosomiasis in Pernambuco-Brazil: Analysis on the temporal evolution of deaths, hospital admissions and severe clinical forms (1999-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Constança Simões; de Souza Gomes, Elainne Christine; Campos, Julyana Viegas; de Oliveira, Fernando José Moreira; da Silva Mesquita, Millena Carla; de Oliveira, Emilia Carolle Azevedo; Domingues, Ana Lucia Coutinho

    2016-12-01

    Current scientific information reported that due to successive treatments of schistosomiasis cases in endemic areas of Brazil in the last 30 years, there has been a decrease in severe clinical form (hepatosplenic) and mortality from upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to this disease. Against this information, literature data show that the state of Pernambuco presents significant percentage of deaths and hospitalizations due to schistosomiasis, and occurrence of severe clinical forms as schistosomiasis myeloradiculopathy and persistence of localities with high parasite loads. This scenario justified this research which seeking to update the morbidity and mortality of schistosomiasis in Pernambuco. To conduct a temporal analysis on the evolution of deaths, hospital admissions and severe forms of Manson's schistosomiasis over the last 16 years in Pernambuco, Brazil. It was performed a gathering secondary data on schistosomiasis, from healthcare information systems and from the records of Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Pernambuco (HC-UFPE), covering the period from 1999 to 2014. From 1999 to 2013 were registred 2578 deaths due to schistosomiasis and between 2008 and 2014 were recorded 473 hospitalizations for this disease. Among 1999-2014 were identified 1943 cases of schistosomiasis treated at the Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco. Among these cases, 72.6% (n. 1411) of the individuals presented the hepatosplenic clinical form (HE), 60.8% (n. 858) were at the age group 30-59 years (adults) and 58% were female. Among the HE cases, 4.6% (n. 58) had ascites, 43.2% (n. 556) had upper gastrointestinal bleeding and 39.1% (n. 489) had collateral circulation. The pattern of fibrosis in the liver E/EC (advanced fibrosis) and F/FC (very advanced fibrosis) occurred in 65.5% (n. 793) of cases. Between 1999-2014 the evolution curve of severe clinical forms of schistosomiasis remained stable, showing a tendency to decline from 2012. When compared to other states

  12. Ergothioneine prevents copper-induced oxidative damage to DNA and protein by forming a redox-inactive ergothioneine-copper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Mao, Li; Fan, Rui-Mei; Zhu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Ying-Nan; Wang, Jing; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Frei, Balz

    2011-01-14

    Ergothioneine (2-mercaptohistidine trimethylbetaine) is a naturally occurring amino acid analogue found in up to millimolar concentrations in several tissues and biological fluids. However, the biological functions of ergothioneine remain incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of ergothioneine in copper-induced oxidative damage to DNA and protein, using two copper-containing systems: Cu(II) with ascorbate and Cu(II) with H(2)O(2) [0.1 mM Cu(II), 1 mM ascorbate, and 1 mM H(2)O(2)]. Oxidative damage to DNA and bovine serum albumin was measured as strand breakage and protein carbonyl formation, respectively. Ergothioneine (0.1-1.0 mM) provided strong, dose-dependent protection against oxidation of DNA and protein in both copper-containing systems. In contrast, only limited protection was observed with the purported hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethyl sulfoxide and mannitol, even at concentrations as high as 100 mM. Ergothioneine also significantly inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate and competed effectively with histidine and 1,10-phenanthroline for binding of cuprous copper, but not cupric copper, as demonstrated by UV-visible and low-temperature electron spin resonance techniques. We conclude that ergothioneine is a potent, natural sulfur-containing antioxidant that prevents copper-dependent oxidative damage to biological macromolecules by forming a redox-inactive ergothioneine-copper complex.

  13. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations in severe asthma (AZISAST): A multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Brusselle (Guy); C. VanderStichele (Christine); P. Jordens (Paul); R. Deman (René); H. Slabbynck (Hans); V. Ringoet (Veerle); G. Verleden (Geert); I.K. Demedts (Ingel); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); A. Delporte (Anja); B. Demeyere (Bénédicte); T. Claeys (Tine); J. Boelens (Jerina); E. Padalko (Elizaveta); J. Verschakelen (Johny); G. van Maele (Georges); E. Deschepper (Ellen); G.F. Joos (Guy)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Patients with severe asthma are at increased risk of exacerbations and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Severe asthma is heterogeneous, encompassing eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic (mainly neutrophilic) phenotypes. Patients with neutropilic airway diseases

  14. Crystal Structure of a Monomeric Form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Endonuclease Nsp15 Suggests a Role for Hexamerization As An Allosteric Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, J.S.; Saikatendu, K.S.; Subramanian, V.; Neuman, B.W.; Buchmeier, M.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Kuhn, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst.

    2007-07-09

    Mature nonstructural protein-15 (nsp15) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) contains a novel uridylate-specific Mn{sup 2+}-dependent endoribonuclease (NendoU). Structure studies of the full-length form of the obligate hexameric enzyme from two CoVs, SARS-CoV and murine hepatitis virus, and its monomeric homologue, XendoU from Xenopus laevis, combined with mutagenesis studies have implicated several residues in enzymatic activity and the N-terminal domain as the major determinant of hexamerization. However, the tight link between hexamerization and enzyme activity in NendoUs has remained an enigma. Here, we report the structure of a trimmed, monomeric form of SARS-CoV nsp15 (residues 28 to 335) determined to a resolution of 2.9 Angstroms. The catalytic loop (residues 234 to 249) with its two reactive histidines (His 234 and His 249) is dramatically flipped by {approx}120 degrees into the active site cleft. Furthermore, the catalytic nucleophile Lys 289 points in a diametrically opposite direction, a consequence of an outward displacement of the supporting loop (residues 276 to 295). In the full-length hexameric forms, these two loops are packed against each other and are stabilized by intimate intersubunit interactions. Our results support the hypothesis that absence of an adjacent monomer due to deletion of the hexamerization domain is the most likely cause for disruption of the active site, offering a structural basis for why only the hexameric form of this enzyme is active.

  15. Infiltrating CD16+ Are Associated with a Reduction in Peripheral CD14+CD16++ Monocytes and Severe Forms of Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Barrera García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to characterize glomerular monocytes (Mo infiltration and to correlate them with peripheral circulating Mo subsets and severity of lupus nephritis (LN. Methods. We evaluated 48 LN biopsy samples from a referral hospital. Recognition of Mo cells was done using microscopic view and immunohistochemistry stain with CD14 and CD16. Based on the number of cells, we classified LN samples as low degree of diffuse infiltration (<5 cells and high degree of diffuse infiltration (≥5 cells. Immunophenotyping of peripheral Mo subsets was done using flow cytometry. Results. Mean age was 34.0±11.7 years and the mean SLEDAI was 17.5±6.9. The most common SLE manifestations were proteinuria (91% and hypocomplementemia (75%. Severe LN was found in 70% of patients (Class III, 27%; Class IV, 43%. Severe LN patients and patients with higher grade of CD16+ infiltration had lower levels of nonclassical (CD14+CD16++ Mo in peripheral blood. Conclusions. Our results might suggest that those patients with more severe forms of LN had a higher grade of CD14+CD16+ infiltration and lower peripheral levels of nonclassical (CD14+CD16++ Mo and might reflect a recruitment process in renal tissues. However, given the small sample, our results must be interpreted carefully.

  16. Investigation regarding prevention of insufficiency fractures in children with severe cerebral palsy by Light-Emitting Diode (LED) irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Asagai, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kengo; Ohshiro, Toshio; Ohshiro, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Bone metabolism in children with severe fractures was examined, risk factors for fractures were characterized, and effects of LED (light-emitting diode) irradiation on the risk factors for fractures were investigated. Since insufficiency fracture in children with severe cerebral palsy can be caused without obvious external force in daily care, it is sometimes handled as a medical accident and can lead to a lawsuit. It is very important to explain the possibility of an insufficiency fracture t...

  17. Syringohydromyelia associated to therapeutic procedures for severe forms of neurocysticercoses: case report Hidrossiringomielia associada ao tratamento de formas severas de neurocisticercose: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizeti Honorato

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Syringohydromyelia is defined as a longitudinal dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord with accumulated cerebrospinal fluid. This condition may cause neurologic deficits when the cavity enlarges and compresses the spinal cord. We present the case of a 33 years-old female with progressive paraparesis caused by syringohydromyelia. This patient underwent previously multiple clinical and surgical treatments for severe form of neurocysticercosis. Surgical decompression of the posterior fossa and syringostomy resolved the neurologic symptoms. The possibility of syringohydromyelia should be considered in the case of patients who have previously undergone surgical and clinical treatment for severe form of neurocysticercosis.A hidrossiringomielia é definida como uma dilatação longitudinal do canal central da medula espinhal cujo conteúdo é semelhante ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e que freqüentemente produz comprometimento neurológico. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente de 33 anos, submetida a vários tratamentos clínicos e cirúrgicos para neurocisticercose severa, que tardiamente apresentou quadro de paraparesia progressiva, quando foi então, detectada uma hidrosiringomielia. O tratamento cirúrgico obteve resolução do quadro neurológico e considerável diminuição da cavidade hidrosiringomiélica. A possibilidade do desenvolvimento de hidrossiringomielia nas formas severas de neurocisticercose submetidas a vários tipos de tratamento deve ser suspeitada e investigada.

  18. Defective Proteolytic Processing of Fibrillar Procollagens and Prodecorin Due to Biallelic BMP1 Mutations Results in a Severe, Progressive Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syx, Delfien; Guillemyn, Brecht; Symoens, Sofie; Sousa, Ana Berta; Medeira, Ana; Whiteford, Margo; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Coucke, Paul J; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska

    2015-08-01

    Whereas the vast majority of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by autosomal dominant defects in the genes encoding type I procollagen, mutations in a myriad of genes affecting type I procollagen biosynthesis or bone formation and homeostasis have now been associated with rare autosomal recessive OI forms. Recently, homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in BMP1, encoding the metalloproteases bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1) and its longer isoform mammalian Tolloid (mTLD), were identified in 5 children with a severe autosomal recessive form of OI and in 4 individuals with mild to moderate bone fragility. BMP1/mTLD functions as the procollagen carboxy-(C)-proteinase for types I to III procollagen but was also suggested to participate in amino-(N)-propeptide cleavage of types V and XI procollagens and in proteolytic trimming of other extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates. We report the phenotypic characteristics and natural history of 4 adults with severe, progressive OI characterized by numerous fractures, short stature with rhizomelic shortening, and deformity of the limbs and variable kyphoscoliosis, in whom we identified novel biallelic missense and frameshift mutations in BMP1. We show that BMP1/mTLD-deficiency in humans not only results in delayed cleavage of the type I procollagen C-propeptide but also hampers the processing of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan prodecorin, a regulator of collagen fibrillogenesis. Immunofluorescent staining of types I and V collagen and transmission electron microscopy of the dermis show impaired assembly of heterotypic type I/V collagen fibrils in the ECM. Our study thus highlights the severe and progressive nature of BMP1-associated OI in adults and broadens insights into the functional consequences of BMP1/mTLD-deficiency on ECM organization. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. The D173G mutation in ADAMTS-13 causes a severe form of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. A clinical, biochemical and in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Stefano; Peyvandi, Flora; Pagliari, Maria Teresa; Cairo, Andrea; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Chermak, Edrisse; Lazzareschi, Ilaria; Mastrangelo, Stefano; Cavallo, Luigi; Oliva, Romina; De Cristofaro, Raimondo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare form of thrombotic microangiopathy, inherited with autosomal recessive mode as a dysfunction or severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin 1 repeats Nr. 13), caused by mutations in the ADAMTS-13 gene. About 100 mutations of the ADAMTS-13 gene were identified so far, although only a few characterised by in vitro expression studies. A new Asp to Gly homozygous mutation at position 173 of ADAMTS-13 sequence was identified in a family of Romanian origin, with some members affected by clinical signs of TTP. In two male sons, this mutation caused a severe (< 3%) deficiency of ADAMTS-13 activity and antigen level, associated with periodic thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and mild mental confusion. Both parents, who are cousins, showed the same mutation in heterozygous form. Expression studies of the mutant ADAMTS-13, performed in HEK293 cells, showed a severe decrease of the enzyme's activity and secretion, although the protease was detected inside the cells. Molecular dynamics found that in the D173G mutant the interface area between the metalloprotease domain and the disintegrin-like domain significantly decreases during the simulations, while the proline-rich 20 residues linker region (LR, 285-304) between them undergoes extensive conformational changes. Inter-domain contacts are also significantly less conserved in the mutant compared to the wild-type. Both a decrease of the inter-domain contacts along with a substantial conformational rearrangement of LR interfere with the proper maturation and folding of the mutant ADAMTS-13, thus impairing its secretion.

  20. Malaria prevention reduces in-hospital mortality among severely ill tuberculosis patients: a three-step intervention in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Fina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria and Tuberculosis (TB are important causes of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Malaria prevention reduces mortality among HIV patients, pregnant women and children, but its role in TB patients is not clear. In the TB National Reference Center in Guinea-Bissau, admitted patients are in severe clinical conditions and mortality during the rainy season is high. We performed a three-step malaria prevention program to reduce mortality in TB patients during the rainy season. Methods Since 2005 Permethrin treated bed nets were given to every patient. Since 2006 environmental prevention with permethrin derivates was performed both indoor and outdoor during the rainy season. In 2007 cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was added during the rainy season. Care was without charge; health education on malaria prevention was performed weekly. Primary outcomes were death, discharge, drop-out. Results 427, 346, 549 patients were admitted in 2005, 2006, 2007, respectively. Mortality dropped from 26.46% in 2005 to 18.76% in 2007 (p-value 0.003, due to the significant reduction in rainy season mortality (death/discharge ratio: 0.79, 0.55 and 0.26 in 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively; p-value 0.001 while dry season mortality remained constant (0.39, 0.37 and 0.32; p-value 0.647. Costs of malaria prevention were limited: 2€/person. No drop-outs were observed. Health education attendance was 96-99%. Conclusions Malaria prevention in African tertiary care hospitals seems feasible with limited costs. Vector control, personal protection and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis seem to reduce mortality in severely ill TB patients. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings in similar settings. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83944306

  1. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Isoniazid-Induced Severe Hepatotoxicity: An Infrequent but Preventable Cause of Liver Failure in Children Treated for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Desrochers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid (INH monotherapy has gained widespread acceptance as an efficacious therapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI especially in low-prevalence settings. Although INH related hepatotoxicity is well recognized, progression to severe liver dysfunction requiring care at a transplant center remains unpredictable. We report the management of a five year-old girl who developed progressive liver failure due to INH prophylaxis. This highlights the potential severity of INH related hepatic injury and underscores the significance of vigilant clinical monitoring throughout the duration of the therapy in children.

  3. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations in severe asthma (AZISAST): a multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselle, Guy G; Vanderstichele, Christine; Jordens, Paul; Deman, René; Slabbynck, Hans; Ringoet, Veerle; Verleden, Geert; Demedts, Ingel K; Verhamme, Katia; Delporte, Anja; Demeyere, Bénédicte; Claeys, Geert; Boelens, Jerina; Padalko, Elizaveta; Verschakelen, Johny; Van Maele, Georges; Deschepper, Ellen; Joos, Guy F P

    2013-04-01

    Patients with severe asthma are at increased risk of exacerbations and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Severe asthma is heterogeneous, encompassing eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic (mainly neutrophilic) phenotypes. Patients with neutropilic airway diseases may benefit from macrolides. We performed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in subjects with exacerbation-prone severe asthma. Subjects received low-dose azithromycin (n=55) or placebo (n=54) as add-on treatment to combination therapy of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists for 6 months. The primary outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations and LRTI requiring treatment with antibiotics during the 26-week treatment phase. Secondary efficacy outcomes included lung function and scores on the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The rate of primary endpoints (PEPs) during 6 months was not significantly different between the two treatment groups: 0.75 PEPs (95% CI 0.55 to 1.01) per subject in the azithromycin group versus 0.81 PEPs (95% CI 0.61 to 1.09) in the placebo group (p=0.682). In a predefined subgroup analysis according to the inflammatory phenotype, azithromycin was associated with a significantly lower PEP rate than placebo in subjects with non-eosinophilic severe asthma (blood eosinophilia ≤200/µl): 0.44 PEPs (95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) versus 1.03 PEPs (95% CI 0.72 to 1.48) (p=0.013). Azithromycin significantly improved the AQLQ score but there were no significant between-group differences in the ACQ score or lung function. Azithromycin was well tolerated, but was associated with increased oropharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant streptococci. Azithromycin did not reduce the rate of severe exacerbations and LRTI in patients with severe asthma. However, the significant reduction in the PEP rate in azithromycin-treated patients with non-eosinophilic severe asthma warrants further study. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER

  4. The QUANTEC criteria for parotid gland dose and their efficacy to prevent moderate to severe patient-rated xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Ivo; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Chouvalova, Olga; Leemans, Charles R; Doornaert, Patricia; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Christianen, Miranda E M C; Vissink, Arjan; Bijl, Henk P; van Luijk, Peter; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effect in the Clinic (QUANTEC) Group defined dose-volume constraints for the parotid glands to avoid severe xerostomia. The aim of this study was to determine if application of these QUANTEC criteria also protected against moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia. The study population consisted of 307 head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiotherapy, either with 3D-CRT (56%) or with IMRT (44%). All patients participated in a standard follow-up program in which radiation-induced toxicity and quality of life were prospectively assessed. Patients who met the QUANTEC criteria were classified as low risk and otherwise as high risk. In total, 41% of the patients (treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT) were classified as low risk patients. In the group treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, it was possible to meet the QUANTEC criteria in 47% and 32% of the patients, respectively. Sparing the parotid glands with IMRT was considerably more difficult in patients with lymph node metastases and in patients with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal tumours. Low risk patients reported significantly less moderate-to-severe xerostomia than high risk patients. However, the predicted risk of elderly patients and patients with pre-existing minor patient-rated xerostomia at baseline was > 20%, even when the QUANTEC criteria were met. Significantly lower rates of radiation-induced patient-rated xerostomia were found among low risk patients treated according to the QUANTEC criteria, but these criteria do not completely protect against xerostomia. Particularly in elderly patients and patients already suffering from minor xerostomia at baseline, the QUANTEC criteria do not sufficiently protect against persistent, moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia.

  5. Feeding Intolerance in Children with Severe Impairment of the Central Nervous System: Strategies for Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Julie

    2017-12-22

    Children with severe impairment of the central nervous system (CNS) experience gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms at a high rate and severity, including retching, vomiting, GI tract pain, and feeding intolerance. Commonly recognized sources of symptoms include constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease. There is growing awareness of sources due to the impaired nervous system, including visceral hyperalgesia due to sensitization of sensory neurons in the enteric nervous system and central neuropathic pain due to alterations in the thalamus. Challenging the management of these symptoms is the lack of tests to confirm alterations in the nervous system as a cause of symptom generation, requiring empirical trials directed at such sources. It is also common to have multiple reasons for the observed symptoms, further challenging management. Recurrent emesis and GI tract pain can often be improved, though in some not completely eliminated. In some, this can progress to intractable feeding intolerance. This comprehensive review provides an evidence-based approach to care, a framework for recurrent symptoms, and language strategies when symptoms remain intractable to available interventions. This summary is intended to balance optimal management with a sensitive palliative care approach to persistent GI symptoms in children with severe impairment of the CNS.

  6. [Experience in the management of the severe form of human influenza A H1N1 pneumonia in an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Sosa-García, Jesús Ojino; Arch-Tirado, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of the second trimester of 2009 there was an influenza A (H1N1) outbreak. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation and mortality of the severe form of pneumonia in patients with human influenza A H1N1. We conducted a retrospective review of all files of confirmed and suspected patients with severe human influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia. We studied 26 patients admitted to the ICU from April 1 to December 31, 2009, among which 16 were males (61.54%) and 10 females (38.46%) with an average age of 52.26 ± 15.48 years. The time of onset of symptoms to admission to the ICU was 6.3 ± 3.19 days. The most frequent symptoms and signs were salmonated sputum (47%), chills (45%), dry cough (44%) and myalgia (42%). The mortality rate was 19.23%. The treatment was based on antiviral therapy, modulating inflammation and ventilatory techniques to optimize oxygenation. There was an association between combined therapy based on methylprednisolone, activated protein C and statins with a better survival (p = 0.05). Pneumonia virus of human influenza A (H1N1) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. According to our results, it is recommended to make an early diagnosis and to initiate a treatment regimen based on treatment bundles designed to optimize oxygenation, reduce viral load and modulate inflammation.

  7. Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged ≥75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; La Grow, Steven J; Kerse, Ngaire M; Sanderson, Gordon F; Jacobs, Robert J; Sharp, Dianne M; Hale, Leigh A

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a home safety programme and a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in older people with low vision. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dunedin and Auckland, New Zealand. Participants 391 women and men aged ≥75 with visual acuity of 6/24 or worse who were living in the community; 92% (361 of 391) completed one year of follow-up. Interventions Participants received a home safety assessment and modification programme delivered by an occupational therapist (n = 100), an exercise programme prescribed at home by a physiotherapist plus vitamin D supplementation (n = 97), both interventions (n = 98), or social visits (n = 96). Main outcome measures Numbers of falls and injuries resulting from falls, costs of implementing the home safety programme. Results Fewer falls occurred in the group randomised to the home safety programme but not in the exercise programme (incidence rate ratios 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.83) and 1.15 (0.82 to 1.61), respectively). However, within the exercise programme, stricter adherence was associated with fewer falls (P = 0.001). A conservative analysis showed neither intervention was effective in reducing injuries from falls. Delivering the home safety programme cost $NZ650 (£234, 344 euros, $US432) (at 2004 prices) per fall prevented. Conclusion The home safety programme reduced falls and was more cost effective than an exercise programme in this group of elderly people with poor vision. The Otago exercise programme with vitamin D supplementation was not effective in reducing falls or injuries in this group, possibly due to low levels of adherence. Trial registration number ISRCTN15342873. PMID:16183652

  8. Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged > or =75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; La Grow, Steven J; Kerse, Ngaire M; Sanderson, Gordon F; Jacobs, Robert J; Sharp, Dianne M; Hale, Leigh A

    2005-10-08

    To assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a home safety programme and a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in older people with low vision. Randomised controlled trial. Dunedin and Auckland, New Zealand. 391 women and men aged > or =75 with visual acuity of 6/24 or worse who were living in the community; 92% (361 of 391) completed one year of follow-up. Participants received a home safety assessment and modification programme delivered by an occupational therapist (n = 100), an exercise programme prescribed at home by a physiotherapist plus vitamin D supplementation (n = 97), both interventions (n = 98), or social visits (n = 96). Numbers of falls and injuries resulting from falls, costs of implementing the home safety programme. Fewer falls occurred in the group randomised to the home safety programme but not in the exercise programme (incidence rate ratios 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.83) and 1.15 (0.82 to 1.61), respectively). However, within the exercise programme, stricter adherence was associated with fewer falls (P = 0.001). A conservative analysis showed neither intervention was effective in reducing injuries from falls. Delivering the home safety programme cost NZ650 dollars (234 pounds sterling, 344 euros, US432 dollars) (at 2004 prices) per fall prevented. The home safety programme reduced falls and was more cost effective than an exercise programme in this group of elderly people with poor vision. The Otago exercise programme with vitamin D supplementation was not effective in reducing falls or injuries in this group, possibly due to low levels of adherence. Trial registration number ISRCTN15342873.

  9. Picroside II Shows Protective Functions for Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Rats by Preventing NF-κB-Dependent Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Piao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Picroside II, from the herb Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its function on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP and molecular mechanism remains unknown. The effects of picroside II on the SAP induced by cerulean were investigated. SAP rats were treated with picroside II (25 mg/kg. The severity of SAP was evaluated by using biochemical and histological analyses. Pancreatic cancer cell PANC-1 was transfected with ptfLC3 (an indicator of autophagic activity, pcDNA3.1-NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B, and pTZU6+1-NF-κB-shRNA and then treated with picroside II. Relative molecules related with NF-κB-dependent autophagy were detected by using Western blot. Autophagic activities were observed by phase-contrast and fluorescent microscopes. Acetylated LC3 was detected by immunoprecipitation. The results showed that picroside II treatment reduced the level of ALT, AST, NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and SIRT1 (NAD+-dependent deacetylase and increased the level of SOD and GSH. The autophagic activity was reduced when NF-κB was silenced, and the levels of TNF-α and SIRT1 were reduced. In contrast, the overexpression of NF-κB increased autophagic activity and the level of TNF-α, which activated SIRT1. SIRT1 deacetylated LC3 and increased autophagic activities. Picroside II ameliorates SAP by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammtory activities of SAP models via NF-κB-dependent autophagy.

  10. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  11. End-Users' Product Preference Across Three Multipurpose Prevention Technology Delivery Forms: Baseline Results from Young Women in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrib, Rachel; Minnis, Alexandra; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Owino, Fred; Manenzhe, Kgahlisho; Cheng, Helen; van der Straten, Ariane

    2018-01-01

    A multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) that combines HIV and pregnancy prevention is a promising women's health intervention, particularly for young women. However, little is known about the drivers of acceptability and product choice for MPTs in this population. This paper explores approval ratings and stated choice across three different MPT delivery forms among potential end-users. The Trio Study was a mixed-methods study in women ages 18-30 that examined acceptability of three MPT delivery forms: oral tablets, injections, and vaginal ring. Approval ratings and stated choice among the products was collected at baseline. Factors influencing stated product choice were explored using multivariable multinomial logistic regression. The majority (62%) of women in Trio stated they would choose injections, 27% would choose tablets and 11% would choose the ring. Significant predictors of choice included past experience with similar contraceptive delivery forms, age, and citing frequency of use as important. Ring choice was higher for older (25-30) women than for younger (18-24) women (aRR = 3.1; p < 0.05). These results highlight the importance of familiarity in MPT product choice of potential for variations in MPT preference by age.

