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Sample records for preventing respiratory effects

  1. The preventive effect on respiratory tract infections of Oscillococcinum®. A cost-effectiveness analysis

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    Colombo GL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Chiara Martinotti,2 Martina Oselin,2 Giacomo M Bruno,2 Gianfranco M Beghi3 1Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2S.A.V.E. Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche S.r.l., Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Milan, Italy; 3Unit of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Hospital of Casorate Primo, Pavia, Italy Background: Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K (Oscillococcinum® is used to treat and prevent seasonal colds and airway inflammatory affections, improve symptom control, and reduce the frequency of respiratory tract infection (RTI episodes. The objective of this controlled observational study is to investigate, from the Italian National Health Service (NHS point of view, the role of Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K in preventing RTIs and estimate the annual average cost per patient due to visits and medicines in a real-world setting, investigating whether this method of treatment can bring savings for the NHS.Methods: Data from a single center from 2002 to 2011 were used. The analysis examined 455 patients who suffered from respiratory diseases. Of the total number of patients, 246 were treated with Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K while 209 were not treated (Control group. All the data concerning RTI episodes, pharmacological treatments, and pneumological visits were extracted from the database.Results: It was found that, regardless of the diagnosis, the frequency of RTI episodes was always lower in patients treated with Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K; the difference between the numbers of events occurring was statistically significant in every class of patients (p<0.001. The costs that the NHS had to incur were significantly lower in the classes of patients treated (p<0.001.Discussion: The results indicate that Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K has a preventive effect on the onset of RTI episodes. The analysis

  2. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A NATURAL PREPARATION IN THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA AND OTHER ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN CHILDREN

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    O. V. Shamsheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of application of the drug of natural origin (Aflubin with immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, detoxifying effect in complex treatment of influenza and acute respiratory infections in children are presented. The inclusion of Aflubin in the complex treatment of diseases contributed to reducing the severity and duration of intoxication, reducing the duration of catarrhal phenomena, preventing the development of secondary bacterial complications. Relative simplicity of the drug (drops at affordable cost, therapeutic and preventive efficacy in all age groups ensure its high compliance. 

  3. Respiratory effects of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Despreaux, Thomas; Perros, Frédéric; Lau, Edmund; Andujar, Pascal; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Descatha, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated solvent that has been used widely around the world in the twentieth century for metal degreasing and dry cleaning. Although TCE displays general toxicity and is classified as a human carcinogen, the association between TCE exposure and respiratory disorders are conflicting. In this review we aimed to systematically evaluate the current evidence for the respiratory effects of TCE exposure and the implications for the practicing clinician. There is limited evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with TCE exposure based on animal and human data. However, the effect of other chlorinated solvents and mixed solvent exposure should be further investigated. Limited data are available to support an association between TCE exposure and respiratory tract disorders such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or rhinitis. The most consistent data is the association of TCE with autoimmune and vascular diseases such as systemic sclerosis and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Although recent data are reassuring regarding the absence of an increased lung cancer risk with TCE exposure, clinicians should be aware of other potential respiratory effects of TCE. In particular, occupational exposure to TCE has been linked to less common conditions such as systemic sclerosis and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Risk of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infection and effectiveness of control measures to prevent transmission events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Clare E; McKenzie, Bruce C; Coope, Caroline; Rajanaidu, Subhadra; Paranthaman, Karthik; Pebody, Richard; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Higgins, Julian P T; Beck, Charles R

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a significant public health burden, and outbreaks among vulnerable patients in hospital settings are of particular concern. We reviewed published and unpublished literature from hospital settings to assess: (i) nosocomial RSV transmission risk (attack rate) during outbreaks, (ii) effectiveness of infection control measures. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, together with key websites, journals and grey literature, to end of 2012. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool or Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Forty studies were included (19 addressing research question one, 21 addressing question two). RSV transmission risk varied by hospital setting; 6-56% (median: 28·5%) in neonatal/paediatric settings (n = 14), 6-12% (median: 7%) in adult haematology and transplant units (n = 3), and 30-32% in other adult settings (n = 2). For question two, most studies (n = 13) employed multi-component interventions (e.g. cohort nursing, personal protective equipment (PPE), isolation), and these were largely reported to be effective in reducing nosocomial transmission. Four studies examined staff PPE; eye protection appeared more effective than gowns and masks. One study reported on RSV prophylaxis for patients (RSV-Ig/palivizumab); there was no statistical evidence of effectiveness although the sample size was small. Overall, risk of bias for included studies tended to be high. We conclude that RSV transmission risk varies widely during hospital outbreaks. Although multi-component control strategies appear broadly successful, further research is required to disaggregate the effectiveness of individual components including the potential role of palivizumab prophylaxis. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nasal CPAP and surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verder, Henrik; Bohlin, Kajsa; Kamper, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The Scandinavian approach is an effective combined treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). It is composed of many individual parts. Of significant importance is the early treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n...

  6. Surfactant nebulisation prevents the adverse effects of surfactant therapy on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow in rabbits with severe respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant replacement therapy for the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome has shown beneficial effects on lung function and survival. Recently, rapid fluctuations of haemodynamics and cerebral perfusion following surfactant instillation have beer, described and an association with the

  7. Consensus document for the prevention of respiratory infections in adults.

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    Froes, F; Diniz, A; Robalo Cordeiro, C; Serrado, M; Ramalho de Almeida, A

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the principle causes of morbidity, mortality and drain on health resources worldwide. In recent years there has been an increase in the impact of respiratory infections, particularly in the Portuguese population. It is for this reason that the Portuguese Respiratory Society has presented a series of recommendations for the prevention of respiratory infections in adults. These recommendations include both general measures and vaccinations for flu and pneumococcal pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception among nursing students during outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Choi, Jeong Sil

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to survey nursing students' Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception to examine the correlations among the variables during a Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak. Middle East respiratory syndrome is a new viral respiratory illness. Nursing students who engage in clinical practice at hospitals may have been exposed to Middle East respiratory syndrome infection during the Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Participants (n = 249) were nursing students in their third or fourth year of the programme who were engaged in clinical practice for eight hours per day at the tertiary hospitals with Middle East respiratory syndrome patients. Knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception related to Middle East respiratory syndrome were measured using scales developed through a preliminary survey and validity testing. The subjects' knowledge level of Middle East respiratory syndrome was 84·4%; their practice of preventive behaviours was rated at 44·5%; and their risk perception rating was 2·4 out of 5. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related risk perception was significantly different according to gender and Middle East respiratory syndrome education. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge was significantly correlated with preventive behaviours and risk perception. Considering the low scores for items regarding knowledge and preventive behaviours, it is necessary to develop effective and systematic publicity and education programmes for nursing students. Enhancing Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge by considering cooperation between hospitals and universities will sharpen nursing students' risk perception of the disease and effectively increase their preventive behaviours. Similar to other emerging infectious diseases, Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreaks may occur in other countries. The

  9. Caffeine in the milk prevents respiratory disorders caused by in utero caffeine exposure in rats.

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    Bodineau, Laurence; Saadani-Makki, Fadoua; Jullien, Hugues; Frugière, Alain

    2006-01-25

    Consequences of postnatal caffeine exposure by the milk on ponto-medullary respiratory disturbances observed following an in utero caffeine exposure were analysed. Ponto-medullary-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats exposed to caffeine during gestation but not after the birth display an increase in respiratory frequency and an exaggeration of the hypoxic respiratory depression compared to not treated preparations. These data suggest that tachypneic and apneic episodes encountered in human newborns whose mother consumed caffeine during pregnancy are due in large part to central effect of caffeine at the ponto-medullary level. Both baseline respiratory frequency increase and emphasis of hypoxic respiratory depression are not encountered if rat dams consumed caffeine during nursing. Our hypothesis is that newborn rats exposed to caffeine during gestation but not after the birth would be in withdrawal situation whereas, when caffeine is present in drinking fluid of lactating dams, it goes down the milk and is able to prevent ponto-medullary respiratory disturbances.

  10. Effects of influenza plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination versus influenza vaccination alone in preventing respiratory tract infections in children : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Hoes, Arno W; van Loon, Anton M; Hak, Eelko

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of influenza vaccination with or without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprising 579 children age 18 to 72 months with

  11. Cochrane Commentary: Probiotics For Prevention of Acute Upper Respiratory Infection.

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    Quick, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, who are at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyze 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI [at least one episode: odds ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.76, P school absence (OR: 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute URTI (rate ratio: 0

  12. Consensus document for the prevention of respiratory infections in adults

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    F. Froes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are one of the principle causes of morbidity, mortality and drain on health resources worldwide. In recent years there has been an increase in the impact of respiratory infections, particularly in the Portuguese population. It is for this reason that the Portuguese Respiratory Society has presented a series of recommendations for the prevention of respiratory infections in adults. These recommendations include both general measures and vaccinations for flu and pneumococcal pneumonia. Resumo: As infeções respiratórias são uma das principais causas de morbilidade, mortalidade e consumo de recursos de saúde a nível global. Nos últimos anos tem-se assistido a um crescente impacto das infeções respiratórias, nomeadamente na população portuguesa. Assim, a Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia apresenta um conjunto de recomendações para a prevenção das infeções respiratórias no adulto. Estas recomendações englobam medidas gerais e de vacinação antigripal e antipneumocócica. Keywords: Prevention, Respiratory infections, Pneumonia, Flu vaccination, Pneumococcal vaccination, Palavras-chave: Prevenção, Infeções respiratórias, Pneumonia, Vacina da gripe, Vacina pneumocócica

  13. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.

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    Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Bi Rong; Wu, Taixiang

    2015-02-03

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyse 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI (at least one episode: odds ratio (OR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.76, P value school absence (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute

  14. Effects of an aquatic versus non-aquatic respiratory exercise program on the respiratory muscle strength in healthy aged persons

    OpenAIRE

    Ide,Maiza Ritomy; Belini,Marize Angélica Vicentini; Caromano,Fátima Aparecida

    2005-01-01

    Aging of the worldwide population is a concern of most governmental entities, spanning practically all areas of prevention and rehabilitation. Aging leads to physiological alterations that result in adverse social and financial effects. There is a trend to emphasize prevention, which is less expensive and socially more desirable than therapeutic intervention. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a program of aquatic versus non-aquatic respiratory exercises on respiratory muscle strength in health...

  15. Psychological development of children who were treated antenatally with corticosteroids to prevent respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Neuvel, J.; Smolders-de Haas, H.; Hoeks, J.; Treffers, P. E.; Koppe, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Potential side effects of antenatal administration of corticosteroids to prevent neonatal respiratory distress syndrome were studied in 10- to 12-year-old children whose mothers had participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of betamethasone. Aspects of the children's

  16. IMMUNIZATION AND GETTING DISEASED FROM SOME RESPIRATORY, VACCINE-PREVENTABLE DISEASES

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    Bozidar Jovanovic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Contagious diseases present the leading causes of getting diseased and mortality in different parts of the world, regardless of improved socio-economic life conditions. The most important among them are the diseases which can be spread by air and water. Immunization against contagious diseases presents the most effective form of prevention, ending, elimination and, where possible, eradication of disease. When there are good programs of immunization properly implemented, and when they greatly cover the population which they refer to, the changes in frequency of vaccinable diseases can be observed, eg. contagious nosological entities that could be prevented by vaccination. Certain vaccines protect from bacterial or viral infections and reduce the possibility of infection, that is, prevent its transmission. The objective of the research is to point to the results of conducting the compulsory systematic immunization and to examine the effect of immunization on spreading of some respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases within Sumadija Region. This study shows the scope of immunization and spreading of some respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases, before all morbilli, parottitis epidemica, rubella and pertussis, in Sumadija Region for the last ten years. By means of great scope of compulsory immunization, the aforementioned respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases could be prevented.

  17. Respiratory effects of borax dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabrant, D H; Bernstein, L; Peters, J M; Smith, T J; Wright, W E

    1985-12-01

    The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. Ninety three per cent of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg/m3 to 14.6 mg/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, dry cough, nose bleeds, sore throat, productive cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness were related to exposures of 4.0 mg/m3 or more, and were infrequent at exposures of 1.1 mg/m3. Symptoms of persistent respiratory irritation meeting the definition of chronic simple bronchitis were related to exposure among non-smokers. Decrements in the FEV1 as a percentage of predicted were seen among smokers who had heavy cumulative borax exposures (greater than or equal to 80 mg/m3 years) but were not seen among less exposed smokers or among non-smokers. Radiographic abnormalities were uncommon and were not related to dust exposure. Borax dust appears to act as a simple respiratory irritant and perhaps causes small changes in the FEV1 among smokers who are heavily exposed.

  18. Rotational bed therapy to prevent and treat respiratory complications: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhill, David R; Imhoff, Michael; McLean, Barbara; Waldmann, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Immobility is associated with complications involving many body systems. To review the effect of rotational therapy (use of therapeutic surfaces that turn on their longitudinal axes) on prevention and/or treatment of respiratory complications in critically ill patients. Published articles evaluating prophylaxis and/or treatment were reviewed. Prospective randomized controlled trials were assessed for quality and included in meta-analyses. A literature search yielded 15 nonrandomized, uncontrolled, or retrospective studies. Twenty prospective randomized controlled trials on rotational therapy were published between 1987 and 2004. Various types of beds were studied, but few details on the rotational parameters were reported. The usual control was manual turning of patients by nurses every 2 hours. One animal investigation and 12 clinical trials addressed the effectiveness of rotational therapy in preventing respiratory complications. Significant benefits were reported in the animal study and 4 of the trials. Significant benefits to patients were reported in 2 of another 4 studies focused on treatment of established complications. Researchers have examined the effects of rotational therapy on mucus transport, intrapulmonary shunt, hemodynamic effects, urine output, and intracranial pressure. Little convincing evidence is available, however, on the most effective rotation parameters (eg, degree, pause time, and amount of time per day). Meta-analysis suggests that rotational therapy decreases the incidence of pneumonia but has no effect on duration of mechanical ventilation, number of days in intensive care, or hospital mortality. Rotational therapy may be useful for preventing and treating respiratory complications in selected critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

  19. Rationale and design of the prevention of respiratory infections and management in children (PRIMAKid) study : a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness and costs of combined influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in pre-school children with recurrent respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönbeck, Y; Sanders, E A M; Hoes, A W; Schilder, A G M; Verheij, Th J M; Hak, E

    2005-01-01

    Health and economic burden of recurrent respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in early childhood is considerable. A systematic review of licensed influenza and pneumococcal vaccines showed substantial efficacy in children, but the health-economic impact of such vaccines among pre-school children with

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Transmission and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infographic Related Links Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks Red Book® Online RSV Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... year. Related Links Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks Red Book® Online File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  1. Network meta-analysis of probiotics to prevent respiratory infections in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marina Azambuja; Guedes, Gabriela Helena Barbosa Ferreira; Epifanio, Matias; Wagner, Mario Bernardes; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Mattiello, Rita

    2017-06-01

    Probiotics have emerged as a promising intervention for the prevention of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Assess the effect of probiotics on prevention of RTIs in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCIELO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. Key words: "respiratory tract infections" AND probiotics. Randomized controlled trials RCT assessing the effect of probiotics on RTIs in children and adolescents were included. Two reviewers, working independently, to identify studies that met the eligibility criteria. Main and secondary outcomes were RTIs and adverse effects, respectively. Twenty-one trials with 6.603 participants were included. Pairwise meta-analysis suggested that Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus (LCA) was the only effective probiotic to the rate of RTIs compared to placebo (RR0.38; Crl 0.19-0.45). Network analysis showed that the LCA exhibited 54.7% probability of being classified in first, while the probability of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 (LFC) being last in the ranking was 15.3%. LCA showed no better effect compared to other probiotic strains by indirect analysis. This systematic review found a lack of evidence to support the effect of probiotic on the incidence rate of respiratory infections in children and adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:833-843. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Respiratory effects of transient axial acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, S H; Lee, H T; Butler, J P

    2001-06-01

    Whereas gravity has an inspiratory effect in upright subjects, transient upward acceleration is reported to have an expiratory effect. To explore the respiratory effects of transient axial accelerations, we measured axial acceleration at the head and transrespiratory pressure or airflow in five subjects as they were dropped or lifted on a platform. For the first 100 ms, upward acceleration caused a decrease in mouth pressure and inspiratory flow, and downward acceleration caused the opposite. We also simulated these experimental observations by using a computational model of a passive respiratory system based on anatomical data and normal respiratory characteristics. After 100 ms, respiratory airflow in our subjects became highly variable, no longer varying with acceleration. Electromyograms of thoracic and abdominal respiratory muscles showed bursts of activity beginning 40-125 ms after acceleration, suggesting reflex responses responsible for subsequent flow variability. We conclude that, in relaxed subjects, transient upward axial acceleration causes inspiratory airflow and downward acceleration causes expiratory airflow, but that after ~100 ms, reflex activation of respiratory musculature largely determines airflow.

  3. VITAMIN PREVENTIVE ALGORITHM FOR CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASES: TECHNOLOGY OF INCREASING NON SPECIFIC RESISTANCE

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    O.A. Gromova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm of choosing adequate vitamin combination for children's acute respiratory diseases is suggested on the basis of Pikovit vitamin complex (KRKA, Slovenia. It is emphasized that the choice of vitamins should be based on the peculiarities of their metabolism and their role in the body. The importance of vitamin therapy is in its immunomodifying effect and increasing child's abilities for adaptation. Choice of vitamin and mineral complex for seasonal child ARD prevention depends on physiological vitamin doses and the fact that vitamin and mineral complexes containing iron and copper should be excluded in the acute phase of the disease. Latest research data is provided demonstrating the inadvisability of using iron and copper additives to children with ARD. The article provides information on the necessity of qualified primary inspection of the sick child, diagnosing activities, composing an individual diet, vitamin and pharmacological therapy.Key words: polyvitamin products, prevention, acute respiratory infections, children.

  4. The effect of aging on respiratory synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Migyoung; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Yong Hyun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on respiratory synergy, through the comparison of an elderly group and a young group, to help further understanding of postural control in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Ten community-dwelling elderly subjects and ten young subjects performed standing under two different respiratory conditions: quiet breathing and apnea. Center of foot pressure displacement and joint angular movements of the head, trunk, pelvis, hips, knees and ankles were measured. [Results] The results of this study showed that the elderly group had a respiratory synergy different from that of the young group. The elderly group in quiet stance used significantly more hip and pelvis movements when compensating for respiratory disturbance than standing with apnea, while the young group used significantly more whole body segments. There were no differences in angular displacements in the quiet stance between the elderly and the young groups. [Conclusion] The elderly group demonstrated a respiratory synergy pattern different from that of the young group. The findings indicate that aging changes the respiratory synergy pattern and this change is not due to decreased functioning of the ankle joint alone.

  5. [Respiratory tract infections in the elderly living in institutions: prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, P; Bentot-Levasseur, C; Druesne, L; Bercoff, E; Doucet, J

    2002-10-01

    Pneumonia amongst elderly people living in institutions is common and is a frequent cause of mortality and hospital admission. It is important to distinguish between prevention of viral pneumonia, which primarily consists of influenza vaccination programmes, and prevention of bacterial pneumonia. Prevention of influenza infection in institutions requires the vaccination of as many as possible of both residents and caregivers. In the event of a declared epidemic then amantadine can be used to reduce the severity of, and complication rate of, influenza infection. The indications for giving this therapy need to be balanced against potential side-effects, especially neurological ones. For the prevention of bacterial pneumonia risk factors such as immobility or impaired swallowing should be first identified and dealt with as necessary. Anti-pneumoncoccal vaccination may be considered, but on current evidence, the value of systematic vaccination of residents has not yet been established.

  6. Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available to improve treatment results in premature infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS, by establishing developmental mechanisms and elaborating methods for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Material and methods. The paper analyzes the results of a clinical observation and laboratory, instrumental, immunological, morphological, and radiological studies of 320 premature neonates at 26—35 weeks gestational age. The following groups of neonates were identified: 1 40 premature neonatal infants without NRDS and with the physiological course of an early neonatal period (a comparison group; 2 190 premature neonates with severe NRDS in whom the efficiency of therapy with exogenous surfactants, such as surfactant BL versus curosurf, was evaluated; 3 90 premature newborn infants who had died from NRDS at its different stages. Results. The poor maternal somatic, obstetric, and gynecological histories in the early periods of the current pregnancy create prerequisites for its termination, favor the development of severe acute gestosis, and cause abnormal placental changes. Each gestational age is marked by certain placental changes that promote impaired uterineplacentalfetal blood flow and premature birth. Alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages, including those ante and intranatally, microcircula tory disorders play a leading role in the tanatogenesis of NRDS. Intranatal hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration are one of the important factors contributing to alveolar epithelial damage and NRDS in premature neonates. Exogenous surfactants prevent the development of hyaline membranes and are useful in the normalization of ventilation-perfusion relationships and lung biomechanical properties. Conclusion. This study could improve the diagnosis and treatment of NRDS, which assisted in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation from 130±7.6 to 65±11.6 hours, the number of complications (the incidence of intragastric

  7. Climate Change Effects on Respiratory Health: Implications for Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Maureen; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Matura, Lea Ann

    2017-11-01

    Greenhouse gases are driving climate change. This article explores the adverse health effects of climate change on a particularly vulnerable population: children and adults with respiratory conditions. This review provides a general overview of the effects of increasing temperatures, extreme weather, desertification, and flooding on asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and respiratory infections. We offer suggestions for future research to better understand climate change hazards, policies to support prevention and mitigation efforts targeting climate change, and clinical actions to reduce individual risk. Climate change produces a number of changes to the natural and built environments that may potentially increase respiratory disease prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. Nurses might consider focusing their research efforts on reducing the effects of greenhouse gases and in directing policy to mitigate the harmful effects of climate change. Nurses can also continue to direct educational and clinical actions to reduce risks for all populations, but most importantly, for our most vulnerable groups. While advancements have been made in understanding the impact of climate change on respiratory health, nurses can play an important role in reducing the deleterious effects of climate change. This will require a multipronged approach of research, policy, and clinical action. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases. 1. 1. *Tanimowo MO and Abiona Oo. Review Article. ABSTRACT. Background: Global warming is a consequence of air pollution resulting in climate change due to trapping of excess greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere that affects biodiversity and constitutes a ...

  9. The effect of antimicrobial treatment and preventive strategies on bovine respiratory disease and genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolates in a western Canadian feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Steven H.; Bateman, Ken G.; Rosengren, Leigh B.

    2013-01-01

    Feedlot calves (n = 3784) were systematically randomized and allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial study to receive metaphylactic oxytetracycline (OTC) on arrival or no antimicrobial, as well as florfenicol once subcutaneously or twice intramuscularly (48 h apart) if diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Calves of different treatment groups were comingled and followed from placement to re-implantation (~100 days). Animals receiving OTC had a reduced risk of BRD, an increased risk of arthritis, and no significant differences in average daily gain, BRD relapse, overall mortality, or BRD mortality. There were no significant differences between treatment protocols. Deep nasal swabs (n = 233) taken at arrival (n = 122), treatment (n = 77), and swabs from lungs and joints at postmortem (n = 34) were cultured for Mycoplasma bovis from 61 animals ill or dying of chronic pneumonia and arthritis and from 61 healthy calves. There was significant variation in diversity among isolates (n = 51) between study years and different cattle. Metaphylaxis or antimicrobial treatment did not affect the diversity of isolates. Except for tilmicosin, isolates were largely susceptible to tested antimicrobials. PMID:24293675

  10. The effect of antimicrobial treatment and preventive strategies on bovine respiratory disease and genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolates in a western Canadian feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Steven H; Bateman, Ken G; Rosengren, Leigh B

    2013-12-01

    Feedlot calves (n = 3784) were systematically randomized and allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial study to receive metaphylactic oxytetracycline (OTC) on arrival or no antimicrobial, as well as florfenicol once subcutaneously or twice intramuscularly (48 h apart) if diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Calves of different treatment groups were comingled and followed from placement to re-implantation (~100 days). Animals receiving OTC had a reduced risk of BRD, an increased risk of arthritis, and no significant differences in average daily gain, BRD relapse, overall mortality, or BRD mortality. There were no significant differences between treatment protocols. Deep nasal swabs (n = 233) taken at arrival (n = 122), treatment (n = 77), and swabs from lungs and joints at postmortem (n = 34) were cultured for Mycoplasma bovis from 61 animals ill or dying of chronic pneumonia and arthritis and from 61 healthy calves. There was significant variation in diversity among isolates (n = 51) between study years and different cattle. Metaphylaxis or antimicrobial treatment did not affect the diversity of isolates. Except for tilmicosin, isolates were largely susceptible to tested antimicrobials.

  11. PROGRAM RATIONALE OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION IN CHILDREN WITH FREQUENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Deryusheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex clinical and laboratory examination of 146 children aged 2—3 years attending kindergarten were presented. The leading predictors of frequent respiratory disease: disturbance of microbiocenosis oropharyngeal mucosa, immunoglobulins decrease, respiratory allergic pathology were established and scientifically substantiated. The results obtained prove the main directions of therapeutic and preventive measures.

  12. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  13. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.

  14. Prevention of respiratory complications of the surgical patient: actionable plan for continued process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscic, Katarina J; Grabitz, Stephanie D; Rudolph, Maíra I; Eikermann, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Postoperative respiratory complications (PRCs) increase hospitalization time, 30-day mortality and costs by up to $35 000. These outcomes measures have gained prominence as bundled payments have become more common. Results of recent quantitative effectiveness studies and clinical trials provide a framework that helps develop center-specific treatment guidelines, tailored to minimize the risk of PRCs. The implementation of those protocols should be guided by a local, respected, and visible facilitator who leads proper implementation while inviting center-specific input from surgeons, anesthesiologists, and other perioperative stakeholders. Preoperatively, patients should be risk-stratified for PRCs to individualize intraoperative choices and postoperative pathways. Laparoscopic compared with open surgery improves respiratory outcomes. High-risk patients should be treated by experienced providers based on locally developed bundle-interventions to optimize intraoperative treatment and ICU bed utilization. Intraoperatively, lung-protective ventilation (procedure-specific positive end-expiratory pressure utilization, and low driving pressure) and moderately restrictive fluid therapy should be used. To achieve surgical relaxation, high-dose neuromuscular blocking agents (and reversal agents) as well as high-dose opioids should be avoided; inhaled anesthetics improve surgical conditions while protecting the lungs. Patients should be extubated in reverse Trendelenburg position. Postoperatively, continuous positive airway pressure helps prevent airway collapse and protocolized, early mobilization improves cognitive and respiratory function.

  15. Effect of transoral tracheal wash on respiratory mechanics in dogs with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Meghan E; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; deLaforcade, Armelle M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (C stat ) and static resistance (R stat ), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P -value of mechanics, as observed by a reduction in C stat , presumably due to airway flooding and collapse. While no long-lasting effects were noted in these clinical patients, this effect should be considered when performing TOTW on dogs with respiratory diseases. Respiratory mechanics testing using a CCV was feasible and may be a useful clinical testing approach.

  16. Evaluation the effect of breathing filters on end-tidal carbon dioxide during inferior abdominal surgery in infants and changes of tidal volume and respiratory rate needs for preventing of increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Parvin; Abooei, Mohsen; Shafa, Amir; Karbalaei, Mahboobeh; Babaei, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prevent of increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO 2) with changing of vital capacity and respiratory rate when using of birthing filter in infants. In a randomized clinical trial study, ninety-four infant' patients were studied in three groups. Basic values, such as peak inspiratory pressure, tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory rate, and partial pressure of ET CO 2 (PETCO 2 ) level had been evaluated after intubation, 10 min after intubation and 10 min after filter insertion. In the first group, patients only observed for changing in ETCO 2 level. In the second and the third groups, respiratory rates and tidal volume had been increased retrospectively, until that ETCO 2 ≤35 mmHg was received. We used ANOVA, Chi-square, and descriptive tests for data analysis. P Tidal volume 10 min after filter insertion was statistically higher in Group 3 (145.0 ± 26.3 ml) versus 129.3 ± 38.9 ml in Group 1 and 118.7 ± 20.8 ml in Group 2 ( P = 0.02). Furthermore, respiratory rate at this time was statistically higher in Group 2 (25.82 ± 0.43) versus Groups 1 and 3 (21.05 ± 0.20 ml and 21.02 ± 0.60 ml, respectively) ( P = 0.001). Minute volume and PETCO 2 level were statistically significant between Group 1 and the other two groups after filter insertion ( P = 0.01 and P = 0.00,1 respectively). With changing the vital capacity and respiratory rate we can control PETCO 2 level ≤35 mmHg during using of birthing filters in infants. We recommend this instrument during anesthesia of infants.

  17. Evaluation the effect of breathing filters on end-tidal carbon dioxide during inferior abdominal surgery in infants and changes of tidal volume and respiratory rate needs for preventing of increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to prevent of increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2with changing of vital capacity and respiratory rate when using of birthing filter in infants. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial study, ninety-four infant' patients were studied in three groups. Basic values, such as peak inspiratory pressure, tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory rate, and partial pressure of ET CO2 (PETCO2 level had been evaluated after intubation, 10 min after intubation and 10 min after filter insertion. In the first group, patients only observed for changing in ETCO2level. In the second and the third groups, respiratory rates and tidal volume had been increased retrospectively, until that ETCO2 ≤35 mmHg was received. We used ANOVA, Chi-square, and descriptive tests for data analysis. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Tidal volume 10 min after filter insertion was statistically higher in Group 3 (145.0 ± 26.3 ml versus 129.3 ± 38.9 ml in Group 1 and 118.7 ± 20.8 ml in Group 2 (P = 0.02. Furthermore, respiratory rate at this time was statistically higher in Group 2 (25.82 ± 0.43 versus Groups 1 and 3 (21.05 ± 0.20 ml and 21.02 ± 0.60 ml, respectively (P = 0.001. Minute volume and PETCO2level were statistically significant between Group 1 and the other two groups after filter insertion (P = 0.01 and P = 0.00,1 respectively. Conclusion: With changing the vital capacity and respiratory rate we can control PETCO2level ≤35 mmHg during using of birthing filters in infants. We recommend this instrument during anesthesia of infants.

  18. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  19. How French general practitioners manage and prevent recurrent respiratory tract infections in children: the SOURIRRE survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicoulaa, Bruno; Haas, Hervé; Viala, Jérôme; Salvetat, Maryline; Olives, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) are the most common reason for children’s visits to primary care physicians in France; however, little is known about general practitioners’ (GPs) opinions and expectations concerning the management and prevention of these common and recurrent pathologies. Purpose To describe French GPs’ daily practice in the management of respiratory infections and the prevention of their recurrence in children. Methods A sample group of French GPs answered a structured questionnaire on risk factors, RRTI management, antibiotic use and prevention measures. Results A total of 358 GPs participated in the survey. Rhinopharyngitis, the most frequent respiratory infection, was considered to be recurrent if six or more episodes occurred in a year. Four risk factors were acknowledged as substantial: living in communities, passive smoking, pollution and allergies. Around 63% of GPs said that RRTIs are too often treated with antibiotics. More than 85% thought that prevention of RRTIs is possible. Smoking cessation, vaccination, allergen avoidance and hygiene were identified as the main preventive measures. A large majority of GPs (84%) prescribed products for prevention and ~90% would prescribe a product stimulating immunity if the efficacy and tolerability of these agents was proven and confirmed in their daily practice. Conclusions French GPs are well aware of the health and socioeconomic burdens resulting from RRTIs, as well as the risk of antibiotic overuse. They have a prevention-oriented approach, implement preventive measures when possible and prescribe products for prevention. PMID:28293116

  20. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Method...

  1. Effectiveness and predictors of failure of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, F; González-Robledo, J; Sánchez-Hernández, F; Moreno-García, M N; Barreda-Mellado, I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and identify predictors of failure of noninvasive ventilation. A retrospective, longitudinal descriptive study was made. Adult patients with acute respiratory failure. A total of 410 consecutive patients with noninvasive ventilation treated in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary university hospital from 2006 to 2011. Noninvasive ventilation. Demographic variables and clinical and laboratory test parameters at the start and two hours after the start of noninvasive ventilation. Evolution during admission to the Unit and until hospital discharge. The failure rate was 50%, with an overall mortality rate of 33%. A total of 156 patients had hypoxemic respiratory failure, 87 postextubation respiratory failure, 78 exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 61 hypercapnic respiratory failure without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 28 had acute pulmonary edema. The failure rates were 74%, 54%, 27%, 31% and 21%, respectively. The etiology of respiratory failure, serum bilirubin at the start, APACHEII score, radiological findings, the need for sedation to tolerate noninvasive ventilation, changes in level of consciousness, PaO2/FIO2 ratio, respiratory rate and heart rate from the start and two hours after the start of noninvasive ventilation were independently associated to failure. The effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation varies according to the etiology of respiratory failure. Its use in hypoxemic respiratory failure and postextubation respiratory failure should be assessed individually. Predictors of failure could be useful to prevent delayed intubation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Promising approaches for the treatment and prevention of viral respiratory illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Megremis, Spyridon; Kitsioulis, Nikolaos A; Vangelatou, Olympia; West, Peter; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi

    2017-10-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections are the most common human ailments, leading to enormous health and economic burden. Hundreds of viral species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses being the most frequent and with the highest burden. When considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory tract infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, disease transmission, or even just the symptoms. Strategies targeting all these aspects are developing concurrently, and several novel and promising approaches are emerging. In this perspective we overview the entire range of options and highlight some of the most promising approaches, including new antiviral agents, symptomatic or immunomodulatory drugs, the re-emergence of natural remedies, and vaccines and public health policies toward prevention. Wide-scale prevention through immunization appears to be within reach for respiratory syncytial virus and promising for influenza virus, whereas additional effort is needed in regard to rhinovirus, as well as other respiratory tract viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects on Respiratory and Circulatory Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, John W.