  12. Overproduction and secretion of a novel amino-terminal form of parathyroid hormone from a severe type of parathyroid hyperplasia in uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Toshio; D'Amour, Pierre; Rousseau, Louise; Brossard, Jean-Hugues; Sakai, Makoto; Kasumoto, Hiroomi; Igaki, Naoya; Goto, Takeo; Cantor, Tom; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of bioactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) is essential for optimal management of bone abnormalities in dialysis patients. This can be accomplished by PTH measurements using third-generation PTH assays, which detect more or less of the first six amino acids of the PTH structure. Such assays do not detect non-(1-84) PTH fragments, such as human PTH (7-84), which are recognized by the second-generation PTH assays that use a detection antibody that recognizes an epitope within the 13-34 region of the PTH structure. Therefore, third-generation PTH results are expected to be lower than those that are obtained with second-generation PTH assays. Rare exceptions to this rule have been reported for patients with severe primary hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid cancer. Sera and gland extracts were analyzed from a dialysis patient with high bone turnover disease and with surprising higher PTH levels by a third-generation assay than by a second-generation assay. This finding normalized after the surgical removal of an enlarged gland with a single nodule, an advanced type of nodular hyperplasia. HPLC fractionation of sera and gland extracts revealed the overproduction and secretion of a PTH molecule with an intact amino-terminus structure distinct from (1-84) PTH. This form of PTH was readily detectable by third-generation PTH assays but was poorly reactive in second-generation PTH assays. Therefore, parathyroid glands with advanced uremic nodular hyperplasia may overproduce and secrete a novel, biologically active form of PTH with an intact 1-6 region but a presumably modified 12-18 region required for the detection in second-generation PTH assays.

  13. Chagasic thymic atrophy does not affect negative selection but results in the export of activated CD4+CD8+ T cells in severe forms of human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Morrot

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Extrathymic CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP T cells are increased in some pathophysiological conditions, including infectious diseases. In the murine model of Chagas disease, it has been shown that the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is able to target the thymus and induce alterations of the thymic microenvironment and the lymphoid compartment. In the acute phase, this results in a severe atrophy of the organ and early release of DP cells into the periphery. To date, the effect of the changes promoted by the parasite infection on thymic central tolerance has remained elusive. Herein we show that the intrathymic key elements that are necessary to promote the negative selection of thymocytes undergoing maturation during the thymopoiesis remains functional during the acute chagasic thymic atrophy. Intrathymic expression of the autoimmune regulator factor (Aire and tissue-restricted antigen (TRA genes is normal. In addition, the expression of the proapoptotic Bim protein in thymocytes was not changed, revealing that the parasite infection-induced thymus atrophy has no effect on these marker genes necessary to promote clonal deletion of T cells. In a chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR transgenic system, the administration of OVA peptide into infected mice with thymic atrophy promoted OVA-specific thymocyte apoptosis, further indicating normal negative selection process during the infection. Yet, although the intrathymic checkpoints necessary for thymic negative selection are present in the acute phase of Chagas disease, we found that the DP cells released into the periphery acquire an activated phenotype similar to what is described for activated effector or memory single-positive T cells. Most interestingly, we also demonstrate that increased percentages of peripheral blood subset of DP cells exhibiting an activated HLA-DR+ phenotype are associated with severe cardiac forms of human chronic Chagas disease. These cells may

  14. CBT in the prevention of psychosis and other severe mental disorders in patients with an at risk mental state: A review and proposed next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, Mark; van den Berg, David; Ising, Helga

    2017-08-28

    Patients with an 'At risk mental state' (ARMS) for developing psychosis can be treated successfully with CBT to postpone and prevent the transition to a first psychotic episode. A characteristic of individuals that meet ARMS criteria is that they are still open for multiple explanations for extraordinary experiences. CBT aims to normalize extraordinary experiences with education and to prevent delusional explanations. The treatment is not only effective, but also cost-saving in averting psychosis as well as in reducing disability adjusted life years at 18- and 48-month follow-up. Profiling within the ARMS group results in a personalized treatment. The screening and early treatment for ARMS fulfills all the criteria of the World Health Organization and is ready to be routine screening and treatment in mental health care. At the same time, ARMS patients are complex patients with multi-morbid disorders. Especially childhood trauma is associated to ARMS status, together with co-morbid PTSD, depression, substance abuse and anxiety disorders. Psychotic symptoms appear to be severity markers in other non-psychotic disorders. Preventing psychosis in ARMS patients should be broadened to also address other disorders and aim to reduce chronicity of psychopathology and improve social functioning in general. Several mechanisms play a part in psychopathology in ARMS patients such as stress sensitivity as a result of adverse experiences, dopamine sensitivity that is associated with salience and aggravates several cognitive biases, dissociation mediating between trauma and hallucinations, and low self-esteem and self-stigma. New avenues to treat the complexity of ARMS patients will be proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.

  16. Sex differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and associated features of migraine, probable migraine and other severe headache: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    The strikingly higher prevalence of migraine in females compared with males is one of the hallmarks of migraine. A large global body of evidence exists on the sex differences in the prevalence of migraine with female to male ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 and peaking in midlife. Some data are available on sex differences in associated symptoms, headache-related disability and impairment, and healthcare resource utilization in migraine. Few data are available on corresponding sex differences in probable migraine (PM) and other severe headache (ie, nonmigraine-spectrum severe headache). Gaining a clear understanding of sex differences in a range of severe headache disorders may help differentiate the range of headache types. Herein, we compare sexes on prevalence and a range of clinical variables for migraine, PM, and other severe headache in a large sample from the US population. This study analyzed data from the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study. Total and demographic-stratified sex-specific, prevalence estimates of headache subtypes (migraine, PM, and other severe headache) are reported. Log-binomial models are used to calculate sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each across demographic strata. A smoothed sex prevalence ratio (female to male) figure is presented for migraine and PM. One hundred sixty-two thousand seven hundred fifty-six individuals aged 12 and older responded to the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study survey (64.9% response rate). Twenty-eight thousand two hundred sixty-one (17.4%) reported "severe headache" in the preceding year (23.5% of females and 10.6% of males), 11.8% met International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria for migraine (17.3% of females and 5.7% of males), 4.6% met criteria for PM (5.3% of females and 3.9% of males), and 1.0% were categorized with other severe headache (0.9% of females and 1.0% of males). Sex differences were observed in

  17. Cannabinoids prevent the differential long-term effects of exposure to severe stress on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent memory and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Noa; Segev, Amir; Abush, Hila; Mizrachi Zer-Aviv, Tomer; Akirav, Irit

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to excessive or uncontrolled stress is a major factor associated with various diseases including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The consequences of exposure to trauma are affected not only by aspects of the event itself, but also by the frequency and severity of trauma reminders. It was suggested that in PTSD, hippocampal-dependent memory is compromised while amygdala-dependent memory is strengthened. Several lines of evidence support the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a modulator of the stress response. In this study we aimed to examine cannabinoids modulation of the long-term effects (i.e., 1 month) of exposure to a traumatic event on memory and plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Following exposure to the shock and reminders model of PTSD in an inhibitory avoidance light-dark apparatus rats demonstrated: (i) enhanced fear retrieval and impaired inhibitory extinction (Ext), (ii) no long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1, (iii) impaired hippocampal-dependent short-term memory in the object location task, (iv) enhanced LTP in the amygdala, and (v) enhanced amygdala-dependent conditioned taste aversion memory. The cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55-212,2 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), administered 2 hr after shock exposure prevented these opposing effects on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent processes. Moreover, the effects of WIN55-212,2 and URB597 on Ext and acoustic startle were prevented by co-administration of a low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting that the preventing effects of both drugs are mediated by CB1 receptors. Exposure to shock and reminders increased CB1 receptor levels in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala 1 month after shock exposure and this increase was also prevented by administering WIN55-212,2 or URB597. Taken together, these findings suggest the involvement of the eCB system, and specifically CB1

  18. Prevention of severe contractures might replace multilevel surgery in cerebral palsy: results of a population-based health care programme and new techniques to reduce spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Gunnar; Andersson, Sofia; Düppe, Henrik; Lauge-Pedersen, Henrik; Pedertsen, Henrik Lauge; Nordmark, Eva; Westbom, Lena

    2005-07-01

    During the 1990s three new techniques to reduce spasticity and dystonia in children with cerebral palsy (CP) were introduced in southern Sweden: selective dorsal rhizotomy, continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion and botulinum toxin treatment. In 1994 a CP register and a health care programme, aimed to prevent hip dislocation and severe contractures, were initiated in the area. The total population of children with CP born 1990-1991, 1992-1993 and 1994-1995 was evaluated and compared at 8 years of age. In non-ambulant children the passive range of motion in hip, knee and ankle improved significantly from the first to the later age groups. Ambulant children had similar range of motion in the three age groups, with almost no severe contractures. The proportion of children treated with orthopaedic surgery for contracture or skeletal torsion deformity decreased from 40 to 15% (P = 0.0019). One-fifth of the children with spastic diplegia had been treated with selective dorsal rhizotomy. One-third of the children born 1994-1995 had been treated with botulinum toxin before 8 years of age. With early treatment of spasticity, early non-operative treatment of contracture and prevention of hip dislocation, the need for orthopaedic surgery for contracture or torsion deformity is reduced, and the need for multilevel procedures seems to be eliminated.

  19. Early administration of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of severe and mild preeclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Stéphanie; Giguère, Yves; Villa, Pia; Nicolaides, Kypros; Vainio, Merja; Forest, Jean-Claude; von Dadelszen, Peter; von Dadelzen, Peter; Vaiman, Daniel; Tapp, Sylvie; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether early administration of aspirin prevents severe and mild preeclampsia. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials were performed. Studies in which women were randomized at or before 16 weeks' gestation to low-dose aspirin versus placebo or no treatment were included. The outcomes of interest were severe preeclampsia and mild preeclampsia. Pooled relative risks with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Among 7941 citations retrieved, 352 were completely reviewed and four studies (392 women) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. When compared with controls, aspirin started at ≤16 weeks was associated with a significant reduction in severe (relative risk: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.57) but not mild (relative risk: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.33 to 1.96) preeclampsia. Low-dose aspirin initiated at or before 16 weeks reduces the risk of severe preeclampsia, but not mild preeclampsia. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers

  20. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharier, Leonard B; Guilbert, Theresa W; Mauger, David T; Boehmer, Susan; Beigelman, Avraham; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Jackson, Daniel J; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Cabana, Michael; Castro, Mario; Chmiel, James F; Covar, Ronina; Daines, Michael; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Gentile, Deborah Ann; Holguin, Fernando; Israel, Elliot; Kelly, H William; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lemanske, Robert F; Ly, Ngoc; Meade, Kelley; Morgan, Wayne; Moy, James; Olin, Tod; Peters, Stephen P; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Raissy, Hengameh H; Ross, Kristie; Sheehan, William J; Sorkness, Christine; Szefler, Stanley J; Teague, W Gerald; Thyne, Shannon; Martinez, Fernando D

    2015-11-17

    Many preschool children develop recurrent, severe episodes of lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). Although viral infections are often present, bacteria may also contribute to illness pathogenesis. Strategies that effectively attenuate such episodes are needed. To evaluate if early administration of azithromycin, started prior to the onset of severe LRTI symptoms, in preschool children with recurrent severe LRTIs can prevent the progression of these episodes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by December 2014. Participants were 607 children aged 12 through 71 months with histories of recurrent, severe LRTIs and minimal day-to-day impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin (12 mg/kg/d for 5 days; n = 307) or matching placebo (n = 300), started early during each predefined RTI (child's signs or symptoms prior to development of LRTI), based on individualized action plans, over a 12- through 18-month period. The primary outcome measure was the number of RTIs not progressing to a severe LRTI, measured at the level of the RTI, that would in clinical practice trigger the prescription of oral corticosteroids. Presence of azithromycin-resistant organisms in oropharyngeal samples, along with adverse events, were among the secondary outcome measures. A total of 937 treated RTIs (azithromycin group, 473; placebo group, 464) were experienced by 443 children (azithromycin group, 223; placebo group, 220), including 92 severe LRTIs (azithromycin group, 35; placebo group, 57). Azithromycin significantly reduced the risk of progressing to severe LRTI relative to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.41-0.98], P = .04; absolute risk for first RTI: 0.05 for azithromycin, 0.08 for placebo; risk difference, 0.03 [95% CI, 0

  1. Efficacy of Oral Itraconazole in the Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Moderate to Severe Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyedeh Zahra; Abbas, Zaheer; Abedeni, Robabeh

    2015-10-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic and relapsing disease and topical therapy may be associated with failure, particularly in severe disease. Itraconazole has been suggested as an effective treatment for severe SD. Previous studies have been open clinical trials with variable results. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral itraconazole in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe SD. Sixty-eight patients with moderate to severe SD were randomly assigned to the itraconazole (n = 35) or placebo (n = 33) groups. The trial was undertaken in Razi Hospital, Tehran. An internet-generated table was used to allocate treatments. Patients and investigator were blinded to treatments. Itraconazole 200 mg/daily or placebo was prescribed for 1 week and then for the first 2 days of every month for the following 3 months. Patients were followed for 4 months and the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area Severity Index (SDASI) was measured on nine anatomical sites. Fifty-seven patients (29 in the itraconazole group and 28 in the placebo group) completed the study. Statistically significant improvement was observed in SDASI of both itraconazole and placebo groups (p = 0.000) but the itraconazole group showed significantly higher efficacy compared with placebo (p = 0.023). We observed clinical improvements of 93.8, 87.5, and 93.1% at the end of 2 weeks, 1 month, and 4 months, respectively, in the itraconazole group, and 82.1, 64.3, and 53.6% in the placebo group. Furthermore, recurrence rate in the itraconazole group was significantly lower than in the placebo group (p = 0.003). No blood test abnormality was seen in any patient. Itraconazole is not only an effective and safe therapy for controlling exacerbations of SD but may also be used as maintenance therapy to prevent disease recurrence.

  2. Efficiency of two constructs called "fear of disease" and "perceived severity of disease" on the prevention of gastric cancer: Application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiani-Moghadam, Mohamad Hosein; Seyedi-Andi, Seyed Jalil; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Khafri, Sorayya; Ghadimi, Reza; Parsian, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Among all cancers, malignancies of gastrointestinal tract are the most common cancer among Iranian population. Dietary behavior is thought to be the most important risk factor in gastric cancer. Fear and perceived severity are two important constructs of the protection motivation theory (PMT). Despite the evidence of the impact of these two constructs in modifying dietary habits against gastric cancer, their efficiency is not well established. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the efficiency of the mentioned constructs. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 participants (180 males and 180 females) aged over 30 years old who presented to health centers in Babol, Iran in 2014. They were selected by a cluster sampling method in a population covered by health centers in Babol. Data collection was done using a questionnaire with acceptable reliability and validity, designed by a researcher based on two constructs of protection motivation theory. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version 20 using descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, linear and logistic regression analysis. The participants who entered in the study achieved 38.6 and 69.7% of the scores of fear and perceived severity, respectively. There was a significant difference between perceived severity with level of education (pmotivation theory with predicting 38% of the variance of nutritional high risk behaviors had an effective role against gastric cancer and may help in the design and implementation of educational programs for the prevention of gastric cancer.

  3. Effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in preventing community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization and severe outcomes in the elderly in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Àngela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Pérez, María José; Martín, Vicente; Rodríguez-Rojas, Lourdes; Astray, Jenaro; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Castilla, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, but investigation of the etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not possible in most hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) in preventing CAP hospitalization and reducing the risk of intensive care unit admission (ICU) and fatal outcomes in hospitalized people aged ≥65 years. We made a multicenter case-control study in 20 Spanish hospitals during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. We selected patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and controls matched by sex, age and date of hospitalization. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to estimate vaccine effectiveness and unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the reduction in the risk of severe and fatal outcomes. 1895 cases and 1895 controls were included; 13.7% of cases and 14.4% of controls had received PPSV23 in the last five years. The effectiveness of PPSV23 in preventing CAP hospitalization was 15.2% (95% CI -3.1-30.3). The benefit of PPSV23 in avoiding ICU admission or death was 28.1% (95% CI -14.3-56.9) in all patients, 30.9% (95% CI -32.2-67.4) in immunocompetent patients and 26.9% (95% CI -38.6-64.8) in immunocompromised patients. In conclusion, PPSV23 showed a modest trend to avoidance of hospitalizations due to CAP and to the prevention of death or ICU admission in elderly patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of CAP.

  4. [Efficacy of intracutaneous methylene blue injection for moderate to severe acute thoracic herpes zoster pain and prevention of postherpetic neuralgia in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ji-Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Zheng-Liang

    2016-10-20

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intradermal injection of methylene blue for treatment of moderate to severe acute thoracic herpes zoster and prevention of postherpetica neuralgia in elderly patients. Sixty-four elderly patients with herpes zoster were randomized to receive a 10-day course of intradermal injection of methylene blue and lidocaine plus oral valaciclovir (group A, 32 cases) and intradermal injection of lidocaine plus oral valaciclovir (group B).Herpes evaluation index, pain rating index, incidence of postherpetic neuralgia, and comprehensive therapeutic effect were compared between the two groups at 11, 30 and 60 days after the treatment. The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups (all P>0.05). Compared with that in group B, the time for no new blister formation, blister incrustation and decrustation, and pain relief was significantly shortened in group A (Pmethylene blue can effectively shorten the disease course, reduce the pain intensity and prevent the development of postherpetic neuralgia in elderly patients with herpes zoster.

  5. Adolescent alcohol-drinking frequency and problem-gambling severity: adolescent perceptions regarding problem-gambling prevention and parental/adult behaviors and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ardeshir S; Balodis, Iris M; Pilver, Corey E; Leeman, Robert F; Hoff, Rani A; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    The study examined in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. A survey assessing alcohol, gambling, and health and functioning measures in 1609 high school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/nondrinking and high-frequency-drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ(2)(1,N = 1842) = 49.22, P drinking versus low-frequency/nondrinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ(2)(1, N = 1842) = 31.58, P drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = [1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/nondrinking (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = [0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (interaction OR = 1.78, 95% CI = [1.05, 3.02]). Interrelationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking.

  6. Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community dwelling residents: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We evaluated the effect of two programs for the prevention of falls leading to acute hospital admission in a population of elderly community-dwelling Danish residents. Methods: This was a factorial, pragmatic, intervention study. We included 9605 community-dwelling city......, or no intervention. Results: The Calcium and Vitamin D program was followed by 50.3% and the Environmental and Health Program by 46.4%. According to a multivariate analysis including age, marital status and intervention program, female residents who followed the Calcium and Vitamin D Program had a 12% risk reduction...... in severe falls (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; pfalls leading to acute hospitalization in communitydwelling elderly females in a northern European region known to be deficient in vitamin D....

  7. Natural Products and Dietary Prevention of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of cancer prevention was first introduced in studies using the natural form of vitamin A in the prevention of epithelial cancers. Ever since, research on cancer prevention has grown and become a rather specialized field study. Cancer is a multistage process, and takes several years for...

  8. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, pgambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, pProblem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  9. Prevalence of dementia in a rural Netherlands population and the influence of DSM-III-R and CAMDEX criteria for the prevalence of mild and more severe forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.; Eefsting, J. A.; van den Brink, W.; Koeter, M.; van Tilburg, W.

    1998-01-01

    To obtain estimates of the prevalence of mild and moderate/severe dementia among people age 65 and over, applying criteria for severity of both DSM-III-R and CAMDEX, a two-stage community-based study was conducted in a rural area of the Netherlands. In the first stage, 2191 subjects (out of the

  10. [Characteristic situation on prevention of nosocomial infection in the hospital for the severely multi-disabled--experiences in care and treatment of 4 kinds of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Y; Tanaka, H; Yano, Y; Yano, T; Yoshida, K

    1997-12-01

    We experienced Hepatitis A, B, C and fulminant hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in our hospital for the severely multi-disabled (SMD) who had both severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and some of whom might be further complicated by blindness and/or deafness. In this hospital, 100 SMDs are hospitalized. Case 1: The disabled, 25 year old male, was transmitted Hepatitis A from a nurse. Case 2: The disabled, 60 year old female carrier of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) who has been cared for more than 10 years. Case 3: The disabled, 46 year old male carrier of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (RNA type 3), has been cared for more than 4 years. Case 4: The disabled, 39 year old male, had a fever of 39 degrees C for 9 days and suddenly died. He was diagnosed as fulminant hepatitis due to HSV-1 by necropsy. The hospitals for SMD are characteristic in prevention of nosocomial infections; 1) The disabled infected is not aware of the fact that he or she is the source of infection and that the other disabled living with him or her are in risk of infection, because of their severe mental condition. 2) All of the disabled need complete or incomplete helps for activities of daily life (ADL), so that the disabled who is the carrier of some pathogen constantly gives risk of infection to staffs, including medical staffs (doctor, nurse and therapist), psychologist and helpers by bloody secretion from wounds, saliva, urine, feces as well as menstrual blood. 3) If a carrier of some pathogen is hospitalized, the staffs should serve under risk of infection involving blood-mediated infectious disease for many years, because SMDs are permitted lifelong stay in the hospitals for SMD, which also play a role of care house or institution, by public expense in Japan. In case of an outbreak of Hepatitis A, nosocomial infection ended in the original case (a nurse), another nurse and a case of the disabled by general treatment and care against communicable diseases of the digestive

  11. Recurrent and founder mutations in the Netherlands: cardiac Troponin I (TNNI3) gene mutations as a cause of severe forms of hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, A.; Volders, P.; van Tintelen, J. P.; Jongbloed, J. D. H.; van den Berg, M. P.; Lekanne Deprez, R. H.; Mannens, M. M. A. M.; Hofmann, N.; Slegtenhorst, M.; Dooijes, D.; Michels, M.; Arens, Y.; Jongbloed, R.; Smeets, B. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background About 2-7% of familial cardiomyopathy cases are caused by a mutation in the gene encoding cardiac troponin 1 (TNNI3). The related clinical phenotype is usually severe with early onset. Here we report on all currently known mutations in the Dutch population and compared these with those

  12. Heteroreceptor Complexes Formed by Dopamine D1, Histamine H3, and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptors as Targets to Prevent Neuronal Death in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Moreno, Estefanía; Moreno-Delgado, David; Navarro, Gemma; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; McCormick, Peter J; Franco, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing progressive memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. Anti-AD strategies targeting cell receptors consider them as isolated units. However, many cell surface receptors cooperate and physically contact each other forming complexes having different biochemical properties than individual receptors. We here report the discovery of dopamine D 1 , histamine H 3 , and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor heteromers in heterologous systems and in rodent brain cortex. Heteromers were detected by co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA) in the rat cortex where H 3 receptor agonists, via negative cross-talk, and H 3 receptor antagonists, via cross-antagonism, decreased D 1 receptor agonist signaling determined by ERK1/2 or Akt phosphorylation, and counteracted D 1 receptor-mediated excitotoxic cell death. Both D 1 and H 3 receptor antagonists also counteracted NMDA toxicity suggesting a complex interaction between NMDA receptors and D 1 -H 3 receptor heteromer function. Likely due to heteromerization, H 3 receptors act as allosteric regulator for D 1 and NMDA receptors. By bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), we demonstrated that D 1 or H 3 receptors form heteromers with NR1A/NR2B NMDA receptor subunits. D 1 -H 3 -NMDA receptor complexes were confirmed by BRET combined with fluorescence complementation. The endogenous expression of complexes in mouse cortex was determined by PLA and similar expression was observed in wild-type and APP/PS1 mice. Consistent with allosteric receptor-receptor interactions within the complex, H 3 receptor antagonists reduced NMDA or D 1 receptor-mediated excitotoxic cell death in cortical organotypic cultures. Moreover, H 3 receptor antagonists reverted the toxicity induced by ß 1-42 -amyloid peptide. Thus, histamine H 3 receptors in D 1 -H 3 -NMDA heteroreceptor complexes arise as promising targets to prevent neurodegeneration.

  13. Budding Uninhibited by Benzimidazole-1 Insufficiency Prevents Acute Renal Failure in Severe Sepsis by Maintaining Anti-Coagulant Functions of Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshiya, Keiji; Yoshida, Ayae; Ikeda, Seiichi; Furuyama, Tadashi; Nakatsu, Yoshimichi; Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Nomura, Masatoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-03-30

    Severe sepsis is critical to health and can result in acute renal failure (ARF). Tissue factor (TF) and thrombomodulin (TM) play key roles in vascular endothelial functions by helping maintain microcirculation in the kidney. Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-1 (Bub1) plays a role in Akt and JNK signaling, which control TF and TM, respectively. We hypothesized that Bub1 could control vascular endothelial function in sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Bub1 in septic ARF. We used Mouse cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) using low Bub1 expressing (Bub1) and wild-type (Bub1) mice in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) in vitro. Bub1 mice had a higher survival rate after CLP than Bub1. Bub1 mice had more severe ARF after CLP than Bub1 with blood biochemical and pathological analyses. TF expression in Bub1 mice and control HAEC (control) significantly increased in the septic model compared with Bub1 and Bub1 silenced HAEC (siBub1). TM expression in the control significantly decreased after LPS stimulation compared with siBub1. Akt and JNK phosphorylation of siBub1 were attenuated after LPS stimulation. Associations of Bub1 with Akt or JNK after LPS stimulation of HAEC were detected using immunoprecipitation, suggesting that Bub1 is involved in the phosphorylation of Akt and JNK after LPS stimulation. Bub1 insufficiency attenuates TF expression and reduces TM suppression by blocking Akt and JNK phosphorylation, respectively, thus leading to the prevention of ARF and death caused by sepsis.