    1955-01-01

    There are exceptions and variations to the general clinical rule that muscle relaxants depress respiration and have no effect on circulation. Variation may be attributed to differences in animal species, in individual response, in muscle affected, in drug used and in dose employed. Conclusions about muscle relaxants derived from animal experiments cannot always be assumed to apply to man. The “respiratory sparing” action of a muscle relaxant cannot be relied upon in any individual patient. Facilities for adequate artificial respiration must always be available when any dose of any muscle relaxant drug is administered. Muscle relaxants affect circulation by inhibition of parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia, by anticholinesterase activity and by release of histamine. PMID:13250426

  4. СHILDREN OF MEGAPOLISES WHO FALL ILL FREQUENTLY: ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Torshkhoeva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to prevention and treatment of acute respiratory diseases children of megapolises who fall ill frequently. The authors prove the thesis that children falling ill frequently and residing in mega cities, and not only in Russia, have a similar immune status, according to which not only therapeutic but also preventive immunomodulatory treatment courses must be administered to them.Key words: frequently ill children, bacterial immunomodulation, cytokinic status.

  5. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed M; Salamati, Payman; Harandi, Ali Amini; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-04-01

    About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88). After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  6. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  7. Oral Astragalus (Huang qi) for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guobin; Chen, Xiankun; Liu, Zhuangzhu; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, La; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Wen, Zehuai; Guo, Xinfeng; Qin, Xindong; Liang, Jueyao; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-12-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common in children and can involve both upper and lower airways. Many children experience frequent ARTI episodes or recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in early life, which creates challenges for paediatricians, primary care physicians, parents and carers of children.In China, Astragalus (Huang qi), alone or in combination with other herbs, is used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in the form of a water extract, to reduce the risk of ARTIs; it is believed to stimulate the immune system. Better understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of Astragalus may provide insights into ARTI prevention, and consequently reduced antibiotic use. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral Astragalus for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children in community settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to 31 December 2015), Embase (Elsevier) (1974 to 31 December 2015), AMED (Ovid) (1985 to 31 December 2015), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to 31 December 2015) and Chinese Scientific Journals full text database (CQVIP) (1989 to 31 December 2015), China Biology Medicine disc (CBM 1976 to 31 December 2015) and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform (WanFang) (1998 to 31 December 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral Astragalus as a sole Chinese herbal preparation with placebo to prevent frequent episodes of ARTIs in children. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures for this review. We assessed search results to identify relevant studies. We planned to extract data using standardised forms. Disagreements were to be resolved through discussion. Risk of bias was to be assessed using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We planned to use mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous data and risk

  8. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  9. Effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming GUO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function and conscious state of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease (SCVD.  Methods A total of 27 patients with SCVD were divided into control group (N = 17 and observation group (N = 10. Control group received routine drug and rehabilitation treatment, and observation group was added respiratory function training based on routine treatment. The respiratory rate, tidal volume (TV, heart rate, blood pressure and artery oxygen saturation (SaO2 of patients were monitored by breathing machine before and after 4-week treatment. Meanwhile, arterial blood gas analysis was used to detect arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, oxygenation index, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and pH value. At the same time, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS was used to evaluate the conscious state of patients.  Results All patients successfully completed 4-week rehabilitation training, without asphyxia, arrhythmia or other adverse events. Compared with before training, the respiratory rate (P = 0.006 and pH value (P = 0.010 were significantly decreased, while SaO2 (P = 0.001, oxygenation index (P = 0.000 and GCS scores (P = 0.004, 0.017 were significantly increased in both groups of patients after training. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups on respiratory function indexes and GCS scores after training (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusions Respiratory function training did not significantly improve the respiratory function and conscious state of patients with SCVD, yet to be further studied. Randomized controlled clinical trials with larger, layered samples and long-term prognosis observation are needed. Examination method of respiratory function of SCVD patients is also a topic to be explored.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.007

  10. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  11. How French general practitioners manage and prevent recurrent respiratory tract infections in children: the SOURIRRE survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chicoulaa B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Chicoulaa,1 Hervé Haas,2 Jérôme Viala,3 Maryline Salvetat,4 Jean-Pierre Olives,5 1Faculty of Medicine, Toulouse Rangueil, Toulouse, 2Paediatric Emergency and Infectious Disease Departments, Lenval University Hospital, Nice, 3Gastroenterology Department, Robert-Debré Hospital, Paris, 4Sports and General Medicine Practice, Labruguière, 5Gastroenterology and Nutrition Department, Children’s Hospital, University Hospital, Toulouse, France Background: Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs are the most common reason for children’s visits to primary care physicians in France; however, little is known about general practitioners’ (GPs opinions and expectations concerning the management and prevention of these common and recurrent pathologies. Purpose: To describe French GPs’ daily practice in the management of respiratory infections and the prevention of their recurrence in children. Methods: A sample group of French GPs answered a structured questionnaire on risk factors, RRTI management, antibiotic use and prevention measures. Results: A total of 358 GPs participated in the survey. Rhinopharyngitis, the most frequent respiratory infection, was considered to be recurrent if six or more episodes occurred in a year. Four risk factors were acknowledged as substantial: living in communities, passive smoking, pollution and allergies. Around 63% of GPs said that RRTIs are too often treated with antibiotics. More than 85% thought that prevention of RRTIs is possible. Smoking cessation, vaccination, allergen avoidance and hygiene were identified as the main preventive measures. A large majority of GPs (84% prescribed products for prevention and ~90% would prescribe a product stimulating immunity if the efficacy and tolerability of these agents was proven and confirmed in their daily practice. Conclusions: French GPs are well aware of the health and socioeconomic burdens resulting from RRTIs, as well as the risk of antibiotic overuse

  12. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  13. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during

  14. Respiratory effects of biomass fuel combustion on rural fish smokers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory effects of biomass fuel combustion on rural fish smokers in a Nigerian fishing settlement: a case control study. Paul Dienye, Alex Akani, Ita Okokon. Abstract. Backgroud: The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assess the lung function of fish smokers in Nigeria. Methods: A case control ...

  15. THE USE OF IMMUNOMODULATORS TO PREVENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Bokuchava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with allergic diseases, especially bronchial asthma, are in need of protection from acute respiratory infections, as anti-epidemic  measures cannot prevent the spread of influenza; vaccination remains the best means of prevention. Another promising direction in the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARI can be immunomodulators of bacterial origin. Objective:  Our aim was to study the use of immunomodulators for prevention of respiratory infections with children having allergic diseases. Methods. A comparative analysis of prophylactic efficiency of specific and nonspecific immunoprophylaxis of ARI with children having allergic diseases has been done during three epedemic seasons (2011–2014. Results.  For immunization of 335 children aged 3–17 years having a variety of allergic diseases, vaccine (domestic and foreign in combination with an immunomodulator, and without it have been used. With the help of vaccination, the number of cases of ARI during the whole observation period decreased significantly: 21 (6.3% children did not have ARI,62 (18.5% children had ARI once, 252 (75.2% children — from 1–4 times in a year. Also, significant reduction of frequency of aggravation of the basic disease was observed in all treatment groups. Patients who received only immunomodulator, had significant reduction of both ARI and the basic disease (p <0,05.  Conclusion. The use of vaccines in combination with an immunomodulator or without it fully protects children from flu and significantly (1.5 times reduces prevalence of ARI.

  16. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, N.D.; Dede, C.

    2010-01-01

    Infections of the respiratory tract are the most common acute illness of childhood. Apart from the morbidity (and occasional mortality) attributable to respiratory infections, they also represent risk factors for asthma and possibly other chronic respiratory effects in later life. Children's exposure to harmful substances of tobacco smoke begins at prenatal period, if pregnant woman smokes after the delivery, it continues postnatally to be paced. Children are especially sensitive to the respiratory effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. ETS exposure is an significant and avoidable risk factor for respiratory diseases among children. ETS is a wide-spread environmental pollutant that has been long linked with respiratory problems. In children of all ages ETS exposure has been found to be associated with increased respiratory symptoms such as wheeze and cough. The role ETS plays in the development of atopy is of great interest, as atopy is closely related to the development of childhood asthma. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is preventable. This review discusses primarily on impact of ETS on during the fetal period and infancy and childhood.This paper reviews of several articles between year 1992- 2009 obtained from the internet; Pubmed and Medline. (author)

  17. Models for effective prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C L; Kelder, S H

    1992-07-01

    The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Respiratory effects of tobacco smoking on infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup

    2008-03-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) and tobacco smoke products (TSPs) are recognised global risks for human health. The present article reviews the causal role of SHS and TSPs for respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Several studies have shown an effect of TSPs exposure during pregnancy upon lung function in the newborn infant and of SHS on symptoms and lung function after birth. From 1997 to 1999 a set of systematic reviews concerning the relationship between second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory health in children was published in Thorax by Cook and Strachan, covering hundreds of published papers. The evidence for a causal relationship between SHS exposure and asthmatic symptoms and reduced lung function is quite strong, whereas the evidence related to the development of allergy is much weaker. There is recent evidence relating to an interaction between TSP exposure and genetic ploymorphisms, demonstrating that certain individuals are more susceptible to the effect of TSP exposure on lung health. In the present review, an overview is given for the effects of TSP exposure and SHS upon lung health in children, with a focus on infants and young children. There is a need for intervention to reduce TSP exposure in young children, by educating parents and adolescents about the health effects of TSP exposure. Recent legislation in many European countries related to smoking in the workplace is of great importance for exposure during pregnancy. Studies are needed to identify possible critical periods for TSPs to induce harmful effects upon lung health in young children and on environment-gene interactions in order to prevent harm.

  19. Effect of formaldehyde on the upper respiratory tract _ormal flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde is a chemical that is used to fix a tissue after death or removal from the body to prevent autolysis and putrefaction. Exposure to formaldehyde can occur as a result of occupation. Objective: To determine the effect of the formaldehyde on the throat and nasal flora of upper respiratory tract of rabbits ...

  20. Acute effects of urban air pollution on respiratory health of children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S; Hoek, G; Boezen, H M; Schouten, Jan; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent different components of air pollution are associated with acute respiratory health effects in children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: During three consecutive winters starting in 1992-3, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and respiratory

  1. Home Environmental Interventions for the Prevention or Control of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases: What Really Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Pierre; Paulus, Hélène; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Frain, Sophie; Gangneux, Jean Pierre

    Home health care workers interventions have been implemented in western countries to improve health status of patients with respiratory diseases especially asthma and allergic illnesses. Twenty-six controlled studies dealing with prevention and control of these diseases through home environmental interventions were reviewed. After a comprehensive description of the characteristics of these studies, the effectiveness of each intervention was then evaluated in terms of participants' compliance with the intervention program, improvement of quality of the indoor environment, and finally improvement of health outcomes, in detailed tables. Limitations and biases of the studies are also discussed. Overall, this review aims at giving a toolbox for home health care workers to target the most appropriate measures to improve health status of the patient depending on his and/or her environment and disease. Only a case-by-case approach with achievable measures will warrant the efficacy of home interventions. This review will also provide to the research community a tool to better identify targets to focus in future evaluation studies of home health care workers action. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical development and medical history of children who were treated antenatally with corticosteroids to prevent respiratory distress syndrome: a 10- to 12-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders-de Haas, H.; Neuvel, J.; Schmand, B.; Treffers, P. E.; Koppe, J. G.; Hoeks, J.

    1990-01-01

    Potential side effects of antenatal administration of corticosteroids to prevent neonatal respiratory distress syndrome were studied in 10- to 12-year-old children whose mothers had participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of betamethasone. The children had a general

  3. Role of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Prevention of Respiratory Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroushzadeh, Sayed Mohammad Ali; Khiveh, Ali; Gerayelimalek, Valiollah

    2016-05-01

    In order to define appropriate plans for respiratory infectious diseases, in accordance with Iranian traditional medicine, one should cover the topic of "havae vabai". "Havae vabai" is related to the epidemics of respiratory infectious diseases. This study is a review of the role of Iranian traditional medicine in the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases .Resources of traditional medicine with the keyword "havae vabai" were reviewed in Noor digital library. The perspective of traditional medicine for the prevention of disease in "havae vabai" is based on self-recuperation and air modification. Items that are mentioned are; refine the surrounding air, move to a proper space, live in a house with no source of water like fountains and limited flow of air, air-drying, use air freshener, smell fruit sticks, use in-house plants, and place a cloth soaked with vinegar in front of the nose. For self-recuperation, reducing body moisture with proper foods and drugs or with vomiting, diarrhea, phlebotomy, wet-cupping, reduction in food and drink intake, avoiding sexual intercourse, bathing, heavy exercise, inactivity, overeating, hunger, thirst, milk, sweets, fish, fatty foods, fruits especially juicy fruits are recommended. The food that tends to have a sour taste, eating meat cooked with sour taste like vinegar is suggested. The use of the solutions offered in traditional medicine to control air is helpful as it can reduce epidemics, such as influenza; that yearly kills many patients with a heavy financial burden.

  4. [Immunovac-VP-4 for prevention of acute respiratory diseases in children's communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, N B; Kurbatova, E A; Gruber, I M; Semenova, I B

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of prophylactic effect of Immunovac-VP-4 against acute respiratory diseases (ARDs) in collectives of children. Immunovac-VP-4 was used for prophylaxis of ARDs in communities of children (daycare centers, boarding school). During 3 consecutive controlled studies performed during peak incidence of epidemic influenza and ARD (1st study) and during pre-epidemic period (2nd and 3rd studies) the incidence of ARDs was studied in groups of vaccinated and non-vaccinated children. Criteria for assessment of ARDs incidence and their severity were as follows: number of ARD episodes per child, number of children with recurrent episodes of ARD during period of follow-up, duration of ARDs, and number of children with bacterial complications (bronchitis, otitis, etc.). Effect of intervention on immunologic parameters was assessed on levels of sIgA, IgG, IgA, and antibody titers in saliva. Schedule of vaccine administration was 3 daily intranasal and 6 - 9 oral administration of the vaccine with 3 - 4 days interval. Results of all three studies were virtually the same: decrease of number of ARD episodes and their duration; 3.1-fold reduction of number of children with recurrent infections during 14 months of follow-up, and 10.9--12-fold reduction during first 7 months of follow-up; decrease of bacterial complications rate (1.9% in children in intervention group, 11.9%--in control group). Increase of total immunoglobulin level and antibody titers to antigenic components of the vaccine from low baseline level was observed in saliva of vaccinated children. Immunovac-VP-4 results in enhanced and prolonged prophylactic effect on ARDs incidence and recommended for building of optimal system of prevention of polyetiologic complex of ARDs.

  5. Respiratory physiotherapy to prevent pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Patrick; Tramèr, Martin R; Granier, Jean-Max; Walder, Bernhard

    2006-12-01

    To examine the efficacy of respiratory physiotherapy for prevention of pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery. We searched in databases and bibliographies for articles in all languages through November 2005. Randomized trials were included if they investigated prophylactic respiratory physiotherapy and pulmonary outcomes, and if the follow-up was at least 2 days. Efficacy data were expressed as risk differences (RDs) and number needed to treat (NNT), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirty-five trials tested respiratory physiotherapy treatments. Of 13 trials with a "no intervention" control group, 9 studies (n = 883) did not report on significant differences, and 4 studies (n = 528) did: in 1 study, the incidence of pneumonia was decreased from 37.3 to 13.7% with deep breathing, directed cough, and postural drainage (RD, 23.6%; 95% CI, 7 to 40%; NNT, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.5 to 14); in 1 study, the incidence of atelectasis was decreased from 39 to 15% with deep breathing and directed cough (RD, 24%; 95% CI, 5 to 43%; NNT, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.4 to 18); in 1 study, the incidence of atelectasis was decreased from 77 to 59% with deep breathing, directed cough, and postural drainage (RD, 18%; 95% CI, 5 to 31%; NNT, 5.6; 95% CI, 3.3 to 19); in 1 study, the incidence of unspecified pulmonary complications was decreased from 47.7% to 21.4 to 22.2% with intermittent positive pressure breathing, or incentive spirometry, or deep breathing with directed cough (RD, 25.5 to 26.3%; NNT, 3.8 to 3.9). Twenty-two trials (n = 2,734) compared physiotherapy treatments without no intervention control subjects; no conclusions could be drawn. There are only a few trials that support the usefulness of prophylactic respiratory physiotherapy. The routine use of respiratory physiotherapy after abdominal surgery does not seem to be justified.

  6. Respiratory viral infections in children with asthma: do they matter and can we prevent them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahanchian Hamid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a major public health problem with a huge social and economic burden affecting 300 million people worldwide. Viral respiratory infections are the major cause of acute asthma exacerbations and may contribute to asthma inception in high risk young children with susceptible genetic background. Acute exacerbations are associated with decreased lung growth or accelerated loss of lung function and, as such, add substantially to both the cost and morbidity associated with asthma. Discussion While the importance of preventing viral infection is well established, preventive strategies have not been well explored. Good personal hygiene, hand-washing and avoidance of cigarette smoke are likely to reduce respiratory viral infections. Eating a healthy balanced diet, active probiotic supplements and bacterial-derived products, such as OM-85, may reduce recurrent infections in susceptible children. There are no practical anti-viral therapies currently available that are suitable for widespread use. Summary Hand hygiene is the best measure to prevent the common cold. A healthy balanced diet, active probiotic supplements and immunostimulant OM-85 may reduce recurrent infections in asthmatic children.

  7. Respiratory health effects related to occupational spray painting and welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, S Katharine; Gold, Ellen; Baker, Robin; Quinlan, Patricia; Smith, William; Pandya, Robert; Balmes, John

    2005-07-01

    We sought to study respiratory symptoms among automobile assembly workers. In a cross-sectional study, we compared rates of respiratory symptoms and of physician-diagnosed asthma and COPD in painters and welders to those in assembly workers. Respiratory symptom reporting was significantly increased among welders (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79-2.61) compared with painters or assembly workers, after age, race, and smoking adjustment in multiple logistic regression analyses. Welders also reported significantly more improvement in symptoms on weekends or vacation. However, no significant elevations in adjusted ORs were observed for physician-diagnosed asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for welders. In contrast, significantly more painters had physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 3.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.27, 11.0). Welders and painters in this plant appeared to have increased risk of respiratory health effects compared with assembly workers.

  8. Vitamin C to Decrease the Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function (VCSIP): Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of effects of in utero tobacco smoke exposure on infant lung function and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Cindy T; Milner, Kristin F; Scherman, Ashley J; Schilling, Diane G; Tiller, Christina J; Vuylsteke, Brittany; Shorey-Kendrick, Lyndsey E; Spindel, Eliot R; Schuff, Robert; Mitchell, Julie; Peters, Dawn; Metz, Jill; Haas, David; Jackson, Keith; Tepper, Robert S; Morris, Cynthia D

    2017-07-01

    Despite strong anti-smoking efforts, at least 12% of American women cannot quit smoking when pregnant resulting in >450,000 smoke-exposed infants born yearly. Smoking during pregnancy is the largest preventable cause of childhood respiratory illness including wheezing and asthma. Recent studies have shown a protective effect of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function of offspring exposed to in utero smoke in a non-human primate model and an initial human trial. Vitamin C to Decrease the Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function (VCSIP) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate pulmonary function at 3months of age in infants delivered to pregnant smokers randomized to 500mg/day of vitamin C versus placebo during pregnancy. Secondary aims evaluate the incidence of wheezing through 12months and pulmonary function testing at 12months of age. Women are randomized between 13 and 23weeks gestation from clinical sites in Portland, Oregon at Oregon Health & Science University and PeaceHealth Southwest Medical Center and in Indianapolis, Indiana at Indiana University and Wishard Hospital. Vitamin C supplementation occurs from randomization to delivery. Monthly contact with participants and monitoring of medical records is performed to document medication adherence, changes in smoking and medical history, and adverse events. Pulmonary function testing of offspring occurs at 3 and 12months of age and incidence of wheezing and respiratory illness through 12months is captured via at least quarterly questionnaires. Ancillary studies are investigating the impact of vitamin C on placental blood flow and DNA methylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of Oral Administration of Sodium Iodide to Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemake, B M; Vander Ley, B L; Newcomer, B W; Heller, M C

    2018-01-01

    The prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) in beef cattle is important to maintaining health and productivity of calves in feeding operations. Determine whether BRD bacterial and viral pathogens are susceptible to the lactoperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/iodide (LPO/H 2 O 2 /I - ) system in vitro and to determine whether the oral administration of sodium iodide (NaI) could achieve sufficient concentrations of iodine (I) in the respiratory secretions of weaned beef calves to inactivate these pathogens in vivo. Sixteen weaned, apparently healthy, commercial beef calves from the University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine teaching herd. In vitro viral and bacterial assays were performed to determine susceptibility to the LPO/H 2 O 2 /I - system at varying concentrations of NaI. Sixteen randomly selected, healthy crossbred beef weanlings were administered 70 mg/kg NaI, or water, orally in a blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Blood and nasal secretions were collected for 72 hours and analyzed for I - concentration. Bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi were all inactivated or inhibited in vitro by the LPO/H 2 O 2 /I - reaction. Oral administration of NaI caused a marked increase in nasal fluid I concentration with a C max  = 181 (1,420 μM I), T 12 , a sufficient concentration to inactivate these pathogens in vitro. In vitro, the LPO/H 2 O 2 /I - system inactivates and inhibits common pathogens associated with BRD. The administration of oral NaI significantly increases the I concentration of nasal fluid indicating that this system might be useful in preventing bovine respiratory infections. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: clinical recognition and preventive management in chiropractic acute care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtz, T A

    2001-09-01

    To present clinical information relevant to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its appearance in chiropractic acute care practice. The National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database was used, along with the bibliographies of selected articles and textbooks commonly found in chiropractic college libraries and bookstores. Clinical studies from the English literature were selected if they pertained to incidence, clinical relevancy, or the association of ARDS with commonly-seen diagnoses in chiropractic neuromusculoskeletal or orthopedic practice. All relevant studies identified by the search were evaluated based on information pertinent to chiropractic management of acute care patients. ARDS is a pulmonary distress syndrome with a high mortality rate. Recognizable indications for the possible development of ARDS include chest pain, head injury, and thoracic spine pain with or without trauma. Clinical evaluation, radiographic findings, and laboratory findings are presented to assist practitioners in identifying this disease process of multiple etiology. A study of the basic pathophysiologic processes that occur in the formation of ARDS is presented to help practitioners gain clinical appreciation. Strategies for preventing respiratory distress in chiropractic patients are also presented and include use of the postural position and the clinical maxim of "slow, deep breathing despite pain" to lessen incident rates of subjects at risk. Although ARDS may not be prevalent in chiropractic practice, it is important for physicians to be aware of the clinical basics (including its pathophysiology), its medical significance, and the preventive strategies that may be used to minimize its occurrence. This basic understanding will further advance knowledge of this disease complex.

  11. Effects of Respiratory Muscle Strength Training in Classically Trained Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christin; Trudeau, Michael D; McCoy, Scott

    2017-09-25

    Many voice pedagogy practices revolve around the notion of controlling airflow and lung volumes and focus heavily on the concepts of breath support and breath control. Despite this emphasis, the effects of increased respiratory muscle strength on airflow and phonation patterns in trained singers remain unknown. This study addressed whether singers could increase respiratory muscle strength with progressive threshold training and whether respiratory muscle strength increases had measurable effect on voice outcomes. A single-subject design was used to answer the research questions. Improved breath support was hypothesized to manifest in differences in airflow and phonetogram characteristics. Six graduate-level singing students were recruited to complete the protocol, which consisted of a baseline phase followed by either inspiratory muscle strength training followed by expiratory muscle strength training or vice versa. Results showed that these singers had increased respiratory muscle strength after completing the training program. Consistent changes in measures of aerodynamics and voice were not present among subjects, although some individual changes were noted. Future research may focus on the effects of respiratory muscle strength training in less advanced singers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel de; FREITAS, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; ALMEIDA, Andréa Adriana de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. Aim: To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. Method: A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were ...

  13. Can the Pelargonium sidoides root extract EPs® 7630 prevent asthma attacks during viral infections of the upper respiratory tract in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Fulya; Yaman, Melih

    2013-01-15

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation. Viral infection initiates an immune inflammatory response that may produce asthma attacks. There is no effective preventing therapy for asthma attack during upper respiratory tract viral infections. To investigate the efficacy of 5 days of Pelargonium sidoides therapy for preventing asthma attack during upper respiratory tract viral infections. Sixty one asthmatic children with upper respiratory tract viral infection were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized to receive Pelargonium sidoides daily for 5 days (n=30) or not (n=31). Before and after treatment, they all were examined and symptom scores were determined. Following five days treatment, children were evaluated whether or not they had an asthma attack. Treatment with Pelargonium sidoides was not associated with a statistically significant differences in fever and muscle aches (p>0.05, Chi-square test). There were significant differences in cough frequency and nasal congestion between the groups (pasthma attack between the groups (pasthma attack. Our study shows that Pelargonium sidoides may prevent asthma attacks during upper respiratory tract viral infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFICACY OF THE COSTS ON SEVERE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL INFECTION PREVENTION WITH PALIVIZUMAB IN PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus plays a significant role in etiology of respiratory infections in infants, and preterm children have muchhigher risk of severe course of the disease, than common population of children at the age less than 2 years old. Palivizumab is usedefficiently to prevent this infection. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the costs on palivizumab in preterm childrenin the Russian Federation. The assessment was based on meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. According to the World Health organization recommendations, the acceptable value of the variable «costs/efficacy» must not be higher than threefold of the gross domestic product per person. On the assumption of this fact, the coefficient «costs/efficacy» for the Russian Federation according to the 2011 year results must not be higher than 1140 thousand rubles per 1 extra year of life. Analysis from the position of health care system shows, that coefficient «costs/efficacy» with palivazumab usage in children with gestation age from 28 to 32 weeks rangesfrom 594,4 to 1030,4 thousand roubles per 1 extra year of life when starting the prophylaxis during first 6 month of life. Under the social perspective of the study (accounting for direct and indirect costs the coefficient «costs/efficacy» decreases to 515,8–951,8 thousands roubles per 1 extra year of life. Thereby, nowadays the prophylaxis of severe respiratory cyncytial infection with palivazumab is acceptable according to the economical point of view in preterm children with the gestation age 32 weeks and less when starting during first 6 months of life.

  15. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects in experimental group I that respiratory exercise of diaphragm and 15 subjects in experimental group II that feedback respiratory exercise were randomly selected among COPD patients to find the effective intervention method for COPD patients. And intervention program was conducted for 5 weeks, three times a week, once a day and 30 minutes a session. They were measured with BODE index using respiratory muscle activity, pulmonary function, the six-minute walking test, dyspnea criteria and BMI Then the results obtained were compared and analyzed. [Results] There was a significant difference in sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalene muscle and in 6-minute walk and BODE index for body function. Thus the group performing feedback respiratory had more effective results for mild COPD patients. [Conclusion] Therefore, the improvement was significant regarding the activity of respiratory muscles synergists when breathing before doing breathing exercise. Although, it is valuable to reduce too much mobilization of respiratory muscles synergists through the proper intervention it is necessary to study body function regarding improvement of respiratory function for patients with COPD.

  16. Toxic effect of naphta exposure on respiratory system among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in a tyre manufacturing industry in Malaysia to determine the effects of naphtha exposure on lung functions and respiratory symptoms. Sixty male workers exposed to naphtha and 42 unexposed workers were selected for this study. Personal air monitoring carried out using ...

  17. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, M.H.; Bulow, J.; Simonsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...

  18. Toxic effect of naphta exposure on respiratory system among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    The animal tests showed that exposure to these organic solvents can cause serious problem to the respiratory system. (Cakmak et al., 2004).There are several organic solvents that can cause the effects and one of .... The measurements were classified according to the standard percentage as carried out by (Miller et al., ...

  19. Effect of tangeretin on ovalbumin-provoked allergic respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tangeretin on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic respiratory asthma in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50 μg OVA dissolved in water and 1 mg of aluminium hydroxide (alum) on the first day, and on day 12. On days 22, 26 and 30, the mice were ...

  20. Effectiveness of respiratory rates in determining clinical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Rikke Rishøj; Larsen, Palle; Håkonsen, Sasa Jul

    2016-01-01

    Review question/objective: The objective of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of manually measuring respiratory rates for 60 s or less in detecting clinical deterioration of inpatients. More specifically, the review...

  1. Effect of tangeretin on ovalbumin-provoked allergic respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tangeretin on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic respiratory asthma in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50 μg OVA dissolved in water and 1 mg of aluminium hydroxide (alum) on the first day, and on day 12. On days 22, 26 and 30, the mice were.

  2. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  3. How to approach the acute respiratory distress syndrome: Prevention, plan, and prudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Younsuck

    2017-05-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is typically manifested by refractory hypoxemia with high mortality. A correct diagnosis is the first step to achieve better outcomes. An early intervention to manage modifiable risk factors of ARDS development and the avoidance of aggravating factors that increase disease severity and progression should be carefully addressed. A management plan is necessary at an early stage of ARDS to determine the level of intensive care. It should be carefully decided which therapeutic measures should be performed depending on the patient׳s underlying clinical condition. The clinician׳s considerate prudence is required in decisions of when to apply intensive measures for an ARDS treatment. Mechanical ventilator support should be carefully used depending on the patient׳s severity and pathological phase. Decreasing inappropriate alveolar strain through a low tidal volume under optimal positive end-expiratory pressure is key for ventilator support in ARDS. The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applied in the experienced centers seems to improve the survival of patients with severe ARDS. A constellation of physical and psychological problems can develop or persist for up to 5 years in patients with ARDS. Therefore, an early mobilization with rehabilitation, even during an intensive care unit stay, should be seriously considered whenever feasible. Lastly, prevention of aspiration, stress ulcers, deep vein thrombosis, catheter-related infection, overhydration, and heavy sedation is essential to achieve better outcomes in ARDS. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [PREVENTION OF VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED INFECTION IN NEONATES WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, P I; Rudnov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to reduce the risk ventilator-associated infections (VAI) in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. retrospective, observational, single center, historical control. 113 newborns were included in the study. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed based on the criteria of VAP CDC/NNIS. Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis was determined on the basis of criteria of Code LRI-BRON proposed CDC National Healthcare Safety Network. Patients divided into two groups. In the main group (n=54) hand hygiene, closed suction system and non-invasive mechanical ventilation were used as a methods of prevention of ventilator-associated infection (IAI). In comparison group (n = 59) hand hygiene only. The frequency of VAI was 27.5 per 1000 days of ventilation. Timing of development and the etiology of VAI were comparable in both groups of patients the duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly (p = 0.01) lower in the main group. In the main group length of stay in the intensive care unit (p = 0.01) and duration of hospital treatment (p = 0.047) decreased The incidence of VAI was significantly lower in the main group (p respiratory tract infection associated with mechanical ventilation in neonates with respiratorv distress syndrome.

  5. Neonatal treatment with recombinant ectodysplasin prevents respiratory disease in dogs with X-linked ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Gaide, Olivier; Schneider, Pascal; Casal, Margret L

    2009-09-01

    Patients with defective ectodysplasin A (EDA) have X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED; OMIM#305100), a condition comprising hypotrichosis, inability to sweat, abnormal teeth, and frequent pulmonary infections. The XLHED dogs show the same clinical signs as humans with the disorder, including frequent respiratory infections that can be fatal. The respiratory disease in humans and dogs is thought to be due to the absence of tracheal and bronchial glands which are a vital part of the mucociliary clearance mechanism. In our XLHED model, the genetically missing EDA was replaced by postnatal intravenous administration of recombinant EDA resulting in long-term, durable corrective effect on adult, permanent dentition. After treatment with EDA, significant correction of the missing tracheal and bronchial glands was achieved in those dogs that received higher doses of EDA. Moreover, successful treatment resulted in the presence of esophageal glands, improved mucociliary clearance, and the absence of respiratory infection. These results demonstrate that a short-term treatment at a neonatal age with a recombinant protein can reverse a developmental disease and result in vastly improved quality of life. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of buprenorphine in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafford, Heidi L; Schadt, James C

    2008-07-01

    To quantify the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of intravenous or subcutaneous buprenorphine in conscious rabbits. Prospective experimental trial. Eight healthy, young adult New Zealand white rabbits (four female). Rabbits were instrumented with intraabdominal arterial and venous catheters and diaphragmatic electromyographic electrodes 2 weeks before experiments. Arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gases, heart rate and respiratory rate were monitored during experiments. Buprenorphine (0.06 mg) was administered either intravenously or subcutaneously to conscious rabbits. Respiratory and cardiovascular parameters were compared to baseline at 10 and 22 minutes after intravenous buprenorphine administration, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. Buprenorphine administration, at a dose of approximately 0.02 mg kg(-1), did not change blood pressure or heart rate. However, respiratory rate decreased from 252 +/- 26 to 39 +/- 26 breaths minute(-1) (mean +/- SD), and from 306 +/- 38 to 90 +/- 38 breaths minute(-1) following intravenous and subcutaneous administration of buprenorphine, respectively. Subsequent to intravenous and subcutaneous buprenorphine, arterial oxygen tension decreased from 88 +/- 4 to 72 +/- 4 mmHg (11.7 +/- 0.5 to 9.6 +/- 0.5 kPa) and from 87 +/- 3 to 77 +/- 3 mmHg (11.6 +/- 0.4 to 10.3 +/- 0.4 kPa), respectively. Buprenorphine, by either route of administration, increased arterial carbon dioxide tension from 36 to 41 mmHg (4.8-5.5 kPa) and increased the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient from 15 to > or =20 mmHg (2 to > or =2.7 kPa). Buprenorphine administration decreased respiratory rate and produced mild hypoxemia in conscious rabbits. While these changes were well tolerated by healthy animals, caution should be exercised when administering buprenorphine to rabbits predisposed to respiratory depression.

  7. Remediating buildings damaged by dampness and mould for preventing or reducing respiratory tract symptoms, infections and asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauni, Riitta; Uitti, Jukka; Jauhiainen, Merja; Kreiss, Kathleen; Sigsgaard, Torben; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2011-01-01

    Dampness and mould in buildings have been associated with adverse respiratory symptoms, asthma and respiratory infections of inhabitants. Moisture damage is a very common problem in private houses, workplaces and public buildings such as schools. To determine the effectiveness of remediating

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Meditation and Exercise for the Prevention of Acute Respiratory Infection: Possible Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zgierska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A randomized trial suggests that meditation and exercise may prevent acute respiratory infection (ARI. This paper explores potential mediating mechanisms. Methods. Community-recruited adults were randomly assigned to three nonblinded arms: 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (N=51, moderate-intensity exercise (N=51, or wait-list control (N=52. Primary outcomes were ARI illness burden (validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Potential mediators included self-reported psychophysical health and exercise intensity (baseline, 9 weeks, and 3 months. A Baron and Kenny approach-based mediational analysis model, adjusted for group status, age, and gender, evaluated the relationship between the primary outcome and a potential mediator using zero-inflated modeling and Sobel testing. Results. Of 154 randomized, 149 completed the trial (51, 47, and 51 in meditation, exercise, and control groups and were analyzed (82% female, 94% Caucasian, 59.3 ± SD 6.6 years old. Mediational analyses suggested that improved mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale at 3 months may mediate intervention effects on ARI severity and duration (P<0.05; 1 point increase in the mindfulness score corresponded to a shortened ARI duration by 7.2–9.6 hours. Conclusions. Meditation and exercise may decrease the ARI illness burden through increased mindfulness. These preliminary findings need confirmation, if confirmed, they would have important policy and clinical implications. This trial registration was Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01057771.

  9. Ambroxol for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Garay, Alejandro G; Reveiz, Ludovic; Velasco Hidalgo, Liliana; Solis Galicia, Cecilia

    2014-10-31

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant (an active agent that keeps pulmonary alveoli open and facilitates the entry of air to the lungs, thus improving the oxygenation of the newborn).A number of interventions such as pulmonary surfactant and prenatal corticosteroids are used to prevent RDS. Ambroxol has been studied as a potential agent to prevent RDS, but effectiveness and safety has yet to be evaluated. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of giving ambroxol to pregnant women who are at risk of preterm birth, for preventing neonatal RDS. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (29 November 2013), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 11),Embase (1988 to November 2013), MEDLINE (PubMed 1970 to November 2013), LILACS (1982 to November 2013), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (November 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the administration of ambroxol given to pregnant women at risk of preterm birth versus placebo, antenatal corticosteroids (betamethasone or dexamethasone), or no treatment.We did not identify any trials comparing ambroxol with dexamethasone (corticosteroid) in this review. Nor did we identify any trials comparing ambroxol combined with corticosteroid versus corticosteroid alone, or placebo/no treatment. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and trial quality. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included 14 studies (in 18 trial reports), involving 1047 pregnant women at risk of preterm birth with 1077 newborns. However, three of the included studies did not report on this review's outcomes of interest. We carried out two main comparisons: ambroxol versus antenatal corticosteroids (betamethasone); and ambroxol versus placebo or no treatment. Seven RCTs provided data for our comparison of ambroxol versus

  10. Implementing systems thinking for infection prevention: The cessation of repeated scabies outbreaks in a respiratory care ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Sheuwen; Howley, Peter P; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) is often adopted to complement epidemiologic investigation for outbreaks and infection-related adverse events in hospitals; however, RCA has been argued to have limited effectiveness in preventing such events. We describe how an innovative systems analysis approach halted repeated scabies outbreaks, and highlight the importance of systems thinking for outbreaks analysis and sustaining effective infection prevention and control. Following RCA for a third successive outbreak of scabies over a 17-month period in a 60-bed respiratory care ward of a Taiwan hospital, a systems-oriented event analysis (SOEA) model was used to reanalyze the outbreak. Both approaches and the recommendations were compared. No nosocomial scabies have been reported for more than 1975 days since implementation of the SOEA. Previous intervals between seeming eradication and repeat outbreaks following RCA were 270 days and 180 days. Achieving a sustainable positive resolution relied on applying systems thinking and the holistic analysis of the system, not merely looking for root causes of events. To improve the effectiveness of outbreaks analysis and infection control, an emphasis on systems thinking is critical, along with a practical approach to ensure its effective implementation. The SOEA model provides the necessary framework and is a viable complementary approach, or alternative, to RCA. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. POSSIBILITY TO APPLY LIPOSOMAL ALPHA-2B INTERFERON FOR THE PREVENTION OF FLU AND OTHER ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Erofeeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within recent years, a special attention has been paid to the nonspecific prevention of the acute respiratory disease related to the increase of the activity of the natural mechanisms for antiviral protection. The application of the liposomal forms of the different medications contributes to the directed transportation of the biodegraded protein substances. A special interest is aroused by the opportunity to orally apply protein medications, as their injection forms quickly degrade in the stomach. New Russian liposomal recombinant alphac2b interferon has antiviral, immuno-modulating and interferonogenic activity. The work demonstrates experience of the oral application form of the liposomal medication of recombinant alphac2b interferon — reaferoncesclipint for the extra prevention of flu and other acute respiratory infections among children. The application of this medication to prevent flu and acute respiratory infections in the dose of 250,000 Ме twice a week for the 4 weeks' period proved to be efficient within the group of the preschool children (aged between 7–10 years old and manifested itself in the reduction of the flu and acute respiratory infections recurrence.Key words: flu, prevention, efficiency index, interferon.

  12. Immune effects of respiratory exposure to fragrance chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Ezendam J; Klerk A de; Cassee FR; Fokkens PHB; Park MVDZ; Loveren H van; Jong WH de; GBO

    2007-01-01

    Inhalation of the fragrance chemicals, isoeugenol and cinnamal, by mice resulted in immune reactions in the respiratory tract. This was observed in experiments performed by the RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Enviroment) of which results indicate that inhalation of some fragrance chemicals could induce unwanted effects on the immune system. Fragrance chemicals are common ingredients in such consumer products as cosmetics and scented products. Several fragrance chemicals are...

  13. Studies on the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome of infants due to hyaline membrane disease with plasminogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, C M; Choi, T S; Weintraub, D H; Eisenberg, B; Staub, H P; Courey, N G; Foote, R J; Goplerud, D; Moesch, R V; Ray, M; Bross, I D; Jung, O S; Mink, I B; Ambrus, J L

    1975-07-01

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) is leading single cause of death of newborn, premature infants. The "hyaline membranes" consist chiefly of fibrin. The clinical manifestation of HMD is the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Infants with RDS were treated with urokinase-activated human plasmin in a previous clinical trial. Survival rate was increased in the plasmin treated group as compared to the placebo recipients. However, cost and difficulty in the preparation of the enzyme made this treatment impractical. We, as well as others, have shown the premature infants lack serum plasminogen; thus they are unable to develop effective fibrinolysis and are defenseless against pulmonary fibrin deposition. Therefore, plamsinogen was tested as a possible preventive agent in RDS due to HMD. In a double blind, randomized study, infants between 1 and 2.5 kg birth weight received plasminogen or placebo shortly after birth, and were then followed for development of RDS. After 100 infants were entered into the study, the code was broken and results were evaluated to assure safety of the procedure. Among the 100 infants, 51 received placebo, 49 received plasminogen. Among the infants who received placebo, seven developed mild, and ten developed severe respiratory distress; of these ten, five died with histopathologically documented HMD. Two infants died from causes other than HMD. Among the 49 infants treated with plasminogen, 13 developed mild and three developed severe respiratory distress. There was no death due to HMD. Two deaths were due to other causes. Factors placing the infant at risk from HMD (degree of prematurity, sex, cesarean section, bleeding episodes during pregnancy, maternal diabetes) were found to be evenly distributed between control and treated groups. Since completing the first phase of the study, data of an additional 277 infants has become available. Although the code was not broken in this series, a preliminary look at mortality data in comparison with

  14. The effects of carbon monoxide on respiratory chemoreflexes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, A.E.; Somogyi, R.B.; Sasano, Hiroshi; Sasano, Nobuko; Fisher, J.A.; Duffin, James

    2004-01-01

    As protection against low-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide environments, the respiratory chemoreceptors reflexly increase breathing. Since CO is also frequently present in such environments, it is important to know whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflexes responsiveness. Although the peripheral chemoreceptors fail to detect hypoxia produced by CO poisoning, whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide is unknown. The responsiveness of 10 healthy male volunteers were assessed before and after inhalation of ∼1200 ppm CO in air using two iso-oxic rebreathing tests; hypoxic, to emphasize the peripheral chemoreflex, and hyperoxic, to emphasize the central chemoreflex. Although mean (SEM) COHb values of 10.2 (0.2)% were achieved, no statistically significant effects of CO were observed. The average differences between pre- and post-CO values for ventilation response threshold and sensitivity were -0.5 (0.9) mmHg and 0.8 (0.3) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hyperoxia, and 0.7 (1.1) mmHg and 1.2 (0.8) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hypoxia. The 95% confidence intervals for the effect of CO were small. We conclude that environments with low levels of CO do not have a clinically significant effect acutely on either the central or the peripheral chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide

  15. Strategies for the management and prevention of conformation-related respiratory disorders in brachycephalic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer RMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rowena MA Packer,1 Michael S Tivers2 1Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, 2School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Abstract: Brachycephalic (short-muzzled dogs are increasingly popular pets worldwide, with marked increases in registrations of breeds such as the Pug and French Bulldog over the past decade in the UK. Despite their popularity, many brachycephalic breeds are affected by an early-onset, lifelong respiratory disorder, brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS. This disorder arises due to a mismatch in the proportions of the skull and the soft tissues held within the nose and pharynx, resulting in obstruction of the airway during respiration. Increased airway resistance encourages secondary changes such as eversion of the laryngeal saccules and collapse of the larynx. Clinical signs of BOAS are often early onset and chronic, including dyspnea, exercise intolerance, heat intolerance, and abnormal and increased respiratory noise. Episodes of severe dyspnea can also occur, leading to cyanosis, syncope, and death. BOAS may have a severe impact upon the welfare of affected dogs, compromising their ability to exercise, play, eat, and sleep. Although a well-described condition, with surgical treatments for the palliation of this disorder published since the 1920s, many dogs still experience airway restrictions postsurgically and a compromised quality of life. In addition, the prevalence of this disorder does not appear to have substantially reduced in this time, and may have increased. Ultimately, strategies to improve the breeding of these dogs to prevent BOAS are required to improve brachycephalic health and welfare. Recent studies have revealed conformational risk factors associated with BOAS, such as short muzzles and thick necks, which should be discouraged to avoid perpetuating this serious disorder. Positive changes to brachycephalic

  16. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terunuma, Niina; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Kitamura, Hiroko; Hata, Koichi; Ide, Reiko; Kuga, Hiroaki; Kakiuchi, Noriaki; Masuda, Masashi; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Osato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo; Kitahara, Kayo; Iwasaki, Akio; Yoshizumi, Koji; Morimoto, Yasuo; Kasai, Hiroshi; Murase, Tadashi; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2009-06-01

    In this baseline study, part of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system, we surveyed 803 male toner workers and 802 referents with regard to their subjective respiratory symptoms and chest X-ray results. We also examined individual exposure history, current working conditions, and personal exposure levels to toner. There was a significantly higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" related complaints among toner-exposed workers in the 30 and 40-year age groups. The group with toner-exposure history showed a higher odds ratio, by logistic regression, in relation to all questions regarding coughing. Mild fibrotic changes were observed in the chest X-rays of four workers who had engaged in toner-exposure work for at least a decade or more, and all four had reported allergic disease. Although we observed a tendency of higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" in toner-exposed workers, the possibility of information bias cannot be eliminated. It should also be noted that this tendency did not exceed that of the general public. Further analysis is required in this ongoing 10-year cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system.

  17. Respiratory and sedative effects of clobazam and clonazepam in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildin, J D; Pleuvry, B J; Mawer, G E; Onon, T; Millington, L

    1990-01-01

    1. The respiratory and psychomotor effects of two benzodiazepines used mainly as anticonvulsants were compared in healthy volunteers, using a double-blind placebo controlled design. 2. Clobazam (10 and 20 mg) produced significantly fewer psychomotor side effects than clonazepam (0.5 and 1 mg). Neither drug at either dose affected the ventilatory response to CO2. 3. Although clonazepam produced significant effects on psychomotor performance, these did not correlate with plasma drug concentration. 4. Our studies provide further evidence that at the doses chosen clobazam is considerably less sedating than clonazepam. Further investigation is required into the tolerance profile of both drugs in patients. PMID:2106335

  18. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and postbronchiolitic wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimpen Jan LL

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the primary cause of hospitalization for acute respiratory tract illness in general and specifically for bronchiolitis in young children. The link between RSV bronchiolitis and reactive airway disease is not completely understood, even though RSV bronchiolitis is frequently followed by recurrent episodes of wheezing. Therapy with ribavirin does not appear to significantly reduce long-term respiratory outcome of RSV lower respiratory tract infection, and corticosteroid or bronchodilator therapy may possibly improve outcomes only on a short-term basis. No vaccine against RSV is yet available. It is not known whether prophylaxis with RSV intravenous immune globulin or palivizumab can reduce postbronchiolitic wheezing.

  20. Respiratory and Systemic Effects of LASSBio596 Plus Surfactant in Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Dutra Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Exogenous surfactant has been proposed as adjunctive therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but it is inactivated by different factors present in the alveolar space. We hypothesized that co-administration of LASSBio596, a molecule with significant anti-inflammatory properties, and exogenous surfactant could reduce lung inflammation, thus enabling the surfactant to reduce edema and improve lung function, in experimental ARDS. Methods: ARDS was induced by cecal ligation and puncture surgery in BALB/c mice. A sham-operated group was used as control (CTRL. After surgery (6 hours, CTRL and ARDS animals were assigned to receive: (1 sterile saline solution; (2 LASSBio596; (3 exogenous surfactant or (4 LASSBio596 plus exogenous surfactant (n = 22/group. Results: Regardless of exogenous surfactant administration, LASSBio596 improved survival rate and reduced collagen fiber content, total number of cells and neutrophils in PLF and blood, cell apoptosis, protein content in BALF, and urea and creatinine levels. LASSBio596 plus surfactant yielded all of the aforementioned beneficial effects, as well as increased BALF lipid content and reduced surface tension. Conclusion: LASSBio596 exhibited major anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects in experimental sepsis-induced ARDS. Its association with surfactant may provide further advantages, potentially by reducing surface tension.

  1. Respiratory syncytial viral infections in young children : risk assessment and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rietveld (Edwin)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRespiratory syncytial virus is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Although almost all children are infected before the age of two years, less than 2% develop severe disease necessitating hospitalisation. Risk factors for severe RSV

  2. Past, Present and Future Approaches to the Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Eric A F; Bont, Louis; Manzoni, Paolo; Fauroux, Brigitte; Paes, Bosco; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Checchia, Paul A; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    The REGAL (RSV Evidence - A Geographical Archive of the Literature) series has provided a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This seventh and final publication covers the past, present and future approaches to the prevention and treatment of RSV infection among infants and children. A systematic review was undertaken of publications between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2017 across PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library. Studies reporting data on the effectiveness and tolerability of prophylactic and therapeutic agents for RSV infection were included. Study quality and strength of evidence (SOE) were graded using recognized criteria. A further nonsystematic search of the published literature and Clinicaltrials.gov on antiviral therapies and RSV vaccines currently in development was also undertaken. The systematic review identified 1441 studies of which 161 were included. Management of RSV remains centered around prophylaxis with the monoclonal antibody palivizumab, which has proven effective in reducing RSV hospitalization (RSVH) in preterm infants half-life are currently entering phase 3 trials. There are approximately 15 RSV vaccines in clinical development targeting the infant directly or indirectly via the mother. Palivizumab remains the only product licensed for RSV prophylaxis, and only available for high-risk infants. For the general population, there are several promising vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in various stages of clinical development, with the aim to significantly reduce the global healthcare impact of this common viral infection. AbbVie.

  3. Acoustic, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic effects of vocal training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana Paula De Brito Garcia

    The longitudinal effects of vocal training on the respiratory, phonatory and articulatory systems were investigated in this study. During four semesters, fourteen voice major students were recorded while speaking and singing. Acoustic, temporal, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic parameters were measured to determine changes in the three systems as a function of vocal training. Acoustic measures of the speaking voice included fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), percent jitter and shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included duration of sentences, diphthongs and the closure durations of stop consonants. Acoustic measures of the singing voice included fundamental frequency and sound pressure level of the phonational range, vibrato pulses per second, vibrato amplitude variation and the presence of the singer's formant. Analysis of the data revealed that vocal training had a significant effect on the singing voice. Fundamental frequency and SPL of the 90% level and 90--10% of the phonational range increased significantly during four semesters of vocal training. Physiological data was collected from four subjects during three semesters of vocal training. Respiratory kinematic measures included lung volume, rib cage and abdominal excursions extracted from spoken sung samples. Descriptive statistics revealed that rib cage and abdominal excursions increased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and decrease from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Electromyographic measures of the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and external obliques muscles revealed that burst duration means decreased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and increased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester. Peak amplitude means increased from the 1st to the 2nd and decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Chest wall excursions and muscle force generation of the three muscles increased as the demanding level and the length of the phonatory

  4. Genetic variation as a predictor of smoking cessation success. A promising preventive and intervention tool for chronic respiratory diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, M; van Schayck, C P; Knaapen, A M; van Schooten, F J

    2009-03-01

    Tobacco smoking continues to be the largest preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality throughout the world, including chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most smokers are highly motivated to quit and many smoking cessation therapies are available, cessation rates remain very low. Recent research strongly suggests that variation in genetic background is an important determinant of smoking behaviour and addiction. Since these genetic variants might also influence the response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, it is likely that assessment of genetic background could be a promising tool to guide selection of the most effective cessation treatment for an individual smoker. Recently, it has been shown that genetic variants in the dopaminergic system, opioid receptors, the bupropion-metabolising enzyme CYP2B6 and the nicotine-metabolising enzyme CYP2A6 may play an important role in predicting smoking cessation responses to nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion treatment. Despite the progress that has been made, several challenges will still have to be overcome before genetically tailored smoking cessation therapy can be implemented in standard clinical practice.

  5. Neonatal Treatment with Recombinant Ectodysplasin Prevents Respiratory Disease in Dogs with X-Linked Ectodermal Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Gaide, Olivier; Schneider, Pascal; Casal, Margret L.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with defective ectodysplasin A (EDA) have X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED; OMIM#305100), a condition comprising hypotrichosis, inability to sweat, abnormal teeth, and frequent pulmonary infections. The XLHED dogs show the same clinical signs as humans with the disorder, including frequent respiratory infections that can be fatal. The respiratory disease in humans and dogs is thought to be due to the absence of tracheal and bronchial glands which are a vital part of ...

  6. Mycobacterium abscessus glycopeptidolipid prevents respiratory epithelial TLR2 signaling as measured by HβD2 gene expression and IL-8 release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B Davidson

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as an important cause of lung infection, particularly in patients with bronchiectasis. Innate immune responses must be highly effective at preventing infection with M. abscessus because it is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte and normal hosts are not commonly infected. M. abscessus exists as either a glycopeptidolipid (GPL expressing variant (smooth phenotype in which GPL masks underlying bioactive cell wall lipids, or as a variant lacking GPL which is immunostimulatory and invasive in macrophage infection models. Respiratory epithelium has been increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the innate immune response to pulmonary pathogens. Respiratory epithelial cells express toll-like receptors (TLRs which mediate the innate immune response to pulmonary pathogens. Both interleukin-8 (IL-8 and human β-defensin 2 (HβD2 are expressed by respiratory epithelial cells in response to toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 receptor stimulation. In this study, we demonstrate that respiratory epithelial cells respond to M. abscessus variants lacking GPL with expression of IL-8 and HβD2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this interaction is mediated through TLR2. Conversely, M. abscessus expressing GPL does not stimulate expression of IL-8 or HβD2 by respiratory epithelial cells which is consistent with "masking" of underlying bioactive cell wall lipids by GPL. Because GPL-expressing smooth variants are the predominant phenotype existing in the environment, this provides an explanation whereby initial M. abscessus colonization of abnormal lung airways escapes detection by the innate immune system.

  7. Effect of respiratory trace shape on optimal treatment margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Brian; Wagar, Matthew; Ebe, Kazuyu; Popple, Richard; Lingos, Tania; Sher, David; Court, Laurence

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of target trajectory shape on the optimal treatment margin. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were created for three spherical targets (3, 5, and 7 cm diameter) simulated in exhalation phases, each with margins of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mm to account for motion. The plans were delivered to a stationary 2D ion chamber array, and dose movies were obtained of the delivered doses. The dose movie frames were then displaced to simulate different respiratory traces. Five traces were used: sin2, sin4 sin6, and two patient traces. The optimal margin was defined as the margin for which the dose delivered to 95% of the target was closest to that obtained with no margin or motion. The equivalent uniform dose was also investigated as an alternative cost function. The optimal margin was always smaller than the peak-to-peak motion. When the respiratory trace spent less time in the inhale phases, the optimal margin was consistently smaller than when more time was spent in the inhale phases. The target size and treatment modality also affected the optimal margin. The necessary margin for targets that spend less time in the exhale phase (sin6) is 2-4 mm smaller than for targets that spend equal time in the inhale and exhale phases (sin).

  8. The cytochrome bd oxidase of Escherichia coli prevents respiratory inhibition by endogenous and exogenous hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Sergey; Imlay, Karin R C; Imlay, James A

    2016-07-01

    When sulfur compounds are scarce or difficult to process, Escherichia coli adapts by inducing the high-level expression of sulfur-compound importers. If cystine then becomes available, the cystine is rapidly overimported and reduced, leading to a burgeoning pool of intracellular cysteine. Most of the excess cysteine is exported, but some is adventitiously degraded, with the consequent release of sulfide. Sulfide is a potent ligand of copper and heme moieties, raising the prospect that it interferes with enzymes. We observed that when cystine was provided and sulfide levels rose, E. coli became strictly dependent upon cytochrome bd oxidase for continued respiration. Inspection revealed that low-micromolar levels of sulfide inhibited the proton-pumping cytochrome bo oxidase that is regarded as the primary respiratory oxidase. In the absence of the back-up cytochrome bd oxidase, growth failed. Exogenous sulfide elicited the same effect. The potency of sulfide was enhanced when oxygen concentrations were low. Natural oxic-anoxic interfaces are often sulfidic, including the intestinal environment where E. coli dwells. We propose that the sulfide resistance of the cytochrome bd oxidase is a key trait that permits respiration in such habitats. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Antitussive activity and respiratory system effects of levodropropizine in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, R; Braga, P C; Centanni, S; Legnani, D; Moavero, N E; Allegra, L

    1988-08-01

    Antitussive activity of the new antitussive drug, levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in healthy volunteers by the classical method of citric acid-induced coughing. Levodropropizine dose-dependently reduced cough frequency. Maximal inhibition was observed at 6 h after administration. Cough intensity was also reduced, as shown by the analysis of cough noise. Levodropropizine, at the dosage of 60 mg t.i.d., had no adverse effects on respiratory function nor on airway clearance mechanisms: in fact, it did not affect spirometric parameters. Levodropropizine had no effects on the rheological properties of mucus nor on ciliary activity of airway epithelium.

  10. Inhaled glucocorticoid treatment prevents the response of CD8+T cells in a mouse model of allergic asthma and causes their depletion outside the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuśka-Prot, Monika; Maślanka, Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    The principal objective of this research has been to determine the safety of inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs) in respect of their effect on CD8 + T cells within respiratory and extra-respiratory tissues, and to compare it with systemic GC treatment. Another purpose has been to identify whether inhaled and systemic GCs affect the CD8 + T cell response in the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) and lungs in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. Ciclesonide and methylprednisolone were used as a model for inhaled and systemic GCs, respectively. The CD8 + T cell response was observed in untreated OVA-immunized mice, manifesting itself by the proliferation of these cells and their recruitment into the lower respiratory tract. Inhaled and systemic GC treatment fully prevented this response. This suggests that one of the elements contributing to the anti-asthmatic efficacy of inhaled and systemic GCs could be the inhibition of the effector CD8 + T cell response which accompanies the disease. The anti-asthmatic effect of GCs was rather not mediated through the generation or/and increased recruitment of Foxp3 + CD25 + CD8 + regulatory T cells into the MLNs and lungs. Inhaled and systemic GCs produced comparable depletions of normal CD8 + T cells in the MLNs, the head and neck lymph nodes and in peripheral blood, and this effect, at least to some extent, resulted from the proapoptotic action of GCs towards these cells. These results suggest that inhaled GC therapy might not be safer at all than treatment with systemic GCs in respect of the undesirable effects on CD8 + T cells residing within and outside the respiratory tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Respiratory health of elite athletes – preventing airway injury: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established. PMID:22522585

  12. Mass casualty acute pepper spray inhalation – Respiratory severity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Sweeting*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: While the respiratory complaint was perceived as being the most detrimental of all presenting complaints, there was an overall non-threatening outcome in all patients. The presenting respiratory complaints were mostly subjective with benign outcome. Although various risk factors associated with severity increase of respiratory status, were present in a few of the index cases patients, their affect was negligible with a resultant benign outcome.

  13. Animal derived surfactant extract versus protein free synthetic surfactant for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell, Stephanie; Pfister, Robert H; Soll, Roger

    2015-08-24

    studies, 3462 infants] and a marginal increase in the risk of any intraventricular hemorrhage (typical RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.15; typical RD 0.02, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.05; 10 studies, 5045 infants) but no increase in Grade 3 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhage (typical RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.27; typical RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.03; 9 studies, 4241 infants).The meta-analyses supported a marginal decrease in the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or mortality associated with the use of animal derived surfactant preparations (typical RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.00; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.00; 6 studies, 3811 infants). No other relevant differences in outcomes were noted. Both animal derived surfactant extracts and protein free synthetic surfactant extracts are effective in the treatment and prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. Comparative trials demonstrate greater early improvement in the requirement for ventilator support, fewer pneumothoraces, and fewer deaths associated with animal derived surfactant extract treatment. Animal derived surfactant may be associated with an increase in necrotizing enterocolitis and intraventricular hemorrhage, though the more serious hemorrhages (Grade 3 and 4) are not increased. Despite these concerns, animal derived surfactant extracts would seem to be the more desirable choice when compared to currently available protein free synthetic surfactants.

  14. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET: Effects of adenosine and dipyridamole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac stress 82 RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.7) min -1 , P PET, a dipyridamole stress protocol is recommended as it, compared to adenosine, causes a more uniform respiration and results in a higher frequency of successful respiratory gating and thereby superior imaging quality.

  15. Effects of expiratory muscle training on the frail elderly's respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Yusuke; Miyazaki, Ikuri; Izumi, Masataka; Oda, Takahiro

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the effects of expiratory muscle training on elderly day care service users, who had been classified into Care Grades 1 and 2 based on Japan's long-term care insurance system. [Subjects and Methods] Intervention was provided for 29 Care Grade 1 or 2 day care service users. During intervention, expiratory muscle training was performed by slowly expiring using the abdominal muscles and a device after maximal inspiration. Each intervention session lasted for approximately 10 minutes, and 2 sessions were held weekly for 3 months to compare respiratory function test values before and after intervention. [Results] The results were favorable. The vital capacity (VC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) significantly varied between before and after intervention. [Conclusion] Expiratory muscle training generally improved their respiratory function, particularly their VC and PEF that significantly varied between before and after intervention. As both of these items influence the cough capacity, they may be key to the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. Expiratory muscle training may also contribute to activities of daily living (ADL) and the quality of life, and it is expected to play an important role in rehabilitation as a field of preventive medicine.

  16. Clinical relevance of prevention of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection in preterm infants born between 33 and 35 weeks gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbonell-Estrany, X.; Bont, L.; Doering, G.; Gouyon, J-B; Lanari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Premature infants are vulnerable to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) resulting in hospitalisation and the potential for longer-term respiratory morbidity. Whilst the severity and consequence of RSV LRTI are generally accepted and recognised in infants

  17. Effects of Rosa canina fruit extract on neutrophil respiratory burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daels-Rakotoarison, D A; Gressier, B; Trotin, F; Brunet, C; Luyckx, M; Dine, T; Bailleul, F; Cazin, M; Cazin, J-C

    2002-03-01

    Respiratory burst leads polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions (O(2)(o-)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) which may possess deleterious effects for the organism. Rosa canina fruits are well known to contain a large amount of vitamin C which is antioxidant. This study was focused on the polyphenolics contained in rose hips to evaluate their antioxidative properties. We prepared a rose hip extract deprived of vitamin C. The extract contained mainly phenolics such as proanthocyanidins and flavonoids. We investigated its effects directly against (O(2)(o-)), HOCl and H(2)O(2) and investigated its effects on isolated PMN. For that, in vitro inflammatory conditions were reproduced by stimulating PMN with stimuli having different transductional pathways, in order to determine a possible mechanism of action. The results showed that the extract can inhibit ROS tested in acellular and cellular systems. The IC(50) obtained were 5.73 mg/L, 1.33 mg/L and 2.34 mg/L respectively for (O(2)(o-)), HOCl and H(2)O(2) in acellular experiments. For cellular experiments, the IC(50) were quite similar. Thus, the extract did not present an effect on PMN metabolism. Therefore, the antioxidative effects of Rosa canina are due not only to vitamin C but also to polyphenolics. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Volume Limit in Fluid Resuscitation to Prevent Respiratory Failure in Massively Burned Children without Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Okabayashi, Kiyoshi; Ohtani, Minako; Yamanoue, Takao; Sera, Akihiko; Wada, Seishi; Inoue, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Yasumasa

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accurate fluid requirement to prevent respiratory failure during the postresuscitation period in the resuscitation of massively burned children without inhalation injury. Forty-nine children were treated by similar fluid resuscitation and physiologic support protocols. Using a retrospective chart review, the children were divided into three groups as follows: Group N (no lung injury, n = 33, 41.4 ± 18. 7%TBSA burned), Group M (mild-to-moderate lung injury, n = 11, 73.7 ± 17.1...

  19. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  20. The effect of different respiratory muscle training protocols on health outcomes in patients with COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Andrew; McBride, Christine; Francis, Claire; Stewart, Natalie; Corson, Charlotte; Lomax, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve dyspnoea, exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however the efficacy of expiratory muscle training (EMT) is equivocal. Respiratory muscle training (RMT) protocols are strenuous, therefore the purpose was to determine the effects of a modified IMT protocol or EMT protocol compared to standard IMT on respiratory health outcomes in patients with COPD. M...

  1. Effective interventions for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, Joanna

    This article examines the causes of pressure ulcers and provides an overview of the best advice available in preventing them in the clinical setting. This should enable nurses to provide more effective interventions for preventing patients from developing pressure ulcers.

  2. MEANING OF IMMUNIZATION BY PNEUMO 23 AND ACT HIB IN THE PREVENTION OF THE RECURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES AMONG CHILDREN FROM THE CLOSED CHILDREN'S FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Budalina

    2007-01-01

    respiratory diseases remained the same. Thus, they showed that vaccination with Grippol only may not be sufficient to reduce the frequency of recurrent episodes of the acute respiratory diseases among sickly children. bacteriologically positive children must be vaccinated with three vaccines, which leads to reduction of the total number of the acute respiratory diseases by 4,6 times and reduces rhino pharyngitis sick ness rate by 2 times, pharynxgitis sickness rate by 8 times, otitis sickness rate by 6 times, bronchitis sickness rate by 4,3 times and pneumonia sickness rate by 3 times. for children, who have negative results of the microbiological examination, vaccination with Grippol should be combined with pneumo 23, which reduces the total number of the acute respiratory diseases by 6,5 times, rhinopharyngitis sickness rate by 5 times, pharyngitis sickness rate by 8,7 times, otitis sickness rate by 7 times, bronchitis sickness rate by 5 times and pneumonia sickness rate by 7 times. Combined immunization (pneumo 23, ACT HIB and Grippol to prevent recurrent respiratory diseases among preschool children is safe and has positive clinical and microbiological effects.Key words: sickly children, closed specialized children's facilities, immunization.