  14. Effects of folic acid awareness on knowledge and consumption for the prevention of birth defects among Hispanic women in several U.S. Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Christine E; Hamner, Heather C; Flores, Alina L

    2010-04-01

    The neural tube defects (NTDs) anencephaly and spina bifida, are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect about 3000 pregnancies per year in the United States. Research has found a strong link between periconceptional folic acid consumption and NTD prevention. Because Hispanic women have higher rates of NTD-affected births, targeted folic acid promotion efforts were conducted in several major cities from 1999 to 2002. Efforts included paid and unpaid placements of Spanish language public service announcements (PSAs) and community-level education through the use of promotoras. Analyses focused on whether or not women's reported awareness of folic acid, regardless of promotion type, impacted their knowledge or behavior. Women who reported awareness of folic acid had greater folic acid knowledge and use of vitamins containing folic acid than those not aware. Analyses also examined the use of vitamins containing folic acid by pregnancy intention among women who reported awareness of folic acid. The results were varied. Pregnancy wanters were most likely to use vitamins containing folic acid daily. For this group, however, awareness did not play as large a role in whether they reported consuming a vitamin containing folic acid or not, as it did for pregnancy waiters and avoiders.

  15. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  16. Complete self-mutilation of male genitals as a severe form of psychiatric manifestation of HIV: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriharsha Bokka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare event that is commonly associated with psychotic disorders. However, such injuries have also been reported in nonpsychotic patients as a result of either bizarre autoerotic acts and attempts at crude sex-change operation by transsexuals or secondary complex religious beliefs and delusions regarding sexual guilt. We report a case of GSM in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individual who not only severed his penis, scrotum, and testes completely as a result of internal conflict and frustration but also refused any further treatment toward reconstruction owing to his guilt.

  17. Infiltrating CD16+ Are Associated with a Reduction in Peripheral CD14+CD16++ Monocytes and Severe Forms of Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera García, Anabel; Arias, Luis F.; Burbano, Catalina; Restrepo, Mauricio; Vanegas, Adriana L.; Muñoz, Carlos H.; Rojas, Mauricio; González, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to characterize glomerular monocytes (Mo) infiltration and to correlate them with peripheral circulating Mo subsets and severity of lupus nephritis (LN). Methods. We evaluated 48 LN biopsy samples from a referral hospital. Recognition of Mo cells was done using microscopic view and immunohistochemistry stain with CD14 and CD16. Based on the number of cells, we classified LN samples as low degree of diffuse infiltration (renal tissues. However, given the small sample, our results must be interpreted carefully. PMID:28070418

  18. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  19. Formulation development of SYN-004 (ribaxamase) oral solid dosage form, a β-lactamase to prevent intravenous antibiotic-associated dysbiosis of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Andrew; Hubert, Steven; Hofmann, Felix; Baer, Hans

    2017-12-20

    SYN-004 (ribaxamase) delayed release drug product is a multi-particulate, hard capsule for oral delivery of a recombinant β-lactamase enzyme designed to degrade β-lactam antibiotics administered intravenously, and thus prevent colon dysbiosis. Here we describe the development of the SYN-004 enteric coated pellet formulation, which has been tested in multiple clinical trials. Since the SYN-004 drug substance is a buffered liquid, several binder excipients in different ratios were tested to facilitate binding of SYN-004 to sugar spheres. The binding systems were evaluated by droplet pre-evaluation and film casting tests. The most promising formulations were produced in small scale fluidized bed application runs and analyzed by dissolution tests and complementary analytical assays. Hydroxypropyl cellulose was selected as the preferred SYN-004 binding excipient. The formulation included a second, outer coat containing the enteric EUDRAGIT ® L 30 D-55 polymer-based formulation to achieve gastric protection, and rapid SYN-004 release in the intestinal tract, when the pH rises above 5.5. Additional formulation improvements resulted in an increase in the SYN-004 load compared to a predecessor oral enzyme formulation (Ipsat P1A). Thus, a novel formulation and process for an orally administered enzyme was developed and used to manufacture drug product for clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two Patients with Severe Short Stature due to a FBN1 mutation (p.Ala1728Val) with a mild form of Acromicric Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Christiaan; Finlayson, Courtney; Funari, Mariana F.A.; Vasques, Gabriela A.; Freire, Bruna Lucheze; Lerario, Antonio M.; Andrew, Melissa; Hwa, Vivian; Dauber, Andrew; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2016-01-01

    Background Acromicric dysplasia (AD) and geleophysic dysplasia 2 (GD2) belong to the category of acromelic dysplasia syndromes, consisting of severe short stature, short hands and feet and skin thickening. Both can result from missense mutations in the transforming growth factor beta 5 domain of the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). Methods Two patients (P1 age 10, and P2 age 7) from unrelated families presented to their endocrinologist with severe short stature (approximately −4 SDS). They were otherwise asymptomatic and only had mild facial dysmorphisms. Extensive endocrine work-up did not reveal an underlying etiology. Exome sequencing was performed in each family. Results Exome sequencing identified the presence of the same heterozygous missense variant c.C5183T (p.Ala1728Val) in FBN1 in both P1 and P2. This variant has previously been reported in a patient with GD2 and associated cardiac valvulopathy and hepatomegaly. Detailed clinical re-examination, cardiac and skeletal imaging did not reveal any abnormalities in P1 nor P2, other than mild hip dysplasia. Conclusion This report broadens the phenotypic spectrum of growth disorders associated with FBN1 mutations. Identical mutations give rise to a wide phenotypic spectrum, ranging from isolated short stature to a more classic picture of GD2 with cardiac involvement, distinct facial dysmorphisms and various skeletal anomalies. PMID:27245183

  1. Prevention of coronary heart disease in people with severe mental illnesses: a qualitative study of patient and professionals' preferences for care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth Irwin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with severe mental illness (SMI are at increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD and there is growing emphasis on the need to monitor their physical health. However, there is little consensus on how services for the primary prevention of CHD should be organised for this patient group. We explored the views of people with SMI and health professionals from primary care and community mental health teams (CMHTs on how best to provide these services. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of patients with SMI (n = 31 and staff from primary care (n = 10 and community mental health teams (n = 25 in North Central London. Transcripts of the qualitative interviews were analysed using a 'framework' approach to identify the main themes in opinions regarding various service models. Results Cardiovascular risk factors in people with SMI were of concern to participants. However, there was some disagreement about the best way to deliver appropriate care. Although staff felt that primary care should take responsibility for risk factor screening and management, patients favoured CHD screening in their CMHT. Problems with both approaches were identified. These included a lack of familiarity in general practice with SMI and antipsychotic side effects and poor communication of physical health issues to the CMHT. Lack of knowledge regarding CHD risk factor screening and difficulties in interpreting screening results and implementing appropriate interventions exist in secondary care. Conclusion Management of physical health care for people with SMI requires complex solutions that cross the primary-secondary care interface. The views expressed by our participants suggest that neither primary nor secondary care services on their own can provide a comprehensive service for all patients. The increased risk of CHD associated with SMI and antipsychotic medications requires flexible solutions with clear

  2. Global action to prevent war: a programme for government and grassroots efforts to stop war, genocide and other forms of deadly conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S

    2000-01-01

    At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed

  3. The in vitro and in vivo capacity of culture-expanded human cells from several sources encapsulated in alginate to form cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Pleumeekers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage has limited self-regenerative capacity. Tissue engineering can offer promising solutions for reconstruction of missing or damaged cartilage. A major challenge herein is to define an appropriate cell source that is capable of generating a stable and functional matrix. This study evaluated the performance of culture-expanded human chondrocytes from ear (EC, nose (NC and articular joint (AC, as well as bone-marrow-derived and adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. All cells (≥ 3 donors per source were culture-expanded, encapsulated in alginate and cultured for 5 weeks. Subsequently, constructs were implanted subcutaneously for 8 additional weeks. Before and after implantation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG and collagen content were measured using biochemical assays. Mechanical properties were determined using stress-strain-indentation tests. Hypertrophic differentiation was evaluated with qRT-PCR and subsequent endochondral ossification with histology. ACs had higher chondrogenic potential in vitro than the other cell sources, as assessed by gene expression and GAG content (p < 0.001. However, after implantation, ACs did not further increase their matrix. In contrast, ECs and NCs continued producing matrix in vivo leading to higher GAG content (p < 0.001 and elastic modulus. For NC-constructs, matrix-deposition was associated with the elastic modulus (R2 = 0.477, p = 0.039. Although all cells – except ACs – expressed markers for hypertrophic differentiation in vitro, there was no bone formed in vivo. Our work shows that cartilage formation and functionality depends on the cell source used. ACs possess the highest chondrogenic capacity in vitro, while ECs and NCs are most potent in vivo, making them attractive cell sources for cartilage repair.

  4. Abnormal macrophage response to microbial stimulus in a 43-year-old man with a severe form of atherosclerosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collu Maria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction New evidence indicates infections are emerging as risk factors for atherosclerosis although their specific role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis is still unclear. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian man who had been treated for four years for multiple sclerosis progressively manifested systemic hypertension, polycythemia, peripheral arterial occlusion with intermittent claudication, and persistent headaches. In 2006, an instrumental analysis (magnetic resonance imaging of our patient revealed widespread fibrocalcific atherosclerotic lesions which accounted for all his current symptoms, including those related to microbial stimulus. Two particular aspects were of interest, namely a lack of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and a negative family history for cardiovascular events. His chemical blood tests all yielded negative findings although a low positive hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid titer was detected. The titer had progressively increased and worsening atherosclerosis threatened the life of our patient. Interferon therapy was not appropriate for our patient due to the severe adverse effects observed shortly after its administration. Conclusions The reaction of individual cells to infections may provide an explanation as to why individuals with a similar microbial burden, corrected for the presence of other risk factors, display a different susceptibility to developing or worsening atherosclerosis. The identification of susceptible individuals and the treatment even of silent infections may provide an additional tool against atherosclerosis and its clinical complications. The evaluation of cell susceptibility before and after the correction of risk factors may contribute to the assessment of the efficacy of drug therapy.

  5. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC), and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for All Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Dell Railey, Mary; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2015-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because infants with SCID have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 patients with SCID transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive patients with classic SCID who received either T-cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N = 154) or HLA-identical (N = 18) nonablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982 to 2013. The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared with 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (35.5%), and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. An absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T-cell function was found in all patients. Infants with SCID appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral, and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and an absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T-cell function confirms the diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

    2009-01-01

    Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

  7. Enhanced safety features of CHASHMA NPP UNIT-2 to encounter selected severe accidents, various challenges involved to prove the adequacy of severe accidents prevention/mitigation measures and to write management guidelines with one possible solution to these challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Z.; Minhaj, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes enhanced safety features of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Unit-2 (C-2), a 325 MWe PWR to encounter selected severe accidents and discusses various challenges involved to prove the adequacy of severe accidents encountering measures and to write severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs) in compliance with the recently introduced national regulations based on the new IAEA nuclear safety standards. C-2 is being built by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) for Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Its twin, Unit-1 (C-1) also a 325 MWe PWR, was commissioned in 2000. Nuclear power safety with reference to severe accidents should be treated as a global issue and therefore the developed countries should include the people of developing countries in nuclear power industry's various severe accidents based research and development programs. The implementation of this idea may also deliver few other useful and mutually beneficial byproducts. (author)

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  10. Bone marrow transplantation from genetically HLA-nonidentical donors in children with fatal inherited disorders excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies: use of two monoclonal antibodies to prevent graft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabado, N; Le Deist, F; Cant, A; De Graeff-Meeders, E R; Fasth, A; Morgan, G; Vellodi, A; Hale, G; Bujan, W; Thomas, C; Cavazzana-Calvo, M; Wijdenes, J; Fischer, A

    1996-09-01

    For children with life-threatening inborn errors of metabolism without a matched related bone marrow donor, transplantation from an HLA genetically nonidentical donor is the only therapeutic option. To reduce the high risk of graft rejection in this setting without increasing the conditioning regimen, a protocol based on the infusion of an antiadhesion antibody directed against the CD11a (leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]) molecule was performed by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group with promising results. To optimize engraftment, and thereby survival, further, the additional blockade of a second important leukocyte adhesion and signalization pathway mediated by the CD2 and LFA-3 interaction was attempted in a multicenter protocol conducted by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group. Results of this study (ie, engraftment and survival) were compared with a historical control group that received the anti-LFA-1 antibody alone. Factors that may have affected engraftment and survival were also considered in this study. Forty-four children with inborn errors, including inherited immunodeficiencies (excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies), Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and malignant osteopetrosis, received bone marrow from HLA-nonidentical related donors or from HLA-identical unrelated donors at 13 European centers between August 1990 and June 1993. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by use of either erythrocyte (E) rosetting or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to prevent graft-versus-host disease. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and cyclophosphamide for all patients plus etoposide for patients with osteopetrosis, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. Infusions of MoAbs specific for the CD11a and the CD2 molecules were started 4 and 3 days, respectively, before and

  11. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring as a tool to prevent severe hypoglycaemia in selected pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Stage, E; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    history were informed about their additional high risk of severe hypoglycaemia, their treatment was focused on restricted insulin doses during the first 16 gestational weeks, and they were offered real-time continuous glucose monitoring on top of self-monitored plasma glucose measurements. RESULTS: Among......AIMS: Among women with Type 1 diabetes who have had severe hypoglycaemia the year before pregnancy, 70% also experience this complication in pregnancy, and particularly in the first half of pregnancy. We evaluated whether routine use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring from early pregnancy...... 28 women with a recent history of severe hypoglycaemia, 12 (43%) used real-time continuous glucose monitoring from a median (range) of 10 (7-13) gestational weeks for 10 (1-32) weeks. Among these 12 women, eight had experienced a total of 34 (range 1-11) severe hypoglycaemic events in the year before...

  12. Cardiac sympathetic innervation assessed with (123)I-MIBG retains prognostic utility in diabetic patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction evaluated for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, P; Fabregat-Andrés, Ó; Cozar-Santiago, P; Sánchez-Jurado, R; Estornell-Erill, J; Valle-Muñoz, A; Quesada-Dorador, A; Payá-Serrano, R; Ferrer-Rebolleda, J; Ridocci-Soriano, F

    2016-01-01

    Scintigraphy with iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) is a non-invasive tool for the assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation (CSI) that has proven to be an independent predictor of survival. Recent studies have shown that diabetic patients with heart failure (HF) have a higher deterioration in CSI. It is unknown if (123)I-MIBG has the same predictive value for diabetic and non-diabetic patients with advanced HF. An analysis is performed to determine whether CSI with (123)I-MIBG retains prognostic utility in diabetic patients with HF, evaluated for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Seventy-eight consecutive HF patients (48 diabetic) evaluated for primary prevention ICD implantation were prospectively enrolled and underwent (123)I-MIBG to assess CSI (heart-to-mediastinum ratio - HMR). A Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis was used to determine the influence of (123)I-MIBG images for prediction of cardiac events in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The primary end-point was a composite of arrhythmic event, cardiac death, or admission due to HF. During a mean follow-up of 19.5 [9.3-29.3] months, the primary end-point occurred in 24 (31%) patients. Late HMR was significantly lower in diabetic patients (1.30 vs. 1.41, p=0.014). Late HMR≤1.30 was an independent predictor of cardiac events in diabetic (hazard ratio 4.53; p=0.012) and non-diabetic patients (hazard ratio 12.31; p=0.023). Diabetic patients with HF evaluated for primary prevention ICD show a higher deterioration in CSI than non-diabetics; nevertheless (123)I-MIBG imaging retained prognostic utility for both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. A comprehensive overview of the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants and subsequent implications in terms of injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Hermitte, Thierry; Labrousse, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the road injuries issues in France in the 2010's by determining the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants, and to infer the implications in terms of vehicule safety. Three types of analysis are conducted. First, we present a time series analysis at a macro statistical level showing a dramatic decrease of injured and fatally injured occupants in passenger cars compared to other modes of road transport. Secondly, we propose a descriptive statistical analysis of the injuries (frequency and severity) sustained by car occupants, by body regions, using the AIS. Finally we propose some insights into the effectiveness of some safety features. French National crash census (BAAC) is used for a general overview of injury frequencies and raw severity scores (fatal, hospitalized, slighty injured) in car crashes. In-depth crash investigations data are used to specify the body regions and the severity of the injuries sustained by car occupants. Data show that car occupants mortality and morbidity decreased more over the last decade than other road modes: -58 % fatalities and -64 % hospitalized (compared to -39% and -55% for pedestrians, and -21% and -44% for motorcyclists for example). In crashes for which at least one person has been injured, 19 % of occupants are uninjured, 49 % of occupants sustain MAIS 1 injuries, 15 % MAIS2, 8% MAIS 3, and 9 % MAIS 4+. Regardless of seat belt use, the body regions most often injured are head, upper and lower extremities and thorax. However, at least two third up to 92% of involved persons sustain no injury at each of these body regions. The frequency of severe injuries is low, often less than 10 % and concern head and thorax mainly. Finally, the frequency and severity of injuries decrease for belted occupants in newer cars compared to older cars, whatever body regions. The frequency of severe injuries decreased by almost 50 % in these newer cars.

  14. Prophylactic ondansetron does not prevent shivering or decrease shivering severity during cesarean delivery under combined spinal epidural anesthesia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Roger M; Fellingham, William H; O'Loughlin, Edmond J; Brown, Nicholas A; Paech, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is commonly performed under regional anesthesia, which is often associated with maternal shivering. This can cause distress and interfere with monitoring. The study objective was to evaluate the antishivering efficacy of ondansetron, which reduces the incidence and severity of shivering in nonobstetric patients. We hypothesized that there would be a significant decrease in the incidence and/or severity of shivering in women who are given intravenous ondansetron 8 mg before combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia, when compared with placebo. This was a randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of 118 women scheduled for elective cesarean surgery. Women received either intravenous ondansetron 8 mg (n = 58) or saline (n = 60) before CSE anesthesia (intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% 2.2-2.5 mL plus fentanyl 15 μg). The incidence and severity of shivering, measured on a validated 5-point scale, and other outcomes, such as nausea, pruritus, headache, or satisfaction, were assessed at 3 time points during the surgery and postoperative period. The incidence of shivering at any time point did not differ significantly between groups: ondansetron 41% versus placebo 47% (P = 0.54). The incidence of severe shivering at any time was not significantly different: ondansetron 32% versus placebo 33% (P = 0.79). There were no significant differences between the groups for any secondary outcomes. Intravenous ondansetron 8 mg before performing CSE anesthesia in women undergoing elective cesarean delivery does not decrease the incidence or severity of shivering.

  15. Correlation of the Type and Form of Hip Osteoarthritis Progression with Forms of the Hip-Spine Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V. Gaiko

    2015-08-01

    Slow-progressing form and hyperplastic type of hip osteoarthritis by Bombelli corresponds to the true form of hip-spine syndrome. Fast-progressing form and hypoplastic type of hip osteoarthritis by Bombelli corresponds to the reversible form of hip-spine syndrome. Such relationships contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of hip-spine syndrome and the development of effective methods for the prevention and treatment of this severe orthopedic pathology.

  16. Polymorphisms of transporter associated with antigen presentation, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 and their implications for protection and susceptibility to severe forms of dengue fever in patients in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anira N Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To date, a clear understanding of dengue disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Some infected individuals display no symptoms while others develop severe life-threatening forms of the disease. It is widely believed that host genetic factors influence dengue severity. Aims: This study evaluates the relationship between certain polymorphisms and dengue severity in Sri Lankan patients. Settings and Design: Polymorphism studies are carried out on genes for; transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP, promoter of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and promoter of interleukin-10 (IL-10. In other populations, TAP1 (333, TAP2 (379, TNF-α (−308, and IL-10 (−1082, −819, −592 have been associated with dengue and a number of different diseases. Data have not been collected previously for these polymorphisms for dengue patients in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: The polymorphisms were typed by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction in 107 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF patients together with 62 healthy controls. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson′s Chi-square contingency table analysis with Yates′ correction. Results: Neither the TAP nor the IL-10 polymorphisms considered individually can define dengue disease outcome with regard to severity. However, the genotype combination, IL-10 (−592/−819/−1082 CCA/ATA was significantly associated with development of severe dengue in these patients, suggesting a risk factor to developing DHF. Also, identified is the genotype combination IL-10 (−592/−819/−1082 ATA/ATG which suggested a possibility for protection from DHF. The TNF-α (−308 GG genotype was also significantly associated with severe dengue, suggesting a significant risk factor. Conclusions: The results reported here are specific to the Sri Lankan population. Comparisons with previous reports imply that data may vary from population to population.

  17. Overproduction of an amino-terminal form of PTH distinct from human PTH(1-84) in a case of severe primary hyperparathyroidism: influence of medical treatment and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räkel, Agnès; Brossard, Jean-Hugues; Patenaude, Jean-Victor; Albert, Caroline; Nassif, Edgard; Cantor, Tom; Rousseau, Louise; D'Amour, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    Rare patients with severe primary hyperparathyroidism present with large parathyroid tumours, severe hypercalcaemia, very high PTH levels and osteitis fibrosa cystica. Some of these patients display a large amount of C-PTH fragments in circulation and present with a higher C-PTH/I-PTH ratio than seen in less severe cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. We wanted to determine how PTH levels and circulating PTH high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles analysed with PTH assays having different epitopes could be affected by medical and surgical treatment in such patients. A 55-year-old man with severe hypercalcaemia (Ca(2+): 2.01 mmol/l), very high PTH levels (CA-PTH 82.1 and T-PTH 72 pmol/l) caused by a large parathyroid tumour (7.35 g) and accompanied by significant bone involvement (alkaline phosphatase of 185 UI/l and subperiostal bone resorption of hands) was referred to us. Blood was obtained at various time points during his medical treatment, before and after surgery, to measure parameters of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and of bone turnover. HPLC separations of circulating PTH molecular forms were performed and analysed with PTH assays having 1-4 (CA), 12-18 (T), 26-32 (E) and 65-84 (C) epitopes. Before surgery, serum Ca2+ was nearly normalized with hydratation, intravenous (IV) pamidronate and oral vitamin D administration. Despite a decrease in Ca2+ to 1.31 mmol/l, CA-PTH and T-PTH levels decreased by half in relation to a threefold increase in basal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] level (94 to 337 pmol/l). After this initial positive response, hypercalcaemia and elevated CA- and T-PTH levels recurred even if 1,25(OH)2D levels remained elevated. The tumour was removed surgically and proved to be poorly differentiated with nuclear atypia and mitosis. After surgery, the Ca2+ level and PTH secretion normalized. The higher CA-PTH level relative to the T-PTH level observed before surgery in this patient was related to the oversecretion of

  18. The Implementation of a Video-Enhanced Aikido-Based School Violence Prevention Training Program To Reduce Disruptive and Assaultive Behaviors among Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J.