  3. [Cost-consequence analysis of respiratory preventive intervention among institutionalized older people: randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrià I Iranzo, Maria Dels Àngels; Tortosa-Chuliá, M Ángeles; Igual-Camacho, Celedonia; Sancho, Patricia; Galiana, Laura; Tomás, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The institutionalized elderly with functional impairment show a greater decline in respiratory muscle (RM) function. The aims of the study are to evaluate outcomes and costs of RM training using Pranayama in institutionalized elderly people with functional impairment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on institutionalized elderly people with walking limitation (n=54). The intervention consisted of 6 weeks of Pranayama RM training (5 times/week). The outcomes were measured at 4 time points, and were related to RM function: the maximum respiratory pressures and the maximum voluntary ventilation. Perceived satisfaction in the experimental group (EG) was assessed by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Direct and indirect costs were estimated from the social perspective. The GE showed a significant improvement related with strength (maximum respiratory pressures) and endurance (maximum voluntary ventilation) of RM. Moreover, 92% of the EG reported a high satisfaction. The total social costs, direct and indirect, amounted to Euro 21,678. This evaluation reveals that RM function improvement is significant, that intervention is well tolerated and appreciated by patients, and the intervention costs are moderate. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Preventive Activity against Influenza (H1N1 Virus by Intranasally Delivered RNA-Hydrolyzing Antibody in Respiratory Epithelial Cells of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungchan Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral effect of a catalytic RNA-hydrolyzing antibody, 3D8 scFv, for intranasal administration against avian influenza virus (H1N1 was described. The recombinant 3D8 scFv protein prevented BALB/c mice against H1N1 influenza virus infection by degradation of the viral RNA genome through its intrinsic RNA-hydrolyzing activity. Intranasal administration of 3D8 scFv (50 μg/day for five days prior to infection demonstrated an antiviral activity (70% survival against H1N1 infection. The antiviral ability of 3D8 scFv to penetrate into epithelial cells from bronchial cavity via the respiratory mucosal layer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and histopathological examination. The antiviral activity of 3D8 scFv against H1N1 virus infection was not due to host immune cytokines or chemokines, but rather to direct antiviral RNA-hydrolyzing activity of 3D8 scFv against the viral RNA genome. Taken together, our results suggest that the RNase activity of 3D8 scFv, coupled with its ability to penetrate epithelial cells through the respiratory mucosal layer, directly prevents H1N1 virus infection in a mouse model system.

  5. Respiratory health effects of exposure to crystalline silica epidemiology.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hnzido, E

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes two additional studies of exposure-response relationship between respiratory disease and silica dust in gold mines. Section 3 describes a study of pulmonary tuberculosis in relation to silica dust, and section 4...

  6. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences

  7. Respiratory effects of commuters' exposure to air pollution in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2011-03-01

    Much time is spent in traffic, especially during rush hours, when air pollution concentrations on roads are relatively high. Controlled exposure studies have shown acute respiratory effects of short, high exposures to air pollution from motor vehicles. Acute health effects of lower real-life exposures in traffic are unclear. Exposures of 34 healthy, nonsmoking adult volunteers were repeatedly measured while commuting for 2 hours by bus, car, or bicycle. Particle number (PN), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and soot exposures were measured. Lung function and airway resistance were measured directly before, directly following, and 6 hours after exposure. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) was measured directly before and 6 hours after exposure. Inhaled doses were estimated based on monitored heart rates. Mixed models were used to analyze effects of exposure on changes in health parameters after exposure compared with before. PN, PM10, and soot were associated with decreased peak expiratory flow directly following but not 6 hours after exposure. PN doses were associated with decreases in maximum midexpiratory flow and forced expiratory flow (FEV1) 6 hours after exposure, whereas PN and soot exposures were associated with increased maximum midexpiratory flow and FEV1 directly after exposure. PN and soot were associated with increased exhaled NO after car and bus but not bicycle trips. PN was also associated with an increase in airway resistance directly following exposure but not 6 hours later. We found modest effects of 2-hour in-traffic exposure to air pollutants on peak flow, exhaled NO, and airway resistance.

  8. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Azadèh; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2018-02-08

    Elevated endotoxin levels have been measured in ambient air around livestock farms, which is a cause of concern for neighbouring residents. There is clear evidence that occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne endotoxin causes respiratory inflammation, respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. However, health effects of exposure to low levels of endotoxin are less well described. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize published associations between exposure to relatively low levels of airborne endotoxin and respiratory health endpoints. Studies investigating respiratory effects of measured or modelled exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin (average respiratory symptoms and lung function. However, considerable heterogeneity existed in the outcomes of the included studies and no overall estimate could be provided by meta-analysis to quantify the possible relationship. Instead, a best evidence synthesis was performed among studies examining the exposure-response relationship between endotoxin and respiratory outcomes. Significant exposure-response relationships between endotoxin and symptoms and FEV 1 were shown in several studies, with no conflicting findings in the studies included in the best evidence synthesis. Significantly different effects of endotoxin exposure were also seen in vulnerable subgroups (atopics and patients with broncho-obstructive disease) and smokers. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin (respiratory health effects, especially in vulnerable subgroups of the population.

  9. Effect of wood dust on respiratory health status of carpenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mamta; Aprajita; Panwar, Neeraj Kant

    2013-08-01

    Occupational lung diseases form an important part of clinical medicine. Exposure to various chemicals or toxins which are manufactured or processed in industries are lethal for the workers in industries. Although these chemicals at workplace are known to invariably affect all body systems, lungs are most vulnerable to airborne hazards which are caused due to exposure to wood dust in welding, cement and wood industrial sectors. The aim of the present study was to establish the effect of wood dust on respiratory health of carpenters and to compare the measured values with those of age-matched controls. This study involved 150 non-smoking carpenters, while 150 age-matched healthy non-smoking persons who were engaged in works other than carpentry, served as controls. The influence of age, height, body surface area (BSA) andduration of exposure on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were determined in both cases and control subjects by using a Mini Wright's peak flow meter. The statistical analysis was done by using paired Student's t-test. A p-value of work place should be made.

  10. Effects of chest physiotherapy on the respiratory function of postoperative gastroplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Eli; Ike, Daniela; Barbalho-Moulim, Marcela; Rasera, Irineu; Costa, Dirceu

    2009-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has become increasingly more recommended for the treatment of morbidly obese individuals for whom it is possible to identify co-morbidities other than alterations in pulmonary function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of conventional chest physiotherapy (CCP) and of conventional physiotherapy associated with transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (CCP+TEDS) on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In total, 44 female patients with an average age of 37 +/- 7.3 years and an average body mass index (BMI) of 47.4 +/- 6.5 K/m(2) were selected as candidates for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass laparoscopy. They were evaluated for pulmonary volume and flow using spirometry and maximum respiratory pressure through manovacuometry during the preoperative period and on the fifteenth and thirtieth postoperative days. No differences were detected between CCP and CCP + TEDS, and both factors contributed to the maintenance of pulmonary flow and volume as well as inhalation muscle strength. Exhalation muscle strength was not maintained in the CCP group at fifteen or thirty days postoperative, but it was maintained in patients treated with conventional chest physiotherapy + transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation. These results suggest that both conventional chest physiotherapy and conventional chest physiotherapy + transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation prevent the reduction of pulmonary function during the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass postoperative period, and that transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation also contributes to expiratory muscle strength.

  11. The contribution of respiratory pathogens to fatal and non-fatal respiratory hospitalizations: a pilot study of Taqman Array Cards (TAC) in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njuguna, H.N.; Chaves, S.S.; Emukule, G.O.; Nyawanda, B.; Omballa, V.; Juma, B.; Onyango, C.O.; Mott, J.A.; Fields, B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, with sub-Saharan Africa bearing the greatest burden. Identifying etiologies of respiratory disease is important to inform cost effective treatment, prevention and control strategies. Testing for all of the

  12. Dose-Dependent Protective Effect of Inhalational Anesthetics Against Postoperative Respiratory Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabitz, Stephanie D; Farhan, Hassan N; Ruscic, Katarina J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inhalational anesthetics are bronchodilators with immunomodulatory effects. We sought to determine the effect of inhalational anesthetic dose on risk of severe postoperative respiratory complications. DESIGN: Prospective analysis of data on file in surgical cases between January 2007 ...

  13. The effectiveness of heliox in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sema; Daglioglu, Kenan; Yildizdas, Dincer; Bayram, Ibrahim; Gumurdulu, Derya; Polat, Sait

    2013-01-01

    The management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was investigated with the use of heliox in an experimental model. To investigate whether heliox can be considered a new therapeutic approach in ARDS. ARDS was designed in Wistar albino male rats, 250-300 g in weight, by intratracheal instillation of physiological saline solution. Anesthezied and tracheotomized rats with ARDS were pressure-controlled ventilated. At the end of 210 min, helium gas was tried. All rats were assigned to two groups: Group 1 (n = 10) was the control group, and was given no treatment; group 2 (n = 7) was given heliox (He: O(2) = 50:50). The heliox group received heliox for 1 h continously. Rats were continued to be kept on a ventilator through the experiment. Two hours after the last inhalation, both lungs of the rats were excised for both histopathological examination and immunohistochemical evaluation. Histopathological grading were expressed as median interquartile range. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess the relationships between the variables. The infiltation of neutrophils were decreased in rats treated with heliox. Edema in the interstitial and intraalveolar areas was less than that of the control rats. Also, the diminishing of perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage was apperant. Hyaline membrane (HM) formation decreased in the heliox group compared with the control group. Decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was shown via immunohistochemical examination in the heliox group. The present study histopathologically indicated the effectiveness of heliox in the decreasing of neutrophil infiltation, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and HM formation in ARDS. Besides the known effect of heliox in obstructive lung disease, inhaled heliox therapy could be associated with the improvement of inflamation in ARDS.

  14. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is ineffective at preventing otitis media in children with presumed viral upper respiratory infection: a randomized, double-blind equivalence, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Giraudeau, Bruno; Ployet, Marie Joseph; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre

    2002-12-01

    To assess the equivalence of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and placebo in the prevention of acute otitis media in children at high risk of acute otitis media who develop upper respiratory tract infection. This was a multicentre, equivalence, randomized, double-blind trial of two parallel groups comparing 5 days of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 75 mg kg-1 day-1 (i.e. 25 mg kg-1 every 8 h) and placebo. The main outcome measure was acute otitis media occurring within 8-12 days of initiating treatment. Two hundred and three infants, aged 3 months-3 years with upper respiratory tract infection over 36 h and a history of recurrent acute otitis media were included over 8.5 months. Two children were lost to follow-up. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups. In the intention to treat analysis the frequency of acute otitis media was 16.2% (16/99) in the placebo group and 9.6% (10/104) in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid group (P = 0.288). The difference between acute otitis media rates was 6.6% (one-sided 95% confidence interval of 14.3%). The occurrence of side-effects was similar in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and placebo groups. The difference in effectiveness between antibiotic and placebo was not greater than 14.3%, and we calculated that 94 children would need to be exposed to antibiotics to avoid six cases of acute otitis media. In view of the risk of development of resistance due to frequent exposure to antibiotics, our study supports the need for reduction in the administration of antibiotics in upper respiratory tract infection even in children at high risk of acute otitis media.

  15. Effects of air pollution on infant and children respiratory mortality in four large Latin-American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson; Junger, Washington Leite

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is an important public health concern especially for children who are particularly susceptible. Latin America has a large children population, is highly urbanized and levels of pollution are substantially high, making the potential health impact of air pollution quite large. We evaluated the effect of air pollution on children respiratory mortality in four large urban centers: Mexico City, Santiago, Chile, and Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. Generalized Additive Models in Poisson regression was used to fit daily time-series of mortality due to respiratory diseases in infants and children, and levels of PM 10 and O 3 . Single lag and constrained polynomial distributed lag models were explored. Analyses were carried out per cause for each age group and each city. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis was conducted in order to combine the city-specific results in a single summary estimate. These cities host nearly 43 million people and pollution levels were above the WHO guidelines. For PM 10 the percentage increase in risk of death due to respiratory diseases in infants in a fixed effect model was 0.47% (0.09-0.85). For respiratory deaths in children 1-5 years old, the increase in risk was 0.58% (0.08-1.08) while a higher effect was observed for lower respiratory infections (LRI) in children 1-14 years old [1.38% (0.91-1.85)]. For O 3 , the only summarized estimate statistically significant was for LRI in infants. Analysis by season showed effects of O 3 in the warm season for respiratory diseases in infants, while negative effects were observed for respiratory and LRI deaths in children. We provided comparable mortality impact estimates of air pollutants across these cities and age groups. This information is important because many public policies aimed at preventing the adverse effects of pollution on health consider children as the population group that deserves the highest protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lack of long-term effects of high-dose inhaled beclomethasone for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer-Kooijker, K.; Ent, C.K. van der; Ermers, M.J.; Rovers, M.M.; Bont, L.J.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, we showed that high-dose early initiated inhaled corticosteroids during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis partially and transiently prevents subsequent recurrent wheeze. Here, we study treatment effect on lung function at age 6. METHODS: This is a 6-year follow-up

  17. The effects of low tidal ventilation on lung strain correlate with respiratory system compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianfeng; Jin, Fang; Pan, Chun; Liu, Songqiao; Liu, Ling; Xu, Jingyuan; Yang, Yi; Qiu, Haibo

    2017-02-03

    The effect of alterations in tidal volume on mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is determined by respiratory system compliance. We aimed to investigate the effects of different tidal volumes on lung strain in ARDS patients who had various levels of respiratory system compliance. Nineteen patients were divided into high (C high group) and low (C low group) respiratory system compliance groups based on their respiratory system compliance values. We defined compliance ≥0.6 ml/(cmH 2 O/kg) as C high and compliance respiratory system compliance. The mean baseline EELV, strain and respiratory system compliance values were 1873 ml, 0.31 and 0.65 ml/(cmH 2 O/kg), respectively; differences in all of these parameters were statistically significant between the two groups. For all participants, a positive correlation was found between the respiratory system compliance and EELV (R = 0.488, p = 0.034). Driving pressure and strain increased together as the tidal volume increased from 6 ml/kg predicted body weight (PBW) to 12 ml/kg PBW. Compared to the C high ARDS patients, the driving pressure was significantly higher in the C low patients at each tidal volume. Similar effects of lung strain were found for tidal volumes of 6 and 8 ml/kg PBW. The "lung injury" limits for driving pressure and lung strain were much easier to exceed with increases in the tidal volume in C low patients. Respiratory system compliance affected the relationships between tidal volume and driving pressure and lung strain in ARDS patients. These results showed that increasing tidal volume induced lung injury more easily in patients with low respiratory system compliance. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01864668 , Registered 21 May 2013.

  18. The Mechanism of Activated Nitrogen-Containing Metabolites in the Respiratory Tract: Proinflammatory Effect (Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Abaturov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review presents current data about modulating action of nitrogen monoxide on the inflammatory response and the apoptotic process depending on its concentration. There is demonstrated a dual action of nitric oxide in the respiratory tract — prevention of infection and strengthening the destruction of lung tissue.

  19. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures. PMID:22958620

  20. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health.

  1. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-02-28

    Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries.There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and particulate inhalable components of air pollution.A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma.Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.

  2. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Amato Gennaro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.

  3. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  4. Immune effects of respiratory exposure to fragrance chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam J; Klerk A de; Cassee FR; Fokkens PHB; Park MVDZ; Loveren H van; Jong WH de; GBO

    2007-01-01

    Inhalation of the fragrance chemicals, isoeugenol and cinnamal, by mice resulted in immune reactions in the respiratory tract. This was observed in experiments performed by the RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Enviroment) of which results indicate that inhalation of some fragrance

  5. Effective enhancement of classification of respiratory states using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial Neural Network for a classification task attempts to hand design a network topology and to find a set of network parameters using a back propagation training algorithm. This work presents an intelligent diagnosis system using artificial neural network. Features were extracted from respiratory effort signal based on ...

  6. Effective enhancement of classification of respiratory states using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    proposed a novel and simple local neural classifier method for the recognition of mental tasks from on-line spontaneous EEG signals. The proposed neural classifier recognizes three mental tasks from on-line spontaneous EEG signals with an accuracy of 70%. A classification method for respiratory sounds (RSS) in patients ...

  7. The Effect of Development in Respiratory Sensory Gating Measured by Electrocortical Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying S. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The perception of respiratory sensations can be of significant importance to individuals for survival and greatly impact quality of life. Respiratory sensory gating, similar to somatosensory gating with exteroceptive stimuli, is indicative of brain cortices filtering out repetitive respiratory stimuli and has been investigated in adults with and without diseases. Respiratory gating can be tested with the respiratory-related evoked potential (RREP method in the electroencephalogram with a paired inspiratory occlusion paradigm. Here, the RREP N1 component elicited by the second stimulus (S2 shows reduced amplitudes compared to the RREP N1 component elicited by the first stimulus (S1. However, little is known regarding the effect of development on respiratory sensory gating. The present study examined respiratory sensory gating in 22 typically developed school-aged children and 22 healthy adults. Paired inspiratory occlusions of 150-ms each with an inter-stimulus-interval of 500-ms were delivered randomly every 2–4 breaths during recording. The main results showed a significantly larger RREP N1 S2/S1 ratio in the children group than in the adult group. In addition, children compared to adults demonstrated significantly smaller N1 peak amplitudes in response to S1. Our results suggest that school-aged children, compared to adults, display reduced respiratory sensory gating.

  8. Effect of Hexavalent Chromium on Electron Leakage of Respiratory Chain in Mitochondria Isolated from Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the present study, we explored reactive axygen species (ROS production in mitochondria, the mechanism of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI hepatotoxicity, and the role of protection by GSH. Methods: Intact mitochondria were isolated from rat liver tissues and mitochondrial basal respiratory rates of NADH and FADH2 respiratory chains were determined. Mitochondria were treated with Cr(VI, GSH and several complex inhibitors. Mitochondria energized by glutamate/malate were separately or jointly treated with Rotenone (Rot, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI and antimycinA (Ant, while mitochondria energized by succinate were separately or jointly treated with Rot, DPI ‚ thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA and Ant. Results: Cr(VI concentration-dependently induced ROS production in the NADH and FADH2 respiratory chain in liver mitochondria. Basal respiratory rate of the mitochondrial FADH2 respiratory chain was significantly higher than that of NADH respiratory chain. Hepatic mitochondrial electron leakage induced by Cr(VI from NADH respiratory chain were mainly from ubiquinone binding sites of complex I and complex III. Conclusion: Treatment with 50µM Cr(VI enhances forward movement of electrons through FADH2 respiratory chain and leaking through the ubiquinone binding site of complex III. Moreover, the protective effect of GSH on liver mitochondria electron leakage is through removing excess H2O2 and reducing total ROS.

  9. Respiratory viruses in transplant recipients: more than just a cold. Clinical syndromes and infection prevention principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Abbas

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: RVIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality among SOT and HSCT recipients. Management options are currently limited or lack strong clinical evidence. As community and nosocomial spread has been reported for all reviewed RVIs, strict adherence to infection control measures is key to preventing outbreaks.

  10. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) ameliorates the effects of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Quincy L; Curiel, Rafael E

    2005-08-15

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) disease, one of the most economically significant viral diseases in the swine industry, is characterized by miscarriages, premature farrowing, stillborn pigs, and respiratory disease associated with death and chronic poor performance of nursing and weaned pigs. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key component in driving the development of cell-mediated immunity as well as stimulating interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production from T cells and natural killer cells. Although some studies have investigated the use of IL-12 as a vaccine adjuvant in swine, little is known about its effectiveness as a treatment against viral diseases in swine. The present study investigated whether recombinant porcine IL-12 (rpIL-12) enhances the immune response and thereby diminishes the effects of PRRSV infection in young pigs. Interestingly, in vitro experiments demonstrated that rpIL-12 is capable of inducing swine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the target cells of PRRSV, to produce IFN-gamma in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, in vitro studies also revealed that rpIL-12 treatment was capable of significantly reducing PRRSV viral titers in PAMs. In vivo administration of rpIL-12 significantly decreased PRRSV titers in the lungs and blood of infected animals. Furthermore, treatment with rpIL-12 prevented significant growth retardation in PRRSV-infected animals. Finally, in response to viral antigen recall challenge, PAMs isolated from rpIL-12-treated/PRRSV-infected animals produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma and lesser amounts of interleukin-10 than PAMs isolated from non-rpIL-12-treated/PRRSV-infected animals. Taken together our data indicate that treatment with rpIL-12 may provide an effective approach to control or ameliorate PRRSV-induced disease in swine.

  11. A Systematic Review of Effects of Waterpipe Smoking on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Linda; Kelly, Debra Lynch; Weglicki, Linda S; Barnett, Tracey E; Ferrell, Anastasiya V; Ghadban, Roula

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is a social custom common in many Middle Eastern, North African, and Asian countries and has become increasingly popular in the US, especially among youth; however, WPS smoking may be increasing in the US adult population as well. There is a common belief among waterpipe (WP) smokers that WPS is less harmful than smoking cigarettes. Thus, this review aims to systematically explore the literature on the effects of WP tobacco smoking with a particular focus on cardiovascular and respiratory health outcomes as well as on oxidative stress, immunity, and cell cycle interference health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review, guided by the criteria of The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, using the following online databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PMC, and Cochrane Library. Results were summarized qualitatively. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria established for this review. Based on the existing evidence, several cardiovascular and respiratory physiologic health indicators and conditions have been shown to be negatively affected by WPS. In addition to the effects of nicotine and chemical toxicant exposures, WPS was significantly associated with an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and lower pulmonary function test results, as well as a number of health conditions such as lung cancer, alterations in oxidative stress, immunity, and cell cycle interference. The current literature provides evidence that WPS is associated with a number of negative health indicators and outcomes. There is need for more research related to WPS and its effects on health so that appropriate campaigns and prevention interventions can be implemented to control the epidemic increase of WPS in the US.

  12. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Carter, Rickey E; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care ...

  13. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a PDF version of the Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking report and also a pdf version of an overview of progress made in reducing exposure to secondsmoke in the past 25 years.

  14. The effect of airborne particles and weather conditions on pediatric respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarillo, Ana C.; Carreras, Hebe A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of estimated PM 10 on respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine as well as the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions and education. We analyzed upper and lower respiratory infections and applied a time-series analysis with a quasi-Poisson distribution link function. To control for seasonally varying factors we fitted cubic smoothing splines of date. We also examined community-specific parameters and differences in susceptibility by sex. We found a significant association between particles and respiratory infections. This relationship was affected by mean temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed. These effects were stronger in fall, winter and spring for upper respiratory infections while for lower respiratory infections the association was significant only during spring. Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of respiratory infections. These findings add useful information to understand the influence of airborne particles on children health in developing countries. - Highlights: ► Few information is available on children respiratory health from developing countries. ► We modeled the association between PM 10 and children's respiratory infections. ► We checked the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions, education and sex. ► Temperature, pressure and wind speed modified the effect of particles. ► Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of infections. - The concentration of airborne particles as well as low socio-economic conditions and low education levels are significant risk factors for upper and lower respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine.

  15. A Sustainable Strategy to Prevent Misuse of Antibiotics for Acute Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattinger, Gail B.; Mullins, C. Daniel; Zuckerman, Ilene H.; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Walker, Loreen D.; Gundlapalli, Adi; Samore, Matthew; DeLisle, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds Over 50% of antibiotics prescriptions are for outpatients with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Many of them are not needed and thus contribute both avoidable adverse events and pressures toward the development of bacterial resistance. Could a clinical decision support system (CDSS), interposed at the time of electronic prescription, adjust antibiotics utilization toward consensus treatment guidelines for ARI? Methods This is a retrospective comparison of pre- (2002) and post-intervention (2003–2006) periods at two comprehensive health care systems (intervention and control). The intervention was a CDSS that targeted fluoroquinolone and azithromycin; other antibiotics remained unrestricted. 7000 outpatients visits flagged by an ARI case-finding algorithm were reviewed for congruence with the guidelines (antibiotic prescribed-when-warranted or not-prescribed-when-unwarranted). Results 3831 patients satisfied the case definitions for one or more ARI: pneumonia (537), bronchitis (2931), sinusitis (717) and non-specific ARI (145). All patients with pneumonia received antibiotics. The relative risk (RR) of congruent prescribing was 2.57 (95% CI = (1.865 to 3.540) in favor of the intervention site for the antibiotics targeted by the CDSS; congruence did not change for other antibiotics (adjusted RR = 1.18 (95% CI = (0.691 to 2.011)). The proportion of unwarranted prescriptions of the targeted antibiotics decreased from 22% to 3%, pre vs. post-intervention (pprescription nearly extinguished unwarranted use targeted antibiotics for ARI for four years. This intervention highlights a path toward sustainable antibiotics stewardship for outpatients with ARI. PMID:23251440

  16. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

  17. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  18. The effectiveness of youth crime prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth

  19. A retrospective population-based cohort study identifying target areas for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richmond Peter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a major cause of hospitalisation in young children. Many factors can lead to increased risk of ALRI in children and predispose a child to hospitalisation, but population attributable fractions for different risk factors and how these fractions differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children is unknown. This study investigates population attributable fractions of known infant and maternal risk factors for ALRI to inform prevention strategies that target high-risk groups or particular risk factors. Methods A retrospective population-based data linkage study of 245,249 singleton births in Western Australia. Population attributable fractions of known maternal and infant risk factors for hospitalisation with ALRI between 1996 and 2005 were calculated using multiple logistic regression. Results The overall ALRI hospitalisation rate was 16.1/1,000 person-years for non-Aboriginal children and 93.0/1,000 for Aboriginal children. Male gender, being born in autumn, gestational age Conclusions The population attributable fractions estimated in this study should help in guiding public health interventions to prevent ALRI. A key risk factor for all children is maternal smoking during pregnancy, and multiple previous pregnancies and autumnal births are important high-risk groups. Specific key target areas are reducing elective caesareans in non-Aboriginal women and reducing teenage pregnancies and improving access to services and living conditions for the Aboriginal population.

  20. Comparison of single vaccination versus revaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (types 1a and 2a), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Step, Douglas L; Krehbiel, Clinton R; Burciaga-Robles, Luis O; Holland, Ben P; Fulton, Robert W; Confer, Anthony W; Bechtol, David T; Brister, David L; Hutcheson, John P; Newcomb, Harold L

    2009-09-01

    Objective-To compare effects of administration of a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine once with administration of the same vaccine twice on the health and performance of cattle. Design-Randomized, controlled trial. Animals-612 mixed-breed male cattle with unknown health histories. Procedures-Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (single vaccination treatment group [SVAC group] vs revaccination treatment group [REVAC group]) during the preconditioning phase of production. All cattle were given a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine. Eleven days later, REVAC group cattle received a second injection of the same vaccine. During the finishing phase of production, cattle from each treatment group were either vaccinated a third time with the modified-live respiratory virus vaccine or given no vaccine. Health observations were performed daily. Blood and performance variables were measured throughout the experiment. Results-During preconditioning, no significant differences were observed in performance or antibody production between groups. Morbidity rate from bovine respiratory disease was lower for SVAC group cattle; however, days to first treatment for bovine respiratory disease were not different between groups. No significant differences in body weights, daily gains, or dry-matter intake between groups were observed during the finishing phase. Revaccination treatment group cattle had improved feed efficiency regardless of vaccination protocol in the finishing phase. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Vaccination once with a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine was as efficacious as vaccination twice in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease of high-risk cattle, although feed efficiency was improved in REVAC group cattle during the finishing period.

  1. Respiratory effects of kynurenic acid microinjected into the ventromedullary surface of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Tolentino-Silva

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate that, within the ventral medullary surface (VMS, excitatory amino acids are necessary components of the neural circuits involved in the tonic and reflex control of respiration and circulation. In the present study we investigated the cardiorespiratory effects of unilateral microinjections of the broad spectrum glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid (2 nmol/200 nl along the VMS of urethane-anesthetized rats. Within the VMS only one region was responsive to this drug. This area includes most of the intermediate respiratory area, partially overlapping the rostral ventrolateral medulla (IA/RVL. When microinjected into the IA/RVL, kynurenic acid produced a respiratory depression, without changes in mean arterial pressure or heart rate. The respiratory depression observed was characterized by a decrease in ventilation, tidal volume and mean inspiratory flow and an increase in respiratory frequency. Therefore, the observed respiratory depression was entirely due to a reduction in the inspiratory drive. Microinjections of vehicle (200 nl of saline into this area produced no significant changes in breathing pattern, blood pressure or heart rate. Respiratory depression in response to the blockade of glutamatergic receptors inside the rostral VMS suggests that neurons at this site have an endogenous glutamatergic input controlling the respiratory cycle duration and the inspiratory drive transmission.

  2. Short-term respiratory effects of e-cigarettes in healthy individuals and smokers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Teloniatis, Stephanie I; Tzavara, Chara K; Gennimata, Sofia A; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the duration of immediate respiratory effects of e-cigarette smoking (ECS) and tested the hypothesis that ECS has more prominent effects in asthmatics compared with healthy smokers (HS). Fifty-four smokers, 27 healthy (HS group) and 27 with intermittent asthma (mild asthma (MA) group) underwent a control session (no liquid, no resistor coil inside e-cigarette cartridge) and an experimental session of ECS using standardized puffing settings. Impulse oscillometry impedance (Z), resistance (R), reactance (X) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were measured before and 0, 15 and 30 min after control and experimental sessions. Control session revealed no significant changes. In the experimental session, immediately post-ECS, both groups exhibited a significant increase in respiratory system total impedance at 5 Hz (Z5) (P respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5) (P respiratory system resistance at 10 Hz (R10) (P respiratory system resistance at 20 Hz (R20) (P effect immediately after ECS compared with HS for Z5 (P = 0.022), R5 (P = 0.010) and R10 (P = 0.013). FeNO decreased significantly in both groups (P respiratory mechanical and inflammatory effects, which were more prominent in smokers with asthma. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylly Ramsés García-Niño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w. before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.. Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Tapia, Edilia; Zazueta, Cecilia; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Vega-García, Claudia Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w.) before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.). Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23956771

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Proactive Tobacco Treatment among Smokers with and without Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Anne C; Clothier, Barbara A; Japuntich, Sandra J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Hammett, Patrick; Burgess, Diana J; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2018-03-01

    Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease differ in their barriers to smoking cessation but also suffer from tobacco-related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. Subgroup analysis of the Veterans Victory over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared with usual care. Smokers identified via the electronic medical record were proactively offered phone-based counseling and care coordination to receive medication from their Veterans Affairs providers or in-person care. We compared the response among those with and without an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis of a chronic lower respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). We used stratification by propensity scores to adjust for imbalanced covariates between groups with and without chronic lower respiratory disease within each treatment arm, using complete case analysis accounting for the stratified sampling by site. The study participants were predominantly older, white, male smokers. Overall, 19.6% had chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 3,307 had outcome data with the following assignments to the intervention: proactive care: n = 1,272 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 301 with chronic lower respiratory disease; usual care: n = 1,387 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 347 with chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 1,888 had both complete baseline and outcome data and were included in the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses (n = 3,307), among individuals with

  6. Effects of Smoking on Chest Expansion, Lung Function, and Respiratory Muscle Strength of Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Thaveeratitham, Premtip

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Smoking has a direct effect on the respiratory system. The rate of cigarette smoking among young people has continued to increase steadily. The present study quantified and compared the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking youths. [Subjects] Smoking and non-smoking male participants aged between 15 to 18 years were recruited (n=34 per group). [Methods] Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to smoking habits and the Fagerström test for nicotine depen...

  7. Effects of chest physiotherapy on the respiratory function of postoperative gastroplasty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Forti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery has become increasingly more recommended for the treatment of morbidly obese individuals for whom it is possible to identify co-morbidities other than alterations in pulmonary function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of conventional chest physiotherapy (CCP and of conventional physiotherapy associated with transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (CCP+TEDS on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS: In total, 44 female patients with an average age of 37 ± 7.3 years and an average body mass index (BMI of 47.4 ± 6.5 K/m² were selected as candidates for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass laparoscopy. They were evaluated for pulmonary volume and flow using spirometry and maximum respiratory pressure through manovacuometry during the preoperative period and on the fifteenth and thirtieth postoperative days. RESULTS: No differences were detected between CCP and CCP+TEDS, and both factors contributed to the maintenance of pulmonary flow and volume as well as inhalation muscle strength. Exhalation muscle strength was not maintained in the CCP group at fifteen or thirty days postoperative, but it was maintained in patients treated with conventional chest physiotherapy + transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that both conventional chest physiotherapy and conventional chest physiotherapy + transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation prevent the reduction of pulmonary function during the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass postoperative period, and that transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation also contributes to expiratory muscle strength.

  8. Effects of singing on voice, respiratory control and quality of life in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Radig, Hollie; Hibbing, Paul; Wingate, Judith; Sapienza, Christine

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Interventions focused on singing may provide additional benefits to established voice and respiratory therapies, due to their greater emphasis on the respiratory muscle control system in those with Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses. The purpose of this study was to examine if singing can improve voice, respiratory pressure and quality of life (QOL) in persons with PD. Methods This pilot study measured the effects of a singing intervention in 27 participants with PD. Participants were assigned to a high (met twice weekly) or low (met once weekly) dosage group. Voice, respiratory and QOL measures were recorded before and after an 8-week singing intervention. Sessions were led by board-certified music therapists and included a series of vocal and articulation exercises and group singing. Results Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure, as well as phonation time. While other voice measures improved, they did not reach statistical significance. Voice QOL and whole health QOL also significantly improved. Conclusion These results suggest singing may be a beneficial and engaging treatment choice for improving and maintaining vocal function and respiratory pressure in persons with PD. Implications for Rehabilitation In a small sample, group singing proved beneficial for improving voice and respiratory impairment in persons with Parkinson's disease. Completing group singing one time per week for 8 weeks was as effective as completing group singing two times per week for 8 weeks in persons with Parkinson's disease. Group singing is an effective means of improving overall quality of life in persons with Parkinson's disease.