    The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…

  19. Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents : findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, Tiejo van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the

  20. Systematic detection of polyvascular disease combined with aggressive secondary prevention in patients presenting with severe coronary artery disease: The randomized AMERICA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Jean-Philippe; Cayla, Guillaume; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Leclercq, Florence; Cuisset, Thomas; Elhadad, Simon; Henry, Patrick; Belle, Loic; Cohen, Ariel; Silvain, Johanne; Barthelemy, Olivier; Beygui, Farzin; Diallo, Abdourahmane; Vicaut, Eric; Montalescot, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence and associated-risk of asymptomatic multisite artery disease (MSAD) in high risk coronary patients are unknown. Whether systematic identification and aggressive management of asymptomatic MSAD is clinically relevant in high risk coronary patients has not been evaluated. We randomly assigned 521 high risk coronary patients defined by the presence of three-vessel coronary disease (n=304) or recent acute coronary syndrome beyond the age of 75years (n=215) to either a strategy of systematic detection of asymptomatic MSAD combined with an aggressive secondary prevention (n=263) or to a more conventional strategy based on treatment of coronary artery disease only with standard of care (n=258). The primary end point was the time to first occurrence of death, any organ failure or ischemic event leading to re-hospitalization through two years of follow-up. The pro-active strategy identified asymptomatic MSAD in 21.7% of patients with few revascularizations (3.6%); the pro-active pharmacological secondary prevention was obtained in >85% of patients and life-style changes in <60% of patients. At 2-year follow-up, the primary end point occurred in 44.9% of patients in the pro-active group and 43.0% of patients in the conventional group (HR 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.34]. The rate of major bleeding did not differ significantly between groups (4.6% vs 5.0%; HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.91). In high risk coronary patients, there is no apparent benefit of a systematic detection of asymptomatic extra-coronary atherothrombotic disease and intensified treatment over a 2-year follow-up period. (Funded by the Academic Allies in Cardiovascular Trials Initiatives and Organized Networks and Institut de l'Athérothrombose; AMERICA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00445835). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Impact of screening and treatment of low systemic blood flow in the prevention of severe intraventricular haemorrhage and/or death in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego Erroz, Ignacio; Alonso Quintela, Paula; Jiménez Gonzalez, Aquilina; Terroba Seara, Sandra; Rodríguez Blanco, Silvia; Rosón Varas, María; Castañón López, Leticia

    2018-04-02

    To assess the effect of a protocolised intervention for low systemic blood flow (SBF) in the occurrence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or death in pre-term infants. A study with a quasi-experimental design with retrospective controls was conducted on pre-term infants of less than 30weeks of gestational age, born between January 2016 and July 2017, who were consecutively included in the intervention period. The control cohort included pre-term infants (born between January 2013 and December 2015) matched by gestational age, birth weight, and gender (two controls for each case). The cases of low SBF diagnosed according to functional echocardiography during the study period received dobutamine (5-10μg/kg/min) for 48hours. The study included 29 cases (intervention period) and 54 controls (pre-intervention period). Ten out of 29 (34.5%) infants received dobutamine for low SBF during the intervention period, with 3/29 (10.3%) cases of severe IVH and/or death compared to 17/54 (31.5%) in the control cohort (p=.032). There was an independent association between the intervention and a decreased occurrence of severe IVH/death after adjusting for confounding factors both in the logistic regression model [OR 0.11 (95%CI: 0.01-0.65), p=.015], as well as in the sensitivity analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting [OR 0.23 (95%CI: 0.09-0.56); p=.001]. In this study with retrospective controls, a protocolised screening, and treatment for low SBF was associated with a decreased occurrence of severe IVH or death in preterm infants. Large, adequately powered trials, are needed in order to determine whether postnatal interventions directed at low SBF can improve neurological outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  3. Efficacy of immunoglobulin plus prednisolone for prevention of coronary artery abnormalities in severe Kawasaki disease (RAISE study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Saji, Tsutomu; Otani, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Kato, Taichi; Hara, Toshiro; Hamaoka, Kenji; Ogawa, Shunichi; Miura, Masaru; Nomura, Yuichi; Fuse, Shigeto; Ichida, Fukiko; Seki, Mitsuru; Fukazawa, Ryuji; Ogawa, Chitose; Furuno, Kenji; Tokunaga, Hirohide; Takatsuki, Shinichi; Hara, Shinya; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2012-04-28

    Evidence indicates that corticosteroid therapy might be beneficial for the primary treatment of severe Kawasaki disease. We assessed whether addition of prednisolone to intravenous immunoglobulin with aspirin would reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities in patients with severe Kawasaki disease. We did a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial at 74 hospitals in Japan between Sept 29, 2008, and Dec 2, 2010. Patients with severe Kawasaki disease were randomly assigned by a minimisation method to receive either intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg for 24 h and aspirin 30 mg/kg per day) or intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone (the same intravenous immunoglobulin regimen as the intravenous immunoglobulin group plus prednisolone 2 mg/kg per day given over 15 days after concentrations of C-reactive protein normalised). Patients and treating physicians were unmasked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was incidence of coronary artery abnormalities during the study period. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000000940. We randomly assigned 125 patients to the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group and 123 to the intravenous immunoglobulin group. Incidence of coronary artery abnormalities was significantly lower in the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group than in the intravenous immunoglobulin group during the study period (four patients [3%] vs 28 patients [23%]; risk difference 0·20, 95% CI 0·12-0·28, pKawasaki disease in Japan. Further study of intensified primary treatment for this disease in a mixed ethnic population is warranted. Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Daily oral intake of theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder is a long-lasting psychiatric disease with the consequence of hippocampal atrophy in humans exposed to severe fatal stress. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the transient decline of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG and long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in mice with traumatic stress. Here, we investigated pharmacological properties of theanine on the declined BrdU incorporation and abnormal behaviors in mice with traumatic stress. Prior daily oral administration of theanine at 50–500 mg/kg for 5 days significantly prevented the decline of BrdU incorporation, while theanine significantly prevented the decline in the DG even when administered for 5 days after stress. Consecutive daily administration of theanine significantly inhibited the prolonged immobility in mice with stress in forced swimming test seen 14 days later. Although traumatic stress significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity over 30 min even when determined 14 days later, the increased total locomotion was significantly ameliorated following the administration of theanine at 50 mg/kg for 14 days after stress. These results suggest that theanine alleviates behavioral abnormalities together with prevention of the transient decline of BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal DG in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

  5. Contribution of prototypic material tests on the Plinius platform to the study of nuclear reactor severe accident; Contribution des essais en materiaux prototypiques sur la plate-forme Plinius a l'etude des accidents graves de reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch

    2008-01-15

    The PLINIUS experimental platform at CEA Cadarache is dedicated to the experimental study of nuclear reactor severe accidents thanks to experiments between 2000 and 3500 K with prototypic corium. Corium is the mixture that would be formed by an hypothetical core melting and its mixing with structural materials. Prototypical corium has the same chemical composition as the corium corresponding to a given accident scenario but has a different isotopic composition (use of depleted uranium,...). Research programs and test series have been performed to study corium thermophysical properties, fission product behaviour, corium spreading, solidification and interaction with concrete as well as its coolability. It was the frame of research training of many students and was realized within national, European and international collaborations. (author)

  6. Deep sole burns in several participants in a traditional festival of the firewalking ceremony in Kee-lung, Taiwan--clinical experiences and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Kang; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Teng, Shou-Cheng; Fu, Ju-Peng; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo; Feng, Chun-Che

    2012-11-01

    Firewalking is a common Taoist cleansing ceremony in Taiwan, but burns associated with the practice have rarely been reported. We analyzed the patients with plantar burns from one firewalking ceremony. In one firewalking ceremony, 12 Taoist disciples suffered from contact burns to the soles of their feet while walking over burning coals. Eight of them had at least second-degree burns over areas larger than 1% of their total body surface areas (TBSAs). The age, sex, medical history, date of injury, time taken to traverse the fire pit, depth and TBSA of the burns, treatment, length of stay, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. Deep, disseminated second- to third-degree burns were noted and healing took as long as three weeks in some patients. Because disseminated hypertrophic scars form after burns, the soles involved regain much of their tensile strength while walking. The patients experienced only a few difficulties in their daily lives three months after injury. From our experience treating patients with deep disseminated second- to third-degree plantar burns caused by firewalking, we conclude that they should be treated conservatively, with secondary healing rather than a skin graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Forming of a healthy lifestyle of the American teenagers in a family as a method of the obesity prevention among the population of the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytriieva O.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and generalization of the special literature is conducted. It is set that at the beginning of the XXI century the problem of the unhealthy lifestyle (as a result - obesity and overweight is actual in the USA. It is defined that the level of obesity sharply rose among the students of the middle and senior classes (teenagers aged 12-19 years from 5% to 17.4%. It is marked that the state of the optimal physical and social health begins with the improvement of the physical level of health. It is proved that the necessary constituents of forming of healthy lifestyle of the family are the healthy food, daily physical exercises, rest, healthy sleep and minimum time for watching TV.

  8. Individualized dosimetry-based activity reduction of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC prevents severe and rapid kidney function deterioration from peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnebeek, Sofie van; Baete, Kristof; Vanbilloen, Bert; Terwinghe, Christelle; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Clement, Paul M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Medical Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, Karin [University Hospitals Leuven, Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Cutsem, Eric van; Verslype, Chris [KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Division of Digestive Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaerts, Kris [KU Leuven, Division of Public Health and Primary Care (I-Biostat), Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, Christophe M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); UZ Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Assessment of kidney function evolution after {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with capped activity administration based on a 37-Gy threshold of biological effective dose (BED) to the kidney. In a prospective phase II study, patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours were evaluated for therapy using 185 MBq {sup 111}In-pentetreotide with amino acid coinfusion. Planar whole-body images were acquired at four time-points after injection and kidney volumes were measured using CT/MRI. BED to the kidneys was estimated using an extended BED formula and biexponential renal clearance. Based on published BED dose-toxicity relationships, we allowed a maximal kidney BED of 37 Gy; if the calculated BED exceeded 37 Gy, treatment activity was reduced accordingly. Kidney function was assessed at baseline and at 18 months, predominantly using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The rate of renal function decline was expressed as annual glomerular filtration rate loss (aGFRL). Only 22 of 50 patients reached the 18-months time-point, with most missing patients having died due to disease progression. In the 22 patients who reached 18 months, no rapid kidney function deterioration was observed over the 18 months, aGFRL >33 % was not seen, and only three patients showed an increase of one toxicity grade and one patient an increase of two grades. No significant correlations between kidney volume (p = 0.35), baseline GFR (p = 0.18), risk factors for renal function loss (p = 0.74) and aGFRL were observed. Among the 28 patients who did not reach 18 months, one developed grade 4 kidney toxicity at 15 months after PRRT. Prospective dosimetry using a 37 Gy BED as the threshold for kidney toxicity is a good guide for {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC PRRT and is associated with a low risk of rapid renal function deterioration and evolution to severe nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  9. Formas graves de retinopatia predizem aterosclerose subclínica em indivíduos com diabetes tipo 1 Severe forms of retinopathy predict the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando K. Almeida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2, a presença de retinopatia está associada a doença cardiovascular aumentada, independentemente dos fatores de risco conhecidos para a doença vascular. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação da retinopatia diabética (RD e seus graus com a presença de aterosclerose coronariana subclínica em pacientes com diabetes tipo 1. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal foi conduzido com 150 pacientes com diabetes tipo 1, assintomáticos para doença arterial coronariana. Foram submetidos à avaliação clínica para verificar complicações microvasculares e avaliação para a presença de calcificação arterial coronariana (CAC. RESULTADOS: Formas graves de RD (RD grave não proliferativa - RDNP - e RD proliferativa - RDP foram associadas à CAC (RC: 3,98; IC de 95%; 1,13-13,9, p = 0,03, de maneira independente dos fatores de risco conhecidos para a doença cardiovascular (idade, A1C, hipertensão, dislipidemia e sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com formas graves de RD estão em risco de presença de doença arterial coronariana, de maneira independente dos tradicionais fatores de risco cardiovascular.BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, the presence of retinopathy is associated with increased cardiovascular disease, regardless of known risk factors for vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of diabetic retinopathy (DR and its grades with the presence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 150 type 1 diabetes individuals asymptomatic for coronary artery disease. They underwent clinical evaluation for microvascular complications and for the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC. RESULTS: Severe forms of DR (severe non-proliferative DR and proliferative DR were associated with CAC (OR: 3.98 95% CI 1.13-13.9, p = 0.03, regardless of known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (age, A

  10. Efficacy of lidocaine on preventing incidence and severity of pain associated with propofol using in pediatric patients: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Bing-Chen; Yang, Chun-Song; Zhang, Ling-Li; Zhang, Wen-Sheng; Fu, Yu-Zhi

    2017-03-01

    Propofol injection pain was considered as one conundrum during clinical anesthesia. The systematic review about the effect of lidocaine in reducing injection pain among children has not been established. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of such intervention. The literature search was performed from the inception to the May 31, 2016 in PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, and Cochrane database. All randomized controlled trials that using lidocaine for propofol injection pain in children were enrolled. The primary outcome included the incidence of injection pain and the incidence of propofol injection pain in different degrees. The data were combined to calculate the relative ratio and relevant 95% confidence interval. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the PRISMA statement. Data from the included 11 studies indicated that the incidence of injection pain was lower in lidocaine group than the incidence in saline control group and in propofol lipuro (medium- and long-chain triglycerides) group (pain occurrence: 22.1% in lidocaine vs 66.8% in saline, RR with 95% 0.34 [0.26, 0.43], I = 38%; 30.5% in lidocaine vs 46.9% in propofol lipuro, RR with 95% 0.68 [0.46, 1.00], I = 9%). There was no difference between lidocaine and ketamine/alfentanil both in reducing pain occurrence and in reducing pain severity (pain occurrence: 29.7% in lidocaine vs 25.8% in ketamine, RR with 95% 1.47 [0.16, 13.43], I = 94%; 31.0% in lidocaine vs 30.7% in alfentanil, RR with 95% 1.01 [0.69, 1.46], I = 11%). And the reported side effects revealed that the safety of lidocaine in pediatric patients was acceptable. Compared with ketamine and alfentanil, lidocaine would be served as one more effective treatment in consideration of its well-matched efficacy, acceptable accessibility, and reasonable safety. However, more high-quality evidences in pediatric patients are necessary.

  11. "AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASELKORN, FLORENCE

    PREVENTION AS FUNCTION, VALUE ISSUE, CONCEPTUAL SHORTCOMING, AND PRACTICE IS DISCUSSED AND RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL TASK. PREVENTION AS FUNCTION IS GENERATED BY OUR VALUE PREMISES. IN SEEKING TO PREVENT SOME FORMS OF SOCIAL DYSFUNCTION, WE MAY BE PERPETUATING OTHERS. THE CONCEPT OF PREVENTION IS AMBIGUOUS. CRUCIAL CONCEPTUAL ISSUES INCLUDE THE…

  12. A severe connatal form of Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease in a Czech boy caused by a novel mutation (725C>A, Ala242Glu) at the 'jimpy(msd) codon' in the PLP gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Pavel; Paderova, Katerina; Benes, Vladimir; Sistermans, Erik A

    2002-02-01

    Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder of the central nervous system myelination caused by mutations involving the proteolipid protein gene (PLP). Early nystagmus and developmental delay, progressive pyramidal, cerebellar and dystonic signs as well as white matter changes in brain MRI are typical for PMD. The PLP gene can be affected by two major types of mutations. A duplication of the whole PLP gene is the most common mutation and results usually in the milder classical phenotype, whereas point mutations in PLP gene often result in the rarer and more severe connatal form of PMD. The PLP protein is a higly conserved across species and is identical in human, mouse and rat. We describe a 13-year-old Czech boy with an early and severe developmental delay. His maternal uncle died at the age of one year and was also early and severely psychomotoricly retarded. The patient was the first child of healthy unrelated parents born after an uneventful pregnancy and delivery in 1988. Hyperbilirubinemia and bronchopneumonia and early stridor complicated his neonatal period. Diffuse hypotonia, nystagmus, psychomotor retardation, visual and hearing impairment have been observed in the patient since the age of 6 weeks. White matter abnormalities, cortical and periventricular atrophy were detected by MRI at the age of 6 and 11 years, respectively. Despite these signs and results an accurate clinical diagnosis was unclear until the age of 11 years. Last neurological examination in 1999 showed no nystagmus anymore, but extremely dystrophic limbs, truncal deformation, due to severe scoliosis, tetraplegia with hyperreflexia in C5C7 and areflexia L2S2 and positive pyramidal signs. The boy had no visual or speech contact. DNA tests followed the clinical suspicion for PMD. At first, duplication of PLP gene was excluded by quantitative comparative PCR. Direct sequencing of PLP gene detected a novel mutation in exon 6, a missense mutation 725C-->A (Ala242Glu

  13. Hepatitis E: Epidemiological forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In these endemic countries, the disease takes two major epidemiological forms. The form that was recognized first was occurrence of large outbreaks affecting several hundred to several thousand cases of acute hepatitis, usually over a short period of a few weeks. However, it was soon realized that the viral agent was also ...

  14. A National Survey of Alcohol Prevention Programs on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Kate L.

    2010-01-01

    As alcohol-related incidents and tragedies continue to be a major concern on college campuses, researchers and college counseling center directors struggle to find the most effective alcohol prevention programs Several theories have been adapted to form the foundation of prevention programs. These programs have then been evaluated to discover…

  15. Isotropy of quadratic forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Suresh University Of Hyderabad Hyderabad

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... Historically, the study of quadratic forms was part of number theory; Minkowski, Siegel, Hasse, Eichler, Kneser and several other mathematicians created a rich arithmetic theory of quadratic forms. V. Suresh University Of Hyderabad Hyderabad. Isotropy of quadratic forms ...

  16. Preventing Bullying: Helping Kids Form Positive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, Meline

    2006-01-01

    Now more than ever, bullying has become common among students in American schools and playgrounds. According to the U.S. Justice Department, one in four children is bullied every day. As a result of these incidents, children may suffer from anxiety, depression, or low self-esteem. This book was written for today's parents and teachers who are…

  17. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  18. Bullying escolar: a justiça restaurativa como forma de enfrentar e prevenir violências - School bullying: a restorative justice as face of form and prevent violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Penning Pauli de Menezes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A interdisciplinaridade entre Direito e Educação permeia o presente artigo ao ligar o tema do bullying com o conceito da Justiça Restaurativa, analisada como um instrumento que pode auxiliar na prevenção dos conflitos que envolvam o bullying no interior das escolas. Assim, o presente artigo tem por objetivo entrelaçar a Justiça Restaurativa aos conflitos de bullying, que atualmente ganham novas roupagens, tendo em vista que as agressões quando não são tratadas com seriedade no ambiente escolar acabam por trazer nas relações interpessoais dos estudantes. Por mais que os debates sobre o tema tenham avançado, novas investigações sobre o tema são imprescindíveis para buscar alternativas de resolução e prevenção destes conflitos, no sentido de preparar os profissionais da comunidade escolar para que possam lidar com esta realidade presente no âmbito escolar. Palavras-chave: bullying, justiça restaurativa, conflitos escolares. SCHOOL BULLYING: A RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AS FACE OF FORM AND PREVENT VIOLENCE Abstract The interdisciplinary Law and Education permeates this item to connect the bullying theme, with the concept of Restorative Justice, as analyzed as a tool that can prevent conflicts involving bullying within schools. Thus, this research paper aims to weave Restorative Justice to bullying conflicts, which currently gets new look, considering that the attacks when they are not treated seriously in the school environment just bring reflexes are striking in interpersonal relationships among students. As much as the debates on the subject have advanced, new research on the subject are essential to seek alternative means of resolution and prevention of conflicts, to prepare professionals in the school community. Key-words: bullying, restorative justice, school conflicts.

  19. Career Development and Adults with Moderate to Severe Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, John; Cocco, Karen

    Lifelong career development activities may assist persons with more severe forms of mental retardation in achieving occupational tenure. Occupational tenure is important if individuals are to move away from a succession of entry-level employment. Adaptive career development strategies and techniques may prevent job dissatisfaction and poor…

  20. Management of severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichant, G; Dewandre, P Y; Foidart, J M; Brichant, J F

    2010-01-01

    Features of severe preeclampsia include severe proteinuric hypertension and symptoms of central nervous system dysfunction, hepatocellular injury, thrombocytopenia, oliguria, pulmonary oedema, cerebrovascular accident and severe intrauterine growth restriction. Women with severe preeclampsia must be hospitalized to confirm the diagnosis, to assess the severity of the disease, to monitor the progression of the disease and to try to stabilize the disease. Severe preeclampsia may be managed expectantly, in selected cases. The objective of expectant management in these patients is to improve neonatal outcome. Expectant management is based on antihypertensive treatment and prevention of end organ dysfunction. Antihypertensive treatment improves maternal outcome but has the potential to be deleterious for the foetus. Plasma volume expansion has been suggested for severe preeclampsia but trials failed to show any benefit. Magnesium sulfate is the anticonvulsivant of choice to treat or prevent eclampsia when indicated. Antenatal corticosteroids are recommended in severely preeclamptic women with 26-34 weeks gestation. Timing of delivery is based upon gestational age, severity of preeclampsia, maternal and foetal risks.

  1. Sever's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into mature bone. Sever's disease is similar to Osgood-Schlatter disease, a condition that affects the bones in ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions Osgood-Schlatter Disease Problems With Legs and Feet Cool Cast ...

  2. Severity investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de; Godart, B.

    2013-01-01

    From the confirmation inspection and its subsequent test results the presence of AAR has either been confirmed or eliminated. Assuming the first outcome, the next step is to investigate the severity of the situation, see Figure 23. One should keep in mind that it is possible that some evidence of

  3. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  4. Accident prevention in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, O

    2007-04-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer.

  5. Accident prevention in radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, O

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer.

  6. Severe rosacea: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shirzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Rosacea can be extremely severe and disfiguring, and it can be misdiagnosed as the pathognomonic butterfly rash of LE. Demodex carriage in rosacea is consistent and may play a significant role in the severe forms.

  7. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their fever and other symptoms are gone. Hand hygiene is the most important part of SARS prevention. ... Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  8. Several novel N-donor tridentate ligands formed in chemical studies of new fac-Re(CO)3 complexes relevant to fac-99mTc(CO)3 radiopharmaceuticals: attack of a terminal amine on coordinated acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Theshini; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate syntheses of fac-[Re(CO)(3)L](+) complexes in organic solvents, we treated fac-[Re(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)]PF(6)/BF(4) in acetonitrile with triamine ligands (L). When L had two primary or two tertiary terminal amine groups, the expected fac-[Re(CO)(3)L](+) complexes formed. In contrast, N,N-dimethyldiethylenetriamine (N,N-Me(2)dien) formed an unusual compound, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(DAE)]BF(4) {DAE = (Z)-N'-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethylamino)ethyl)acetimidamide = (Me(2)NCH(2)CH(2))NH(CH(2)CH(2)N=C(NH(2))Me)}. DAE is formed by addition of acetonitrile to the N,N-Me(2)dien terminal primary amine, converting this sp(3) nitrogen to an sp(2) nitrogen with a double bond to the original acetonitrile sp carbon. The three Ns bound to Re derive from N,N-Me(2)dien. The pathway to fac-[Re(CO)(3)(DAE)]BF(4) is suggested by a second unusual compound, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(MAE)]PF(6) {MAE = N-methyl-N-(2-(methyl-(2-(methylamino)ethyl)amino)ethyl)acetimidamide = MeN(H)-CH(2)CH(2)-N(Me)-CH(2)CH(2)-N(Me)-C(Me)=NH}, isolated after treating fac-[Re(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)]PF(6) with N,N',N''-trimethyldiethylenetriamine (N,N',N''-Me(3)dien). MAE chelates via a terminal and a central sp(3) N from N,N',N''-Me(3)dien and via one sp(2) NH in a C(Me)=NH group. This group is derived from acetonitrile by addition of the other N,N',N''-Me(3)dien terminal amine to the nitrile carbon. This addition creates an endocyclic NMe group within a seven-membered chelate ring. The structure and other properties of fac-[Re(CO)(3)(MAE)]PF(6) allow us to propose a reaction scheme for the formation of the unprecedented DAE ligand. The new compounds advance our understanding of the spectral and structural properties of Re analogues of (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals.

  9. Preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A; Dietz, V J; Wilson, M; Navin, T R; Jones, J L

    2000-03-31

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Acute infections in pregnant women can be transmitted to the fetus and cause severe illness (e.g., mental retardation, blindness, and epilepsy). An estimated 400-4,000 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis occur each year in the United States. Of the 750 deaths attributed to toxoplasmosis each year, 375 (50%) are believed to be caused by eating contaminated meat, making toxoplasmosis the third leading cause of foodborne deaths in this country. Toxoplasma can be transmitted to humans by three principal routes: a) ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked infected meat; b) ingestion of oocysts, an environmentally resistant form of the organism that cats pass in their feces, with exposure of humans occurring through exposure to cat litter or soil (e.g., from gardening or unwashed fruits or vegetables); and c) a newly infected pregnant woman passing the infection to her unborn fetus. RECOMMENDATIONSFOR PREVENTION: Toxoplasma infection can be prevented in large part by a) cooking meat to a safe temperature (i.e., one sufficient to kill Toxoplasma); b) peeling or thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables before eating; c) cleaning cooking surfaces and utensils afterthey have contacted raw meat, poultry, seafood, or unwashed fruits or vegetables; d) pregnant women avoiding changing cat litter or, if no one else is available to change the cat litter, using gloves, then washing hands thoroughly; and e) not feeding raw or undercooked meat to cats and keeping cats inside to prevent acquisition of Toxoplasma by eating infected prey. Priorities for research were discussed at a national workshop sponsored by CDC in September 1998 and include a) improving estimates of the burden of toxoplasmosis, b) improving diagnostic tests to determine when a person becomes infected with Toxoplasma, and c) determining the applicability of national screening programs. Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be

  10. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you may wear special elastic stockings or inflatable boots. These devices squeeze the muscles to help keep ... Special stockings that compress the legs below the knee may help prevent blood clots from forming. However, ...

  11. [Prevention of eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papežová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The quality of the prevention of eating disorders represents in several last decades frequently discussed issue in the context of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions, a significant increase of influence of the media, new technologies and knowledge of risk factors. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of developing eating disorders, but secondary and tertiary prevention play the important role as well. Effective and coordinated prevention is still missing. Our experience of international cooperation of the last 20 years led to the development and evaluation of prevention programs. We are describing their fast development and ongoing programs following the new trends recommended by WHO.

  12. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children middle-income countries and include stunting, wasting and kwashiorkor, of which severe wasting and kwashiorkor are commonly referred to as severe acute malnutrition. Here, we use...... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...... and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new...

  13. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  14. Epidemiology of severe sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Florian B; Yende, Sachin; Angus, Derek C

    2014-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States and the most common cause of death among critically ill patients in non-coronary intensive care units (ICU). Respiratory tract infections, particularly pneumonia, are the most common site of infection, and associated with the highest mortality. The type of organism causing severe sepsis is an important determinant of outcome, and gram-positive organisms as a cause of sepsis have increased in frequency over time and are now more common than gram-negative infections. Recent studies suggest that acute infections worsen pre-existing chronic diseases or result in new chronic diseases, leading to poor long-term outcomes in acute illness survivors. People of older age, male gender, black race, and preexisting chronic health conditions are particularly prone to develop severe sepsis; hence prevention strategies should be targeted at these vulnerable populations in future studies. PMID:24335434

  15. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  16. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  17. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, Daniel L.