  9. Comparison of animal-derived surfactants for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Halliday, Henry L; Stevens, Timothy P; Suresh, Gautham; Soll, Roger; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena

    2015-12-21

    Animal-derived surfactants have been shown to have several advantages over the first generation synthetic surfactants and are the most commonly used surfactant preparations. The animal-derived surfactants in clinical use are minced or lavaged and modified or purified from bovine or porcine lungs. It is unclear whether significant differences in clinical outcome exist among the available bovine (modified minced or lavage) and porcine (minced or lavage) surfactant extracts. To compare the effect of administration of different animal-derived surfactant extracts on the risk of mortality, chronic lung disease, and other morbidities associated with prematurity in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to July 31, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to July 31, 2015), and CINAHL (1982 to July 31, 2015). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared the effect of animal-derived surfactant extract treatment administered to preterm infants at risk for or having RDS to prevent complications of prematurity and mortality. Data regarding clinical outcomes were excerpted from the reports of the clinical trials by the review authors. Subgroup analyses were performed based on gestational age, surfactant dosing and schedule, treatment severity and treatment strategy. Data analysis was performed in accordance with the standards of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. Bovine lung lavage surfactant extract to modified bovine minced lung surfactant extract: Seven treatment studies and two prevention studies compared bovine lung

  10. The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil respiratory burst during induction of general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Swanton, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory burst is an essential component of the neutrophil\\'s biocidal function. In vitro, sodium thiopental, isoflurane and lidocaine each inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the effect of a standard clinical induction\\/tracheal intubation sequence on neutrophil respiratory burst and (b) to determine the effect of intravenous lidocaine administration during induction of anaesthesia on neutrophil respiratory burst. METHODS: Twenty ASA I and II patients, aged 18-60 years, undergoing elective surgery were studied. After induction of anaesthesia [fentanyl (2 microg kg-1), thiopental (4-6 mg kg-1), isoflurane (end-tidal concentration 0.5-1.5%) in nitrous oxide (66%) and oxygen], patients randomly received either lidocaine 1.5 mg kg-1 (group L) or 0.9% saline (group S) prior to tracheal intubation. Neutrophil respiratory burst was measured immediately prior to induction of anaesthesia, immediately before and 1 and 5 min after lidocaine\\/saline. RESULTS: Neutrophil respiratory burst decreased significantly after induction of anaesthesia in both groups [87.4 +\\/- 8.2% (group L) and 88.5 +\\/- 13.4% (group S) of preinduction level (P < 0.01 both groups)]. After intravenous lidocaine (but not saline) administration, neutrophil respiratory burst returned towards preinduction levels, both before (97.1 +\\/- 23.6%) and after (94.4 +\\/- 16.6%) tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation using thiopentone and isoflurane, inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. This effect may be diminished by the administration of lidocaine.

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  12. Effects of hypothyroidism on the respiratory system and control of breathing: Human studies and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2012-04-30

    Hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid sick syndrome, are prevalent disorders that affect all body systems including the respiratory system and control of breathing. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the regulation of thyroid hormone production and their function at the cellular level; the many causes of hypothyroidism; the effects of hypothyroidism on the respiratory system and on control of ventilation in hypothyroid patients; the variety of ways animal models of hypothyroidism are induced; and how in animal models hypothyroidism affects the respiratory system and control of breathing including neurotransmitters that influence breathing. Finally, this review will present controversies that exist in the field and thus encourage new research directions. Because of the high prevalence of hypothyroidism and subclinical forms of hypothyroidism and their influence on ventilation and the respiratory system, understanding underlying molecular mechanisms is necessary to ascertain how and sometimes why not thyroid replacement may normalize function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered Pathogenesis of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus in Pigs due to Immunosuppressive Effects of Dexamethasone: Implications for Corticosteroid Use in Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kwonil; Alekseev, Konstantin P.; Zhang, Xinsheng; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis and optimal treatments for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are unclear, although corticosteroids were used to reduce lung and systemic inflammation. Because the pulmonary pathology of porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) in pigs resembles SARS, we used PRCV as a model to clarify the effects of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) on coronavirus (CoV)-induced pneumonia. Conventional weaned pigs (n = 130) in one of four groups (PRCV/phosphate-buffered saline [PBS] ...

  14. The effect of acute exposure to hyperbaric oxygen on respiratory system mechanics in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Porzionato, Andrea; Zara, Susi; Cataldi, Amelia; Garetto, Giacomo; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of acute hyperbaric hyperoxia on respiratory mechanics of anaesthetised, positive-pressure ventilated rats. We measured respiratory mechanics by the end-inflation occlusion method in nine rats previously acutely exposed to hyperbaric hyperoxia in a standard fashion. The method allows the measurements of respiratory system elastance and of both the "ohmic" and of the viscoelastic components of airway resistance, which respectively depend on the newtonian pressure dissipation due to the ohmic airway resistance to air flow, and on the viscoelastic pressure dissipation caused by respiratory system tissues stress-relaxation. The activities of inducible and endothelial NO-synthase in the lung's tissues (iNOS and eNOS respectively) also were investigated. Data were compared with those obtained in control animals. We found that the exposure to hyperbaric hyperoxia increased respiratory system elastance and both the "ohmic" and viscoelastic components of inspiratory resistances. These changes were accompanied by increased iNOS but not eNOS activities. Hyperbaric hyperoxia was shown to acutely induce detrimental effects on respiratory mechanics. A possible causative role was suggested for increased nitrogen reactive species production because of increased iNOS activity.

  15. Effects of smoking on chest expansion, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength of youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Thaveeratitham, Premtip

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] Smoking has a direct effect on the respiratory system. The rate of cigarette smoking among young people has continued to increase steadily. The present study quantified and compared the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking youths. [Subjects] Smoking and non-smoking male participants aged between 15 to 18 years were recruited (n=34 per group). [Methods] Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to smoking habits and the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence questionnaire, and their respiratory function was tested (measurement of chest expansion, lung function test with a spirometer, and assessment of respiratory muscle strength). [Results] All respiratory function tests demonstrated significant differences between the smoking and non-smoking groups. Smokers initiated cigarette smoking between the ages of 15 to 18 years. The most common duration of cigarette smoking was 1-3 years and the degree of nicotine dependence among the youths was at a low level. [Conclusion] This study's findings show that the early effects of cigarette smoking found in youths can lead to problems with the respiratory system. Such information can be used to illustrate the harm of smoking and should be used to encourage young people to quit or avoid cigarette smoking.

  16. The Effect of a Designed Respiratory Care Program on the Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common complication of mechanical ventilation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of designed respiratory care program on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP in the mechanically ventilated patient. Methods: In this clinical trial, 64 patients were selected among those who had undergone mechanical ventilation in the ICU of Al‑Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, using convenience sampling method. The subjects were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. In the intervention group an upper respiratory care program and in the control group, routine cares were done. Modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Questionnaire was completed before and on the third, fourth and fifth day of study. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and independent t-test through SPSS Ver.13. Results: The results of this study showed that until the third day of study, the incidence of VAP was similar in the both groups. However, on the fifth day of study, the incidence of VAP in the intervention group was significantly lower than control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that an upper respiratory care program reduced the incidence of VAP. Therefore, nurses are recommended to perform this program for prevention of VAP.

  17. The effects of lutein on respiratory health across the life course: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo van Lent, Debora; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Moreira, Eduardo M; Tielemans, Myrte J; Muka, Taulant; Vitezova, Anna; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Brusselle, Guy G; Felix, Janine F; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-06-01

    Lutein, a fat-soluble carotenoid present in green leafy vegetables and eggs, has strong antioxidant properties and could therefore be important for respiratory health. We systematically reviewed the literature for articles that evaluated associations of lutein (intake, supplements or blood levels) with respiratory outcomes, published in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar, up to August 2014. We identified one Randomized Control Trial (RCT), two longitudinal, four prospective and six cross-sectional studies. The individual studies obtained a Quality Score ranging between 3 and 9. Six studies were performed in children, which examined bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), asthma and wheezing. In adults, 7 studies investigated asthma, respiratory function and respiratory mortality. The RCT found a borderline significant effect of lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation in neonates on the risk of BPD (OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.15; 1.17). No association was found between lutein intake or levels and respiratory outcomes in children. A case-control study in adults showed lower lutein levels in asthma cases. Three studies, with a prospective or longitudinal study design, in adults found a small but a significant positive association between lutein intake or levels and respiratory function. No association was found in the other two studies. In relation to respiratory mortality, one longitudinal study showed that higher lutein blood levels were associated with a decreased mortality (HR 0.77 (95% CI 0.60; 0.99), per SD increase in lutein). The published literature suggests a possible positive association between lutein and respiratory health. However, the literature is scarce and most studies are of observational nature. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of vitamin D on lower respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şişmanlar, Tuğba; Aslan, Ayşe Tana; Gülbahar, Özlem; Özkan, Seçil

    2016-06-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections including mainly pneumonia represent an important public health problem leading to high mortality and mobidity rates in children aged below five years in developing countries including our country. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of rickets/osteomalacia, various cancers, autoimmune diseases, hyperproliferative skin diseases, cardiovascular system diseases and infectious diseases. Vitamin D has an important role in cellular and humoral immunity and pulmonary functions. Vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infection are common health problems in children in our country and no clinical study investigating the relationship between these problems has been conducted so far. In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the association between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection in children. Sixty-three children aged between six months and five years with lower respiratory infections and 59 age-matched children who had no history of respiratory symptoms in the last month and no accompanying chronic disease were compared in terms of vitamin D levels. The children in the patient group were also evaluated by the clinical picture. No significant correlation was found between vitamin D levels and lower respiratory tract infection in terms of disease and its severity. However, it was found that vitamin D deficiency/ insufficiency was observed with a high rate in all children included in the study. Although no correlation was found between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection, it is recommended that vitamin D level should be measured in children with lower respiratory tract infection and vitamin D supplementation should be given to all children especially in winter months based on the fact that the level of vitamin D was lower than normal in approximately half of the children included in the study and considering the effects of vitamin D on infections, pulmonary

  19. Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ramón, M; Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Basagaña, X; Schwartz, J; Burge, P S; Moore, V; Antó, J M

    2006-06-01

    Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaners have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. The short-term effects of cleaning exposures on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were investigated in domestic cleaners with respiratory disorders. In a panel study, 43 female domestic cleaners with a recent history of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis completed a 2-week diary, collecting information on respiratory symptoms, PEF and cleaning exposures. Mixed regression models were used to assess daily changes in symptoms and PEF associated with specific cleaning exposures. The probability of having work-related asthma was individually assessed by a computerised diagnostic system and an occupational asthma expert. Lower respiratory tract symptoms were more common on working days and were predominantly associated with exposure to diluted bleach, degreasing sprays/atomisers and air fresheners. Associations with upper respiratory tract symptoms and PEF were less apparent. Eleven (30%) subjects scored positively for work-related asthma. It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  20. Chemically modified tetracycline prevents the development of septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome in a clinically applicable porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Jay; Halter, Jeffrey; Schiller, Henry; Gatto, Louis; Carney, David; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne; Nieman, Gary

    2005-10-01

    Sepsis causes more than with 215,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Death can be caused by multiple system organ failure, with the lung, in the form of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often being the first organ to fail. We developed a chronic porcine model of septic shock and ARDS and hypothesized that blocking the proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) with the modified tetracycline, COL-3, would significantly improve morbidity in this model. Pigs were anesthetized and instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and were then randomized to one of three groups: control (n = 3), laparotomy only; superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMA) + fecal blood clot (FC; n = 7), with intraperitoneal placement of a FC; and SMA + FC + COL (n = 5), ingestion of COL-3 12 h before injury. Animals emerged from anesthesia and were monitored and treated with fluids and antibiotics in an animal intensive care unit continuously for 48 h. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sampled and bacterial cultures, MMP-2, MMP-9, NE, and multiple cytokine concentrations were measured. Pigs were reanesthetized and placed on a ventilator when significant lung impairment occurred (PaO2/FiO2 < 250). At necropsy, lung water and histology were assessed. All animals in the SMA + FC group developed septic shock evidenced by a significant fall in arterial blood pressure that was not responsive to fluids. Lung injury typical of ARDS (i.e., a fall in lung compliance and PaO2/FiO2 ratio and a significant increase in lung water) developed in this group. Additionally, there was a significant increase in plasma IL-1 and IL-6 and in BALF IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, NE, and protein concentration in the SMA + FC group. COL-3 treatment prevented septic shock and ARDS and significantly decreased cytokine levels in plasma and BALF. COL-3 treatment also significantly reduced NE activity (P < 0.05) and reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in BALF by

  1. Effects of eugenol on respiratory burst generation in newborn rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Sayumi; Irie, Saki; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Onimaru, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Eugenol is contained in several plants including clove and is used as an analgesic drug. In the peripheral and central nervous systems, this compound modulates neuronal activity through action on voltage-gated ionic channels and/or transient receptor potential channels. However, it is unknown whether eugenol exerts any effects on the respiratory center neurons in the medulla. We examined the effects of eugenol on respiratory rhythm generation in the brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rat (P0-P3). The preparations were superfused by artificial cerebrospinal fluid at 25-26 °C, and inspiratory C4 ventral root activity was monitored. Membrane potentials of respiratory neurons were recorded in the parafacial region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Bath application of eugenol (0.5-1 mM) decreased respiratory rhythm accompanied by strong inhibition of the burst activity of pre-inspiratory neurons. After washout, respiratory rhythm partly recovered, but the inspiratory burst duration was extremely shortened, and this continued for more than 60 min after washout. The shortening of C4 inspiratory burst by eugenol was not reversed by capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) or HC-030031 (TRPA1 antagonist), whereas the depression was partially blocked by GABA A antagonist bicuculline and glycine antagonist strychnine or GABA B antagonist phaclofen. A spike train of action potentials in respiratory neurons induced by depolarizing current pulse was depressed by application of eugenol. Eugenol decreased the negative slope conductance of pre-inspiratory neurons, suggesting blockade of persistent Na + current. These results suggest that changes in both membrane excitability and synaptic connections are involved in the shortening of respiratory neuron bursts by eugenol.

  2. Uncovering effective strategies for hearing loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Thais C.; Meinke, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health agencies, researchers and policy makers have recognized the need for evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce or prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. While many workplaces comply with legal or obligatory requirements and implement recommended interventions, few publications exist documenting the effectiveness of these actions. Additionally, some workplaces have discovered through their own processes, novel ways to reduce the risk of injury. Peer-reviewed information on the effectiveness of the many strategies and approaches currently in use could help correct weaknesses, or further encourage their adoption and expansion. The evaluation of intervention effectiveness would certainly contribute to improved worker health and safety. This need is particularly relevant regarding noise exposure in the workplace and hearing loss prevention interventions. In a 2006 review of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hearing Loss Research Program, the independent National Academies of Sciences recommended that NIOSH place greater emphasis on identifying the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention measures on the basis of outcomes that are as closely related as possible to reducing noise exposure and work related hearing loss (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11721). NIOSH used two different approaches to address that recommendation: the first one was to conduct research, including broad systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. The second was to create an award program, the Safe-In-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award™, to identify and honor excellent real-world examples of noise control and other hearing loss prevention practices and innovations. PMID:27397968

  3. Respiratory health effects of ultrafine and fine particle exposure in cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strak, M.M.; Boogaard, H.; Meliefste, K.; Oldenwening, M.; Zuurbier, M.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Monitoring studies have shown that commuters are exposed to high air pollution concentrations, but there is limited evidence of associated health effects. We carried out a study to investigate the acute respiratory health effects of air pollution related to commuting by bicycle. METHODS:

  4. [Effects of smoking on the cellular mechanisms in the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Devastating effects of smoking on the respiratory system are commonly acknowledged. However, detailed knowledge of the responsible mechanisms is insufficient to allow early diagnosis and effective treatment of the smoking-related pathologies. This paper presents a review of key processes occuring in the smokers' lungs, particularly these responsible for the persistent inflammatory response and neoplastic transformation.

  5. Effects of particulate matter on respiratory disease and the impact of meteorological factors in Busan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Woo-Seop; Jo, Hyun-Young; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Eom, Jung-Seop; Mok, Jeong-Ha; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwangha; Kim, Ki-Uk; Lee, Min-Ki; Park, Hye-Kyung

    2017-03-01

    Both air pollution and weather impact hospitalization for respiratory diseases. However, few studies have investigated the contribution of weather to hospitalization related to the adverse effects of air pollution. This study analyzed the effects of particulate matter (PM) on daily respiratory-related hospital admissions, taking into account meteorological factors. Daily hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (acute bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma) between 2007 and 2010 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Corporation, Korea. Patients were divided into three age-based groups (0-15, 16-64, and ≥65 years). PM levels were obtained from 19 monitoring stations in Busan. The mean number of patients admitted for acute bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma was 5.8 ± 11.9, 4.4 ± 6.1, and 3.3 ± 3.3, respectively. During that time, the daily mean PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were 49.6 ± 20.5 and 24.2 ± 10.9 μg/m 3 , respectively. The mean temperature anomaly was 7.0 ± 2.3 °C; the relative humidity was 62.0 ± 18.0%. Hospital admission rates for respiratory diseases increased with increasing PM and temperature, and with decreasing relative humidity. A multivariate analysis including PM, temperature anomaly, relative humidity, and age showed a significant increase in respiratory-related admissions with increasing PM levels and a decreasing relative humidity. Higher PM 2.5 levels had a greater effect on respiratory-related hospital admission than did PM 10 levels. Children and the elderly were the most susceptible to hospital admission for respiratory disease. PM levels and meteorological factors impacted hospitalization for respiratory diseases, especially in children and the elderly. The effect of PM on respiratory diseases increased as the relative humidity decreased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effectiveness of youth crime prevention

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth (N = 101) aged 12 to 19 years were randomly assigned to NP and care as usual (CAU). New Perspectives proved not to be more effective than other existing youth care services. However, the time to re-...

  7. [Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo

    2008-02-01

    Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.

  8. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K; Kida, S; Kishi, K; Sato, K; Dobashi, S; Takeda, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  9. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kida, S [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai City, Miyagi (Japan); Kishi, K; Sato, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  10. The consumption of propolis and royal jelly in preventing upper respiratory tract infections and as dietary supplementation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Yuksel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propolis and royal jelly (RJ, two important honeybee products, have been used commonly all over the World as traditional and ethnopharmacological nutrients since ancient times. Both of them have a lot of active ingredients, which are known to be effective for several medical conditions. In this article, medical databases were searched for the usage of RJ and propolis in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI and as a dietary supplementation, together and separately. 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA is the most prominent active compound showing antimicrobial effect within RJ. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is the most famous one that shows antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect within propolis. When compared with propolis, RJ was found to have richer content for all three main nutrients; proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. More clinical, experimental, and basic studies are needed to find out the best-standardized mixture to cope with URTI in which RJ and propolis will be main ingredients in addition to the other secondary compounds that have health-beneficial effects. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 308-311

  11. The cost-effectiveness of OM-85 in managing respiratory tract infections in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jianwei; Wang, Lijie; Yin, Hongjun; Xuan, Dennis; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Shanlian

    2015-03-01

    To demonstrate the health economic impact of OM-85, a bacterial lysates based immunostimulant, for its approved indications in China. A cost-effectiveness decision tree model was constructed comparing OM-85 with the best supportive care/placebo therapy for managing the acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and rhinosinusitis in the Chinese population. Clinical efficacy and adverse events (AE) data were included in the model based on a thorough literature review. All localized direct treatment costs, including drug cost, AE costs, and medical treatment costs for underlining diseases were included from a Chinese third party payer perspective. A Key Opinion Leaders (KOL) survey was conducted with 20 senior physicians specialized in respiratory, ENT, allergy, and immunology fields from tertiary hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Shenyang, and Wuhan to validate the local treatment costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated based on the above efficacy and cost information. OM-85 is a cost-effective therapy when compared with placebo (standard care). OM-85 can treat/prevent one additional full episode exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and one additional full episode exacerbation of rhinosinusitis with only additional costs of RMB 653 and RMB 1182.84, respectively. In comparison, each acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis will cost RMB 4510.10, and each acute exacerbation of rhinosinuisitis will cost RMB 1807.21 in a Chinese clinical management setting. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed and the ICER result was demonstrated to be consistent. OM 85 reduces acute exacerbations among patients with chronic bronchitis and chronic rhinosinusitis when compared with Placebo (standard care). From a Chinese payer perspective, OM 85 is a cost-effective therapy in the clinical management of both chronic bronchitis and rhinosinusitis in the adult population.

  12. The Effect of Respiratory Muscle Training on Fin-Swimmers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vašíčková, Kateřina Neumannová, Zbyněk Svozil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although respiratory muscle functions can influence swimming performance, respiratory muscle training (RMT is not routinely used for improving fin-swimmers´ performance. The aim of our study was to verify the benefit of a one month of RMT in young fin-swimmers. We assessed the effect of this training on respiratory muscles and on maximal underwater swimming distance. 28 fin-swimmers were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG and a control group (CG. The study finished with 20 fin-swimmers (EG: n = 12; average age 12.0; weight 47.4 kg; height 1.58 m; CG: n = 8; age 11.5; weight 49.6 kg; height 1.53 m. Both group performed regular swimming training, during which the EG used Threshold PEP (positive expiratory pressure and IMT (inspiratory muscle trainer for RMT for one month. After one-month washout period, the CG also performed RMT. RMT showed significant improvement of inspiratory muscles in both groups (Z = ; p < 0.05. Significant improvement was observed also in apnoea (AP max (ZCG = 2.03; p < 0.05; ZEG=2.93; p < 0.01. A long-term effect was observed in the respiratory muscle strength and AP max in the EG (ZEG = 2.52; p < 0.05. RMT in fin-swimmers improves both respiratory muscle strength and the performance in AP max.

  13. Indoor air pollutants in residential settings : respiratory health effects and remedial measures to minimize exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, B.M. [Small and Fleming Ltd., Georgetown, ON (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    The Ontario Lung Association's Movement for Clean Air Now (CAN DO) program focuses on educating the population about the possible adverse health effects of indoor air pollutants. The program is aimed at providing information on how to minimize exposure to pollutants in homes. This report presents an overview of the current understanding of, and recent developments in, specific indoor air quality issues and the extent to which they are know to present a risk to the respiratory health of the population, particularly the residential setting. Indoor air pollutants were assessed individually from a respiratory health perspective. The report describes the health problems associated with dampness, mould, bacteria, viruses, dust mites, cockroach antigen, animal dander, environmental tobacco smoke, products of combustion, products of emissions, radon, pesticides, and particulate matter. Each pollutant varies in nature, along with their potential respiratory effects, the degree of risk and the means of reducing exposure. Adverse respiratory health risks resulting from indoor pollutants can usually be reduced or eliminated by simple and practical measures such as eliminating dampness and water leakage, mould removal, sealing of soil gas entry points, cessation of smoking, and proper ventilation. the causal links between specific indoor pollutant exposures and specific adverse respiratory health symptoms was also examined. refs.

  14. Outcome of strict implementation of infection prevention control measures during an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bushra, Hassan E; Al Arbash, Hussain A; Mohammed, Mutaz; Abdalla, Osman; Abdallah, Mohamed N; Al-Mayahi, Zayid K; Assiri, Abdallah M; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz A

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the impact of implementation of different levels of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures during an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The setting was an emergency room (ER) in a large tertiary hospital and included primary and secondary MERS patients. Rapid response teams conducted repeated assessments of IPC and monitored implementation of corrective measures using a detailed structured checklist. We ascertained the epidemiologic link between patients and calculated the secondary attack rate per 10,000 patients visiting the ER (SAR/10,000) in 3 phases of the outbreak. In phase I, 6 primary cases gave rise to 48 secondary cases over 4 generations, including a case that resulted in 9 cases in the first generation of secondary cases and 21 cases over a chain of 4 generations. During the second and third phases, the number of secondary cases sharply dropped to 18 cases and 1 case, respectively, from a comparable number of primary cases. The SAR/10,000 dropped from 75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 55-99) in phase I to 29 (95% CI, 17-46) and 3 (95% CI, 0-17) in phases II and III, respectively. The study demonstrated salient evidence that proper institution of IPC measures during management of an outbreak of MERS could remarkably change the course of the outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  16. Infection control and prevention practices implemented to reduce transmission risk of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus in a tertiary care institution in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Taimur S; Koutlakis-Barron, Irene; AlJumaah, Suliman; AlThawadi, Sahar; AlMofada, Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among health care workers (HCWs) and patients has been documented with mortality rate approximating 36%. We propose advanced infection control measures (A-IC) used in conjunction with basic infection control measures (B-IC) help reduce pathogen transmission. B-IC include standard and transmission-based precautions. A-IC are initiatives implemented within our center to enhance effectiveness of B-IC. Study effectiveness of combining B-IC and A-IC to prevent transmission of MERS-CoV to HCWs. A retrospective observational study was undertaken. A-IC measures include administrative support with daily rounds; infection control risk assessment; timely screening, isolation, and specimen analysis; collaboration; epidemic planning; stockpiling; implementation of contingency plans; full personal protective equipment use for advanced airway management; use of a real-time electronic isolation flagging system; infection prevention and control team on-call protocols; pretransfer MERS-CoV testing; and education. A total of 874 real-time polymerase chain reaction MERS-CoV tests were performed during the period beginning July 1, 2013, and ending January 31, 2015. Six hundred ninety-four non-HCWs were tested, of these 16 tested positive for MERS-CoV and their infection was community acquired. Sixty-nine percent of the confirmed MERS-CoV-positive cases were men, with an average age of 56 years (range, 19-84 years). Of the total tested for MERS-CoV, 180 individuals were HCWs with zero positivity. Adhering to a combination of B-IC and A-IC reduces the risk of MERS-CoV transmission to HCWs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of programs to prevent school bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Farrington, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying

  18. Effect of Antenatal Steroids on Respiratory Morbidity of Late Preterm Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontela, Vijaya; Dorairajan, Gowri; Bhat, Vishnu B; Chinnakali, Palanivel

    2018-01-22

    The objective of this article was to study the effect of antenatal dexamethasone on the respiratory morbidity of late preterm newborns. A randomized controlled trial, conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in collaboration with Neonatology department at JIPMER, India. In total, 155 women were studied in each group. Intention to treat analysis and per protocol analysis were done. Overall 31 (10%) newborns were admitted to intensive care unit. The composite respiratory morbidity (defined as respiratory distress syndrome and/or transient tachypnea of newborn) was observed in 64 (41.6%) infants in the study and 56 (36.2%) infants in the control group. On multivariable-adjusted analysis, use of steroids was not found to be associated with decrease in composite respiratory morbidity [adjusted relative risk 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.7-1.2)]. Antenatal dexamethasone does not reduce the composite respiratory morbidity of babies born vaginally or by emergency cesarean to women with late preterm labor. © The Author(s) [2018]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Rubini; Gerardo, Bosco; Alessandra, Lodi; Lorenzo, Cenci; Andrea, Parmagnani; Keith, Grimaldi; Yang, Zhongjin; Antonio, Paoli

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point. A significant decrease (p diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet. The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

  20. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradee Asa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the association between prevalence of respiratory symptoms and independent variables. The average 24 hrs PM10 and VOCs concentrations from 2011-2014 in area A were significantly higher than in area C (p < 0.05. Relatively, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in area A were high with odds ratios (OR = 3.41, (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.70-6.85 and in area B with OR = 1.36, (95% CI = 0.54-3.45, in comparison to area C. The prevalent of non-specific respiratory diseases (NSRD and Persistent Cough and Phlegm (PCP in boy student were higher than girls students with OR=2.17, (95%CI=1.33-3.53, whereas those factors such as age, residential years, home size, parental smoking habits, use of air conditioners and domestic pets were not associated. Exposure to particulate matter and volatile organic compounds arising from Industrial sites was associated with worse respiratory impairments in children.

  1. Population pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation of the respiratory effect of acetazolamide in decompensated COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Heming

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients may develop metabolic alkalosis during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Acetazolamide is one of the treatments used to reverse metabolic alkalosis.619 time-respiratory (minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate and 207 time-PaCO2 observations were obtained from 68 invasively ventilated COPD patients. We modeled respiratory responses to acetazolamide in mechanically ventilated COPD patients and then simulated the effect of increased amounts of the drug.The effect of acetazolamide on minute ventilation and PaCO2 levels was analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect model. The effect of different ventilatory modes was assessed on the model. Only slightly increased minute ventilation without decreased PaCO2 levels were observed in response to 250 to 500 mg of acetazolamide administered twice daily. Simulations indicated that higher acetazolamide dosage (>1000 mg daily was required to significantly increase minute ventilation (P0.75 L min(-1 in 60% of the population. The model also predicts that 45% of patients would have a decrease of PaCO2>5 mmHg with doses of 1000 mg per day.Simulations suggest that COPD patients might benefit from the respiratory stimulant effect after the administration of higher doses of acetazolamide.

  2. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karam, O; Gebistorf, F; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    on mortality in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We included all randomised, controlled trials, irrespective of date of publication, blinding status, outcomes reported or language. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity......Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but its role remains controversial. Our primary objective in this systematic review was to examine the effects of inhaled nitric oxide administration......% CI) 1.59 (1.17-2.16)) with inhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to support inhaled nitric oxide in any category of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome despite a transient improvement in oxygenation, since mortality is not reduced and it may...

  3. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  4. [Effect of industrial pollutants on mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, L

    1978-01-01

    A survey of literature on upper respiratory tract diseases in workers exposed to irritating and toxic substances in industry has been presented. The effects of dusts of cotton, wood, rock-salt, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, ammonia and fluorine compounds have been discussed.

  5. Cleaning products and short-term respiratory effects among female cleaners with asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaya, D.; Mirabelli, M.C.; Gimeno, D.; Antó, J.M.; Delclos, G.L.; Rivera, M.; Orriols, R.; Arjona, L.; Burgos, F.; Zock, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the short-term effects of exposure to cleaning products on lung function and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaning women. Methods: Twenty-one women with current asthma and employed as professional cleaners participated in a 15-day panel study. During 312

  6. Elimination of the Respiratory Effect on the Thoracic Impedance Signal with Whole-body Impedance Cardiography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Viščor, Ivo; Lipoldová, J.; Plachý, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2010), s. 1051-1054 ISSN 0276-6574 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200650801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : respiratory effect * thoracic impedance signal * impedance cardiography Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/2010/pdf/1051.pdf

  7. Effects of pacifier and taste on swallowing, esophageal motility, transit, and respiratory rhythm in human neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, T R; Sitaram, S; Jadcherla, S R

    2016-04-01

    Pacifier use is widely prevalent globally despite hygienic concerns and uncertain mechanistic effects on swallowing or airway safety. The effects of pacifier and taste interventions on pharyngo-esophageal motility, bolus transit, and respiratory rhythms were investigated by determining the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, esophagogastric junction (EGJ) motor patterns and deglutition apnea, respiratory rhythm disturbances, and esophageal bolus clearance. Fifteen infants (six males; median gestation 31 weeks and birth weight 1.4 kg) underwent high-resolution impedance manometry at 43 (41-44) weeks postmenstrual age. Manometric, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of spontaneous swallows, pacifier-associated dry swallowing and taste (pacifier dipped in 3% sucrose)-associated swallowing were analyzed. Linear mixed and generalized estimating equation models were used. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, %, or median (IQR). Pharyngo-esophageal motility, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of 209 swallows were analyzed (85 spontaneous swallows, 63 pacifier- swallows, 61 taste- swallows). Basal UES and EGJ pressures decreased upon pacifier (p pacifier or taste interventions decreases UES and EGJ basal pressure, but has no effects on pharyngo-esophageal motility, airway interactions, or esophageal bolus transit. A decrease in central parasympathetic-cholinergic excitatory drive is likely responsible for the basal effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF EXOGENOUS SURFACTANT IN RABBITS WITH SEVERE RESPIRATORY-FAILURE - THE EFFECT OF VOLUME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBLEEK, J; PLOTZ, FB; VANOVERBEEK, FM; HEIKAMP, A; BEEKHUIS, H; WILDEVUUR, CRH; OKKEN, A; OETOMO, SB

    The transient effect of surfactant therapy that is observed in some patients might, at least in part, be explained by a nonhomogeneous distribution. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of a surfactant preparation (Alvofact, 45 g/L) that is used clinically. Rabbits with severe respiratory

  9. Biological effects of desert dust in respiratory epithelial cells and a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract As a result of the challenge of recent dust storms to public health, we tested the postulate that desert dust collected in the southwestern United States could impact a biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells and an animal model. Two samples of surface sedime...

  10. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan. The measurable characteristics of green structure include the largest patch percentage, landscape proportion, aggregation, patch distance, and fragmentation. The results showed that mortality of pneumonia and chronic lower respiratory diseases could be reduced by minimizing fragmentation and increasing the largest patch percentage of green structure, and the mediation effects are mostly through reducing air pollutants rather than temperature. Moreover, a high proportion of but fragmented green spaces would increase secondary air pollutants and enhance health risks; demonstrating the deficiency of traditional greening policy with primary focus on coverage ratio. This is the first research focusing on mediation effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality, revealing that appropriate green structure planning can be a useful complementary strategy in environmental health management.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination of dutch elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, K.; Meijboom, M.; Luytjes, W.; Hak, E.; Postma, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity, mortality and health-care resource use in the elderly. Therefore we determined whether there are specific levels of vaccine cost and effectiveness for which a hypothetical RSV-vaccine for

  12. Effects on asthma and respiratory allergy of Climate change and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; De Martino, Annamaria; Viegi, Giovanni; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The major changes to our world are those involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, with impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate changes on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, like meteorological variables, airborne allergens and air pollution. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy, mainly in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could be also considered an effect of air pollution and climate changes. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last five decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. Scientific societies should be involved in advocacy activities, such as those realized by the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD).

  13. Valproic acid mitigates the inflammatory response and prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome in a murine model of Escherichia coli pneumonia at the expense of bacterial clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasotakis, George; Galvan, Manuel; King, Elizabeth; Sarkar, Beda; Stucchi, Arthur; Mizgerd, Joseph P; Burke, Peter A; Remick, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are members of a family of epigenetic modifying agents with broad anti-inflammatory properties. These anti-inflammatory properties may have important therapeutic implications in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, administration of HDACI may create an immunosuppressive environment conducive to bacterial growth. Accordingly, the aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of HDACI valproic acid (VPA) on host inflammatory response and bacterial burden in a murine model of Escherichia coli pneumonia-induced ARDS. ARDS was induced in male C57BL6 mice (n = 24) by endotracheal instillation of 3 × 10 E. coli. VPA (250 mg/kg) was administered 30 minutes after E. coli instillation in the intervention group. Blood samples were collected at 3 and 6 hours, and animals were sacrificed at 6 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and tissue specimens were harvested. Cytokine levels were measured in blood and BAL, and so was transalveolar protein transit. Cell counts and colony forming units were quantified in BAL fluid. VPA reduced neutrophil influx into the lungs and local tissue destruction through decreased myeloperoxidase activity. It also ameliorated the pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response. This led to greater bacterial proliferation in the pulmonary parenchyma. Administration of VPA in a clinically relevant bacterial model of murine ARDS mitigates the host inflammatory response, essentially preventing ARDS, but creates an immunosuppressive environment that favors bacterial overgrowth.

  14. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  15. Effects of respiratory muscle endurance training on wheelchair racing performance in athletes with paraplegia: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; Perret, C.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) has been shown to improve both respiratory muscle and cycling exercise endurance in able-bodied subjects. Since effects of RMET on upper extremity exercise performance have not yet been investigated, we evaluated the effects of RMET on 10-km

  16. Preventive effect of dexketoprofen on postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelir, İsmail Kerem; Güleç, Sacit; Ceyhan, Dilek

    2016-04-01

    Preventive analgesia has been defined as reduction in noxious stimuli during preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. The aim of the present study was to prevent central sensitization by administering ketamine infusion throughout the surgical procedure. In addition, possible preventive effects of dexketoprofen when administered before and after incision were evaluated. Fifty patients were included. Group I was administered 50 mg intravenous dexketoprofen prior to surgical incision, and Group II received the same amount 10 minutes after the incision had been made. Following induction of general anesthesia, all patients received a bolus of 0.50 mg/kg ketamine in 0.07 mg/kg/h intravenous infusion. When postoperative visual analog scale values were compared, values for Group I after 1 and 4 hours were significantly lower than those of Group II. In addition, morphine consumption at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours was significantly lower in Group I. Combined with the prevention of central sensitization with ketamine, administration of dexketoprofen prior to incision led to a lower rate of morphine consumption and more effective analgesia than post-incision administration.

  17. Acute effects of dokha smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems among UAE male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rizwana B; Abdul Haque, Noor Mohammad; Abdul Hadi Khalil Al Mohsen, Hassan; Abdul Hadi Khalil Al Mohsen, Ali; Haitham Khalaf Humadi, Marwa; Zaki Al Mubarak, Zainab; Mathew, Elsheba; Al Sharbatti, Shatha

    2012-01-01

    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) tobacco use is rampant. A less reported, yet widely used form of smoking native to UAE is midwakh or dhokha. The aim of the study is to assess the acute effects of smoking dokha (Arabian pipe) on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems among male university students in the UAE. A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 97 male volunteers aged more than 17 years. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate of each participant, were measured before and immediately after smoking. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect personal details and data about smoking pattern. Mean increases in systolic blood pressures (12±1 mmHg), heart rates (20±2 bpm) and respiratory rates (4±1 breaths/min) were observed (pSmoking dokha has a significant acute effect on systolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate. Anti smoking campaigns must address the ill effects of this form of smoking. Results from the study warrant further research into this method of smoking which is becoming more popular.

  18. The effectiveness of heliox in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study histopathologically indicated the effectiveness of heliox in the decreasing of neutrophil infiltation, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and HM formation in ARDS. Besides the known effect of heliox in obstructive lung disease, inhaled heliox therapy could be associated with the improvement of inflamation in ARDS.

  19. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Hillary A

    2014-11-03

    Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of toxic stress necessitates individual, community and national focus.

  20. VITAMIN D EFFECTS ON LUNG IMMUNITY AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Hansdottir, Sif; Monick, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of vitamin D metabolism and biological effects has grown exponentially in recent years and it has become clear that vitamin D has extensive immunomodulatory effects. The active vitamin D generating enzyme, 1α-hydroxylase, is expressed by the airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells and lymphocytes indicating that active vitamin D can be produced locally within the lungs. Vitamin D generated in tissues is responsible for many of the immunomodulatory actions of...

  1. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Ianthe; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-24

    To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute risk reduction of 15% (95% confidence interval 7% to 22%) and a number needed to treat of 7

  2. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Design Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Setting Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Participants 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Interventions Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. Results The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute

  3. Evaluation of inflammatory reactions and genotoxic effects after exposure of nasal respiratory epithelia to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosepath, Jan; Grebneva, Nina; Brieger, Juergen; Mann, Wolf J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify inflammatory changes as well as genotoxic effects in cultivated human respiratory epithelial cells after in vitro exposure to benzene. Primary cell cultures of nasal respiratory mucosa were exposed to synthetic air enriched with 5,000 microg/m(3) of benzene at an air/liquid interface over 8 h and then to synthetic air only over the following 24 h. Controls were continuously exposed to synthetic air over 32 h. To detect inflammatory reactions, release of prostaglandin E(2) was quantified using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. The Comet Assay was used to quantify the ratio of apoptotic cells with benzene-induced DNA fragmentation. Prostaglandin release as well as DNA fragmentation increased after 8 h of exposure and remained elevated throughout the following 24 h but did not increase in controls. High concentrations of benzene induce an inflammatory response and possibly fragmentation of DNA in respiratory epithelial cells. These findings have to be discussed with respect to possible mutagenic or carcinogenic effects of benzene in nasal respiratory cells. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Effect of relative humidity on the aerodynamic diameter and respiratory deposition of fungal spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Tiina; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Reponen, Auvo; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    Exposure to airborne fungal spores may cause respiratory symptoms. The hygroscopicity of airborne spores may significantly affect their aerodynamic diameter, and thus change their deposition pattern in the human respiratory tract. We have investigated the change in aerodynamic diameter of five different fungal species as a function of relative humidity. Liquid and dry dispersion methods were explored for the aerosolization of the fungal spores. A new system that produces non-aggregated spore aerosol directly from a moldy surface was designed and found suitable for this study. The spores were aerosolized from a mold growth on agar by ducting dry air over the surface, and spore chains in the flow were broken up by passing the entire flow through a critical orifice. Size-spectrometric measurements with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer showed that the aerodynamic diameter of the tested fungal spores does not change significantly when the relative humidity increases from 30% to 90%. A more distinct spore size increase was found at a relative humidity of ˜ 100%. The highest change of the aerodynamic diameter was found with Cladosporium cladosporioides: it increased from 1.8 μm to 2.3 μm when the relative humidity increased from 30% to ˜ 100%. The size increase corresponds to an approximate doubling of the particle volume. In order to estimate the effect of hygroscopic growth on the respiratory deposition of spores, the mean depositions in the human respiratory tract were calculated for fungal spores with various size changes due to hygroscopic growth. A recently developed model of the International Commission of Radiological Protection was used for the respiratory deposition calculations. We found that the 27% increase in Cladosporium size results in a 20-30% increase in the respiratory deposition of these spores. We conclude that most fungal spores are only slightly hygroscopic and the hygroscopic increase does not significantly affect their respiratory deposition. Our

  5. Respiratory impedance in healthy unsedated South African infants: effects of maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Diane; Czövek, Dorottya; Smith, Emilee; Willemse, Lauren; Alberts, Ane; Gingl, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Hantos, Zoltán

    2015-04-01

    Non-invasive techniques for measuring lung mechanics in infants are needed for a better understanding of lung growth and function, and to study the effects of prenatal factors on subsequent lung growth in healthy infants. The forced oscillation technique requires minimal cooperation from the individual but has rarely been used in infants. The study aims to assess the use of the forced oscillation technique to measure the influence of antenatal exposures on respiratory mechanics in unsedated infants enrolled in a birth cohort study in Cape Town, South Africa. Healthy term infants were studied at 6-10 weeks of age using the forced oscillation technique. Respiratory impedance was measured in the frequency range 8-48 Hz via a face mask during natural sleep. Respiratory system resistance, compliance and inertance were calculated from the impedance spectra. Of 177 infants tested, successful measurements were obtained in 164 (93%). Median (25-75%) values for resistance, compliance and inertance were 50.2 (39.5-60.6) cmH2 O.s.L(-1), 0.78 (0.61-0.99) mL.cmH2 O(-1) and 0.062 (0.050-0.086) cmH2 O.s(2) .L(-1), respectively. As a group, male infants had 16% higher resistance (P = 0.006) and 18% lower compliance (P = 0.02) than females. Infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy had a 19% lower compliance than infants not exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy (P = 0.005). Neither maternal HIV infection nor ethnicity had a significant effect on respiratory mechanics. The forced oscillation technique is sensitive enough to demonstrate the effects of tobacco smoke exposure and sex in respiratory mechanics in healthy infants. This technique will facilitate assessing perinatal influences of lung function in infancy. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Effect of four resuscitation methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest

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    Ya-hua LIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of four cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest. The four CPR methods included chest compression CPR (C-CPR, compression under the diaphragm CPR (D-CPR, abdominal compression CPR (A-CPR, and abdominal wall lifting and compression CPR (L-CPR. Methods  A total of 28 healthy domestic pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The pig respiratory arrest model was reproduced by intravenous injection of suxamethonium. Instantly after respiratory arrest, one of the 4 CPR methods was performed immediately on the groups of pigs respectively. After 2min of CPR, compression was stopped. The experimental pigs were given assisted respiration using a ventilator until autonomous respiration recovered. The tidal volume (VT in basic status and that during resuscitation by the four respective resuscitation methods was determined, and minute ventilation (MV was calculated. Furthermore, heart rate (HR, mean arterial blood pressure, and recovery time of autonomous respiration were compared between all the groups. Results In basic status, there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05 in VT and MV between the four groups. Approximately 2min after resuscitation, the VT and MV of D-CPR were higher than that of C-CPR; that of A-CPR was higher than that of D-CPR; and that of L-CPR was higher than that of A-CPR. The differences were statistically significant (P 0.05. HR in C-CPR and D-CPR were notably lower than the basic value (P < 0.01. Two minutes after resuscitation, mechanical ventilation was given, and HR in all the groups was close to the basic value 5 min after resuscitation. In the respiratory arrest pig model, L-CPR could provide more effective VT and MV than the other methods. Conclusion For the porcine respiratory arrest model, L-CPR can provide more effective lung ventilation than the other methods.

  7. Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections Prevenção das infecções pelo vírus sincicial respiratório

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    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory illness in infants and children worldwide. By the age of 2 years, nearly every child has become infected with respiratory syncytial virus and re-infections are common throughout life. Most infections are mild and can be managed at home, but this virus causes serious diseases in preterm children, especially those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Respiratory syncytial virus has also been recognized as an important pathogen in people with immunossupressive and other underlying medical problems and institutionalizated elderly, causing thousands of hospitalizations and deaths every year. The burden of these infections makes the development of vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus highly desirable, but the insuccess of a respiratory syncytial virus formalin-inactivated vaccine hampered the progress in this field. To date, there is no vaccine available for preventing respiratory syncytial virus infections, however, in the last years, there has been much progress in the understanding of immunology and immunopathologic mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus diseases, which has allowed the development of new strategies for passive and active prophylaxis. In this article, the author presents a review about novel approaches to the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections, such as: passive immunization with human polyclonal intravenous immune globulin and humanized monoclonal antibodies (both already licensed for use in premature infants and children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and many different vaccines that are potential candidates for active immunization against respiratory syncytial virus.Em todo o mundo, o vírus sincicial respiratório é o principal agente de infecções agudas das vias aéreas baixas em lactentes jovens e crianças. Aos dois anos de idade, praticamente todas as crianças já foram infectadas, e as reinfeções são comuns

  8. Study protocol: the effects of air pollution exposure and chronic respiratory disease on pneumonia risk in urban Malawian adults--the Acute Infection of the Respiratory Tract Study (The AIR Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jary, Hannah; Mallewa, Jane; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Faragher, Brian; Heyderman, Robert; Peterson, Ingrid; Gordon, Stephen; Mortimer, Kevin

    2015-08-20

    Pneumonia is the 2nd leading cause of years of life lost worldwide and is a common cause of adult admissions to hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. Risk factors for adult pneumonia are well characterised in developed countries, but are less well described in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is a major contributing factor. Exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution is high, and tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the contribution of these factors to the burden of chronic respiratory diseases in sub-Saharan Africa remains poorly understood. Furthermore, the extent to which the presence of chronic respiratory diseases and exposure to air pollution contribute to the burden of pneumonia is not known. The Acute Infection of the Respiratory Tract Study (The AIR Study) is a case-control study to identify preventable risk factors for adult pneumonia in the city of Blantyre, Malawi. Cases will be adults admitted with pneumonia, recruited from Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, the largest teaching hospital in Malawi. Controls will be adults without pneumonia, recruited from the community. The AIR Study will recruit subjects and analyse data within strata defined by positive and negative HIV infection status. All participants will undergo thorough assessment for a range of potential preventable risk factors, with an emphasis on exposure to air pollution and the presence of chronic respiratory diseases. This will include collection of questionnaire data, clinical samples (blood, urine, sputum and breath samples), lung function data and air pollution monitoring in their home. Multivariate analysis will be used to identify the important risk factors contributing to the pneumonia burden in this setting. Identification of preventable risk factors will justify research into the effectiveness of targeted interventions to address this burden in the future. The AIR Study is the first study of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in which air pollution exposure

  9. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their fever and other symptoms are gone. Hand hygiene is the most important part of SARS prevention. ... Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  11. Respiratory distress in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Suzanne; Moser, Chuanpit; Baack, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory distress presents as tachypnea, nasal flaring, retractions, and grunting and may progress to respiratory failure if not readily recognized and managed. Causes of respiratory distress vary and may not lie within the lung. A thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic and laboratory findings will aid in the differential diagnosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, neonatal pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Strong evidence reveals an inverse relationship between gestational age and respiratory morbidity. (1)(2)(9)(25)(26) Expert opinion recommends careful consideration about elective delivery without labor at less than 39 weeks’ gestation. Extensive evidence, including randomized control trials, cohort studies, and expert opinion, supports maternal group B streptococcus screening, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and appropriate followup of high-risk newborns according to guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (4)(29)(31)(32)(34) Following these best-practice strategies is effective in preventing neonatal pneumonia and its complications. (31)(32)(34). On the basis of strong evidence, including randomized control trials and Cochrane Reviews, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (5) and postnatal surfactant (6) decrease respiratory morbidity associated with RDS. Trends in perinatal management strategies to prevent MAS have changed. There is strong evidence that amnioinfusion, (49) oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning at the perineum, (45) or intubation and endotracheal suctioning of vigorous infants (46)(47) do not decrease MAS or its complications. Some research and expert opinion supports endotracheal suctioning of nonvigorous meconium-stained infants (8) and induction of labor at 41 weeks’ gestation (7) to prevent MAS.

  12. Smokefree legislation effects on respiratory and sensory disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando-Matos, Yolanda; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; López, María José; Córdoba, Rodrigo; Ballve-Moreno, José Luis; Puigdomènech-Puig, Elisa; Benito-López, Vega Estíbaliz; Arias-Agudelo, Olga Lucía; López-Grau, Mercè; Guardia-Riera, Anna; Trujillo, José Manuel; Martin-Cantera, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize the available evidence in scientific papers of smokefree legislation effects on respiratory diseases and sensory and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, red eyes, runny nose) among all populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search between January 1995 and February 2015 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1) original scientific studies about smokefree legislation, 2) Data before and after legislation were collected, and 3) Impact on respiratory and sensory outcomes were assessed. Paired reviewers independently carried out the screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction from full-text articles, and methodological quality assessment. A total number of 1606 papers were identified. 50 papers were selected, 26 were related to symptoms (23 concerned workers). Most outcomes presented significant decreases in the percentage of people suffering from them, especially in locations with comprehensive measures and during the immediate post-ban period (within the first six months). Four (50%) of the papers concerning pulmonary function reported some significant improvement in expiratory parameters. Significant decreases were described in 13 of the 17 papers evaluating asthma hospital admissions, and there were fewer significant reductions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions (range 1-36%) than for asthma (5-31%). Six studies regarding different respiratory diseases showed discrepant results, and four papers about mortality reported significant declines in subgroups. Low bias risk was present in 23 (46%) of the studies. Smokefree legislation appears to improve respiratory and sensory symptoms at short term in workers (the overall effect being greater in comprehensive smokefree legislation in sensory symptoms) and, to a lesser degree, rates of hospitalization for asthma.

  13. Effect of mechanical pressure-controlled ventilation in patients with disturbed respiratory function during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Šurbatović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard for laparoscopic surgical procedures. In ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases, however, creation of pneumoperitoneum and the position of patients during surgery exert additional negative effect on intraoperative respiratory function, thus making a higher challenge for the anesthesiologist than for the surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV and pressure controlled ventilation (PCV during general anesthesia on respiratory function in ASA III patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. The study included 60 patients randomized into two groups depending on the mode of ventilation: IPPV or PCV. Respiratory volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, compliance (C, end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2, oxygen saturation (SpO2, partial pressures of O2, CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2 and pH of arterial blood were recorded within four time intervals. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in VT, SpO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values neither within nor between the two groups. In time interval t1 there were no statistically significant differences in PIP, C, PETCO2 values between the IPPV and the PCV group. But, in the next three time intervals there was a difference in PIP, C, and PETCO2 values between the two groups which ranged from statistically significant to highly significant; PIP was lower, C and PETCO2 were higher in the PCV group. Conclusion. Pressure controlled ventilation better maintains stability regarding intraoperative ventilatory parameters in ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  14. Respiratory health effect of persons accidentally expose to high concentration of chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierakul, Nitipatana; Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Passaranon, Prachya; Chamchod, Charttiwut; Suntiwuth, Bralee

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the short term and long term respiratory health effects of subjects who accidentally exposed to high concentration of chlorine gas. There was an accidental leakage of sodium hypochlorite from an industrial factory in Rayong province in June 2010. Medical records of those who developed severe symptoms after exposed to high concentration of chlorine gas were reviewed. Prospective observational study was conducted after hospital discharge by interviewing with respiratory health questionnaires, physical examination, spirometry, methacholine challenge test, and home peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring at 2, 5 and 8 months after the event. Among 1,434 persons exposed to chlorine gas, 92 developed severe symptoms required hospital admission and 21 participated in the follow-up study at 2 months there after. Respiratory symptoms were noted in 18 participants. Three most common symptoms were dyspnea (81%), chest tightness (71%), and cough (67%). Obstructive defect from spirometry was identified in 2 participants, one of which also had bronchial hyper responsiveness (BHR) compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Seven participants had abnormal PEF variability. There were 10 and 5 participants left in the follow-up visit at 5 and 8 months respectively. Two participants had persistent obstructive defect with additional two subjects were noticed. Those who had BHR and abnormal PEF variability remained unchanged. Acute exposure to high concentration of chlorine gas causes both significant short and long term respiratory health effects. Most of the patients although have gradual improvement of respiratory symptoms, but some symptoms remain persistent. Few patients have lung function impairment lasting for at least 8 months.

  15. Smokefree legislation effects on respiratory and sensory disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Rando-Matos

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize the available evidence in scientific papers of smokefree legislation effects on respiratory diseases and sensory and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, red eyes, runny nose among all populations.Systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search between January 1995 and February 2015 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1 original scientific studies about smokefree legislation, 2 Data before and after legislation were collected, and 3 Impact on respiratory and sensory outcomes were assessed. Paired reviewers independently carried out the screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction from full-text articles, and methodological quality assessment.A total number of 1606 papers were identified. 50 papers were selected, 26 were related to symptoms (23 concerned workers. Most outcomes presented significant decreases in the percentage of people suffering from them, especially in locations with comprehensive measures and during the immediate post-ban period (within the first six months. Four (50% of the papers concerning pulmonary function reported some significant improvement in expiratory parameters. Significant decreases were described in 13 of the 17 papers evaluating asthma hospital admissions, and there were fewer significant reductions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions (range 1-36% than for asthma (5-31%. Six studies regarding different respiratory diseases showed discrepant results, and four papers about mortality reported significant declines in subgroups. Low bias risk was present in 23 (46% of the studies.Smokefree legislation appears to improve respiratory and sensory symptoms at short term in workers (the overall effect being greater in comprehensive smokefree legislation in sensory symptoms and, to a lesser degree, rates of hospitalization for

  16. The effect of body cooling on respiratory system mechanics and hysteresis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; El-Mazloum, Dania; Morra, Francesco; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-10-01

    Literature reports and theoretical considerations suggest that body cooling may affect respiratory mechanics in vivo. To examine this hypothesis, healthy rats were studied using the end-inflation occlusion method under control conditions and after total body cooling. Respiratory mechanics parameters, hysteresis areas, the inspiratory work of breathing, and its elastic and resistive components, were calculated. After body cooling (mean rectal temperature from 36.6 ± 0.25 to 32.1 ± 0.26 °C), the ohmic and the additional visco-elastic respiratory system resistances, the hysteresis, the total inspiratory work of breathing, and its resistive components, were all increased. No significant changes were detected for the static and dynamic respiratory system elastance mean values, and the related elastic component of the work of breathing. These data indicate that body cooling increases the mechanical inspiratory work of breathing by increasing the resistive pressures dissipation. This effect is evident even for limited temperature variations, and it is suggested that it may occur in the event of accidental or therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of buprenorphine on the cardiovascular and respiratory response to visceral pain in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafford, Heidi L; Schadt, James C

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of buprenorphine administration on the cardiovascular and respiratory responses to noxious colorectal distension in conscious rabbits. Prospective experimental trial. Fifteen healthy, young adult New Zealand white rabbits (eight female). Experiments were performed on conscious rabbits that were instrumented with intraabdominal arterial and venous catheters, and diaphragmatic and abdominal electromyographic electrodes. Colorectal distension was achieved by inflation of an acutely placed colorectal balloon catheter until mean arterial pressure increased 10-15 mmHg. Buprenorphine (0.06 mg) or saline was administered intravenously prior to, or during colorectal distension. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, abdominal electromyographic activity, and intra-balloon pressure were monitored. In the absence of colorectal distension, buprenorphine increased arterial blood pressure and decreased respiratory rate but did not change heart rate. Colorectal distension increased arterial blood pressure and heart rate, and decreased respiratory rate. The increase in arterial blood pressure associated with colorectal distension was attenuated following preemptive buprenorphine, but was not changed by buprenorphine administered during distension. If cardiovascular changes reflect the intensity of noxious stimulation, then these results support the preemptive administration of buprenorphine for visceral analgesia.

  18. Efficacy of Chistonos for Children in the Treatment and Prevention of Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Preschool Children

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    I.V. Dahaieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex of treatment of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI, acute rhinitis in 43 preschool children was supplemented by endonasal irrigations of Chistonos for children, which is a dosing gel spray containing sea salt, β-carotene, aloe and calendula extracts. A marked local symptomatic relief was registered, as well as an acceleration of the regression of inflammatory changes in the nasal cavity and a significant decrease in the number of complications after acute respiratory disease. Prophylactic use of the product in the preseason allowed to decrease the ARVI (including influenza morbidity rate and to reduce the incidence of the severe form of the disease.

  19. Pleiotropic effects of statins in stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability, and contributes substantially to healthcare budgets. The lipid-lowering drugs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylgulutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor or statins, reducing mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Statins therefore have a place in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that statins may exert vascular protective effect beyond cholesterol reduction. The cholesterol-independet or “pleiotropic” effects of statin include the upregulation and activation of endothelial nitric acid synthase (eNOS that can increase nitric oxide (NO production. Augmentation of NO production increases cerebral blood flow, which can lead to neuroprotection during brain ischaemia. By inhibiting mevalonate synthesis, statins prevent the formation of several isoprenoids (including farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. Inhibiting geranylgeranylation of RhoA small G proteins increases the stability of eNOS mRNA through the remodeling of endothelial actin microfilamens. Moreover, statins directly increase eNOS activity within minutes by activating the pathway involving phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B. In the secondary prevention of stroke, the use of statins reduces the incidence of either recurrent stroke or other major vascular events and treatment should be initiated soon after the event. The use of statins does not increase hemorrhagic stroke or cancer and may also favor atherosclerotic plaque regression.

  20. Pleiotropic effects of statins in stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Yenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability, and  contributes substantially to healthcare budgets. The lipid-lowering drugs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylgulutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor or statins, reducing mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Statins therefore have a place in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that statins may exert vascular protective effect beyond cholesterol reduction. The cholesterol-independet or “pleiotropic” effects of statin include the upregulation and activation of endothelial nitric acid synthase (eNOS that can increase nitric oxide (NO production. Augmentation of NO production increases cerebral blood flow, which can lead to neuroprotection during brain ischaemia. By inhibiting mevalonate synthesis, statins prevent the formation of several isoprenoids (including farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. Inhibiting geranylgeranylation of RhoA small G proteins increases the stability of eNOS mRNA through the remodeling of endothelial actin microfilamens. Moreover, statins directly increase eNOS activity within minutes by activating the pathway involving phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B. In the secondary prevention of stroke, the use of statins reduces the incidence of either recurrent stroke or other major vascular events and treatment should be initiated soon after the event. The use of statins does not increase hemorrhagic stroke or cancer and may also favor atherosclerotic plaque regression.

  1. Modulation of the acute respiratory effects of winter air pollution by serum and dietary antioxidants : a panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L; Hoek, G; Boezen, HM; van't Veer, P; Brunekreef, B

    This study investigated whether a high dietary intake or serum concentration of antioxidant (pro-) vitamins could attenuate the acute respiratory effects of air pollution in panels of adults (n=227) aged 50-70 yrs with chronic respiratory symptoms in two winters starting in 1993/1994. Subjects

  2. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  3. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically s......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases.......The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically...... residing either in the westernized environment of Denmark or in the rural area of Greenland. Our results showed that lung function was associated with genetic variants in ORMDL3, with polymorphisms having a significant interaction with place of residence. LT-α SNP rs909253 and rs1041981 were significantly...

  4. Computational Investigation of Dynamic Glottal Aperture Effects on Respiratory Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yan, Hong; Dong, Haibo

    2008-11-01

    The periodic movement of the glottal aperture (vocal folds) during tidal breathing has been long recognized as a factor in altering the airflow dynamics in the tracheobrnchial region. The potential influence from these altered flow structures on the transport and deposition of inhaled particles is not known. However, studies devoted to this dynamic physiological feature are scarce due to the complex anatomy in of the larynx and numerical challenges in simulating dynamic geometries. In this study, a high-fidelity immersed boundary solver is used to investigate this problem. A 3D human oral-larynx-lung model is firstly reconstructed from MRI data. The role of the vocal fold movement and associated airflow characteristics such as vortex shedding, Coanda effect etc. during inhalation and exhalation are then numerically studied.

  5. Antiviral effect of cimicifugin from Cimicifuga foetida against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Chih; Chang, Jung-San; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious infection of the lower respiratory tract in children and an effective antiviral therapy against the viral pathogen remains unavailable. We previously demonstrated that the oriental medicinal plant, Cimicifuga foetida L. (C. foetida), possessed inhibitory activity against RSV. Since cimicifugin is a major constituent of C. foetida, we sought to examine in this study its anti-RSV effect on both the human upper (HEp-2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Results revealed that cimicifugin dose-dependently inhibited RSV-induced plaque formation in both HEp-2 and A549 cells (p < 0.0001), with a superior effect in the latter cell type (p < 0.0001). The antiviral activity of cimicifugin was time-dependent (p < 0.0001) and was most effective when cells were treated with the compound before viral inoculation. Additional experiments demonstrated that cimicifugin could inhibit viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and viral internalization (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the drug could potentiate heparin's effect against attachment of RSV, particularly in A549 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of antiviral cytokines induction revealed that cimicifugin could also stimulate epithelial cells to secrete IFN-β to counteract viral infection. Taken together, these results indicate that cimicifugin is an efficient antiviral agent against RSV infection. We suggest that cimicifugin might be useful for the management of RSV pathogenesis.

  6. The effect of mouthguard design on respiratory function in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Dieter P; Williamson, Raymond A; Wallman, Karen E; Dawson, Brian T

    2011-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that 2 types of custom-made mouthguards will have no effect on ventilation (.V(E), L·min⁻¹), oxygen uptake (.VO₂, mL·kg⁻¹·min·⁻¹), and heart rate (beats per minutes) at varying exercise intensities (10 km·h⁻¹ and 12 km·h⁻¹) and at subjective maximal effort (.VO₂peak) in male field hockey and water polo players. A randomized, prospective, crossover study. The Physiology Testing Laboratory, School of Sports Science, Exercise and Health at the University of Western Australia, a tertiary educational institution. Twenty-seven male team-sport athletes. Each athlete participated in 3 experimental exercise sessions separated by 1-week intervals. Testing involved a graded exercise test (GXT) performed on a treadmill wearing either a custom laminated mouthguard with normal palatal surface, a custom laminated mouthguard with palatal coverage up to the gingival margin, or no mouthguard. The experimental trials were performed in a random counterbalanced order. .V(E) (L·min⁻¹) and .VO₂ (mL·kg⁻¹·min·⁻¹) were measured during the GXT at intensities that equated to 10 km·h⁻¹, 12 km·h⁻¹ and subjective maximal effort (.VO₂peak). There were no significant differences between trials for .V(E) (L·min⁻¹) and .VO₂ (mL·kg⁻¹·min·⁻¹) at any of the intensities assessed (P < 0.05). The wearing of 2 different custom-made mouthguards during a GXT did not impair .V(E) or .VO₂ during varying levels of exercise intensity in team sport athletes.

  7. Effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael S; Cummings, Sabrina L; Payton, Mark E

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 52 brachycephalic and 53 nonbrachycephalic dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were exposed to a cool treatment (temperature, 21.8 ± 1.7°C [71.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 62.2 ± 9.7%; and ambient enthalpy, 47.7 ± 6.6 kcal/kg) and then a hot treatment (temperature, 32.9 ± 1.7°C [91.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 51.9 ± 9.8%; and ambient enthalpy, 74.8 ± 8.7 kcal/kg; heat stress) at least 1 hour later. For each treatment, dogs were allowed to acclimatize to the environment for 15 minutes and then were placed in a sealed whole-body plethysmograph for continuous measurement of the respiratory pattern for 10 minutes. Treatment was discontinued if a dog developed signs of respiratory distress. Respiratory variables and body temperature were compared between the 2 breed types (brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic) and between treatments. RESULTS Body condition score was positively associated with body temperature independent of environmental conditions or breed type and negatively associated with tidal volume. Brachycephalic dogs had a greater increase in respiratory rate in response to heat stress than did nonbrachycephalic dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that brachycephalic dogs had decreased capacity for thermoregulation, compared with nonbrachycephalic dogs, but body condition score was a greater determinant of body temperature than breed type. Nevertheless, both upper airway conformation and body condition score should be considered when evaluating whether an individual dog is capable of tolerating heat stress.

  8. Determinants of Noninvasive Ventilation Outcomes during an Episode of Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Effects of Comorbidities and Causes of Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilli, Angela Maria Grazia; Valentini, Ilaria; Carbonara, Paolo; Marchetti, Antonio; Nava, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of the cause of acute respiratory failure and the role of comorbidities both acute and chronic on the outcome of COPD patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) with acute respiratory failure and treated with NIV. Design. Observational prospective study. Patients and Methods. 176 COPD patients consecutively admitted to our RICU over a period of 3 years and treated with NIV were evaluated. In all patients demographic, clinical, and functional parameters were recorded including the cause of acute respiratory failure, SAPS II score, Charlson comorbidity index, and further comorbidities not listed in the Charlson index. NIV success was defined as clinical improvement leading to discharge to regular ward, while exitus or need for endotracheal intubation was considered failure. Results. NIV outcome was successful in 134 patients while 42 underwent failure. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher SAP II score, Charlson index, prevalence of pneumonia, and lower serum albumin level in the failure group. Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant predictive value for pneumonia and albumin. Conclusions. The most important determinants of NIV outcome in COPD patients are the presence of pneumonia and the level of serum albumin as an indicator of the patient nutritional status. PMID:24563868

  9. Respiratory Effects of Sarafotoxins from the Venom of Different Atractaspis Genus Snake Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Malaquin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarafotoxins (SRTX are endothelin-like peptides extracted from the venom of snakes belonging to the Atractaspididae family. A recent in vivo study on anesthetized and ventilated animals showed that sarafotoxin-b (SRTX-b, extracted from the venom of Atractaspis engaddensis, decreases cardiac output by inducing left ventricular dysfunction while sarafotoxin-m (SRTX-m, extracted from the venom of Atractaspis microlepidota microlepidota, induces right ventricular dysfunction with increased airway pressure. The aim of the present experimental study was to compare the respiratory effects of SRTX-m and SRTX-b. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. They received either a 1 LD50 IV bolus of SRTX-b (n = 5 or 1 LD50 of SRTX-m (n = 5. The low-frequency forced oscillation technique was used to measure respiratory impedance. Airway resistance (Raw, parenchymal damping (G and elastance (H were determined from impedance data, before and 5 min after SRTX injection. SRTX-m and SRTX-b injections induced acute hypoxia and metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap. Both toxins markedly increased Raw, G and H, but with a much greater effect of SRTX-b on H, which may have been due to pulmonary edema in addition to bronchoconstriction. Therefore, despite their structural analogy, these two toxins exert different effects on respiratory function. These results emphasize the role of the C-terminal extension in the in vivo effect of these toxins.