    1989-09-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to assist in the creation of specific prevention plans. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) contains two types of knowledge—domain and tutoring. The domain knowledge for wildfire prevention is structured around several foci: (1) individual concepts used in prevention planning; (2) explicitly specified interrelationships between concepts; (3) deductive methods that contain subjective judgment normally unavailable to less-experienced users; (4) analytical models of fire behavior used for identification of hazard areas; (5) how-to guidance needed for performance of planning tasks; and (6) expository information that provides a rationale for planning steps and ideas. Combining analytical, procedure, inferential, conceptual, and expositional knowledge into a tutoring environment provides the student and/or user with a multiple perspective of the subject matter. A concept network provides a unifying framework for structuring and utilizing these diverse forms of prevention planning knowledge. This network structure borrows from and combines semantic networks and frame-based knowledge representations. The flexibility of this organization facilitates an effective synthesis and organization of multiple knowledge forms.

  18. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  19. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  1. Probiotics and Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Lorenzo Fantini

    2006-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is frequently associated with necrosis of the gland, and the principal late complication is infection of the necrosis. The gut barrier plays an important role in severe acute pancreatitis; in fact, gut barrier integrity prevents bacteria translocation resulting from an atrophic and leaky gut, and reduces the systemic inflammatory syndrome of the pancreatitis from gut atrophy. The maintenance of gut barrier integrity is one of the goals in the treatment of severe acut...

  2. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  3. A case of concurrent several forms of thyroid cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous occurrence of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, known as differentiated thyroid cancer, has been reported with various presentations, but presence of an anaplastic cancer, as an undifferentiated cancer, in addition to differentiated thyroid cancer is rarely reported. We here report a 40-year-old man with ...

  4. Multipurpose prevention technologies: products in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, David R; Clark, Justin T; Kiser, Patrick F; Clark, Meredith R

    2013-12-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are broadly defined as products capable of simultaneously addressing multiple sexual and reproductive health needs including unintended pregnancy, STIs including HIV-1, and other reproductive tract infections. MPTs have been discussed for a few decades but little product development has occurred. With the recent proof-of-concept that a topically applied antiretroviral (ARV) can effectively reduce sexual transmission of HIV-1 (tenofovir 1% gel) the impetus to develop MPTs is gaining momentum. Products currently in development are broadly categorized as either long-acting or on-demand. Long-acting MPTs include intravaginal rings (IVRs) and long-acting injectable products. Several IVR MPTs are under development including one designed to release tenofovir to prevent transmission of HIV-1 and levonorgestrel (LNG) to prevent unintended pregnancy over a 90-day period. Another MPT IVR under development is designed to release the ARV dapivirine and LNG for 2 months. Long-acting injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) formulations of rilpivirine (TMC278) and GSK1265744 have entered clinical evaluation and could form the basis of long-acting injectable products for HIV-1 prevention and prevention of unintended pregnancy. On-demand products include TFV 1% gel (HIV-1/HSV-2 prevention), a zinc/carrageenan zinc gel (HIV-1/HSV-2 prevention), and the SILCS diaphragm administered with TFV 1% gel. Significant technical, funding, and regulatory hurdles must be overcome to develop most MPTs; however, the significant reproductive health benefits to many women around the world should provide motivation to overcome these hurdles. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies", held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S M; Wasserman, D A; Havassy, B E

    1991-01-01

    Although knowledge about relapse prevention is still at an early stage, the extant data highlight the importance of several constructs. 1. Motivation for abstinence remains central. The construct itself is often clouded because of its association with mystical notions such as willpower and self-control. We know that manipulation of environmental events can increase motivation. These interventions are effective, however, only as long as the contingencies are in effect. We need to develop and evaluate strategies for transferring contingency management to the natural environment, that is, to institutions and groups that can perpetuate them for the long term. Also, clarification of the kinds of abstinence goals needed to prevent relapse is important. 2. Coping skills have been studied by several investigators, but research on these, except for job-finding skills, is not encouraging. The skills usually taught may be too basic. Skills training oriented to complex targets, such as building nondrug-using networks, may be useful and should be further explored. 3. Social support is clearly important, yet we do not know how best to use it to promote abstinence. The little research available suggests that both familial and nonfamilial systems should be mobilized. We need to define abstinence-promoting supportive behaviors, identify and engage important support systems in treatment, and help patients expand their nondrug-using contacts. 4. Negative affect may be causally related to relapse. We need to continue efforts to identify dysphoric patients and develop interventions to ameliorate dysphoria concurrent with drug abuse treatment (cf. Zweben and Smith 1989). 5. Drug cue reactivity and extinction to drug cues have been demonstrated in the laboratory. What is needed in this promising line of research are (1) investigation of cues and cue-reactivity phenomena in the natural environment or in conditions closely mimicking that environment and (2) extinction methods that transfer

  6. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  7. Management of severe hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Catti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many classifications of hypospadias have been published, mainly based on the position of the ectopic meatus, which is an insufficient criterion to define the severity of this malformation. What really marks the proximal landmark of this malformation is the level of division of the corpus spongiosum, which is always proximal to the ectopic meatus. In this article, we will focus on the most severe forms of hypospadias which include those with a proximal division of corpus spongiosum (below the midshaft, important chordee and a poor development of the ventral radius, reflecting a marked hypovirilization of the genital tubercle, and cripple hypospadias resulting from several previous failed surgical procedures. The principle of hypospadias surgery will be reviewed together with the outcome of the current surgical techniques. Furthermore, common complications will be outlined. There is no minor or major hypospadias and all forms require a solid experience of the surgeon, as minor looking hypospadias may turn out to be far more complex to repair than they appear once the ventral radius of the penis has been dissected.

  8. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  9. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery management concentrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk, and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management

  10. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  11. Recommendations for Development of New Standardized Forms of Cocoa Breeds and Cocoa Extract Processing for the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Cocoa in Promotion of Cognitive Resilience and Healthy Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap; Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently thought that the lackluster performance of translational paradigms in the prevention of age-related cognitive deteriorative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be due to the inadequacy of the prevailing approach of targeting only a single mechanism. Age-related cognitive deterioration and certain neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, are characterized by complex relationships between interrelated biological phenotypes. Thus, alternative strategies that simultaneously target multiple underlying mechanisms may represent a more effective approach to prevention, which is a strategic priority of the National Alzheimer's Project Act and the National Institute on Aging. In this review article, we discuss recent strategies designed to clarify the mechanisms by which certain brain-bioavailable, bioactive polyphenols, in particular, flavan-3-ols also known as flavanols, which are highly represented in cocoa extracts, may beneficially influence cognitive deterioration, such as in AD, while promoting healthy brain aging. However, we note that key issues to improve consistency and reproducibility in the development of cocoa extracts as a potential future therapeutic agent requires a better understanding of the cocoa extract sources, their processing, and more standardized testing including brain bioavailability of bioactive metabolites and brain target engagement studies. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide recommendations for future developments of cocoa extracts as a therapeutic agent in AD.

  12. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention and treatment of long-term social disability amongst young people with emerging severe mental illness with social recovery therapy (The PRODIGY Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; French, Paul; Banerjee, Robin; Barton, Garry; Berry, Clio; Byrne, Rory; Clarke, Timothy; Fraser, Rick; Gee, Brioney; Greenwood, Kathryn; Notley, Caitlin; Parker, Sophie; Shepstone, Lee; Wilson, Jon; Yung, Alison R; Hodgekins, Joanne

    2017-07-11

    Young people who have social disability associated with severe and complex mental health problems are an important group in need of early intervention. Their problems often date back to childhood and become chronic at an early age. Without intervention, the long-term prognosis is often poor and the economic costs very large. There is a major gap in the provision of evidence-based interventions for this group, and therefore new approaches to detection and intervention are needed. This trial provides a definitive evaluation of a new approach to early intervention with young people with social disability and severe and complex mental health problems using social recovery therapy (SRT) over a period of 9 months to improve mental health and social recovery outcomes. This is a pragmatic, multi-centre, single blind, superiority randomised controlled trial. It is conducted in three sites in the UK: Sussex, Manchester and East Anglia. Participants are aged 16 to 25 and have both persistent and severe social disability (defined as engaged in less than 30 hours per week of structured activity) and severe and complex mental health problems. The target sample size is 270 participants, providing 135 participants in each trial arm. Participants are randomised 1:1 using a web-based randomisation system and allocated to either SRT plus optimised treatment as usual (enhanced standard care) or enhanced standard care alone. The primary outcome is time use, namely hours spent in structured activity per week at 15 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes assess typical mental health problems of the group, including subthreshold psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms, depression and anxiety. Time use, secondary outcomes and health economic measures are assessed at 9, 15 and 24 months post-randomisation. This definitive trial will be the first to evaluate a novel psychological treatment for social disability and mental health problems in young people presenting with social

  14. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  18. Severe service sealing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)

  19. Through a public health lens. Preventing violence against women: an update from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffunder, Corinne M; Noonan, Rita K; Cox, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been a key contributor to the growing public health effort to prevent violence. Although CDC and its partners are proud of their many successes, much work remains to be done. Violence continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide for people aged 15-44. Moreover, although many forms of violence garner national concern and resources, much more violence occurs in private domains and receives less attention. These hidden health hazards silently drain our nation's human, economic, and health resources. In this paper, we highlight the current efforts of the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP), housed within CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), to use a public health approach to the prevention of one key hidden health hazard: violence against women (VAW). Building from a recently developed strategic plan and a research agenda, we explain how four core public health principles--emphasizing primary prevention, advancing the science of prevention, translating science into effective programs, and building on the efforts of others--drive current programmatic activities in VAW prevention. Several current programs and projects are described. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future prevention work by deepening our vision of leadership, expanding our partnerships, pursuing comprehensive approaches, and using evidence-based strategies.

  20. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegl, Raffael; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois EH

    2016-01-01

    More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess) as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1) and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. PMID:28539804

  2. Oxidative Neurodegeneration Is Prevented by UCP0045037, an Allosteric Modulator for the Reduced Form of DJ-1, a Wild-Type of Familial Parkinson’s Disease-Linked PARK7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Taira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a loss-of-function mutation has been identified in familial Parkinson’s disease PARK7, the wild-type of DJ-1 is known to act as an oxidative stress sensor in neuronal cells. Recently, we identified UCP0045037 as a compound that bound to the reduced form of DJ-1 by in silico virtual screening. In this study, we determined the neuroprotective effects of UCP0045037 against focal cerebral ischemia-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by UCP0045037 in both rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and human normal SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, DJ-1-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells lost the protective activity of UCP0045037. These results suggest that UCP0045037 interacts with endogenous DJ-1 and produces a neuroprotective response.

  3. Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hacker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The phrase ‘Lebensform’ (form of life had a long and varied history prior to Wittgenstein’s use of it on a mere three occasions in the Philosophical Investigations. It is not a pivotal concept in Wittgenstein’s philosophy. But it is a minor signpost of a major reorientation of philosophy, philosophy of language and logic, and philosophy of mathematics that Wittgenstein instigated. For Wittgenstein sought to replace the conception of a language as a meaning calculus (Frege, Russell, the Tractatus by an anthropological or ethnological conception. A language is not a class of sentences that can be formed from a set of axioms (definitions, formation and transformation rules and the meanings of which is given by their truth-conditions, but an open-ended series of interlocking language-games constituting a form of life or way of living (a culture. Wittgenstein’s uses of ‘Lebensform’ and its cognates, both in the Investigations and in his Nachlass are severally analysed, and various exegetical misinterpretations are clarified.

  4. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  5. LEAD SEVERING CONTRIVANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmaier, W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for breaking an electrical circuit within an electronic tube during the process of manufacture is described. Frequently such circuits must be employed for gettering or vapor coating purposes, however, since an external pair of corector pins having no use after manufacture, is undesirable, this invention permits the use of existing leads to form a temporary circuit during manufacture, and severing it thereafter. One portion of the temporary circuit, made from a springy material such as tungsten, is spot welded to a fusable member. To cut the circuit an external radiant heat source melts the fusable member, allowing the tensed tungsten spring to contract and break the circuit. This inexpensive arrangement is particularly useful when the tube has a great many external leads crowded into the tube base.

  6. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  9. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  13. Severe pulmonary manifestation of leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, H J F; van Tol, E N; Tuinman, P R; de Vries, P J; Hartskeerl, R A; Grobusch, M P; Hovius, J W

    2012-06-01

    Based on increasing incidence and the occurrence of worldwide outbreaks, leptospirosis is recognised as an emerging zoonosis. Severe manifestations are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates and may therefore pose an important risk to public health, especially in certain high prevalence areas. A considerable number of infections progress to a severe form, which can present as the well-known triad of jaundice, impaired renal function and haemorrhage, known as Weil's disease. The severe pulmonary form of leptospirosis (SPFL) is a less known entity and is characterised by intra-alveolar haemorrhage and can lead to acute respiratory failure and death when adequate treatment fails. Prognostic factors correlating with severity and survival of leptospirosis include indicators of renal failure, pulmonary involvement and electrolyte imbalances. We report an imported case of SPFL in a returning traveller, and review the literature discussing epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prognostic factors and treatment of this resurgent disease.

  14. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  15. Mutual augmentation of the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase, between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS), and its prevention by clodronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xue; Yu Zhiqian; Funayama, Hiromi; Shoji, Noriaki; Sasano, Takashi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), powerful anti-bone-resorptive drugs, have inflammatory side effects, while histamine is not only an inflammatory mediator, but also an immuno-modifier. In murine models, a single intraperitoneal injection of an N-BP induces various inflammatory reactions, including the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in tissues important in immune responses (such as liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF are also capable of inducing HDC. We reported previously that in mice (i) the inflammatory actions of N-BPs depend on IL-1 (ii) N-BP pretreatment augments both LPS-stimulated IL-1 production and HDC induction, and (iii) the co-administration of clodronate (a non-N-BP) with an N-BP inhibits the latter's inflammatory actions (including HDC induction). Here, we add the new findings that (a) pretreatment with alendronate (a typical N-BP) augments both IL-1- and TNF-induced HDC elevations, (b) LPS pretreatment augments the alendronate-induced HDC elevation, (c) co-administration of clodronate with alendronate abolishes these augmentations, (d) alendronate does not induce HDC in IL-1-deficient mice even if they are pretreated with LPS, and (e) alendronate increases IL-1β in all tissues tested, but not in the serum. These results suggest that (1) there are mutual augmentations between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS) in HDC induction, (2) tissue IL-1β is important in alendronate-stimulated HDC induction, and (3) combination use of clodronate may have the potential to reduce the inflammatory effects of alendronate (we previously found that clodronate, conveniently, does not inhibit the anti-bone-resorptive activity of alendronate)

  16. Preventive Long-Term Effects of a Topical Film-Forming Medical Device with Ultra-High UV Protection Filters and DNA Repair Enzyme in Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Retrospective Study of Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Giustini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is common in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP due to a DNA repair mechanisms genetic defect. Ultraviolet (UV exposure is the main cause of increased incidence of actinic keratosis (AK, basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC observed in XP subjects. Photoprotection is therefore a mandatory strategy in order to reduce skin damage. A topical DNA repair enzyme has been shown to slow down the development of skin lesions in XP. However, there are no data regarding the effects of photoprotection combined with DNA repair strategies in this clinical setting. A film-forming medical device containing the DNA repair enzyme photolyase and very high-protection UV filters (Eryfotona AK-NMSC, Ery is currently available. We report retrospective data regarding the use of Ery in 8 patients (5 women, 3 men with a diagnosis of XP treated for at least 12 consecutive months, comparing the rate of new skin lesions (AK, BCC and SCC during active treatment with Ery and during 12 months just before the use of the product. New AK, BCC and SCC mean lesion numbers during the 1-year Ery treatment were 5, 3 and 0, respectively in comparison with 14, 6.8 and 3 lesions, respectively during the 1-year pre-treatment period. Ery use was associated with a 65% reduction in appearance of new AK lesions and with 56 and 100% reductions in the incidence of new BCC and SCC lesions, respectively. These data suggest that topical use of photoprotection and DNA repair enzyme could help lower skin cancer lesions in XP. Control prospective trials are advisable in this clinical setting.

  17. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  18. Harmonic maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  19. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  20. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G

    2002-01-01

    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  1. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  2. Severe Ventral Erosion of Penis Caused by Indwelling Urethral Catheter and Inflation of Foley Balloon in Urethra—Need to Create List of “Never Events in Spinal Cord Injury” in order to Prevent These Complications from Happening in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Never Events are serious, largely preventable patient safety incidents that should not occur if the available preventative measures have been implemented. We propose that a list of “Never Events” is created for spinal cord injury patients in order to improve the quality of care. To begin with, following two preventable complications related to management of neuropathic bladder may be included in this list of “Never Events.” (i Severe ventral erosion of glans penis and penile shaft caused by indwelling urethral catheter; (ii incorrect placement of a Foley catheter leading to inflation of Foley balloon in urethra. If a Never Event occurs, health professionals should report the incident through hospital risk management system to National Patient Safety Agency's Reporting and Learning System, communicate with the patient, family, and their carer as soon as possible about the incident, undertake a comprehensive root cause analysis of what went wrong, how, and why, and implement the changes that have been identified and agreed following the root cause analysis.

  3. 7 CFR 58.729 - Forming containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forming containers. 58.729 Section 58.729 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.729 Forming containers. Containers either lined or unlined shall be assembled and stored in a sanitary manner to prevent contamination. The handling of containers by filler crews should be done with...

  4. Entropic Forms and Related Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maria Scarfone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a very general trace-form entropy, we introduce a pair of algebraic structures endowed by a generalized sum and a generalized product. These algebras form, respectively, two Abelian fields in the realm of the complex numbers isomorphic each other. We specify our results to several entropic forms related to distributions recurrently observed in social, economical, biological and physical systems including the stretched exponential, the power-law and the interpolating Bosons-Fermions distributions. Some potential applications in the study of complex systems are advanced.

  5. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Hanson, M.; Staples, B.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  6. Artemether for severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esu, Ekpereonne; Effa, Emmanuel E; Opie, Oko N; Uwaoma, Amirahobu; Meremikwu, Martin M

    2014-09-11

    ), and artemether may result in fewer neurological sequelae, but larger trials would be needed to confirm this (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.07; seven trials, 968 participants, low quality evidence). Artemether probably shortens the parasite clearance time by about nine hours (MD -9.03, 95% CI -11.43 to -6.63; seven trials, 420 participants, moderate quality evidence), and may shorten the fever clearance time by about three hours (MD -3.73, 95% CI -6.55 to -0.92; eight trials, 457 participants, low quality evidence).For adults in Asia, treatment with intramuscular artemether probably results in fewer deaths than treatment with quinine (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.83; four trials, 716 participants, moderate quality evidence). Artemether versus artesunate Artemether and artesunate have not been directly compared in randomized trials in African children.For adults in Asia, mortality is probably higher with intramuscular artemether (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.97, two trials,494 participants, moderate quality evidence). Although there is a lack of direct evidence comparing artemether with artesunate, artemether is probably less effective than artesunate at preventing deaths from severe malaria. In circumstances where artesunate is not available, artemether is an alternative to quinine.

  7. Can prevention classification be improved by considering the function of prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R

    2014-12-01

    Universal, selective and indicated forms of prevention have been adopted as improvements on previous notions of primary and secondary prevention. However, some conceptual confusion remains concerning the placing of environmental, community-based or mass media preventive interventions within this typology. It is suggested that a new dimension of functional types of prevention, namely environmental, developmental and informational prevention should be specified alongside the forms of prevention in a taxonomy matrix. The main advantage of this new taxonomy is that a matrix combining the form and function dimensions of prevention can be used to identify and map out prevention strategies, to consider where research evidence is present and where more is needed, and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of different categories and components of prevention for specific health and social issues. Such evaluations would provide empirical evidence as to whether the different categories of prevention are related to outcomes or processes of prevention in ways that suggest the value of the taxonomy for understanding and increasing the impact of prevention science. This new prevention taxonomy has been useful for conceptualising and planning prevention activities in a case study involving the Swedish National Institute for Public Health. Future work should assess (1) the robustness of this new taxonomy and (2) the theoretical and empirical basis for profiling prevention investments across the various forms and functions of prevention.

  8. Prevention of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove

    2018-01-01

    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity...... of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema...

  9. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Acute malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk. When episodes are prolonged or frequent, acute malnutrition is also associated with poor growth and development, which contributes to stunting Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies to prevent...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...... of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific interventions...

  10. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro......-containers has shown potential to prevent or delay recrystallization. Another recent approach is the formation of co-amorphous mixtures between either two drugs or one drug and one low molecular weight excipient. Molecular interactions between the two molecules provide an energy barrier that has to be overcome...

  11. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  12. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...

  14. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  15. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  17. Antingens for a Vaccine that Prevents Severe Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    ACT  mefloquine -artesuna- te, despite the relatively facile acquisition of parasite resistance to  mefloquine  (58).  Mefloquine , however, is comparatively...amodiaquine, and the quinolinemethanols, including quinine and mefloquine , concentrate inside the acidic digestive vacuole, where they are believed to bind...amplification of  the pfmdr1 gene has been identified as a key determinant of resis- tance to  mefloquine  and lumefantrine in Southeast Asian strains

  18. International cooperation for the cure and prevention of severe hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Lawrence B; Uderzo, Cornelio; Masera, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Thalassemia major (TM) is the most frequent life-threatening noninfectious disease of childhood in the Middle East, South Asia, and Pacific Islands where it accounts for a significant proportion of childhood mortality, morbidity, and related health care expenses. In spite of major advances in supportive care during the last decade, many patients in low-income and middle-income countries still fare poorly because of high treatment costs and lack of accessible multidisciplinary teams, not to consider the risk of blood-borne infections, primarily hepatitis C. In selected low-risk patients with a compatible sibling, TM is highly curable by bone marrow transplantation (BMT), which also improves the quality of life and is cost-effective. Starting in 2008, the Cure2Children Foundation (C2C), an Italian Non-Governmental Organization, has supported a BMT network in Pakistan, which during 2012 was extended to India. The primary aim of this project was to assess feasibility, outcomes, and costs of matched-related BMT for thalassemia in young low-risk children using a well-established and tolerable strategy. A total of 100 matched-related BMTs have been performed to date by partner institutions within this C2C-supported network; in the 50 low-risk cases with TM, over 90% disease-free survival was obtained with procedure expenses within 10,000 USD/BMT, that is, an outcome comparable to that obtained in affluent countries but with a fraction of the expenses. This cure rate was also obtained in start-up BMT centers (1 in Pakistan and 1 in India) within a structured and intensive cooperation program. Twinning and other international cooperation strategies based on shared principles and a common vision may substantially facilitate access to BMT.

  19. Antigens for a Vaccine that Prevents Severe Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    expertise in bioinformatics. Acknowledgements We thank Tania Ewing (Health Inbox, Melbourne), Lisa Jones (ARC/NHMRC Research Network for Parasitology) and...blood cells and Plasmodium falciparum Sc ie nc e Ph ot o Li br ar y We do not have the rights to reproduce this image on the web. Comment 2038...TK, Bolla MC, Li JL, et al. Maternal Malaria and Gravidity Interact to Modify Infant Susceptibility to Malaria. PLoS Med 2005;2:e407 21. Drew DE

  20. The investigation on the prevention of recriticality in ABLE core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoko; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2002-11-01

    A massive motion of molten fuel and increase of reactivity during a HCDA (Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident) in a fast reactor may result in a recriticality, since the core configuration of a fast reactor does not produce the maximum reactivity. The analyses of HCDA performed in the past have shown that the severe recriticality, which affected the integrity of a containment, could occur only if a whole-core molten pool was formed in the disrupted core. ABLE (Axial BLanket Eliminated) subassemblies, in which a part of the axial blanket pellet is eliminated, have been proposed as a measure to prevent the occurrence of such a severe recriticality. This study investigates the enhancement of molten fuel discharge from a reactor core using SIMMER-III code in order to assess the ability to prevent the severe recriticality. It is concluded that ABLE subassemblies enhance the fuel discharge from a reactor core and have an capability to prevent the severe recriticality in the early stage of the transition phase. The capability depends on the fuel enthalpy level in the core region, and rises as the enthalpy becomes higher than the solidus enthalpy. However, it is also shown that the prevention of recriticality in a low enthalpy scenario, in which the average enthalpy level of the fuel in the core is less than solidus energy, needs further investigation. (author)

  1. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  2. Stroke prevention: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a personal, familial, and social disaster. It is the third cause of death worldwide, the first cause of acquired disability, the second cause of dementia, and its cost is astronomic. The burden of stroke is likely to increase given the aging of the population and the growing incidence of many vascular risk factors. Prevention of stroke includes--as for all other diseases--a "mass approach" aiming at decreasing the risk at the society level and an individual approach, aiming at reducing the risk in a given subject. The mass approach is primarily based on the identification and treatment of vascular risk factors and, if possible, in the implementation of protective factors. These measures are the basis of primary prevention but most of them have now been shown to be also effective in secondary prevention. The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various treatments addressing the specific subtypes of stroke, such as antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cardiac emboli. There is a growing awareness of the huge evidence-to-practice gap that exists in stroke prevention largely due to socio-economic factors. Recent approaches include low cost intervention packages to reduce blood pressure and cheap "polypills" combining in a single tablet aspirin and several drugs to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Polypill intake should however not lead to abandon the healthy life-style measures which remain the mainstay of stroke prevention.