  10. Respiratory Effects of Sarafotoxins from the Venom of Different Atractaspis Genus Snake Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquin, Stéphanie; Bayat, Sam; Abou Arab, Osama; Mourier, Gilles; Lorne, Emmanuel; Kamel, Saïd; Dupont, Hervé; Ducancel, Frédéric; Mahjoub, Yazine

    2016-01-01

    Sarafotoxins (SRTX) are endothelin-like peptides extracted from the venom of snakes belonging to the Atractaspididae family. A recent in vivo study on anesthetized and ventilated animals showed that sarafotoxin-b (SRTX-b), extracted from the venom of Atractaspis engaddensis, decreases cardiac output by inducing left ventricular dysfunction while sarafotoxin-m (SRTX-m), extracted from the venom of Atractaspis microlepidota microlepidota, induces right ventricular dysfunction with increased airway pressure. The aim of the present experimental study was to compare the respiratory effects of SRTX-m and SRTX-b. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. They received either a 1 LD50 IV bolus of SRTX-b (n = 5) or 1 LD50 of SRTX-m (n = 5). The low-frequency forced oscillation technique was used to measure respiratory impedance. Airway resistance (Raw), parenchymal damping (G) and elastance (H) were determined from impedance data, before and 5 min after SRTX injection. SRTX-m and SRTX-b injections induced acute hypoxia and metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap. Both toxins markedly increased Raw, G and H, but with a much greater effect of SRTX-b on H, which may have been due to pulmonary edema in addition to bronchoconstriction. Therefore, despite their structural analogy, these two toxins exert different effects on respiratory function. These results emphasize the role of the C-terminal extension in the in vivo effect of these toxins. PMID:27409637

  11. Confronting the effects of smoking and air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W.; Krzyzanowski, M.W.; Wojtyniak, B.

    1985-08-01

    The main purpose of the paper was to compare the effects of outdoor and indoor air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases measured in the prospective study of chronic chest diseases among the inhabitants of Cracow, Poland. The 5-year follow-up study covered a probability sample of 4355 adult inhabitants. Data on respiratory symptoms and lung function in addition to variables related to environmental and socioeconomic factors were included. To assess the separate and joint effects of the chosen environmental factors on chronic chest problems, the multiple logistic regression analysis has been carried out. As expected, smoking habit was the strongest single of the factors related to the persistence of the respiratory symptoms. The effect of smoking was more marked in men than in women and this can be attributed to longer duration of smoking and more cigarettes smoked daily by men. Out of all considered adverse occupational factors only chemicals increased the risk of chronic bronchitis in men while dust increased the risk of exacerbations in women. The data showed a significant decrease in risk of exacerbations among the women who used a gas stove for cooking. The study also confirmed the harmful effect of smoking on lung function. Against this particular background the importance of variable temperature combined with ambient air pollution appeared to have rather strong detrimental biologic impact.

  12. Effect of a combination of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T; Sakai, J; Ogata, Y; Urushiyama, Y

    1996-08-01

    Clinical effect of the administration of thiamphenicol (TP) and tylosin (TS) on bovine respiratory disease was investigated. Group I (n = 64) were administered TP (10 mg/kg) and TS (4 mg/kg), group II (n = 26) were given TP (5 mg/kg) and TS (2 mg/kg). For the control, TP group (n = 25) were given 20 mg/kg of TP and ampicillin group (n = 23) were given 10 mg/kg of ampicillin. As a result, improvement of clinical findings was more rapid and the cure rate was significantly higher in group I compared to those in the other 3 groups. These results showed that a combination therapy with minimal basic doses of TP and TS is very effective for some respiratory diseases in cattle.

  13. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in i...

  14. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il; Jee, Young-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, an...

  15. Sublingual immunotherapy in children and its potential beneficial collateral effect on respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occasi, Francesca; De Castro, Giovanna; Zicari, Anna Maria; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Tancredi, Giancarlo; Duse, Marzia

    2015-05-01

    Although directed to the control of allergic symptoms, a possible effect of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) on susceptibility to infections has been hypothesized. Two hundred sixty-five children aged between 3 and 4 years of age affected by allergic rhinitis completed a 6 year prospective case-control study. One hundred forty-three children after 2 years of SLIT reported a lower prevalence of respiratory tract infections when compared to children not undergoing SLIT.

  16. Central respiratory and circulatory effects of Gymnodinium breve toxin in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borison, Herbert L.; Ellis, Sydney; McCarthy, Lawrence E.

    1980-01-01

    1 In cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone, observations were made on respiration, spontaneous and evoked diaphragmatic electromyograms, blood pressure, heart rate, indirectly-induced contractions of the anterior tibialis muscle and nictitating membrane, and electrical excitability of the inspiratory centre in the medulla oblongata. 2 Gymnodinium breve toxin (GBTX) was administered intravenously, intra-arterially to the brain, and intracerebroventricularly. Physiological effects were recorded while alveolar PCO2 was controlled at a constant level except when changes in gas tension were made in order to measure CO2-ventilatory responsiveness. 3 Adequate doses of GBTX given intravenously by bolus injection elicited a non-tachyphylactic reflex response triad of apnoea, hypotension and bradycardia mediated by the vagus nerves independently of arterial baroreceptor and chemoreceptor innervation. 4 After vagotomy, additional amounts of GBTX (i.v.) resulted in apneustic breathing, hypertension and tachycardia. The cardiovascular effects were abolished by ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium. 5 Smaller doses of GBTX were required intra-arterially and intracerebroventricularly than by the intravenous route of injection to produce respiratory irregularity and cardiovascular hyperactivity. 6 Evoked motor responses, electrical excitability of the medulla oblongata and CO2-ventilatory responsiveness were largely spared even though GBTX caused marked disturbances in respiratory rhythmicity and cardiovascular functions. 7 It is concluded that GBTX acts reflexly on vagally innervated receptors to evoke a Bezold-Jarisch effect but that the toxin further acts centrally to cause irregular breathholding and hypertension with tachycardia, leading ultimately to respiratory and circulatory failure. PMID:7191740

  17. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Tiwari, Pawan

    2018-03-01

    The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India. More than one million additional deaths can be attributed to household air pollution. Particulate matter with diameter 2.5 μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Targeting air quality standards laid by WHO can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. India is currently exposed to high levels of ambient and household air pollutants. Respiratory adverse effects of air pollution are significant contributors to morbidity and premature mortality in India. Substantial efforts are being made at legislative, administrative, and community levels to improve air quality. However, much more needs to be done to change the 'status quo' and attain the target air quality standards. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A24.

  18. Comparison of different degrees of variability in tidal volume to prevent deterioration of respiratory system elastance in experimental acute lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, T; Silva, P L; Huhle, R; Moraes, L; Santos, R S; Felix, N S; Santos, C L; Morales, M M; Capelozzi, V L; Kasper, M; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M; Rocco, P R M

    2016-05-01

    Variable ventilation improves respiratory function, but it is not known whether the amount of variability in tidal volume (VT) can be reduced in recruited lungs without a deterioration of respiratory system elastance. Acute lung inflammation was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide in 35 Wistar rats. Twenty-eight animals were anaesthetized and ventilated in volume-controlled mode. Lungs were recruited by random variation of VT (mean 6 ml kg(-1), coefficient of variation 30%, normal distribution) for 30 min. Animals were randomly assigned to different amounts of VT variability (n=7 for 90 min per group): 30, 15, 7.5, or 0%. Lung function, diffuse alveolar damage, and gene expression of biological markers associated with cell mechanical stress, inflammation, and fibrogenesis were assessed. Seven animals were not ventilated and served as controls for post-mortem analyses. A VT variability of 30%, but not 15, 7.5, or 0%, prevented deterioration of respiratory system elastance [Mean (SD) -7.5 (8.7%), Prespiratory system elastance and was not associated with lung histological damage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effects of exposure to ambient ultrafine particles on respiratory health and systemic inflammation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sam; Mazaheri, Mandana; Salimi, Farhad; Ezz, Wafaa Nabil; Yeganeh, Bijan; Low-Choy, Samantha; Walker, Katy; Mengersen, Kerrie; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia

    2018-03-04

    It is known that ultrafine particles (UFP, particles smaller than 0.1 μm) can penetrate deep into the lungs and potentially have adverse health effects. However, epidemiological data on the health effects of UFP is limited. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that exposure to UFPs is associated with respiratory health status and systemic inflammation among children aged 8 to 11 years. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 655 children (43.3% male) attending 25 primary (elementary) schools in the Brisbane Metropolitan Area, Australia. Ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC) was measured at each school and modelled at homes using Land Use Regression to derive exposure estimates. Health outcomes were respiratory symptoms and diagnoses, measured by parent-completed questionnaire, spirometric lung function, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and serum C reactive protein (CRP). Exposure-response models, adjusted for potential personal and environmental confounders measured at the individual, home and school level, were fitted using Bayesian methods. PNC was not independently associated with respiratory symptoms, asthma diagnosis or spirometric lung function. However, PNC was positively associated with an increase in CRP (1.188-fold change per 1000 UFP cm -3 day/day (95% credible interval 1.077 to 1.299)) and an increase in FeNO among atopic participants (1.054 fold change per 1000 UFP cm -3 day/day (95% CrI 1.005 to 1.106)). UFPs do not affect respiratory health outcomes in children but do have systemic effects, detected here in the form of a positive association with a biomarker for systemic inflammation. This is consistent with the known propensity of UFPs to penetrate deep into the lung and circulatory system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of singing on respiratory function, voice, and mood after quadriplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Grocke, Denise; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of singing training on respiratory function, voice, mood, and quality of life for people with quadriplegia. Randomized controlled trial. Large, university-affiliated public hospital, Victoria, Australia. Participants (N=24) with chronic quadriplegia (C4-8, American Spinal Injury Association grades A and B). The experimental group (n=13) received group singing training 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The control group (n=11) received group music appreciation and relaxation for 12 weeks. Assessments were conducted pre, mid-, immediately post-, and 6-months postintervention. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, assessments of voice quality (Perceptual Voice Profile, Multidimensional Voice Profile), and Voice Handicap Index, Profile of Mood States, and Assessment of Quality of Life instruments. The singing group increased projected speech intensity (P=.028) and maximum phonation length (P=.007) significantly more than the control group. Trends for improvements in respiratory function, muscle strength, and recruitment were also evident for the singing group. These effects were limited by small sample sizes with large intersubject variability. Both groups demonstrated an improvement in mood (P=.002), which was maintained in the music appreciation and relaxation group after 6 months (P=.017). Group music therapy can have a positive effect on not only physical outcomes, but also can improve mood, energy, social participation, and quality of life for an at-risk population, such as those with quadriplegia. Specific singing therapy can augment these general improvements by improving vocal intensity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory Effects of Thoracic Load Carriage Exercise and Inspiratory Muscle Training as a Strategy to Optimize Respiratory Muscle Performance with Load Carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Ren-Jay; Chapman, Robert F; Gruber, Allison H; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2017-12-01

    Many occupational and recreational settings require the use of protective and/or load-bearing apparatuses worn over the thoracic cavity, known as thoracic load carriage (LC). Compared to normal, unloaded exercise, thoracic LC exercise places an additional demand on the respiratory and limb locomotor systems by altering ventilatory mechanics as well as circulatory responses to exercise, thus accelerating the development of fatigue in the diaphragm and accessory respiratory muscles compared to unloaded exercise. This may be a consequence of the unique demands of thoracic LC, which places an additional mass load on the thoracic cavity and can restrict chest wall expansion. Therefore it is important to find effective strategies to ameliorate the detrimental effects of thoracic LC. Inspiratory muscle training is an intervention that aims to increase the strength and endurance of the diaphragm and accessory inspiratory muscle and may therefore be a useful strategy to optimize performance with thoracic LC.

  2. [Interactive effects of environmental tobacco smoke and pets ownership on respiratory diseases and symptoms in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-qin; Liu, Miao-miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-hui; Gao, Feng; Dong, Guang-hui

    2013-02-01

    Over the past few decades, secondhand smoke exposure among children become more serious and with China's implementation of the national policy of family planning and the family structure change, domestic pet has gradually become popular. This survey aimed to investigate the interactive effects of pet ownership and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on children's respiratory diseases and symptoms. Using a cluster random sampling method, 5 elementary schools and 10 kindergartens were randomly selected from each district of Shenyang, and all children from the selected schools were recruited in this survey. The information about the children's respiratory diseases, conditions of pets ownership and ETS exposure were collected by an international standard questionnaire from American Thoracic Society. A total of 9679 questionnaires were distributed to all the students enrolled in the selected schools, and 8798 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 90.9%. Finally, 8733 questionnaires were used for further analysis. The results showed that the number of the patients and the prevalence of persistent cough, persistent phlegm, doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinitis in children were 835 (9.57%), 366 (4.42%), 559 (6.40%), 215 (2.46%), 229 (2.62%), 397 (4.55%), respectively. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and other confounding factors, the results from the multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that either pet ownership or the ETS exposure significantly increased the risk of prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms in children. Compared with control group children, only the prenatal exposure to passive smoking or domestic pets made the risk of children with allergic rhinitis increased respectively 34% (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 0.99 - 1.80) and 106% (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.28 - 3.31), while the exposure of these two factors made the risk of children with allergic rhinitis increased

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Forensic Psychiatric Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makushkina O.A.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the quantitative indicators, the analysis of which gives an idea of the strengths and means at the disposal of forensic health care. We discuss the possibility of using the existing statistical monitoring system for a dynamic assessment of the quality of the measures for primary prevention of socially dangerous acts and implementation of compulsory medical measures at the regional and federal levels. We emphasize the quality indicators of the process for specialized assistance: security environment, organizational culture, training and upgrading the skills of staff, completeness and quality of psychosocial interventions, the degree of profiling the psycho-educational work, the quality of psychotherapeutic contact and its dynamics. We discuss the problem of the validity of the criteria of rehabilitation interventions success by compliance with the methodological principles for the evaluation of their effectiveness. We suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of regional mental health services for the prevention of socially dangerous acts, approaches to peer review and monitoring of the work

  4. THE ROLE OF SALIVARY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A IN THE PREVENTION OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ATHLETES – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Orysiak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes subjected to high work loads may experience temporary suppression of the functions in the immune system which increases the susceptibility to infections of such subjects. Namely, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI are the most common disorders among individuals subjected to high work loads and that issue is of utmost importance for sport immunologists. So far, no simple explanation has been offered as to the specific roles of detailed elements of the immune system in URTI incidence. One of the most likely markers is supposed to be the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, associated with mucosal membranes of upper respiratory  tracts, although the results are far from being unequivocal yet. The most important results published in that area were discussed in this paper.

  5. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  6. Effect of individualized physical rehabilitation programs on respiratory function in women with post-mastectomy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinets, Tatiana; Briskin, Yuriy; Pityn, Maryan

    2018-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized physical rehabilitation programs aimed at improving respiratory function in women with post-mastectomy syndrome. In a randomized controlled trial 50 women with post-mastectomy syndrome were enrolled in the experimental group (EG, n = 25) or the comparison group (CG, n = 25). The program for the EG included: aqua aerobics (i.e. aqua jogging, aqua building, and aqua stretching); conditional swimming; and recreational aerobics. The program for the CG included: conditional swimming and Pilates exercises. Both intervention groups attended individualized physical rehabilitation programs three times per week for 48 weeks. The primary outcome measure was spirometry of the patients measured before, 6 and 12 months after the intervention. This study demonstrated that most of the respiratory function parameters increased significantly in both groups over the year of exercise training. After the year of training the individualized physical rehabilitation program for the EG was significantly better (p < 0.01) as compared with the CG, except for inspiratory reserve volume and maximal voluntary ventilation, which were not statistically different. The results of the study suggest that individual programs of physical rehabilitation could be considered effective for the improvement of respiratory function of the patients with post-mastectomy syndrome. The results obtained could serve as a basis for more widespread clinical program development.

  7. The acute effects of Waterpipe smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, R B; Vijayaraghavan, N; Sulaiman, A S; Kazi, S; Shafi, M S Mohammed

    2008-09-01

    To assess the acute effects of smoking in Waterpipe (WP) smokers in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). 202 male volunteers aged > 17 years were included. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate values of each participant, before and after a 30 minute smoking session, were measured and compared. Standardized questionnaires were also answered. Mean increases in systolic blood pressure (16 +/- 1 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (2 +/- 0.7 mmHg), heart rate (6.30 +/- 0.60 bpm) and respiratory rate (2 +/- 2 breathes/min) were observed (p smoking (WPS) to be harmful to health and 77% of smokers took up WPS for reasons of leisure. Results from the questionnaire revealed a significant relationship between smokers' beliefs of WPS and attempts to quit smoking ie. smokers who believed waterpipe to be harmful were more likely to try to quit. Education had influence on smokers ideas on WPS. 69% of smokers who claimed hookah is harmful had university qualification and further 23% has highschool qualification. Smoking Waterpipe has significant effects on both the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Waterpipe smokers despite sound knowledge, show little concern towards health. Education plays an important role and creates awareness about the hazards of smoking practices, including Waterpipe.

  8. Retrospective observational study to investigate Sinerga, a multifactorial nutritional product, and bacterial extracts in the prevention of recurrent respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, A; Nicastro, A; Trodella, R

    2014-01-01

    In this retrospective observational clinical study, 167 children, aged 3 to 7 years, of both sexes, with a clinical history of recurrent respiratory infections, administered with bacterial extracts of first and second generation or Sinerga a nutritional product containing palmitoylethanolamide, bovine colostrum, phenylethylamine and the new generation of probiotic kluyveromyces FM B0399, were observed. The goal of the study was to compare the supplementation with Sinerga with the supplementation with bacterial extracts, for the effect on the frequency of episodes of respiratory infection that had resulted in a prescription for antibiotics. The study focused retrospectively on the months from March 2013 to November 2012. The results showed a greater reduction in the frequency of respiratory infections with antibiotic therapy in the group of children supplemented with Sinerga than in the group treated with bacterial extracts. In particular, it was observed that 49.3% of the children supplemented with Sinerga, against 5% of those supplemented with extracts, had no infectious episodes requiring the administration of an antibiotic. 100% of subjects supplemented with Sinerga have had no more than two episodes of respiratory infection, while this condition, in the cohort treated with bacterial extracts, was observed in only 51% of cases.

  9. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  10. Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Marks, Guy B.; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread health problem associated with respiratory symptoms. Continuous exposure monitoring was performed to estimate alveolar and tracheobronchial dose, measured as deposited surface area, for 103 children and to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to airborne particles through spirometry, skin prick tests and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). The mean daily alveolar deposited surface area dose received by children was 1.35 × 10 3 mm 2 . The lowest and highest particle number concentrations were found during sleeping and eating time. A significant negative association was found between changes in pulmonary function tests and individual dose estimates. Significant differences were found for asthmatics, children with allergic rhinitis and sensitive to allergens compared to healthy subjects for eNO. Variation is a child's activity over time appeared to have a strong impact on respiratory outcomes, which indicates that personal monitoring is vital for assessing the expected health effects of exposure to particles. -- Highlights: •Particle dose was estimated through personal monitoring on more than 100 children. •We focused on real-time daily dose of particle alveolar deposited surface area. •Spirometry, skin prick and exhaled Nitric Oxide tests were performed. •Negative link was found between changes in pulmonary functions and individual doses. •A child's lifestyle appeared to have a strong impact on health respiratory outcomes. -- The respiratory health effects of daily airborne particle dose on children through personal monitoring

  11. Effects of glucocorticoids and idebenone on respiratory function in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyse, Gunnar M; Goemans, Nathalie; van den Hauwe, Marleen; Meier, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) progressive weakness of respiratory muscles leads to a restrictive pulmonary syndrome that contributes to early morbidity and mortality. Currently no curative treatment exists for DMD. In a Phase II randomized placebo-controlled study (DELPHI) in 21 DMD boys at age 8-16 years, idebenone (450 mg/d) showed trends of efficacy for cardiac and respiratory endpoints. Since the DELPHI study population comprised both glucocorticoid-naïve subjects and glucocorticoid-users, we now report a post-hoc analysis investigating the effects of glucocorticoids and idebenone on markers of respiratory weakness, particularly peak expiratory flow (PEF) percent predicted (PEF%p). Baseline values of PEF%p correlated well with the percent predicted values for maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP%p), forced vital capacity (FVC%p), and forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1%p). Baseline PEF%p and FVC%p were significantly higher in patients on concomitant glucocorticoids compared to glucocorticoid-naïve patients. In the latter subgroup, idebenone caused a 8.0 ± 12.1% improvement in PEF%p, whilst patients on placebo declined by -12.3 ± 17.9% (P glucocorticoids, PEF%p remained stable (-0.4 ± 14.6%) in the idebenone group compared to a decline by -6.2 ± 12.4% (P = 0.24) in the placebo group. Idebenone showed a trend for efficacy on FVC%p only in glucocorticoid-naïve patients. Because of the study limitations, these data are exploratory and preclude any firm conclusions. In conclusion, PEF appears to be a sensitive respiratory function parameter that could be a valid and clinically relevant endpoint in intervention studies in DMD. In DELPHI the effect size of idebenone on PEF%p was significantly larger in steroid-naive patients, possibly indicating a maximum treatment effect reached by steroids or steroid-mediated suppression of idebenone's effects. The impact of standard care glucocorticoids on respiratory function will have

  12. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, S D; Abramson, P R

    1997-05-01

    The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and therefore provide only a lower bound on the true effectiveness of correct and consistent condom use. A reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%. Though imperfect, condoms provide substantial protection against HIV infection. Condom promotion therefore remains an important international priority in the fight against AIDS.

  13. Effects of High Frequency Chest Compression on Respiratory System Mechanics in Normal Subjects and Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Jones

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short term effects of high frequency chest compression (HFCC on several indices of respiratory system mechanics in normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF.

  14. Effects of Respiratory Muscle Warm-up on High-Intensity Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S. Thurston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise performance is partially limited by the functionality of the respiratory musculature. Training these muscles improves steady-state exercise performance. However, less is known about the efficacy of executing a respiratory muscle warm-up (RWU immediately prior to high-intensity exercise. Our study purpose was to use a practitioner-friendly airflow restriction device to investigate the effects of a high, medium, or low intensity RWU on short, high-intensity exercise and pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic function. Eleven recreationally active, males (24.9 ± 4.2 y, 178.8 ± 9.0 cm, 78.5 ± 10.4 kg, 13.4% ± 4.2% body fat cycled at 85% peak power to exhaustion (TTE following four different RWU conditions (separate days, in random order: (1 high; (2 medium; (3 low airflow inspiration restriction, or no RWU. When analyzed as a group, TTE did not improve following any RWU (4.73 ± 0.33 min. However, 10 of the 11 participants improved ≥25 s in one of the three RWU conditions (average = 47.6 ± 13.2 s, which was significantly better than (p < 0.05 the control trial (CON. Neither blood lactate nor perceived difficulty was altered by condition. In general, respiratory exchange ratios were significantly lower during the early stages of TTE in all RWU conditions. Our findings suggest RWU efficacy is predicated on identifying optimal inspiration intensity, which clearly differs between individuals.

  15. Prevention of Pneumococcal Infection in Children with Chronic Diseases of the Nasopharynx Reduces the Incidence of Other Respiratory Tract Infections: Results of a Comparative Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Vavilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A promising approach to solving the problem of widespread infections of the respiratory tract in children is the use ofspecific prophylaxis against the pneumococcus.Objective: Our aim was to examine the clinical efficacy of PCV13 of children with chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx and the changes of local factors of protection of the upper respiratory tract.Methods: We have evaluated the incidence of respiratory tract and ENT infections in children with chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. Research period: January 2011 — January 2015. Upper airway function examination included cytologic analysis — counting the main cell populations ratio in the common cytoplasm, lysozym activity and secretory immunoglobulin of class A (sIgA in nasal secretions.Results: The study involved 876 children 2–5 years old. Main group (PCV13 amounted to 448 patients, and the control group (unvaccinated 428. Annual dynamic observation showed a significant reduction of acute morbidity by 2 times (p < 0.001, pneumonia by 2.4 times (p = 0.042, acute bronchitis by 2.5 times (p = 0.008, concomitant ENT pathology (acute otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic sinusitis by 2.2 times (p = 0.001 and 2.3 times (p = 0.004, respectively. There was a positive effect of vaccination on the level of local factors of protection of the upper respiratory tract (lysozyme, sIgA, the somatic cell count in nasal secretions.Conclusion: PCV13 vaccination reduces the risk of developing acute respiratory infections and ENT infections in children with chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. This is against the background of recovery in the levels of factors of local immunity.

  16. Chest physiotherapy during anesthesia for children with cystic fibrosis: effects on respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E; Prasad, S A; Dinwiddie, R; Main, Eleanor

    2007-12-01

    Physiotherapists sometimes use elective surgical procedures for children with cystic fibrosis as an opportunity to perform physiotherapy treatments during anesthesia. These treatments theoretically facilitate direct endotracheal airway clearance and compensate for any post-operative respiratory deterioration related to the anaesthetic and surgery. MATERIALS, PATIENTS, AND METHODS: Children were randomized either to receive physiotherapy or not following anesthesia and intubation. Respiratory mechanics (C(rs) and R(rs)), tidal volume, and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) were measured immediately before and after physiotherapy. FEV(1) was measured before and after surgery and post-operative physiotherapy requirements were recorded. Eighteen patients, mean age 12 years (range 2.8-15 years) were recruited, with nine in each group. Both groups showed a non-significant decline in FEV(1) the day after surgery compared with pre-operative values (-5.8%: physiotherapy and -7.1%: control). Both PIP and R(rs) increased significantly following physiotherapy (within- and between-groups, P physiotherapy which approached significance between-groups (P = 0.07). There were no significant within- or between-group differences in tidal volume following treatment in either group. The unanticipated decline in respiratory function immediately following physiotherapy was short-lived and not discernible in longer term outcomes measured by FEV(1) or physiotherapy requirements post-operatively. If respiratory physiotherapy under anesthesia is considered necessary and the benefits of removing secretions are deemed to outweigh the short-term risks, it may be necessary for the anaesthetist to consider modifying ventilatory support to counteract any short-term negative effects of the treatment.

  17. Effective deployment of technology-supported management of chronic respiratory conditions: a call for stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Richard W; Dima, Alexandra L; Ryan, Dermot; McIvor, R Andrew; Boycott, Kay; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David; Blakey, John D

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems are under increasing strain, predominantly due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Connected healthcare technologies are becoming ever more capable and their components cheaper. These innovations could facilitate both self-management and more efficient use of healthcare resources for common respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, newer technologies can only facilitate major changes in practice, and cannot accomplish them in isolation. There are now large numbers of devices and software offerings available. However, the potential of such technologies is not being realised due to limited engagement with the public, clinicians and providers, and a relative paucity of evidence describing elements of best practice in this complex and evolving environment. Indeed, there are clear examples of wasted resources and potential harm. We therefore call on interested parties to work collaboratively to begin to realize the potential benefits and reduce the risks of connected technologies through change in practice. We highlight key areas where such partnership can facilitate the effective and safe use of technology in chronic respiratory care: developing data standards and fostering inter-operability, making collaborative testing facilities available at scale for small to medium enterprises, developing and promoting new adaptive trial designs, developing robust health economic models, agreeing expedited approval pathways, and detailed planning of dissemination to use. The increasing capability and availability of connected technologies in respiratory care offers great opportunities and significant risks. A co-ordinated collaborative approach is needed to realize these benefits at scale. Using newer technologies to revolutionize practice relies on widespread engagement and cannot be delivered by a minority of interested specialists. Failure to engage risks a costly and inefficient chapter in respiratory care.

  18. Effects of Asian sand dust particles on the respiratory and immune system.

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Akiko; Matsuda, Yugo; Murayama, Rumiko; Tsuji, Kenshi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Koike, Eiko; Yoshida, Seiichi; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that Asian sand dust (ASD) particles can affect respiratory health; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ASD on airway epithelial cells and immune cells, and their contributing factors to the effects. Human airway epithelial cells were exposed to ASD collected on 1-3 May (ASD1) and on 12-14 May (ASD2) 2011 in Japan and heat-treated ASD1 for excluding heat-sensitive substances (H-ASD) at a concentration of 0, 3, 30 or 90 µg ...

  19. Effect of abdominal muscle training on respiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory flows in sedentary, healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Navarro, Ximena; Gatica, Darwin; Manterola, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory muscle training is the most commonly used method to revert respiratory muscle weakness; however, the effect of protocols based on non-respiratory maneuvers has not been adequately studied in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of abdominal muscle training on respiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory flows in healthy adolescents. This was a quasi-experiment. The sample was made up of healthy adolescents divided into two groups: an experimental group who completed eight weeks of active abdominal muscle training, and an equivalent control group. The following indicators were measured: abdominal muscle strength, maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), peak expiratory flow, and peak cough flow, before and after protocol completion. A value of p abdominal muscle training, MEP and peak expiratory flow increased in healthy (sedentary) adolescents. Such effects were associated with intervention-induced increases in cough peak flow. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  20. Sex-specific respiratory effects of acute and chronic caffeine administration in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchi, Hayet; Uppari, NagaPraveena; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is widely used for the treatment of apnea of prematurity (AoP) but whether this effect varies with sex is unknown. To shed some light on this question, we present a summary of data obtained on the effects of caffeine on the respiratory chemoreflexes and apnea frequency in 1- and 12-days old male and female rats. Caffeine was either administered as a single acute injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) or for 10 consecutive days (7.5mg/kg/day between 3 and 12days of life by gavage, simulating its clinical use). Acute caffeine had little effects on breathing in 1-day old male and female rats. In 12-days old female rats caffeine reduced the response to hypercapnia (not hypoxia) compared to males. During the steady state of hypoxia females had a lower frequency of apneas than males, and acute injection of caffeine decreased the frequency of apnea, suppressing the differences between males and females. In 12-days old rats chronic administration of caffeine stimulated basal breathing and decreased the frequency of apnea similarly in males and females. In response to hypoxia, chronic caffeine administration also masked the difference in respiratory frequency between males and females observed in control rats. Female rats had lower frequency of apnea than males with or without caffeine treatment. These observations indicate that sex influences the respiratory responses to caffeine and this effect seems to depend on the modality of administration (acute vs chronic) and environmental oxygen (normoxia vs hypoxia). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TNF-308 modifies the effect of second-hand smoke on respiratory illness-related school absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenten, Madé; Berhane, Kiros; Rappaport, Edward B; Avol, Edward; Tsai, Wei-Wei; Gauderman, W James; McConnell, Rob; Dubeau, Louis; Gilliland, Frank D

    2005-12-15

    Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with increased risk of respiratory illness in children including respiratory illness-related school absences. The role of genetic susceptibility in risk for adverse effects from SHS has not been extensively investigated in children. To determine whether the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) G-308A genotype influences the risk for respiratory illness-related school absences associated with SHS exposure. Incident school absences were collected, using an active surveillance system, between January and June 1996, as part of the Air Pollution and Absence Study, a prospective cohort study nested in the Children's Health Study. Buccal cells and absence reports were collected on 1,351 students from 27 elementary schools in California. Illness-related school absences were classified as nonrespiratory and respiratory illness-related, which were further categorized into upper or lower respiratory illness-related absences based on symptoms. The effect of SHS exposure on respiratory illness-related absences differed by TNF genotype (p interaction, 0.02). In children possessing at least one copy of the TNF-308 A variant, exposure to two or more household smokers was associated with a twofold risk of a school absence due to respiratory illness (relative risk, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.34, 3.40) and a fourfold risk of lower respiratory illness-related school absence (relative risk, 4.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.57, 6.71) compared with unexposed children homozygous for the common TNF-308 G allele. These results indicate that a subgroup of genetically susceptible children are at substantially greater risk of respiratory illness if exposed to SHS.

  2. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  3. Evidence of effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing dental treatment use and related expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Choi, Moonkyung Kate; Chen, Xiao

    2018-02-06

    Preventive dental health services are intended to reduce the likelihood of development of tooth decay and the need for more intensive treatment overtime. The evidence on the effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing treatment services and expenditures is lagging for adults, particularly those with lower incomes and chronic conditions. We assessed the impact of preventive dental services on dental treatment service use and expenditures overall and by category of service. We calculated the annual numbers of preventive (periodic diagnostic and prophylactic procedures) and treatment (restorative, surgery, prosthodontic, endodontic, and periodontic) services per beneficiary using Medicaid enrollment and claims data for beneficiaries with three categories of conditions (diabetes, heart disease, and respiratory disease) from 10 largest California counties. We used Cragg hurdle exponential regression models controlling for past service use, demographics, length of enrollment, and county. We found that using preventive services in 2005-2007 was associated with higher likelihood and number of treatment dental services used, but associated with lower treatment expenditures in 2008. The reduction in expenditures was noted only in restorative, prosthodontics, and periodontic services. The findings provide much needed evidence of the contribution of preventive dental care in maintaining oral health of low-income adults with chronic conditions and potential for savings to the Medicaid program. Providing lower cost preventive dental care to the individuals with chronic conditions would achieve better oral health and lower treatment expenditures. © 2018 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Ensuring effective prevention of iodine-deficiency disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völzke, Henry; Caron, Philippe Jean; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs initiated to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) may not remain effective due to changes in government policies, commercial factors, and human behavior that may affect the efficacy of IDD prevention programs in unpredictable directions. Monitoring and outcome studies...