  3. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  4. Severe Measles Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat, Cédric; Klouche, Kada; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Messika, Jonathan; Roch, Antoine; Machado, Sonia; Sonneville, Romain; Guisset, Olivier; Pujol, Wilfried; Guérin, Claude; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Mrozek, Natacha; Darmon, Michaël; Chemouni, Frank; Schmidt, Matthieu; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Dreyfuss, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Abstract France has recently witnessed a nationwide outbreak of measles. Data on severe forms of measles in adults are lacking. We sought to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, treatment, and prognostic aspects of the disease in adult patients who required admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 36 adults admitted to a total of 64 ICUs throughout France for complications of measles from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011. All cases of measles were confirmed by serologic testing and/or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The cohort consisted of 21 male and 15 female patients, with a median age of 29.2 years (25th–75th interquartile range [IQR], 27.2–34.2 yr) and a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) of 13 (IQR, 9–18). Among the 26 patients whose measles vaccination status was documented, none had received 2 injections. One patient had developed measles during childhood. Underlying comorbid conditions included chronic respiratory disease in 9 patients, immunosuppression in 7 patients, and obesity in 3 patients, while measles affected 5 pregnant women. Respiratory complications induced by measles infection led to ICU admission in 32 cases, and measles-related neurologic complications led to ICU admission in 2 cases. Two patients were admitted due to concurrent respiratory and neurologic complications. Bacterial superinfection of measles-related airway infection was suspected in 28 patients and was documented in 8. Four cases of community-acquired pneumonia, 6 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia, 1 case of tracheobronchitis, and 2 cases of sinusitis were microbiologically substantiated. Of 11 patients who required mechanical ventilation, 9 developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Among the patients with ARDS, extraalveolar air leak complications occurred in 4 cases. Five patients died, all of whom were severely immunocompromised. On follow-up, 1 patient had

  5. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe limb ischemia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchý, T

    1991-01-01

    In the course of the study of the syndrome of severe limb ischemia (SLI) in a representative clinical material of 300 patients and a number of experimental studies, we arrived to the proposal of this optimal methodical procedure for acute vascular closures of traumatic and non-traumatic origin in the limbs: a) In every injury and sudden pain with a change of the function of the limb, it is necessary to think of the SLI syndrome and to search targetedly for it. b) In injuries connected with bleeding our first-rate task is the control of this bleeding. For a temporary arrest of the bleeding it is necessary to prefer more physiological methods sparing collateral circulation to the still most used tourniquet. For this purpose a new device for temporary hemostasis called Hemostop has proved itself, designed by the author and attested both experimentally and clinically, protected as a Czechoslovak patent. From surgical measures have acquitted themselves from this viewpoint the insertion of vascular clamp, ligature of the vessel or its temporary cannulation. c) To set the diagnosis of SLI, it usually suffices a careful anamnesis and clinical examination, advantageous is the investigation by ultrasound. The angiography because of time consumption should be used only in indicated cases. d) The time factor--"race against the time"--has to be always borne on our mind. It is necessary to achieve the recovery of blood circulation in the limb up to 6 or at the latest up to 10 hours from the onset of injury or closure. e) For shortening of the period of tissue hypoxia it is of advantage to use the temporary cannulation of injured vessels. This should be used always, whenever because of any reasons, it is not possible to execute the final reconstructive operation up to 10 hours since the injury, e. g. in polytraumatism, transport difficulties and the like. f) In isolated vascular injuries without bleeding (about 45%) and in all non-traumatic SLI the patients must be efficiently

  7. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  8. 76 FR 53136 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... and Tobacco Control Program Partnerships--New--National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information...

  9. 76 FR 58515 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has periodically collected information about tobacco use... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information...

  10. 77 FR 27065 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... care expenditures. With passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30Day-12-0828] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  11. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  12. 78 FR 40151 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus ABCs Case Report Form. ABCs Invasive Pneumococcal 10 41 10/60 Disease in... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30-Day 13-13DB] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  13. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liegl R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raffael Liegl,1 Ann Hellström,2 Lois EH Smith1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1 and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. Keywords: ROP, IGF-1, insulin growth factor 1

  15. Severe Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Bradley E; Parikh, Neil G; Maharaj, Sheena K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize, diagnose, evaluate, and treat severe childhood asthma. Understanding the occurrence of the physiologic and clinical presentations of childhood severe asthma, the treatment and response may be predicted by biomarkers, but the patient's response is highly variable. The onset of severe asthma occurs early and is primarily predicted by severity of viral infection and coexistence of the atopic state.

  16. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  17. Mesonic Form Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Frederic D.R.; Edwards, Robert G.; Felming, George T.; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-01-01

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors

  18. CYCLOSPORINE IN TREATMENT OF SEVERE ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AtD is one of the most widespread types of allergic lesions of skin in children. Increase of severe types of AtD with lesion of big parts of skin, high frequency of exacerbations, presence of concomitant atopic diseases, and inefficiency of standard therapeutic approaches, torpid clinical course and early development of disability, causes an anxiety. Present standard approaches can be ineffective in children with severe clinical course of AtD and they are not able to prevent progression of disease, development of severe exacerbations and child’s disability. One of therapeutic alternatives for these patients is treatment with immunosuppressive agents. The article describes questions of treatment with cyclosporine in systemic therapy of severe resistant forms of AtD in children. Author discusses effectiveness and safety of a drug, formulated rules of treatment of severe AtD with cyclosporine. Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, cyclosporine, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:117-120

  19. The management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelce, J.; Brignon, P.

    1987-01-01

    In considering severe accidents in water power reactors, a major problem that arises is how to manage them in such a way that the situation can be controlled as well as possible, from the aspects both of preventing serious damage to the core of limiting the discharge of radioactivity. A number of countries have announced provisions in the field of accident management, some already set up, others planned, but these mainly apply to preventing damage to the core. Part of this report deals with this aspect, to show that there is a fairly wide consensus on how problems should be approached. Attitudes vary, on the other hand, in the approach to mitigate radioactive release. In fact, few countries have proposed concrete steps to manage severe accidents in the final stages when the core is seriously damaged. Since it is difficult to compare different approaches, only the French approach is described. This description is however very brief, because in the five or six years since it was defined, the approach has been presented many times. The stress is placed more on the comments which this type of approach suggests, to make the subsequent general discussion easier

  20. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  1. [Prevention of preeclampsia - review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, R; Matěcha, J; Drochýtek, V

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious condition that affects about five percent of pregnant women. The disorder itself or related complications are responsible for a significant percentage of maternal and fetal morbidity, even in developed countries. Although our understanding of etiology is still limited, the possibility of detecting and evaluating certain angiogenic factors by the end of the first trimester gives food for thought about prospects for preeclampsia prevention. Secondary prevention is currently based mostly on the effort to pharmacologically affect the spiral artery transformation and development of the abnormal placental microcirculation which lead to clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. The preventive treatment options are narrow. Greatest effect was noted with acetylsalicylic acid medication in the at-risk population. The dose of 75-150 mg per day is considered optimal. The treatment should start before the 16th gestational week; later initiation of therapy is associated with considerably smaller effect. The incidence of the early-onset preeclampsia (preventive treatment affects the late-onset preeclampsia only minimally. Calcium supplementation is effective only in women with low calcium intake. Question for the future as well as subject of several studies is a clinical significance of low molecular weight heparin and sildenafil.

  2. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong

  3. Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Levant, Beth; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Christian P

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity. Thus, lipids represent a target for preventive medicine of psychiatric disorders. Here we review how brain lipids contribute to normal behaviour and to major psychiatric disorders with the focus on phospholipids/fatty acids, sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids. Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for membrane forming and signalling lipids in the brain in the etiopathologies of depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Lipids also represent potential preventive interventions for these psychiatric disorders by either targeted dietary supplementation or pharmacological manipulation of lipid regulating enzymes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. [Pain in herpes zoster: Prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Mosquera, G; González-Cal, A; Calvo-Rodríguez, D; Primucci, C Y; Plamenov-Dipchikov, P

    Shingles is a painful rash that results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in the dorsal root ganglia or cranial nerves. In this article an update is presented on the prevention and pharmacological treatment of the secondary pain from the virus infection. The most effective way to prevent post-herpetic neuralgia and its consequences is the prevention of herpes itself. A live attenuated vaccine (the Oka strain varicella zoster virus) has been available for several years, and is approved in adults aged 50 years old. Although this vaccine has shown to be effective against herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia, its effectiveness decreases with age and is contraindicated in patients with some form of immunosuppression. Today the recombinant vaccines provide an alternative, and may be administered to immunocompromised persons. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Politics of prevention: The emergence of prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Filip

    2015-08-01

    This article critically examines the political dimension of prevention science by asking how it constructs the problems for which prevention is seen as the solution and how it enables the monitoring and control of these problems. It also seeks to examine how prevention science has established a sphere for legitimate political deliberation and which kinds of statements are accepted as legitimate within this sphere. The material consists of 14 publications describing and discussing the goals, concepts, promises and problems of prevention science. The analysis covers the period from 1993 to 2012. The analysis shows that prevention science has established a narrow definition of "prevention", including only interventions aimed at the reduction of risks for clinical disorders. In publications from the U.S. National Institute of Drug Abuse, the principles of prevention science have enabled a commitment to a zero-tolerance policy on drugs. The drug using subject has been constructed as a rational choice actor lacking in skills in exerting self-control in regard to drug use. Prevention science has also enabled the monitoring and control of expertise, risk groups and individuals through specific forms of data gathering. Through the juxtaposition of the concepts of "objectivity" and "morality", prevention science has constituted a principle of delineation, disqualifying statements not adhering to the principles of prevention science from the political field, rendering ethical and conflictual dimensions of problem representations invisible. The valorisation of scientific accounts of drugs has acted to naturalise specific political ideals. It simultaneously marginalises the public from the public policy process, giving precedence to experts who are able to provide information that policy-makers are demanding. Alternative accounts, such as those based on marginalisation, poverty or discrimination are silenced within prevention science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  7. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  8. Acute severe childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of South. African children, affecting 10-20% of the population. Correct treatment of chronic asthma with regular anti- inflammatory controller therapy prevents symptoms, asthma exacerbations, hospitalisation and mortality. Modern treatment of asthma focuses on an assessment of.

  9. The Prevention of Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-01-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods taht are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus. PMID:23378598

  10. Pharmacotherapy of severe asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firszt, Rafael; Kraft, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous phenotype where management can be challenging. While many patients with severe asthma respond to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting β-agonist, there remains a significant subset of patients that require oral corticosteroids to control symptoms. Alternative therapies are needed to help reduce the need for continuous oral corticosteroids; however, there are currently very few effective options. Several new alternatives to oral corticosteroids have been evaluated in severe asthma as add-on to conventional therapy. These include macrolide antibiotics, omalizumab, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, cytokine receptor antagonists, and bronchial thermoplasty. The challenge with these entities is determining the appropriate phenotype of severe asthma where effectiveness is demonstrated, given the significant heterogeneity of the disease. Therefore, there is a crucial need to better understand the mechanisms and pathophysiology of severe asthma so more effective immunomodulators and biologic therapies can emerge. PMID:20462794

  11. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men's soccer: A cluster-randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football. Purpose: The authors investigated the preventive effect of eccentric strengthening of the hamstring muscles using the Nordic hamstring exercise compared with no additional h...

  12. Do evaporating black holes form photospheres?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGibbon, Jane H.; Carr, B. J.; Page, Don N.

    2008-01-01

    Several authors, most notably Heckler, have claimed that the observable Hawking emission from a microscopic black hole is significantly modified by the formation of a photosphere around the black hole due to QED or QCD interactions between the emitted particles. In this paper we analyze these claims and identify a number of physical and geometrical effects which invalidate these scenarios. We point out two key problems. First, the interacting particles must be causally connected to interact, and this condition is satisfied by only a small fraction of the emitted particles close to the black hole. Second, a scattered particle requires a distance ∼E/m e 2 for completing each bremsstrahlung interaction, with the consequence that it is improbable for there to be more than one complete bremsstrahlung interaction per particle near the black hole. These two effects have not been included in previous analyses. We conclude that the emitted particles do not interact sufficiently to form a QED photosphere. Similar arguments apply in the QCD case and prevent a QCD photosphere (chromosphere) from developing when the black hole temperature is much greater than Λ QCD , the threshold for QCD particle emission. Additional QCD phenomenological arguments rule out the development of a chromosphere around black hole temperatures of order Λ QCD . In all cases, the observational signatures of a cosmic or Galactic halo background of primordial black holes or an individual black hole remain essentially those of the standard Hawking model, with little change to the detection probability. We also consider the possibility, as proposed by Belyanin et al. and D. Cline et al., that plasma interactions between the emitted particles form a photosphere, and we conclude that this scenario too is not supported.

  13. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  14. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  15. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Sudarshan; Brink, Lars; Majumdar, Sucheta; Mali, Mahendra; Shah, Nabha

    2017-03-01

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure ( N = 0) Yang-Mills and N = 4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N = 8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  16. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananth, Sudarshan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Brink, Lars [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Institute of Advanced Studies and Department of Physics & Applied Physics,Nanyang Technological University,Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Majumdar, Sucheta [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Mali, Mahendra [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Thiruvananthapuram, Trivandrum 695016 (India); Shah, Nabha [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India)

    2017-03-31

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure (N=0) Yang-Mills and N=4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N=8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  17. PowerForms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Ricky, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    such validation. Today, CGI programmers often use Perl libraries for simple server-side validation or program customized JavaScript solutions for client-side validation. We present PowerForms, which is an add-on to HTML forms that allows a purely declarative specification of input formats and sophisticated...... interdependencies of form fields. While our work may be seen as inspiration for a future extension of HTML, it is also available for CGI programmers today through a preprocessor that translates a PowerForms document into a combination of standard HTML and JavaScript that works on all combinations of platforms...

  18. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  19. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  20. Antigen Loading (e.g., Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 of Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs Reduces Their Capacity to Prevent Diabetes in the Non-Obese Diabetes (NOD-Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Model of Adoptive Cotransfer of Diabetes As Well As in NOD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Funda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs are being researched as a promising intervention strategy also in autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D. T1D is a T-cell-mediated, organ-specific disease with several well-defined and rather specific autoantigens, i.e., proinsulin, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65, that have been used in animal as well as human intervention trials in attempts to achieve a more efficient, specific immunotherapy. In this study, we have tested tolerogenic DCs for their effectiveness to prevent adoptive transfer of diabetes by diabetogenic splenocytes into non-obese diabetes (NOD-severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD-SCID recipients. While i.p. application of tolDCs prepared from bone marrow of prediabetic NOD mice by vitamin D2 and dexamethasone significantly reduced diabetes transfer into the NOD-SCID females, this effect was completely abolished when tolDCs were loaded with the mouse recombinant GAD65, but also with a control protein—ovalbumin (OVA. The effect was not dependent on the presence of serum in the tolDC culture. Similar results were observed in NOD mice. Removal of possible bystander antigen-presenting cells within the diabetogenic splenocytes by negative magnetic sorting of T cells did not alter this surprising effect. Tolerogenic DCs loaded with an immunodominant mouse GAD65 peptide also displayed diminished diabetes-preventive effect. Tolerogenic DCs were characterized by surface maturation markers (CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC II and the lipopolysaccharide stability test. Data from alloreactive T cell proliferation and cytokine induction assays (IFN-γ did not reveal the differences observed in the diabetes incidence. Migration of tolDCs, tolDCs-GAD65 and tolDCs-OVA to spleen, mesenteric- and pancreatic lymph nodes displayed similar, mucosal pattern with highest accumulation in pancreatic lymph nodes present up to 9 days after the i.p. application. These data document that mechanisms by which tol

  1. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and ... a child for life. Learn more about polio + prevention The Virus The Vaccines The Communities Related resources ...

  2. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  3. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  4. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  5. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  6. Currency flaw severity. [Banknotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Burnett, M.; Goodman, C.; Sherrod, R.; Schmoyer, R.; Harrison, C.; Uppuluri, R.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of currency flaw severity was carried out using 300 banknotes and 37 judges. Each judge assigned each note to one of five flaw severity categories. These categories correspond to severity grades of 1 to 5 with 1 equivalent to ''always accepted'' and 5 ''never accepted.'' An average flaw severity grade for each note was obtained by taking the mean of the severity grades assigned to that note by the 37 judges. Thus, each note has a single numerical real-number flaw grade between 1 and 5. Mathematical modeling of the currency flaw survey results is continuing with some very promising initial results. Our present model handles common excess ink and missing ink flaw types quite well. We plan to extend the model to ink level, mash, setoff and blanket impression flaw types.

  7. Tuberculosis and parenteral viral hepatitides: incidence of mixed forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Asratyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the frequency of parenteral viral hepatitides (HB and HC (PVH in patients with tuberculosis in Moscow in relation to data on their incidence in the aggregate population of the capital.Materials and methods. The authors analyzed the incidence of (acute, chronic HB and HC (carriage and tuberculosis in Moscow in 2009. A total of 24,220 cards for infectious patients (No. 089/y and federal statistical follow-up forms (No. 2 were first processed to compare and search for personal data among the patients with tuberculosis and all forms of PVH and to establish the evidence of PVH and tuberculosis comorbidity.Results. The infection of tuberculosis patients with parenteral hepatitis B and C viruses was ascertained to be 5.5 to 284.9 times higher (in relation to the form of a hepatitis course than that in the aggregation population of Moscow, which suggests that PVH is of high significance for the tuberculosis patients and that it is necessary to improve a PVH prevention program among this cohort patients. Analysis of the sex-age structure shows that male tuberculosis patients in the 20-39-year-old group should be considered to be a special risk group that should attract special attention when implementing preventive measures. The tuberculosis mortality rate among mixed infected patients was 1.8-fold higher than among those who had PVH-uncomplicated tuberculosis.Conclusion. The results of the investigations are suggestive of the evidence of PVH and tuberculosis comorbidity. The mixed forms of these infections in different combinations have been established to be accompanied by their severer clinical course and high death rates. 

  8. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  9. Midodrine for severe orthostatic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Midodrine (Bramox-Brancaster Pharma Limited) was authorised in the UK by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) in March 2015 for "the treatment of severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic dysfunction in adults when corrective factors have been ruled out and other forms of treatment are inadequate".(1) Previously, midodrine had only been available in the UK as an unlicensed product used on a named-patient basis. It is the first drug to be licensed in the UK for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. Here we consider the evidence for midodrine in the treatment of severe orthostatic hypotension and how it fits with current management strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Genotyping for severe drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Eric; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis and pharmacogenomics of severe immunologically-mediated adverse drug reactions. Such T-cell-mediated adverse drug reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), drug-induced liver disease (DILI) and other drug hypersensitivity syndromes have more recently been shown to be mediated through interactions with various class I and II HLA alleles. Key examples have included the associations of HLA-B*15:02 and carbamazepine induced SJS/TEN in Southeast Asian populations and HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity. HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity exemplifies a successful translational roadmap from pharmacogenomic discovery through to widespread clinical implementation. Ultimately, our increased understanding of the interaction between drugs and the MHC could be used to inform drug design and drive pre-clinical toxicity programs to improve drug safety.

  11. Severe accident insights report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, W.T.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the conditions and events that nuclear power plant personnel may encounter during the latter stages of a severe core damage accident and what the consequences might be of actions they may take during these latter stages. The report also describes what can be expected of the performance of the key barriers to fission product release (primarily containment systems), what decisions the operating staff may face during the course of a severe accident, and what could result from these decisions based on our current state of knowledge of severe accident phenomena. 9 refs

  12. Severe thunderstorms and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, H. E.

    2013-04-01

    As the planet warms, it is important to consider possible impacts of climate change on severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. To further that discussion, the current distribution of severe thunderstorms as a function of large-scale environmental conditions is presented. Severe thunderstorms are much more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and deep-tropospheric wind shear. Tornadoes and large hail are preferred in high-shear environments and non-tornadic wind events in low shear. Further, the intensity of tornadoes and hail, given that they occur, tends to be almost entirely a function of the shear and only weakly depends on the thermodynamics. Climate model simulations suggest that CAPE will increase in the future and the wind shear will decrease. Detailed analysis has suggested that the CAPE change will lead to more frequent environments favorable for severe thunderstorms, but the strong dependence on shear for tornadoes, particularly the strongest ones, and hail means that the interpretation of how individual hazards will change is open to question. The recent development of techniques to use higher-resolution models to estimate the occurrence of storms of various kinds is discussed. Given the large interannual variability in environments and occurrence of events, caution is urged in interpreting the observational record as evidence of climate change.

  13. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  14. Phototrauma prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffrig, J R

    2001-01-01

    In response to an alarming increase in skin cancer rates, much work is being done to find causes, identify populations at risk, and appropriately modify behaviors and protective strategies. The causes of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers are multifactorial; however, the evidence implicating ultraviolet radiation as a major factor is mounting. Sunlight consists of four important wavelengths. Two of them, UVA and UVB, are the most harmful because they cause direct cellular trauma and immunologic suppression. Sunburn is a delayed prostaglandin-mediated erythema that implies severe damage to DNA in a cumulative fashion. Avoidance recommendations include activity planning strategies, apparel choices, and sunscreen use. Clothing is generally protective and hats should cover highly exposed areas. Special apparel products incorporate UV protection into the fabric and offer an additional strategy for workers and enthusiasts who frequently venture into the outdoors. A sunscreen is a topical agent that provides protection against UV radiation. Specifics of sunscreen classification and labeling by the Food and Drug Administration are covered in this article, along with selection and application strategies for outdoor adventurers and travelers. Whereas ultraviolet radiation avoidance and sunscreen use are vital, public education will remain the cornerstone of an effective plan to reduce skin cancer rates.

  15. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  16. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Today, Linda Saisselin takes joy in holding her new grandson—pain free. Photo courtesy of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this is a joint disease that mostly affects ...

  17. NOAA Form 370 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information from submitted NOAA Form 370s, also known as the Fisheries Certificate of Origin, for imported shipments of frozen and/or processed...

  18. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  19. Science on form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Shozo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Takaki, Ryuji; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium was to discuss interdisciplinal science aspects of form. 'Form' depends on the material and the changes. But, it is the form that appears evident at once and endures. Form is absorbed from every field as media of information. One part of the work covers the description of non-periodic phenomena, morphogenesis or evolution. Irreducible stubborn facts as diseases or social problems, or whatever else that could not be analyzed are integrally challenged to be systematized by computer simulation. The other part covers the finding of laws for determining how systems behave. Attention should be paid to pattern recognition, image processing and pattern formation. The Symposium proceeded with no parallel sessions, and participants from various fields made exciting discussions in an interdisciplinal atmosphere. (Auth.)

  20. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  1. Forms of Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Events Faces of Dystonia Donate Donate Online Membership Find an Event Donor Bill of Rights About Dystonia Symptoms & Diagnosis Forms of Dystonia Genetics Glossary Treatment Find a Doctor Oral Medications Botulinum Neurotoxin Neurosurgery ...

  2. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  3. Polyphony and verb forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Rajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some special uses of indicative and subjunctive verb forms in Spanish, which contemporary linguistics explains using the notions of polyphony, evidentials, echoic representation, quotatives, etc. These terms, even though they refer to different characteristics and belong to different theoretical frameworks, share one common feature: they all refer to diverse linguistic forms (discourse markers, linguistic negation, quotatives, echoic utterances, etc. characterized by the presence and interaction of different voices or points of view in one discourse sequence. In this study we are interested in a description of quotative or polyphonic meanings expressed by specific verb forms and tenses, the imperfect and the conditional, and also by indicative forms in subordinate substantive clauses with a negative main verb and by subjunctive forms in subordinate concessive clauses. Our research focuses on the analysis of the linguistic conditions that make possible the evidential use of the conditional, the imperfect and the echoic (metarepresentative interpretation of indicative and subjunctive forms in the above-mentioned contexts. The examples we discuss show that evidential and echoic interpretations are inferential meanings derived from the extralinguistic situation and the knowledge that speakers have of the world.

  4. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  5. [Severe childhood atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudh, Anis; Zaraa, Inès; Amara, Thouraya; Zribi, Hela; El Euch, Dalenda; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel

    2014-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing eczematous skin disease. It represents one of the symptoms of atopic diathesis. DA affects usually infants and children. aim : The aim of our study is to draw up the epidemiological, clinical features, treatment and outcome of severe childhood AD through a hospital series. methods: A retrospective study of 24 cases of severe childhood AD hospitalized in the Dermatology Department of La Rabta hospital of Tunis was conducted during a 28 year-period (1981 - 2009). results: The hospital incidence of severe childhood AD was 0,085‰. Patient's mean age at the beginning was 14 months. The sex ratio H/F was 1.66. Cutaneous manifestations occurred preferentially in face (75%). Generalized eczema was observed in 37.5% of cases. Pruritus and xerosis were constant. The mean duration of hospitalization was 11 days. Topical corticosteroids was the most effective method of treating severe DA, associated with antiseptic solutions emollient and antihistaminic drugs. Infectious complications were noted in 50% of cases. Ocular complications were observed in 16.7% of cases. Recurrences were reported in 9 cases. Conclusion :AD is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, and pruritic skin disorder developing in a xerotic skin. Severe AD in childhood is rare in Tunisia. It requires a good understanding of therapeutic modalities by the patient and his family. It is a cause of important morbidity and it may have a bad impact on quality of life.

  6. Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven

    2014-09-10

    Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Obesity prevention research since the 1970's represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions. We propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes.

  7. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2010-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  8. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  9. EDITORIAL PREVENTABLE CAUSES OF BLINDNESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... eye changes improve markedly on treatment with diethylcarbamazine. Xerophthalmia is the leading ... for children of this land, and the recent severe food shortages are not helping matters either. Vitamin A ... from this cause is not rare but obviously preventable. Leprosy is a disease caused by the acid fast ...

  10. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  11. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  12. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Ivan K; Shearer, William T

    2015-11-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...

  14. Chemical forms of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1979-01-01

    Release of radioiodine built-up during reactor operations presents a potential problem from the standpoint of environmental safety. Among the chemical forms of radioiodine, depending upon the circumstances, organic iodides cast a most serious problem because of its difficulties in the trapping and because of its stability compared to other chemical forms. Furthermore, pellet-cladding interaction (PCl) fuel failures in LWR fuel rods are believed to be stress corrosion cracks caused by embrittling fission product species, radioiodine. To deal with these problems, knowledge is required on the chemical behaviors of radioiodine in and out of fuels, as well as the release behaviors from fuels. Here a brief review is given of these respects, in aiming at clearing-up the questions still remaining unknown. The data seem to indicate that radioiodine exists as a combined form in fuels. upon heating slightly irradiated fuels, the iodine atoms are released in a chemical form associated with uranium atoms. Experiments, however, as needed with specimen of higher burnup, where the interactions of radioiodine with metallic fission products could be favored. The dominant release mechanism of radioiodine under normal operating temperatures will be diffusion to grain boundaries leading to open surfaces. Radiation-induced internal traps, however, after the rate of diffusion significantly. The carbon sources of organic iodides formed under various conditions and its formation mechanisms have also been considered. (author)

  15. Science 101: What Causes Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    What causes severe thunderstorms and tornadoes? Tornadoes, often accompanied by severe thunderstorms and hail, form in pretty much the same way as severe thunderstorms. In the continental United States, tornadoes usually form in spring and summer, when warm, humid air from the Gulf of Mexico moves across the continent from southeast to northwest…

  16. Hawaii Volcanism: Lava Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the last several million years the Hawaiian Islands have been built of successive lava flows. They are the most recent additions in a long line of volcanoes...

  17. Prevention and Reduction of Atrophic Acne Scars with Adapalene 0.3%/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel in Subjects with Moderate or Severe Facial Acne: Results of a 6-Month Randomized, Vehicle-Controlled Trial Using Intra-Individual Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréno, Brigitte; Bissonnette, Robert; Gagné-Henley, Angélique; Barankin, Benjamin; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Tan, Jerry

    2018-04-01

    Very few clinical trials have investigated the effect of topical acne treatment on scarring. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of adapalene 0.3%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (A0.3/BPO2.5) in atrophic acne scar formation in patients with acne. In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, vehicle-controlled study, subjects with moderate or severe facial acne (Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA] score 3 or 4; ≥ 25 inflammatory lesions; ten or more atrophic acne scars) applied A0.3/BPO2.5 or vehicle daily per half face for 24 weeks. Subjects with acne requiring systemic treatment were excluded. Assessments included investigator atrophic acne scar count, Scar Global Assessment (SGA), acne lesion count, IGA, skin roughness and skin texture, subject self-assessment of clinical acne-related scars and satisfaction questionnaire, tolerability, and safety. Included subjects (n = 67) had mainly moderate acne (92.5% IGA 3); mean scores at baseline were approximately 40 acne lesions and 12 scars per half face. By week 24, the change from baseline in total scar count was - 15.5% for A0.3/BPO2.5 versus  + 14.4% for vehicle (approximately 30% difference), with a mean of 9.5 scars versus 13.3 per half face, respectively (p vehicle (p vehicle (p vehicle side, most commonly skin irritation (14.9 vs. 6%, respectively). Topical A0.3/BPO2.5 prevented and reduced atrophic scar formation. Scar count increased with vehicle (+ 14.4%) but decreased with A0.3/BPO2.5 (- 15.5%) over 24 weeks. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02735421.

  18. On Growth and Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maartens, Aidan

    2017-12-01

    D'Arcy Thompson was born in 1860, trained in Edinburgh and Cambridge, and held positions in Dundee and St Andrews, where he worked until his death in 1948. On Growth and Form , his classic work on the mathematical patterns and physical rules underlying biological forms, was first published in 1917. To learn more about the book's context, we met Matthew Jarron, Curator of Museum Services at the University of Dundee, in the University's D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum. Surrounded by specimens, many of which were collected by Thompson himself, we discussed the legacy of On Growth and Form and the life of the man behind it. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Severe storms forecast systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.; Zack, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two research tasks are described: (1) the improvement and enhancement of an existing mesoscale numerical simulation system, and (2) numerical diagnostic studies associated with an individual case of severe storm development (April 10, 1979 in the Red River Valley of Texas and Oklahoma).

  20. The Severe Cardiorenal Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongartz, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the interactions between heart and kidneys in disease in a longitudinal and integrative fashion. We developed two different rat models of the Severe Cardiorenal Syndrome and studied the effects of different interventions on progression of cardiorenal failure and on

  1. Dengue and Severe Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both human health and the global and national economies. Before 1970, only 9 countries had experienced severe dengue epidemics. The disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries in the WHO regions of Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia ...

  2. Asthma heterogeneity and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Tara F.; Bleecker, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common, chronic inflammatory airways disease characterized by a clinical syndrome of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and reversible airflow obstruction. Individuals with asthma can vary widely in clinical presentation, severity, and pathobiology. The incident factors, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment of asthma remain incompletely understood. Utilizing measurable characteristics of asthmatic patients, including demographic, physiologic, and biologic markers, can ...

  3. Selenium for preventing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M

    2018-01-29

    This review is the third update of the Cochrane review "Selenium for preventing cancer". Selenium is a naturally occurring element with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancer. To gather and present evidence needed to address two research questions:1. What is the aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans?2. Describe the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans. We updated electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid, 2013 to January 2017, week 4), and Embase (2013 to 2017, week 6), as well as searches of clinical trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies that enrolled adult participants. We performed random-effects (RE) meta-analyses when two or more RCTs were available for a specific outcome. We conducted RE meta-analyses when five or more observational studies were available for a specific outcome. We assessed risk of bias in RCTs and in observational studies using Cochrane's risk assessment tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. We considered in the primary analysis data pooled from RCTs with low risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence by using the GRADE approach. We included 83 studies in this updated review: two additional RCTs (10 in total) and a few additional trial reports for previously included studies. RCTs involved 27,232 participants allocated to either selenium supplements or placebo. For analyses of RCTs with low risk of bias, the summary risk ratio (RR) for any cancer incidence was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.10; 3 studies, 19,475 participants; high-certainty evidence). The RR for estimated cancer mortality was 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30; 1 study, 17,444 participants). For the most frequently

  4. Severe burns due to biofuel heater injury: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Alicia; Muller, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Biofuel heaters are a new form of flame heating for indoor and outdoor use. Fuelled by methylated spirits, they are simple structures with few safety features, and can be associated with severe burn. We report five cases of severe burns in adults that occurred when refilling these heaters. We undertook a retrospective audit of all adults presenting to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) with a biofuel heater-related burn between 20 and 30th June 2014. Five patients required admission for management of their burns. Three were admitted to ICU for greater than 3 weeks, and remained inpatients for up to 78 days. Two did not require ICU and were managed in the burns unit. Average total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 24.7%, and patients went to theatre up to seven times for debridement and skin grafting. Average length of stay was 41.8 days. Biofuel heaters are easily accessible yet there is no Australian Standard to ensure they are safe or perform in the way they were intended. As such, people using them are at undue risk of severe burn, even when following the operating instructions. These products should be removed from the market to prevent further harm and potential mortality. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index Based on Distributed Hydrological Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghua Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought monitoring at large scale is essential for fighting against drought. Aiming at the limitation of acquiring long-time serial soil moisture and actual evapotranspiration for Palmer drought severity index (PDSI, the paper modified the PDSI based on distributed hydrological model on subbasin level in Luanhe river basin, North China. The water balance was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. Calibration and validation results showed good agreement between simulated and measured discharges, and the SWAT model can be used to predict hydrological processes in the study area. Then the simulation results of main hydrologic components were used to establish PDSI. The verification of the drought indices showed that the modified PDSI based on SWAT model and Palmer drought severity index could better describe the characteristics of regional drought evolution in the Luanhe river basin. High drought frequency areas were mainly distributed in the grassland regions of upstream located in the eastern part of Inner Mongolia plateau, and the drought area had a significant upward trend form 1973 to 2010. Compared with the traditional Palmer drought severity index, the modified PDSI could reflect the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improve the physical mechanism of PDSI. The drought monitoring method can provide technical support for comprehensive understanding of drought and effective preventing and relieving of drought disasters.

  6. Studies of severe accidents in light water reactors. Containment performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Phillips, D.W.; Young, R.L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The containment system of a LWR is an obvious component of the plant which performs an important safety function in preventing the release of fission products to the environment in the event of design basis accidents. With over 260 LWRs in service worldwide, and others still under construction, there is a considerable diversity of containment types and combinations of containment safeguards systems. All of these satisfy local regulatory requirements which are principally aimed at the design basis accidents, and these requirements naturally have a considerable uniformity. However, their design diversity becomes more relevant to the performance of the containment in severe accident conditions, and this aspect of containment performance is reviewed in this paper. The ability of the containment to mitigate severe accident consequences introduces the potential for accident management and recovery and this in turn points towards a range of new containment systems and concepts. PSA helps in judging these possibilities and in forming policies and procedures for accident management. It is perhaps in accident management that severe accident containment performance will be most beneficial in the future, and where additional effort in containment analysis will be focused

  7. Waste-form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements

  8. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  9. Imitators of severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Baha M

    2007-04-01

    There are several obstetric, medical, and surgical disorders that share many of the clinical and laboratory findings of patients with severe preeclampsia-hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome. Imitators of severe preeclampsia-hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome are life-threatening emergencies that can develop during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. These conditions are associated with high maternal mortality, and survivors may face long-term sequelae. Perinatal mortality and morbidity also remain high in many of these conditions. The pathophysiologic abnormalities in many of these disorders include thrombotic microangiopathy, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Some of these disorders include acute fatty liver of pregnancy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and acute exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Because of the rarity of these conditions during pregnancy and postpartum, the available literature includes only case reports and case series describing these syndromes. Consequently, there are no systematic reviews or randomized trials on these subjects. Differential diagnosis may be difficult due to the overlap of several clinical and laboratory findings of these syndromes. It is important that the clinician make the accurate diagnosis when possible because the management and complications from these syndromes may be different. For example, severe preeclampsia and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are treated by delivery, whereas it is possible to continue pregnancy in those with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome and exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. This review focuses on diagnosis, management, and counseling of women who develop these syndromes based on results of recent studies.

  10. Development of Krsko Severe Accident Management Database (SAMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Kocnar, R.

    1996-01-01

    Severe Accident Management is a framework to identify and implement the Emergency Response Capabilities that can be used to prevent or mitigate severe accidents and their consequences. Krsko Severe Accident Management Database documents the severe accident management activities which are developed in the NPP Krsko, based on the Krsko IPE (Individual Plant Examination) insights and Generic WOG SAMGs (Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidance). (author)

  11. Hydrogen permeation preventive structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Nakahigashi, Shigeo; Imura, Masashi; Terasawa, Michitaka; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide highly practical wall materials for use in thermonuclear reactors capable of effectively preventing the permeation of hydrogen isotopes such as tritium thereby preventing the contamination of coolants. Constitution: Helium gas is injected into or at the surface of base materials comprising stainless steel plates to form a helium gas region. Alternatively, boron, nitrogen or the compound thereof having a greater helium forming nuclear reaction cross section than that of the base materials is mixed or injected into the base material to form the helium gas region through (n,α) reaction under neutron irradiation. Since the helium gas region constitutes a diffusion barrier for the tritium as the hydrogen isotope, the permeation amount of tritium is significantly suppressed. Helium gas bubbles or lattice defects are formed in the helium gas region under the neutron irradiation, by which the hydrogen isotope capturing effect can also be effected. In this way, permeation of the hydrogen isotope, contamination of the coolants, etc. can be prevented to provide great practical effectives. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  13. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely as white men to die from stomach cancer. Stomach Cancer Prevention Key Points Avoiding risk factors and increasing ... factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent stomach cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain ...

  15. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  16. Sesotho Address Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindele, Dele Femi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Address forms constitute an integral part of Basotho sociolinguistic etiquette. They are regarded as a kind of emotional capital that may be invested in putting others at ease. They are indicators of deference, politeness and markers of social distance. (Fasold 1990, Akindele 1990, 1991, 1993 This paper examines the address forms used by the Basotho people. It analyzes and discusses the various types and the factors determining their use. The discussion of address forms in Sesotho focuses on First Name, Title plus First Name, Title plus Last Name, Nickname, Multiple Names, and Teknonym. Drawing data from semi-literate and literate urban and rural population of Maseru district of Lesotho, it was found that the commonest form of address used by the Basotho people is title plus first name. e.g. ntate Thabo (father Thabo, 'm'e Puleng (mother Puleng, ausi Maneo (sister Maneo, abuti Mahao (brother Mahao. It is used by close relations, associates, and familiar people in both formal and informal situations.

  17. Documentary form no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This first documentary form, edited by the national association of local commissions of information about nuclear activities (ANCLI), briefly presents the radioactivity phenomenon, the ionising radiations, the characteristics of radiation sources (activity, half life, energy), and the dosimetry (absorbed, equivalent, efficient doses). (J.S.)

  18. Getting in-formed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    Work-in-progress paper præsenteret ved PhD Seminar: Analytical strategies and methodologies for the study of virtual worlds at RUC. September 28th to October 1st 2009. I paperet diskuteres den dobbelte bevægelse at vi som forskere via vores undersøgelser bliver informeret og i samme moment putter...... det vi undersøger på form gennem vores beskrivelser. Paperet tager afsæt i empiriske eksempler fra et postdoc projekt om et såkaldt 'serious game' - Mingoville. Projektet følger circuleringer og etableringer af Mingoville 'på en global markedsplads'. I paperet diskuteres hvordan vi som forskere samler....../performer de fænomener vi forsker i. Aktør-Netværks-Teoretiker Bruno Latour (2005) pointerer at enhver beskrivelse også er en form for forklaring. En form for forklaring, der putter ting ind i et skript og dermed også putter ting på form. Paperet diskuterer to tilgange til at gøre serious games og derved skabe viden om...

  19. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Inequalities for Differential Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P

    2009-01-01

    Presents a series of local and global estimates and inequalities for differential forms, in particular the ones that satisfy the A-harmonic equations. This work focuses on the Hardy-Littlewood, Poincare, Cacciooli, imbedded and reverse Holder inequalities. It is for researchers, instructors and graduate students

  1. Metal forming and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Lubrication is essential in most metal forming processes. The lubricant film has two basic functions, [1]: i. to separate the work piece and tool surfaces and ii. to cool the workpiece and the tool. Separation of the two surfaces implies lower friction facilitating deformation and lowering the tool...

  2. EM Form Factors and OLYMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic form factors of the nucleon characterize the distributions of charge and magnetization in momentum space and are important input for calculations of strong interaction phenomena and nuclear structure. The dramatic discrepancy in the observed ratio of elastic proton form factors between the Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer methods has invoked numerous theoretical and experimental investigations. The previously neglected effect from two-photon exchange has become the favored explanation for the discrepancy. While the effect can not be calculated from first principles, it can be verified experimentally in several ways, most stringently by comparing the positron- proton and electron-proton elastic cross sections. The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY has been carried out to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange using intense stored positron and electron beams along with an internal unpolarized hydrogen target and a large acceptance detector to measure the ratio of the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections. The status of proton form factor measurements and of the experimental efforts to verify the effect of two-photon exchange is presented, with some emphasis on the OLYMPUS experiment.

  3. 77 FR 40359 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, resulting in... established by CDC to help reduce tobacco-related disease, disability, and death. The NTCP provides funding... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction...

  4. 76 FR 2393 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... Added to, and the Quantity of Nicotine Contained in, Smokeless Tobacco Manufactured, Imported, or...

  5. 76 FR 14401 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... Added to, and the Quantity of Nicotine Contained in, Smokeless Tobacco Manufactured, Imported, or...

  6. 77 FR 40362 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... Added to, and the Quantity of Nicotine Contained in, Smokeless Tobacco Manufactured, Imported, or...

  7. 75 FR 26257 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... prior to the commute and health measurements for lung function, lung inflammatory markers, heart rate... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information...

  8. 78 FR 13345 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30Day-13-0263] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... during importation from reasons other than trauma. CDC performs these tests due to the absence of a...

  9. 77 FR 76045 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... case classification (disease staging system). Recommendations for revisions in the case definition were... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30Day-13-0573] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  10. 75 FR 4568 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... examine the connection between ALS and other motor neuron disorders that can be confused with ALS... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  11. 78 FR 26780 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... examine the connection between ALS and other motor neuron disorders that can be confused with ALS... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  12. 75 FR 69086 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... connection between ALS and other motor neuron disorders that can be confused with ALS, misdiagnosed as ALS... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  13. 76 FR 60498 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... information campaign about Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that can cause stomach ulcers and increase cancer... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information...

  14. 78 FR 307 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... [30 Day-13-0696] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the... National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation (NHM&E) (OMB 0920-0696, Expiration 08/31/2013...

  15. 77 FR 40363 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among Patients Recently Discharged from Acute Care... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30-Day-12-12II] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  16. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparedness for severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggheim, Åsmund; Blomberg, Bjørn; Mørch, Kristine

    2015-03-24

    About 60 patients with malaria are admitted to Norwegian hospitals every year. The prescription figures for malaria medication may suggest that Norwegians are increasingly exposed to malaria infection. All Norwegian hospitals with a department of internal medicine were sent an electronic questionnaire for reporting the available methods for diagnosing and treating malaria. There was a 100% response (48/48). Microscopy for malaria diagnosis was available at 92% (44/48) and a rapid test for detecting malaria antigen at 67% (32/48), while 6% (3/48) had no malaria detection test available. Artesunate and quinine for intravenous treatment were both available at 6% (3/48), only artesunate at 27% (13/48) and only quinine at 27% (13/48) of the hospitals. Drugs for intravenous treatment of severe malaria were not available at 40% (19/48) of the hospitals. More than a third of Norwegian hospitals lack preparedness for treating severe malaria, and some hospitals lack diagnostic procedures. Severe malaria is a condition that may rapidly become life-threatening and is treated with artesunate or quinine intravenously. All Norwegian hospitals should have procedures for emergency treatment of the disease.

  18. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  19. Harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Woods, Briana A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention strategies. Universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies are described for several populations including elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and medical settings. This paper primarily reviews individually focused alcohol prevention efforts in the United States (US), where harm reduction has been less well received in comparison to many European countries, Canada, and Austral...

  20. Treatment and education reduce the severity of schistosomiasis periportal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carolina Valenca Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluates the factors associated with the development of severe periportal fibrosis in patients with Schistosoma mansoni. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to December 2012 involving 178 patients infected with S. mansoni who were treated in the Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, Brazil. Information regarding risk factors was obtained using a questionnaire. Based on the patients' epidemiological history, clinical examination, and upper abdomen ultrasound evaluation, patients were divided into 2 groups: 137 with evidence of severe periportal fibrosis and 41 patients without fibrosis or with mild or moderate periportal fibrosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using EpiInfo software version 3.5.5. Results Illiterate individuals (30.1% and patients who had more frequent contact with contaminated water in towns in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco (33.2% were at greater risk for severe periportal fibrosis. Based on multivariate analysis, it was determined that an education level of up to 11 years of study and specific prior treatment for schistosomiasis were preventive factors for severe periportal fibrosis. Conclusions The prevailing sites of the severe forms of periportal fibrosis are still within the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco, although there has been an expansion to urban areas and the state coast. Specific treatment and an increased level of education were identified as protective factors, indicating the need for implementing social, sanitary, and health education interventions aimed at schistosomiasis to combat the risk factors for this major public health problem.

  1. Waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this program, contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time). 6 tables

  2. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  3. Forms of Inattentiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and kept out of sight in the decision processes by looking at a specific case study involving the construction of a model intended to control, and render transparent, the quality of health services in Denmark. This paper outlines the forms of inattentiveness which make communication blind to information...... that could question the quality model. Five forms of inattentiveness are identified that function as answers to the question of how communication avoids actualizing relevant but also potentially destructive information. This study documents a considerable amount of blindness to potentially relevant themes...... effect of the categories applied. This paper puts forward a fourth type of organizational blindness in addition to the already documented ones, namely self-imposed blindness to potentially destructive information. This paper studies how relevant - but problematic - information is actively ignored...

  4. Differential forms of supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresin, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of differential and pseUdo-differential forms on supermanifolds is constructed. The definition and notations of superanalogy of the Pontryagin and Chern characteristic classes are given. The theory considered is purely local. The scheme suggested here generalizes the so-called Weil homomorphism for superspace which lays on the basis of the Chern and Potryagin characteristic class theory. The theory can be extended to the global supermanifolds

  5. Personal Information Request Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    Request Form. Head Office / Siège : PO Box / CP 8500, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1G 3H9 www.idrc.ca www.crdi.ca. (150 Kent Street, Constitution Square / 150, rue Kent, Complexe Constitution Square). Phone / Tél. : 613-236-6163, ext./poste 2348 Fax / Téléc. : 613-565-8212 Email / Courriel : ATIP-AIPRP@idrc.ca. Privacy Act.

  6. Factors related to severe dengue during an epidemic in Vitoria, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creuza Rachel Vicente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prognosis of dengue depends on early diagnosis and treatment, which can help prevent severe forms whose characteristics were evaluated here. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving dengue cases in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, in 2011. Results Two health regions registered 56.3% of 371 cases of severe dengue. Of these cases, 21.3% presented with dengue hemorrhagic fever. There were associations between dengue hemorrhagic fever with younger ages and a longer time before receiving care. Conclusions There was a greater involvement of dengue hemorrhagic fever in young people. Delay in care, poor urban quality and high endemicity were identified as possible risk factors for dengue severity.

  7. Cholera - management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Hannah G; Bowman, Conor; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    Cholera is an acute secretory diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is likely to have originated in the Indian sub-continent; however, it spread to cause six worldwide pandemics between 1817-1923. The ongoing seventh worldwide pandemic of cholera began in 1961. The intensity, duration and severity of cholera epidemics have been increasing, signaling the need for more effective control and prevention measures. The response to the cholera pandemics of the 19th century led to the development of safe and effective sanitation and water systems which have effectively removed the risk of cholera in many settings. However, such systems are not in place to protect billions of people worldwide. Although some progress has been made in expanding access to water in recent years, achieving optimal infrastructure will, in the most optimistic scenario, take decades. Climate change, extreme weather events and rapid urbanisation suggests that alternatives to the current paradigm of providing large centralised water and sanitation systems should be considered, including smaller decentralised systems. The aim of this review paper is to provide an overview of current knowledge regarding management of cholera with a focus on prevention measures including vaccination and water and sanitation interventions. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  9. Several crimes solved

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2007-01-01

    A member of a contractor's personnel suspected of having committed several thefts in and around Building 180 has recently been questioned by the French police. He was immediately tried by the court in Bourg-en-Bresse and sentenced to six months in prison, with a requirement to serve at least three months. His arrest was facilitated, among other things, by a video recording, fast and detailed statements to the CERN Fire Brigade and close collaboration between the members of the personnel concerned, the Reception and Access Control Service and the police. Several laptops and other items of electronic equipment were seized during a search of the culprit's home. A stolen digital camera has yet to be returned to its owner as he has not reported the theft to the CERN Fire Brigade and the police. The person concerned is therefore requested to go to the Gendarmerie in Saint-Genis-Pouilly with the necessary proof of ownership. In addition, the French authorities have informed CERN that the presumed authors of the a...

  10. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  11. EDUCATIONAL ACTIONS TO PREVENT DENGUE: EXPERIENCES AND STRATEGIES WITH ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Rodrigues Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the activities performed on apublic specialized ambulatory care for dengue prevention among elderly. Case report: the epidemiological outlook of dengue is scaring being characterized as a public health problem. The elderly are most at risk for hospitalization and severe forms of the disease, thus health education activities are essential to improve awareness of the need to fight and prevent the disease. A Health Education project was created, evolving communication strategies to raise awareness on the issue. They were performed by a post graduate Gerontology group in activities such as interactive puppet show, myths and truths dynamic, informative folder, parody, posters, training seniors, caregivers and family members, internal and external health professionals, staff and residents of nearby long term care facilities. The materials were available in print and digital version. 2,500 elderly and 350 professionals were trained and encouraged to multiply the information and inspire adoption of preventive measures. The actions provided intergenerational interaction and empowerment of the elderly, whom trained, had the opportunity to exercise social participation and disseminate recommendations for other users. Conclusion: the project enabled the construction of knowledge through interactive educational activities that contributed to strengthen the individual and collective awareness, awareopinion leaderstothe importance of communication/education in the fight against dengue, which emphasized social responsibility in rescuing citizenship in a perspective thateach citizen is responsible for himself and for community. DESCRIPTORS: Dengue. Aged. Disease prevention. Health education.

  12. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A; Parray, Hilal A; Lone, Jameel B; Paek, Woon K; Lim, Jeongheui; Bajpai, Vivek K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  13. AIDSCAP. Saving a generation: Ethiopian youth rally to prevent AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, K

    1997-01-01

    Afraid that they were infected with HIV and would die in several years, several young adults formed the Save Your Generation Association (SYGA) to warn other young people about the threat of HIV/AIDS. SYGA has since become a registered Ethiopian nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a paid staff of 14 and more than 6000 dues-paying members. It is one of seven NGOs which received support from the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) project over 3 years to bring HIV/AIDS prevention education to out-of-school youth in six urban areas of Ethiopia. The projects recruited young volunteers and enlisted the aid of community organizations to inform and motivate the tens of thousands of school dropouts and other unemployed young people. Bored and hopeless, these youths often turn to dangerous escape mechanisms involving drugs, alcohol, and sex with multiple partners. The local government helped the NGOs find their target population and provided meeting space for HIV/AIDS prevention activities.

  14. Analytic functions of several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gunning, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    The theory of analytic functions of several complex variables enjoyed a period of remarkable development in the middle part of the twentieth century. After initial successes by Poincaré and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the theory encountered obstacles that prevented it from growing quickly into an analogue of the theory for functions of one complex variable. Beginning in the 1930s, initially through the work of Oka, then H. Cartan, and continuing with the work of Grauert, Remmert, and others, new tools were introduced into the theory of several complex variables that resol

  15. Lightning and severe thunderstorms in event management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Katie M

    2012-01-01

    There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, lightning, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. Lightning and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and lightning safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions.

  16. Severe accident research in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; Reocreux, M.; Tattegrain, A.

    1988-01-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. Nevertheless, an overall safety objective was issued in 1977 by the safety authority which set an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences; this resulted, in particular, in the elaboration of the ''H'' procedures, aimed at reducing significantly the risk of core uncovery subsequent to the loss of redunbant safety-related systems. The U1 symptom-oriented procedure, based on the nuclear steam supply system ''cooling states'', was introduced later, in order to prevent core melting in situations where the operating crew was confused by multiple failures and/or inappropriate previous actions. In the event that a core-melt should occur, the ultimate procedures U2, U4 and U5 - the latter providing a venting of the containment through a filtration system - should enable the radioactive releases to be limited to characteristics compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans. Such emergency management procedures necessitate a significant study effort in order to be elaborated and qualified; this also presupposes that an adequate level of scientific knowledge has been gained as regards the response of specific components of a PWR under beyond-design conditions. The purpose of severe accident research in France is to attain a level of basic knowledge such that emergency procedures may be conceived and ultimately tested

  17. Severe Anaemia during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahenaz Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in pregnancy, it occurs in 10–28% of uncomplicated pregnancies, and is associated with a few complications. We present a case report of a 21-year-old patient with severe anaemia during late pregnancy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. At 38 weeks gestation and with a BMI of 48.9, a history of rupture of membranes was given but not confirmed. On examination, she appeared pale and therefore full blood counts were done. Interestingly her haemoglobin (Hb levels were 3.7 g/dL. Folate and vitamin B12 levels were also found to be low, and the diagnosis of anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency was made. After treatment with vitamin B12 injections, folic acid and blood transfusions, the patient’s haemoglobin levels improved from 3.7 g/dL to 10.7 g/dL. The conclusion is that effective history taking, diagnosis, and management can prevent many complications that are usually associated with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.

  18. Use of simulators in severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. nuclear utility industry is moving in a deliberate fashion through a coordinated industry severe accident working group to study and augment, where appropriate, the existing utility organizational and emergency planning structure to address accident and severe accident management. Full-scope simulators are used extensively to train licensed operators for their initial license examinations and continually thereafter in licensed operator requalification training and yearly examinations. The goal of the training (both initial and requalification) is to ensure that operators possess adequate knowledge, skills and abilities to prevent an event from progressing to core damage. The use of full-scope simulators in severe accident management training is in large part viewed by the industry as being premature. The working group study has not progressed to the point where the decision to employ full-scope simulators can be logically considered. It is not however premature to consider part-task or work station simulators as invaluable research tools to support the industry's study. These simulators could be employed, subject to limitations in the current state of knowledge regarding severe accident progression and phenomenological responses, in the validation and verification (V and V) of severe accident models or codes as they are developed. The U.S. nuclear utility industry has made substantial strides in the past 12 years in the accident prevention, mitigation and management arena. These strides are a product of the industry's preference for a logical and systematic approach to change. (orig.)

  19. Dirichlet forms and symmetric Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Oshima, Yoichi; Fukushima, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition in 1994, this book has attracted constant interests from readers and is by now regarded as a standard reference for the theory of Dirichlet forms. For the present second edition, the authors not only revised the existing text, but also added some new sections as well as several exercises with solutions. The book addresses to researchers and graduate students who wish to comprehend the area of Dirichlet forms and symmetric Markov processes.

  20. Silicon nitride-fabrication, forming and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehezkel, O.

    1983-01-01

    This article, which is a literature survey of the recent years, includes description of several methods for the formation of silicone nitride, and five methods of forming: Reaction-bonded silicon nitride, sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing and chemical vapour deposition. Herein are also included data about mechanical and physical properties of silicon nitride and the relationship between the forming method and the properties. (author)

  1. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  2. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praznik Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of other regional tissues or other organ systems. The severe form of the disease occurs in 10-20% of cases, and usually requires prolonged hospitalization due to a frequent local and systemic complications. Additionally, considerable mortality despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, makes this disease a serious health problem nowadays. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of randomized controlled trials to determine differences in the efficiency between standard methods of treatment for severe acute pancreatitis and new treatment ways in terms of decreased mortality. Search of the 'Medline' database of original scientific papers and systematic review articles was made, using a combination of the following keywords: acute pancreatitis, treatment, mortality. In total 914 papers were found, published in the last 13 years; 14 of 64 randomized controlled clinical trials met the selection criteria and were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 16 papers, the conservative treatment was related to 11, which includes some of the new treatment methods, while the effects of new methods of treatment have been the subject of research in the four studies. Combined endoscopic and surgical treatment was applied in only one study. The largest sample of 290 patients was included in the study with platelet activation factor antagonist, while the smallest sample of 22 patients was used in the study that compared total parenteral with enteral nutrition. Continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitors in combination with antibiotics, intravenous supplementation of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide and the early, high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration showed the best results in the treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Also, the use of low molecular weight heparin and enteral nutrition significantly reduced mortality.

  3. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  4. Several Mediological Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crăciun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several new perspectives on the contemporary civilization provided by means of a new discipline entitled “Mediology”. This new science that the French professor Regis Debray proposes presents the characteristics of the contemporary society in relation to models of some previous stages. This article proposes a critical perspective on the model proposed by Regis Debray as compared to other sources envisaging the analysis of the evolution of the cultural models in time, such as, for instance, the perspective proposed by Giambattista Vico on the evolution of the linguistic and cultural codes. The aim of the article is that of providing an integrated perspective, allowing a better understanding of the changes underlying the informational society.

  5. Nutrition in Severe Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Akiko Kamikado Pivi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy.

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE SEVERE INJURIES INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Svistunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern clinical medicine and surgery problems are associated with infections complications after medical care. In recent years, surgery has made substantial progress related to the new organizational approaches and medical technology specialized medical care to the wounded and injured. However, these gains are offset by a high rate of infectious complications that require finding effective measures emerging infectious complications timely diagnosis and their prevention. Clinical manifestations are often nosocomial in patients with severe injuries and are largely determined by the influence of clinical and pathogenetic risk factors. Such infectious complications require a comprehensive assessment, including microbiological testing. The main causative agents of infectious complications in surgical hospitals are S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., which can cause bloodstream infections, soft tissue, respiratory and urinary tract infections, especially in debilitated and immunocompromised patients and patients in intensive care units. These micro organisms are dangerous to patients and medical staff, as they can survive for a long time in the hospital environment, as well as to spread from patient to patient in violation of isolation restrictive measures and requirements for hygiene of medical workers hands. Clinical patterns of infection associated with medical care for severe injuries are to the possibility of serial and parallel development, both in different and in the same time frame of local, visceral and generalized infection with prevalence of combined forms of patients surgical hospital with a high risk of nosocomial infection against the background of factors, diagnostic and treatment process and hospital environment, introduction of the agent. Early etiological diagnosis allows timely assign empirical causal treatment and arrange for infection control to prevent the spread of microorganisms in the hospital. The

  7. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  8. Preparing for future efficacy trials of severe malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bronner P; Prevots, D Rebecca; Kabyemela, Edward; Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick E

    2016-04-07

    Severe malaria is a major cause of mortality in children, but comprises only a small proportion of Plasmodium falciparum infections in naturally exposed populations. The evaluation of vaccines that prevent severe falciparum disease will require clinical trials whose primary efficacy endpoint will be severe malaria risk during follow-up. Here, we show that such trials are feasible with fewer than 1000 participants in areas with intense malaria transmission during the age interval when severe malaria incidence peaks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. [Prevention of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    The dementia prevention consists of three steps, primary prevention of dementia is to prevent from normal and mild cognitive impairment to dementia, secondary prevention is early detection and early treatment of dementia, and tertiary prevention is three stages of progress prevention of dementia. Primary prevention of dementia had been considered impossible until recently, but potential scientific evidence has been shown recently. The fact that 4.62 million people are person with dementia and 400 million people are person with mild cognitive impairment are considered to be urgent problem and we must intend to perform dementia prevention from primary to tertiary prevention thoroughly. We perform dementia screening using touch panel type computer and we recommend person with mild cognitive impairment to join dementia prevention classroom. Therefore, we can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia (primary prevention). Early diagnosis and introduction to the specialized medical institution are needed if you find early stage of dementia and treat early (secondary prevention). To prevent progression by the appropriate drug treatment and care for dementia is required (tertiary prevention).

  10. Treatment and prevention of music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) regularly occurs when musicians present themselves before an audience in performance situations, and thus, it plays an important role in the careers of professional musicians. MPA is expressed on the emotional and physical level, as well as on the levels of thinking and behavior, and extends along a continuum of varying severity. Its performance-impairing, afflicting form is considered to be a specific type of social phobia, which requires therapy. There are different psychological theories, which contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of MPA and provide basic principles for the various treatment approaches. Current "best practice," in our clinical experience, is a personal- and problem-oriented approach within a multimodal therapy model, including the range of psychoanalytic and cognitive behavioral therapies, body-oriented methods, and mental techniques. In order to avoid severe MPA, prevention in the field of music pedagogic is very important. Thus, the concepts of dealing positively with MPA should be implemented very early into the instrumental and vocal education of musicians. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Severe falciparum malaria: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelia, F.; Asymida, F.; Lubis, N. F. M.; Pasaribu, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Plasmodium parasites caused Malaria. Indonesia is one of the countries in Southeast Asia that endemic to malaria. The burden of malaria is more in the eastern part of Indonesia than the Western part as well as the endemicity. Some cases of malaria will develop to severe form. Usually, the manifestation of children and adult are different. We reported a severe case of malaria in a 14-year-old boy who develops several manifestations such as anemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis and black water fever. We successfully treated the patient with Artesunate intravenous and continued with Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine.

  12. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Ashley; Tonsing, Susanne; Seedat, Mohamed; Jacobs, Roxanne; Ratele, Kopano; McClure, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence. PMID:26228996

  13. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley van Niekerk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective: This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design: This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results: The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions: There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence.

  14. AMERICAN QUARTER HORSES’ BEHAVIORAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  15. Minimizing the postoperative complications of severe hypospadias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The aim of this study was to decrease complication rates in proximal hypospadias surgery. Methods A simple method of stenting using a polypropylene stent has been developed for the most severe form of hypospadias during the period from January 2008 to January 2011 in the Department of Pediatric ...

  16. Contemporary management of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jashin J

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that is often underdiagnosed, leaving many patients untreated. Plaque psoriasis, the most common form of the disease, affects approximately 80% to 90% of patients with psoriasis. Formulating a treatment plan can be complicated when various factors are considered. For example, type of therapy is dependent on the severity of the disease. Topical agents are preferred for mild disease, while phototherapy alone or in combination with systemic agents is recommended for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Traditional systemic agents have the convenience of oral dosing; however, their toxicity profile can be a limiting factor. Newer biologic agents haven proven efficacious, if not superior to traditional oral agents, but their high cost can be a substantial disadvantage. Psoriasis has also been associated with increased risk of developing comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and psoriatic arthritis, all of which increase the patient's overall mortality and further worsen their overall physical well-being. Management of these comorbidities is often overlooked. Moreover, psoriasis may affect a patient's psychological and social well-being. Patients with psoriasis are at a higher risk of developing clinical depression than patients without psoriasis. Inadequate management of comorbidities inevitably leads to poor outcomes, which increases the economic burden to the patient and society. Prevention and management of comorbidities, including cardiovascular and mental health, must be addressed as a part of a patient's overall treatment plan. Specialist coordination may be beneficial for patients with psoriasis. Improved patient care may lead to better clinical and economical outcomes.

  17. [Severe hypertension: definition and patients profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Jean-Jacques

    2013-05-01

    Severe arterial hypertension gathers relatively different clinical situations explained by the heterogeneity of the definitions of this clinical setting. From a medical point of view, severe hypertension is a short course situation defined by very high values of blood pressure corresponding to grade 3 hypertension. In France, until 2011, the social security also included in the definition of severe HTA chronic situations characterized by moderate blood pressure values requiring at least triple anthihypertensive therapies associated with a clinical or infraclinical target organ damages. These clinical profiles, much more frequent than grade 3 hypertension, allowed the full reimbursement of care costs for these patients. In France, it is estimated that 10% of hypertensive patients present a severe form with an annual incidence of 50,000 patients. The patients with severe hypertension have an increased cardiovascular morbidity justifying a closer clinical monitoring. From an economic point of view, these severe forms of hypertension have a higher cost of care, explained primarily by a more frequent need of specialized referrals, radiological exams and hospitalizations. This excess cost justified the existence of a full coverage of induced costs by the social security, since the incidence of severe hypertension is more frequent in the low social categories, and in patients with economic fragility.

  18. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  19. Image forming apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    An image H(x, y) for displaying a target image G(x, y) is displayed on a liquid-crystal display panel and illumination light from an illumination light source is made to pass therethrough to form an image on a PALSLM. Read light hv is radiated to the PALSLM and a phase-modulated light image alpha...... (x, y) read out of the PALSLM is subjected to Fourier transform by a lens. A phase contrast filter gives a predetermined phase shift to only the zero-order light component of Fourier light image alpha f(x, y). The phase-shifted light image is subjected to inverse Fourier transform by a lens...... characteristics of the illumination light source, PALSLM, and phase contrast filter, based on the evaluation result....

  20. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  1. Le forme del fondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non è vero che la natura ha paura del vuoto. Forse addirittura si completa. Il vuoto è anche una modalità dell'essere. È possibile nidificarvisi, avvolgersi pigramente e, così, proteggersi dall'angoscia del tempo che passa. Il vuoto delle apparenze è, in alcuni momenti, una delle forme d'espressione della vita sociale. Oltretutto occorre saperle riconoscere. Certamente, abbiamo tutti un'esistenza personale, ma siamo, ugualmente, i rappresentanti, a volte anche le vittime, di uno "spirito comune", forse anche di un "inconscio collettivo" che si è costituito di secolo in secolo. E, molto spesso, quando crediamo di esprimere le nostre idee, siamo soltanto dei portavoce, comparse di un vasto "theatrum mundi" dalle dimensioni infinite.

  2. Dimeric form of peroxynitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K. V.; Tulub, A. V.

    2009-07-01

    The (ONOO)- anion, known as peroxynitrite, is characterized by a singlet spin state. A new stable dimer form of peroxynitrite [NO-O2]- in the triplet state at distances close to r(O-N) ≈ 2.885 Å between oxygen in the O2 structure and nitrogen has been established within the quantum-chemical CASSCF approximation. The vibrational motion of the dimer is significantly anharmonic; for the 16O and 14N isotopes, the differences in the energies of two neighboring levels correspond to frequencies of about 70-30 cm-1. The triplet dimer structure retains stability in the case of interaction with water molecules. The activation barriers caused by rearrangement of the peroxynitrite structure into the ground state of the NO{3/-} anion with the symmetry D 3 h are found.

  3. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  4. Building African Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network : Building African Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials. The Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network (CAPT Network) was formed through a capacity building grant from the Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI). The Network comprises eight African centres (four in Uganda, ...

  5. Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network : Building African Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network : Building African Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials. The Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network (CAPT Network) was formed through a capacity building grant from the Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI). The Network comprises eight African centres (four in Uganda, ...

  6. The Relationship Between Age of Gambling Onset and Adolescent Problematic Gambling Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the association between problem gambling severity and multiple health, functioning and gambling variables in adolescents aged 13–18 stratified by age of gambling onset. Survey data in 1624 Connecticut high school students stratified by age of gambling onset (≤11 years vs. ≥ 12 years) were analyzed in descriptive analyses and in logistic regression models. Earlier age of onset was associated with problem gambling severity as indexed by a higher frequency of at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG). Most health, functioning and gambling measures were similarly associated with problem gambling severity in the earlier- and later-age-of-gambling-onset groups with the exception of participation in non-strategic forms of gambling, which was more strongly associated with ARPG in the earlier-onset (OR=1.74, 95%CI=[1.26, 2.39]) as compared to later-onset (OR=0.94, 95%CI=[0.60, 1.48]) group (Interaction OR=1.91, 95%CI=[1.18, 3.26]). Post-hoc analysis revealed that earlier-onset ARPG was more strongly associated with multiple forms of non-strategic gambling including lottery (instant, traditional) and slot-machine gambling. The finding that problem gambling severity is more closely associated with multiple non-strategic forms of gambling amongst youth with earlier onset of gambling highlights the relevance of these types of youth gambling. The extent to which non-strategic forms of gambling may serve as a gateway to other forms of gambling or risk behaviors warrants additional study, and efforts targeting youth gambling should consider how best to address non-strategic gambling through education, prevention, treatment and policy efforts. PMID:22410208

  7. Directory of energy data collection forms. Forms in use as of October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This is an authoritative listing of selected public use forms currently used as basic energy information gathering tools by the Department of Energy (DOE). This directory provides an overview of DOE`s energy information collection programs for decisionmakers in Government and industry. Forms designed to collect energy information and used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as of October 1995 are included in this directory. For each form listed in this directory, an abstract is included that describes the form`s uses, its respondents, and the data collected. For the reader`s convenience in finding specific types of collections, several indices have been provided in this directory. A listing of the forms grouped by energy source and function begins on page 26. Beginning on page 38 are the publications derived from the collections, and on page 50, are the forms linked to general respondent categories.

  8. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  9. Harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lostutter, Ty W; Woods, Briana A

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention strategies. Universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies are described for several populations including elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and medical settings. This paper primarily reviews individually focused alcohol prevention efforts in the United States (US), where harm reduction has been less well received in comparison to many European countries, Canada, and Australia. Zero-tolerance approaches continue to be the norm in individually focused prevention efforts in the US, especially amongst adolescents, despite research suggesting that harm reduction approaches can be effective. Moreover, existing evidence supports that harm reduction approaches show considerable promise in universal prevention and have become best practices in selective and indicated prevention contexts.

  10. Forma grave da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus tratada com pressurização positiva através de máscara facial Severe form of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome managed with continuous positive airway plessure through facial mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro surto no Brasil da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus foi descrito em Juquitiba (SP, em 1993. Desde então têm sido descritos novos casos, especialmente nos estados do sul e sudeste do país. Em 2002 ocorreu a observação dos primeiros três casos em São Carlos (SP. Um dos pacientes recebeu suporte respiratório sem intubação traqueal, utilizando-se pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas (CPAP através de máscara facial. Este é o primeiro caso grave descrito de insuficiência respiratória por hantavírus em que houve sucesso com essa terapêutica ventilatória.In 1993 the first Brazilian cluster of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS was described in Juquitiba, SP. Since then, there have been descriptions of new cases specially on the southeast and south states of Brazil. Only in 2002 there were observed the first three cases of HCPS in our city: São Carlos. One of our patients was successfully supported with CPAP through facial mask. This is the first severe case of acute respiratory failure induced by Hantavirus that was successfully managed with this kind of respiratory strategy.

  11. Leveraging school-based research to inform bullying prevention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-11-01

    School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy , the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature. Topics covered include conceptualization of bullying from a social-ecological framework, developmental considerations of bullying and associated forms of aggression, identification of populations at heightened risk for bullying, and efficacy of bullying prevention programs. Recommendations are provided for the next generation of scholars, practitioners, and policymakers focused on bullying prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  13. Forms and Issues in Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David Thornton

    2010-01-01

    Programs falling under the general rubric of "experiential education" take a number of forms, varying on several dimensions; what is offered here is a schematic overview. In general, they all involve students in activities that look rather different from more traditional classroom-based methods: (1) the formal lecture and discussion; (2) the…

  14. Cavitation During Superplastic Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Campbell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is the opening of pores during superplastic forming, typically at grain boundary triple points or on second phase grain boundary particles during slip of grain boundaries. Theories for the initiation of cavitation are reviewed. It seems that cavitation is unlikely to occur by processes intrinsic to metals such as dislocation mechanisms or point defect condensation. It is proposed that cavitation can only occur at non-bonded interfaces such as those introduced extrinsically (i.e., from the outside during the original casting of the metal. These defects, known as oxide bifilms, are naturally introduced during pouring of the liquid metal, and are frozen into the solid, often pushed by dendritic growth into grain boundaries where they are difficult to detect because of their extreme thinness, often measured in nanometres. Their unbonded central interface acts as a crack and can initiate cavitation. Second phase precipitates probably do not nucleate and grow on grain boundaries but grow on bifilms in the boundaries, explaining the apparent association between boundaries, second phase particles and failure initiation. Improved melting and casting techniques can provide metal with reduced or zero bifilm population for which cavitation would not be possible, promising significant improvements in superplastic behaviour.

  15. Les formes du fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il n'est pas vrai que la nature a horreur du vide. Peut-être même s'y complait-elle. Le creux est aussi une modalité de l'être. Il est possible de s'y nicher, de s'y lover paresseusement et, ainsi, de se protéger contre l'angoisse du temps qui passe. Le creux des apparences est, à certains moments, une des formes d'expression de la vie sociale. Encore faut-il savoir le reconnaître. Certes, nous avons tous une existence personnelle, mais nous sommes, également, les représentants, parfois même les victimes, d'un "esprit commun", peut-être même d'un "inconscient collectif" qui s'est constitué de siècle en siècle. Et, très souvent, là où nous croyons exprimer nos propres idées, nous ne sommes que les porte-voix, les figurants d'un vaste "theatrum mundi" aux dimensions infinies.

  16. Image forming apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    An image H(x, y) for displaying a target image G(x, y) is displayed on a liquid-crystal display panel and illumination light from an illumination light source is made to pass therethrough to form an image on a PALSLM. Read light hv is radiated to the PALSLM and a phase-modulated light image alpha...... (x, y) read out of the PALSLM is subjected to Fourier transform by a lens. A phase contrast filter gives a predetermined phase shift to only the zero-order light component of Fourier light image alpha f(x, y). The phase-shifted light image is subjected to inverse Fourier transform by a lens...... to project an output image O(x, y) to an output plane. A light image O'(x, y) branched by a beam sampler is picked up by a pickup device and an evaluation value calculating unit evaluates conformity between the image O(x, y) and the image G(x, y).; A control unit performs feedback control of optical...

  17. Aetiology and treatment of severe postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen

    2017-01-01

    delivery. Occurrence and development of PPH are, however, unpredictable and can sometimes give rise to massive haemorrhage or even hysterectomy and maternal death. Severe haemorrhage can lead to coagulopathy causing further haemorrhage and requiring substitution with blood transfusions. The aim...... of this thesis was to investigate causes of severe PPH and investigate methods of early prevention. The first study was a randomised controlled double-blinded trial investigating the effect of treatment with pre-emptive fibrinogen on women with severe PPH. The primary outcome was the need for red blood cell...... had a cardiac arrest, and a total of 128 women (52%) required a hysterectomy. Hysterectomy was associated with increased blood loss, increased number of blood transfusions, a higher fresh frozen plasma to red blood cell ratio (p=0.010), and an increased number of red blood cells before first platelet...

  18. NPP Krsko Severe Accident Management Guidelines Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalina, Mario; Spalj, Srdjan; Glaser, Bruno; Jalovec, Robi; Jankovic, Gordan

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NEK) has decided to take steps for upgrade of safety measures to prevent severe accidents, and to improve the means to successfully mitigate their consequences. The content of the program for the NEK Safety Upgrade is consistent with the nuclear industry response to Fukushima accident, which revealed many new insights into severe accidents. Therefore, new strategies and usage of new systems and components should be integrated into current NEK Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG's). SAMG's are developed to arrest the progression of a core damage accident and to limit the extent of resulting releases of fission products. NEK new SAMG's revision major changes are made due to: replacement of Electrical Recombiners by Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PARs) and the installation of Passive Containment Filtered Vent System (PCFV); to handle a fuel damage situation in Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) and to assess risk of core damage situation during shutdown operation. (authors)

  19. Decompressive surgery for severe brain edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedler, Jennifer; Sykora, Marek; Blatow, Maria; Jüttler, Eric; Unterberg, Andreas; Hacke, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Decompressive surgery has since long been a promising therapeutic approach for patients with acute severe brain injury at risk to develop severe brain edema. The underlying rationale of removing part of the cranium is to create space for the expanding brain to prevent secondary damage to vital brain tissue. However, until recently, randomized controlled trials that demonstrate the efficacy of decompressive surgery or benefit for outcome were missing. This has changed since the results of 3 randomized trials on hemicraniectomy in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery have been published in 2007. In this article, the current evidence for decompressive surgery in the treatment of cerebral ischemia, intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory diseases, or severe metabolic derangements is reviewed. Although there is increasing evidence for the efficacy of decompressive surgery in reducing intracranial pressure and even mortality, a critical point remains the definition of good or acceptable outcome.

  20. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000719.htm Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...