  5. Effects of pneumoperitoneal pressure and position changes on respiratory mechanics during laparoscopic colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Suk; Ahn, Eun Jin; Ko, Duk Dong; Kang, Hyun; Shin, Hwa Yong; Baek, Chong Hwa; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Kim, Jin Yun; Koo, Gill Hoi

    2012-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of pneumoperitoneal pressure (PP) and positional changes on the respiratory mechanics during laparoscopy assisted colectomy. Peak inspiratory pressure, plateau pressure, lung compliance, and airway resistance were recorded in PP of 10 mmHg and 15 mmHg, with the position change in 5 steps: head-down at 20°, head-down at 10°, neutral position, head-up at 10° and head-up at 20°. When the patient was placed head-down, the position change accentuated the effects of pneumoperitoneum on respiratory mechanics. However, when the patient was placed in a head-up position during pneumoperitoneum the results showed no pattern. In the 20° head-up position with the PP being 10 mmHg, the compliance increased from 30.6 to 32.6 ml/cmH(2)O compared with neutral position (P = 0.002). However with the PP being 15 mmHg, the compliance had not changed compared with neutral position (P = 0.989). In 20° head-down position with the PP of 10 mmHg, the compliance was measured as 24.2 ml/cmH(2)O. This was higher than that for patients in the 10° head-down position with a PP of 15 mmHg, which was recorded as 21.2 ml/cmH(2)O. Also in the airway resistance, the patient in the 20° head-down position with the PP of 10 mmHg showed 15.8 cmH(2)O/L/sec, while the patient in the 10° head-down position with the PP of 15 mmHg showed 16.2 cmH(2)O/L/sec of airway resistance. These results were not statistically significant but still suggested that the head-down position accentuated the effects of pneumoperitoneum on respiratory mechanics. Our results suggest that respiratory mechanics are affected by the patient position and the level of PP - the latter having greater effect.

  6. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research.

  7. Long-Term Burden and Respiratory Effects of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalization in Preterm Infants-The SPRING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; García, Laura Sanchez; Guzmán Cabañas, Juana M; Bòria, Elena Villarrubia; Atienza, Belén Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The health status of premature infants born 321-350 weeks' gestational age (wGA) hospitalized for RSV infection in the first year of life (cases; n = 125) was compared to that of premature infants not hospitalized for RSV (controls; n = 362) through 6 years. The primary endpoints were the percentage of children with wheezing between 2-6 years and lung function at 6 years of age. Secondary endpoints included quality of life, healthcare resource use, and allergic sensitization. A significantly higher proportion of cases than controls experienced recurrent wheezing through 6 years of age (46.7% vs. 27.4%; p = 0.001). The vast majority of lung function tests appeared normal at 6 years of age in both cohorts. In children with pulmonary function in the lower limit of normality (FEV1 Z-score [-2; -1]), wheezing was increased, particularly for cases vs. controls (72.7% vs. 18.9%, p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed the most important factor for wheezing was RSV hospitalization. Quality of life on the respiratory subscale of the TAPQOL was significantly lower (p = 0.001) and healthcare resource utilization was significantly higher (p<0.001) in cases than controls. This study confirms RSV disease is associated with wheezing in 32-35 wGA infants through 6 years of age.

  8. Long-Term Burden and Respiratory Effects of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalization in Preterm Infants-The SPRING Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Carbonell-Estrany

    Full Text Available The health status of premature infants born 321-350 weeks' gestational age (wGA hospitalized for RSV infection in the first year of life (cases; n = 125 was compared to that of premature infants not hospitalized for RSV (controls; n = 362 through 6 years. The primary endpoints were the percentage of children with wheezing between 2-6 years and lung function at 6 years of age. Secondary endpoints included quality of life, healthcare resource use, and allergic sensitization. A significantly higher proportion of cases than controls experienced recurrent wheezing through 6 years of age (46.7% vs. 27.4%; p = 0.001. The vast majority of lung function tests appeared normal at 6 years of age in both cohorts. In children with pulmonary function in the lower limit of normality (FEV1 Z-score [-2; -1], wheezing was increased, particularly for cases vs. controls (72.7% vs. 18.9%, p = 0.002. Multivariate analysis revealed the most important factor for wheezing was RSV hospitalization. Quality of life on the respiratory subscale of the TAPQOL was significantly lower (p = 0.001 and healthcare resource utilization was significantly higher (p<0.001 in cases than controls. This study confirms RSV disease is associated with wheezing in 32-35 wGA infants through 6 years of age.

  9. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafusco, Dario; Stoppoloni, Fabrizio; Salvia, Gennaro; Vernetti, Gilberto; Passaro, Patrizia; Petrovski, Goran; Prisco, Francesco

    2008-07-01

    Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where the last is the Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (RT-CGMS). In the last three years, 72 h continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) (Medtronic, CA) was performed in 18 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes in two moments of pregnancy: during treatment with betamethasone to prevent respiratory distress and during delivery. In both cases insulin was administered intravenous and the dose was changed on the basis of glycaemia. The results present the use of this new technique during two topics moments of pregnancy of type 1 diabetes patients when is very important intensively to monitor diabetes and to obtain the well being of the fetus. No infant experimented hypoglycaemia or respiratory distress syndrome at the moment and in the first hours after the birth. We wish to stress the importance reducing glycaemia during administration of betamethasone and during labor. It is conceivable that the scarce attention paid to monitoring glucose levels in diabetic mothers during labor in gynaecological world may be due to the difficulty in glucose monitoring with the devices until now available. Hopefully, our anecdotal account may prompt improvements with RT-CGMS, and may lead to a better approach to the problem, thereby changing the prognosis of infants born to diabetic mothers.

  10. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Patrizia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where the last is the Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (RT-CGMS. Methods In the last three years, 72 h continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS (Medtronic, CA was performed in 18 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes in two moments of pregnancy: during treatment with betamethasone to prevent respiratory distress and during delivery. In both cases insulin was administered intravenous and the dose was changed on the basis of glycaemia. Results The results present the use of this new technique during two topics moments of pregnancy of type 1 diabetes patients when is very important intensively to monitor diabetes and to obtain the well being of the fetus. No infant experimented hypoglycaemia or respiratory distress syndrome at the moment and in the first hours after the birth. Conclusion We wish to stress the importance reducing glycaemia during administration of betamethasone and during labor. It is conceivable that the scarce attention paid to monitoring glucose levels in diabetic mothers during labor in gynaecological world may be due to the difficulty in glucose monitoring with the devices until now available. Hopefully, our anecdotal account may prompt improvements with RT-CGMS, and may lead to a better approach to the problem, thereby changing the prognosis of infants born to diabetic mothers.

  11. The effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory variables in paralyzed and spontaneously breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R S; Davis, K; Johannigman, J A; Branson, R D

    2000-03-01

    Passive humidifiers have gained acceptance in the intensive care unit because of their low cost, simple operation, and elimination of condensate from the breathing circuit. However, the additional dead space of these devices may adversely affect respiratory function in certain patients. This study evaluates the effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory function. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of patients recovering from acute lung injury and breathing spontaneously on pressure support ventilation. The second group consisted of patients who were receiving controlled mechanical ventilation and were chemically paralyzed following operative procedures. All patients used 3 humidification devices in random order for one hour each. The devices were a heated humidifier (HH), a hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger (HHME) with a dead space of 28 mL, and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) with a dead space of 90 mL. During each measurement period the following were recorded: tidal volume, minute volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ratio of dead space volume to tidal volume (VD/VT), and blood gases. In the second group, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure was also measured. Addition of either of the passive humidifiers was associated with increased VD/VT. In spontaneously breathing patients, VD/VT increased from 59 +/- 13 (HH) to 62 +/- 13 (HHME) to 68 +/- 11% (HME) (p < 0.05). In these patients, constant alveolar ventilation was maintained as a result of increased respiratory frequency, from 22.1 +/- 6.6 breaths/min (HH) to 24.5 +/- 6.9 breaths/min (HHME) to 27.7 +/- 7.4 breaths/min (HME) (p < 0.05), and increased minute volume, from 9.1 +/- 3.5 L/min (HH) to 9.9 +/- 3.6 L/min (HHME) to 11.7 +/- 4.2 L/min (HME) (p < 0.05). There were no changes in blood gases or carbon dioxide production. In the paralyzed patient group, VD/VT increased from 54 +/- 12% (HH) to 56 +/- 10% (HHME

  12. Effect of Change of Mechanical Ventilation Position on the Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiebin; Zhai, Jingfang; Jiang, Hongxia; Sun, Yingjun; Jin, Bao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhou, Bin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different ventilation positions in newborn infants with respiratory failure. A total of 67 newborn infant cases with respiratory failure were treated in neonatal intensive care unit of Xuzhou Central Hospital from February 2012 to August 2013. These infants were randomly divided into supine group (n = 33) and different position group (n = 34). Supine position for 4 h and prone position for 4 h were alternated in different position group. The results for 8 and 16 h ventilator parameters: oxygenation index OI (OI = PaO2/FiO2), the lung mechanics parameters, ventilator weaning time, arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) after 1 h of ventilator weaning were recorded and compared. PaO2 in the different position ventilation groups for 8 h (65.29 ± 7.62 mm Hg) and 16 h (67.52 ± 9.31 mm Hg) were correspondingly higher than PaO2 at 8 h (60.13 ± 8.95 mm Hg) and 16 h (62.22 ± 10.83 mm Hg) in the supine position ventilation group, and the difference was statistically significant (P ventilator weaning time of the two groups and the change in the PaCO2 and PaO2, an hour after ventilator weaning was very similar and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The symptoms of respiratory failure and oxygenation can be effectively improved in the newborn infants with different ventilation positions compared to traditional supine position.

  13. Effect of respiratory muscle training on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Tarik; Gunes, Gokce Y; Ucar, Ilyas; Dogan, Hanife; Gafuroglu, Tuba U

    2017-05-01

    Few studies investigated the effects of the respiratory muscle training (RMT) in soccer although exhaustive high intensity exercise is known to lead to muscle fatigue in respiratory muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RMT on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players. Eighteen male soccer players (mean age 22.2±1.4 years) participated in this study. Participants were assigned randomly to either an RMT or a control (CON) group. The RMT group performed a 15-minute endurance training of respiratory muscles twice a week for 5 weeks. The CON group did not receive RMT during this period. All participants were evaluated for aerobic endurance using 20-meter shuttle run test (20-MST), pulmonary function, maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory mouth pressure (MEP) using spirometry. There was a significant improvement in RMT group (14%) as compared to CON group (4%) in MIP measurement (P=0.04). No significant differences were observed in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and MEP after a five week of RMT (P>0.05). Similarly, there was no difference in 20-MST in the RMT group compared to CON group (P>0.05). We concluded that a five week of RMT increased MIP, but FVC, FEV1, MVV, MEP and aerobic endurance did not improve in soccer players. The RMT in addition to soccer training may improve MIP but not the tolerance to high intensity exercise.

  14. Climate change and air pollution: Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D'Amato, Maria

    The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollen grains especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, their rising trend can be explained only by changes occurring in the environment and urban air pollution by motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world. Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world with a significant effect on respiratory health. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend only on the increased production of air pollution, but rather on atmospheric factors that favor the accumulation of air pollutants at ground level. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity of pollinosis-affected people have also been identified in multiple locations around the world ( Fig. 1). Cite this as D'Amato G, Bergmann KC, Cecchi L, Annesi-Maesano I, Sanduzzi A, Liccardi G, Vitale C, Stanziola A, D'Amato M. Climate change

  15. Monoclonal Antibody against G Glycoprotein Increases Respiratory Syncytial Virus Clearance In Vivo and Prevents Vaccine-Enhanced Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jeong Lee

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children, and the elderly. The G glycoprotein plays a role in host cell attachment and also modulates the host immune response, thereby inducing disease pathogenesis. We generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; 5H6 and 3A5 against G protein core fragment (Gcf, which consisted of amino acid residues 131 to 230 from RSV A2 G protein. Epitope mapping study revealed that 5H6 specifically binds to the G/164-176 peptide that includes conserved sequences shared by both RSV A and B subtypes, and 3A5 binds to the G/190-204 peptide. Studies with mutant Gcf proteins in which cysteine residues were substituted with alanine revealed that 5H6 requires four cysteines for binding and 3A5 binds to Gcf variants with alanine substitutions better than wild-type. To determine if these mAbs reduce pulmonary viral infection, BALB/c mice were administered mAb and subsequently challenged with RSV. On day 4 post-infection, lung viral titers were reduced by up to 93% with the 5H6 injection and 90% with the 3A5 injection, indicating that prophylactic injection of these mAbs contributes to RSV clearance in vivo. Importantly, 5H6 injection reduced vaccine-enhanced diseases. Overall, our results suggest that this novel anti-G mAb could be used as a prophylactic regimen against RSV diseases.

  16. Effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at the onset of submaximal exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, P J; Parolin, M L; Jones, N L; Heigenhauser, G J F

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at rest and during submaximal exercise. Subjects exercised on two occasions for 15 min at 55 % of their maximal oxygen uptake while either hyperventilating (R-Alk) or breathing normally (Con). Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 1 and 15 min of exercise. At rest, no effects on muscle metabolism were observed in response to R-Alk. In the first minute of exercise, there was a delayed activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in R-Alk compared with Con, resulting in a reduced rate of pyruvate oxidation. Also, glycogenolysis was higher in R-Alk compared with Con, which was attributed to a higher availability of the monoprotonated form of inorganic phosphate (Pi), resulting in an elevated rate of pyruvate production. The mismatch between pyruvate production and its oxidation resulted in net lactate accumulation. These effects were not seen after 15 min of exercise, with no further differences in muscle metabolism between conditions. The results from the present study suggest that respiratory alkalosis may play an important role in lactate accumulation during the transition from rest to exercise in acute hypoxic conditions, but that other factors mediate lactate accumulation during steady-state exercise. PMID:12356901

  17. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Results: Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9% were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative was −21. Conclusion: Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  18. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9%) were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative) was -21. Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  19. The respiratory physiotherapy causes pain in newborns? A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Zanelat, Camila Ferreira; Rocha, Flávia Rodrigues; Lopes, Gabriela Menezes; Ferreira, Juliana Rodrigues; Gabriel, Letícia Silva; Oliveira, Trícia Guerra e

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Neonatal respiratory physicaltherapy plays an important role in prevention and treatment of respiratory pathologies. In preterm neonates, immaturity of respiratory system can let development of various respiratory diseases. Meanwhile, it is discussed if respiratory physiotherapy can cause pain. Objective: Investigate presence of pain in neonates undergone to respiratory physiotherapy by a systematic review. Methods: Scientific search in electronic databases: Medli...

  20. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharier, Leonard B; Guilbert, Theresa W; Mauger, David T; Boehmer, Susan; Beigelman, Avraham; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Jackson, Daniel J; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Cabana, Michael; Castro, Mario; Chmiel, James F; Covar, Ronina; Daines, Michael; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Gentile, Deborah Ann; Holguin, Fernando; Israel, Elliot; Kelly, H William; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lemanske, Robert F; Ly, Ngoc; Meade, Kelley; Morgan, Wayne; Moy, James; Olin, Tod; Peters, Stephen P; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Raissy, Hengameh H; Ross, Kristie; Sheehan, William J; Sorkness, Christine; Szefler, Stanley J; Teague, W Gerald; Thyne, Shannon; Martinez, Fernando D

    2015-11-17

    Many preschool children develop recurrent, severe episodes of lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). Although viral infections are often present, bacteria may also contribute to illness pathogenesis. Strategies that effectively attenuate such episodes are needed. To evaluate if early administration of azithromycin, started prior to the onset of severe LRTI symptoms, in preschool children with recurrent severe LRTIs can prevent the progression of these episodes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by December 2014. Participants were 607 children aged 12 through 71 months with histories of recurrent, severe LRTIs and minimal day-to-day impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin (12 mg/kg/d for 5 days; n = 307) or matching placebo (n = 300), started early during each predefined RTI (child's signs or symptoms prior to development of LRTI), based on individualized action plans, over a 12- through 18-month period. The primary outcome measure was the number of RTIs not progressing to a severe LRTI, measured at the level of the RTI, that would in clinical practice trigger the prescription of oral corticosteroids. Presence of azithromycin-resistant organisms in oropharyngeal samples, along with adverse events, were among the secondary outcome measures. A total of 937 treated RTIs (azithromycin group, 473; placebo group, 464) were experienced by 443 children (azithromycin group, 223; placebo group, 220), including 92 severe LRTIs (azithromycin group, 35; placebo group, 57). Azithromycin significantly reduced the risk of progressing to severe LRTI relative to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.41-0.98], P = .04; absolute risk for first RTI: 0.05 for azithromycin, 0.08 for placebo; risk difference, 0.03 [95% CI, 0

  1. The effect of feedback respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Young; Cha, Yong Jun; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of feedback respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy. Randomized controlled experimental study. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-two children with cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to two groups: the experimental group (feedback respiratory training) and the control group. Feedback respiratory training and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy were performed by children in the experimental group. Comprehensive rehabilitation therapy was performed by children in the control group. Children in both groups received training three times per week for a period of four weeks. Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, peak expiratory flow, vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume were assessed before and after four weeks training period. Significant improvements in pulmonary function were observed after training in the experimental group (P function after training (P > 0.05). Participation in feedback respiratory training resulted in improvement of pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. The effectiveness of systematic perioperative oral hygiene in reduction of postoperative respiratory tract infections after elective thoracic surgery in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Larsen, Palle; Håkonsen, Sasja Jul

    2016-01-01

    to increase patients' risk for nosocomial respiratory tract infection. OBJECTIVES: To identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of systematic perioperative oral hygiene in the reduction of postoperative respiratory airway infections in adult patients undergoing...... elective thoracic surgery. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients over the age of 18 years who had been admitted for elective thoracic surgery, regardless of gender, ethnicity, diagnosis severity, co-morbidity or previous treatment.Perioperative systematic oral hygiene (such as mechanical removal of dental biofilm......% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.78) for respiratory tract infections RR 0.48 (95%CI: 0.36-0.65) and for deep surgical site infections RR 0.48 (95%CI 0.27-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic perioperative oral hygiene reduces postoperative nosocomial, lower respiratory tract infections and surgical site infections...

  3. Differential respiratory health effects from the 2008 northern California wildfires: A spatiotemporal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Colleen E; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B; Petersen, Maya L; Mann, Jennifer K; Balmes, John R

    2016-10-01

    We investigated health effects associated with fine particulate matter during a long-lived, large wildfire complex in northern California in the summer of 2008. We estimated exposure to PM2.5 for each day using an exposure prediction model created through data-adaptive machine learning methods from a large set of spatiotemporal data sets. We then used Poisson generalized estimating equations to calculate the effect of exposure to 24-hour average PM2.5 on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations and ED visits. We further assessed effect modification by sex, age, and area-level socioeconomic status (SES). We observed a linear increase in risk for asthma hospitalizations (RR=1.07, 95% CI=(1.05, 1.10) per 5µg/m(3) increase) and asthma ED visits (RR=1.06, 95% CI=(1.05, 1.07) per 5µg/m(3) increase) with increasing PM2.5 during the wildfires. ED visits for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were associated with PM2.5 during the fires (RR=1.02 (95% CI=(1.01, 1.04) per 5µg/m(3) increase) and this effect was significantly different from that found before the fires but not after. We did not find consistent effects of wildfire smoke on other health outcomes. The effect of PM2.5 during the wildfire period was more pronounced in women compared to men and in adults, ages 20-64, compared to children and adults 65 or older. We also found some effect modification by area-level median income for respiratory ED visits during the wildfires, with the highest effects observed in the ZIP codes with the lowest median income. Using a novel spatiotemporal exposure model, we found some evidence of differential susceptibility to exposure to wildfire smoke. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training and Calisthenics-and-Breathing Exercises in COPD With and Without Respiratory Muscle Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso-Vanelli, Renata P; Di Lorenzo, Valéria A Pires; Labadessa, Ivana G; Regueiro, Eloisa M G; Jamami, Mauricio; Gomes, Evelim L F D; Costa, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD may experience respiratory muscle weakness. Two therapeutic approaches to the respiratory muscles are inspiratory muscle training and calisthenics-and-breathing exercises. The aims of the study are to compare the effects of inspiratory muscle training and calisthenics-and-breathing exercises associated with physical training in subjects with COPD as an additional benefit of strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles, thoracoabdominal mobility, physical exercise capacity, and reduction in dyspnea on exertion. In addition, these gains were compared between subjects with and without respiratory muscle weakness. 25 subjects completed the study: 13 composed the inspiratory muscle training group, and 12 composed the calisthenics-and-breathing exercises group. Subjects were assessed before and after training by spirometry, measurements of respiratory muscle strength and test of inspiratory muscle endurance, thoracoabdominal excursion measurements, and the 6-min walk test. Moreover, scores for the Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale were reported. After intervention, there was a significant improvement in both groups of respiratory muscle strength and endurance, thoracoabdominal mobility, and walking distance in the 6-min walk test. Additionally, there was a decrease of dyspnea in the 6-min walk test peak. A difference was found between groups, with higher values of respiratory muscle strength and thoracoabdominal mobility and lower values of dyspnea in the 6-min walk test peak and the Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale in the inspiratory muscle training group. In the inspiratory muscle training group, subjects with respiratory muscle weakness had greater gains in inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. Both interventions increased exercise capacity and decreased dyspnea during physical effort. However, inspiratory muscle training was more effective in increasing inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, which could

  5. Respiratory variability in preterm and term infants: Effect of sleep state, position and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Dawn E; Campbell, Angela J; Larsen, Peter D; Galletly, Duncan

    2011-02-15

    The influence of sleep state and position on respiratory variability (RV) was studied in 13 preterm infants (PTIs) and 19 term infants (TIs). Temporally matched epochs of nasal pressure and oxygen saturation (Spo₂) data were extracted from nap polysomnography. Inspiratory onset times (I) were determined, and variability measures of the I-I interval compared in quiet sleep and active sleep, prone and supine and with age. Sleep state influenced respiratory variability (RV) in PTI and TI but Spo₂ only varied with sleep state in PTI (p=0.03). Position had no effect on RV in TI but influenced the standard deviation of ventilatory frequency (SDf) in PTI (p=0.04). Age did not influence RV in PTI but SDf and the coefficient of variation of ventilatory frequency (CVf) decreased in TI from birth to 3 months. These data confirm sleep state as the predominant influence on RV in healthy term and convalescent preterm infants, with horizontal prone positioning having little effect when sleep state is controlled for. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Immediate effects of respiratory muscle stretching on chest wall kinematics and electromyography in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Rafaela Barros; Pessoa, Maíra Florentino; Cavalcanti, Ana Gabriela Leal; Campos, Shirley Lima; Amorim, César; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the immediate effects of respiratory muscle stretching on chest wall kinematics and electromyographic activity in COPD patients. 28 patients with COPD were randomized into two groups: 14 to the treatment group (TG) and 14 to the control group (CG). The TG underwent a stretching protocol of the rib cage muscles, while the CG remained at rest under similar conditions. After a single session, TG increased the tidal volume of the pulmonary rib cage (Vrcp) (p=0.020) and tidal volume of abdominal rib cage (Vrca) (p=0.043) variations and their percentages in relation to the thoracic wall, Vrcp% (p=0.044) and Vrca% (p=0.022). Also, TG decreased the end-expiratory Vrcp (p=0.013) and the end-inspiratory Vrcp (p=0.011) variations. In addition, there was a reduction in respiratory rate (RR) (p=0.011) and minute volume (MV) (p=0.035), as well as an increase in expiratory time (Te) (p=0.026). There was also an immediate reduction in sternocleidomastoid (p=0.043) and upper trapezium (p=0.034) muscle electrical activity. Then, the study supports the use of stretching to improve COPD chest wall mobility with positive effects on chest wall mechanics, on volume distribution and electromyography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory muscle electromyography and dyspnea during exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsook, Andrew H; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Schaeffer, Michele R; Wilkie, Sabrina S; Camp, Pat G; Reid, W Darlene; Romer, Lee M; Guenette, Jordan A

    2017-05-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has consistently been shown to reduce exertional dyspnea in health and disease; however, the physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. A growing body of literature suggests that dyspnea intensity can be explained largely by an awareness of increased neural respiratory drive, as measured indirectly using diaphragmatic electromyography (EMGdi). Accordingly, we sought to determine whether improvements in dyspnea following IMT can be explained by decreases in inspiratory muscle electromyography (EMG) activity. Twenty-five young, healthy, recreationally active men completed a detailed familiarization visit followed by two maximal incremental cycle exercise tests separated by 5 wk of randomly assigned pressure threshold IMT or sham control (SC) training. The IMT group ( n = 12) performed 30 inspiratory efforts twice daily against a 30-repetition maximum intensity. The SC group ( n = 13) performed a daily bout of 60 inspiratory efforts against 10% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), with no weekly adjustments. Dyspnea intensity was measured throughout exercise using the modified 0-10 Borg scale. Sternocleidomastoid and scalene EMG was measured using surface electrodes, whereas EMGdi was measured using a multipair esophageal electrode catheter. IMT significantly improved MIP (pre: -138 ± 45 vs. post: -160 ± 43 cmH 2 O, P muscle EMG during exercise in either group. Improvements in dyspnea intensity ratings following IMT in healthy humans cannot be explained by changes in the electrical activity of the inspiratory muscles. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exertional dyspnea intensity is thought to reflect an increased awareness of neural respiratory drive, which is measured indirectly using diaphragmatic electromyography (EMGdi). We examined the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on dyspnea, EMGdi, and EMG of accessory inspiratory muscles. IMT significantly reduced submaximal dyspnea intensity ratings but did not change EMG of any

  8. Effectiveness of a respiratory rehabilitation programme in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunera-Pardell, María Jesús; Padín-López, Susana; Domenech-Del Rio, Adolfo; Godoy-Ramírez, Ana

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary respiratory rehabilitation (RR) programme in patients with severe or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pre the RR programme, at the end of the programme and one year after the RR, measuring changes in ability to exercise (walking test), effort tolerance(forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) and health-related quality of life. Quasi-experimental single group design. We included patients diagnosed with severe or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stages III and IV of the GOLD classification) who entered the rehabilitation programme for the years 2011 and 2012. Demographic data, questionnaires on general health-related quality of life (SF-36) and specific to respiratory patients (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire), FEV1% and exercise capacity test (running test 6minutes) were collected. Data were collected before the RR programme, at the end of the RR programme and a year after completing the program. No significant differences in FEV1% values were observed. Regarding exercise capacity, an increase in distance walked in the walking test was noted, which changed significantly after training, 377±59.7 to 415±79 m after one year (P<.01). A statistically significant improvement in mean scores of HRQoL was observed, except for the emotional role dimension of the SF-36 questionnaire. A pulmonary rehabilitation programme for 8 weeks improved the exercise capacity, dyspnoea and quality of life of patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  10. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.

  11. Effects of High-Flow Nasal Cannula on the Work of Breathing in Patients Recovering From Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Mathieu; Bouchard, Pierre-Alexandre; Simon, Mathieu; Simard, Serge; Lellouche, François

    2017-12-01

    High-flow nasal cannula is increasingly used in the management of respiratory failure. However, little is known about its impact on respiratory effort, which could explain part of the benefits in terms of comfort and efficiency. This study was designed to assess the effects of high-flow nasal cannula on indexes of respiratory effort (i.e., esophageal pressure variations, esophageal pressure-time product/min, and work of breathing/min) in adults. A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with moderate respiratory distress (i.e., after partial recovery from an acute episode, allowing physiologic measurements). Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, QC, Canada. Twelve adult patients with respiratory distress symptoms were enrolled in this study. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: baseline with conventional oxygen therapy and high-flow nasal cannula at 20, 40, and 60 L/min. The primary outcomes were the indexes of respiratory effort (i.e., esophageal pressure variations, esophageal pressure-time product/min, and work of breathing/min). Secondary outcomes included tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute volume, dynamic lung compliance, inspiratory resistance, and blood gases. Esophageal pressure variations decreased from 9.8 (5.8-14.6) cm H2O at baseline to 4.9 (2.1-9.1) cm H2O at 60 L/min (p = 0.035). Esophageal pressure-time product/min decreased from 165 (126-179) to 72 (54-137) cm H2O • s/min, respectively (p = 0.033). Work of breathing/min decreased from 4.3 (3.5-6.3) to 2.1 (1.5-5.0) J/min, respectively (p = 0.031). Respiratory pattern variables and capillary blood gases were not significantly modified between experimental conditions. Dynamic lung compliance increased from 38 (24-64) mL/cm H2O at baseline to 59 (43-175) mL/cm H2O at 60 L/min (p = 0.007), and inspiratory resistance decreased from 9.6 (5.5-13.4) to 5.0 (1.0-9.1) cm H2O/L/s, respectively (p = 0.07). High-flow nasal cannula, when

  12. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

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    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  13. Effects of air pollution on respiratory hospital admissions in İstanbul, Turkey, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapraz, Özkan; Deniz, Ali; Doğan, Nida

    2017-08-01

    We examined the associations between the daily variations of air pollutants and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in İstanbul, the largest city of Turkey. A time series analysis of counts of daily hospital admissions and outdoor air pollutants was performed using single-pollutant Poisson generalized linear model (GLM) while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors over a 3-year period (2013-2015) at different time lags (0-9 days). Effects of the pollutants (Excess Risk, ER) on current-day (lag 0) hospital admissions to the first ten days (lag 9) were determined. Data on hospital admissions, daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO 2 and daily mean concentrations of temperature and humidity of İstanbul were used in the study. The analysis was conducted among people of all ages, but also focused on different sexes and different age groups including children (0-14 years), adults (35-44 years) and elderly (≥65 years). We found significant associations between air pollution and respiratory related hospital admissions in the city. Our findings showed that the relative magnitude of risks for an association of the pollutants with the total respiratory hospital admissions was in the order of: PM 2.5 , NO 2 , and PM 10 . The highest association of each pollutant with total hospital admission was observed with PM 2.5 at lag 4 (ER = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.09-1.99), NO 2 at lag 4 (ER = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.02-1.53) and PM 10 at lag 0 (ER = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.33-0.89) for an increase of 10 μg/m3 in concentrations of the pollutants. In conclusion, our study showed that short-term exposure to air pollution was positively associated with increased respiratory hospital admissions in İstanbul during 2013-2015. As the first air pollution hospital admission study using GLM in İstanbul, these findings may have implications for local environmental and social policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of smoking on lung function, respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2010-03-01

    than non-smokers, while former smokers had the same odds of respiratory symptoms as non-smokers. Cigarette consumption was likely associated with more COPD cases in HIV-positive population; however more participants and longer follow up would be needed to estimate the effect of smoking on COPD development. Effective smoking cessation strategies are required for HIV-positive subjects.

  15. Rule-Out Outbreak: 24-Hour Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Characterizing Respiratory Virus Source for Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greninger, Alexander L; Waghmare, Alpana; Adler, Amanda; Qin, Xuan; Crowley, Janet L; Englund, Janet A; Kuypers, Jane M; Jerome, Keith R; Zerr, Danielle M

    2017-06-01

    Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been used to uncover unusual causes of infectious diseases but has not been used routinely for the investigation of putative nosocomial outbreaks. Here, we describe the use of mNGS during investigation of a cluster of human rhinovirus (HRV)-positive infections on a high-risk pulmonary ward. We performed mNGS on 6 midnasal turbinate swabs from 4 case-patients and 10 swabs from 9 control outpatients that tested positive for enterovirus/rhinovirus by the FilmArray system. HRV reads were recovered in 15 (94%) of the 16 samples sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of HRV whole genomes from the 4 case-patients and 5 outpatient controls along with partial genomes from additional outpatient controls revealed that isolates from the case-patients were not directly related and that the 2 closest case HRV genomes had an estimated time to most recent common ancestor of 172 years. Our turnaround time from receipt of the sample to phylogenetic analysis was 24 hours. We found the use of mNGS downstream of a rapid polymerase chain reaction respiratory panel during an investigation of 4 hospital-acquired rhinovirus infections to rapidly dispel concern of a single-source transmission event. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

  16. IL-2 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with respiratory tract infection and may modulate the effect of vitamin E on lower respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E supplementation has been suggested as a potential strategy to prevent respiratory infections (RI) in the elderly. Previously, we showed that vitamin E reduced RI in some but not all nursing home residents. The efficacy of vitamin E supplementation may depend on individual factors including...

  17. Mitochondrial free radical overproduction due to respiratory chain impairment in the brain of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: protective effect of CNF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Rasmo, Domenico; Musto, Mattia; Fabbri, Alessia; Ricceri, Laura; Fiorentini, Carla; Laviola, Giovanni; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2015-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene associated with severe intellectual disability, movement disorders, and autistic-like behaviors. Its pathogenesis remains mostly not understood and no effective therapy is available. High circulating levels of oxidative stress markers in patients and the occurrence of oxidative brain damage in MeCP2-deficient mouse models suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in RTT pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism and the origin of the oxidative stress have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a redox imbalance arises from aberrant mitochondrial functionality in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, a condition that more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. The marked increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation in the brain of RTT mice seems mainly produced by the dysfunctional complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, both membrane potential generation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis are decreased in RTT mouse brains when succinate, the complex II respiratory substrate, is used as an energy source. Respiratory chain impairment is brain area specific, owing to a decrease in either cAMP-dependent phosphorylation or protein levels of specific complex subunits. Further, we investigated whether the treatment of RTT mice with the bacterial protein CNF1, previously reported to ameliorate the neurobehavioral phenotype and brain bioenergetic markers in an RTT mouse model, exerts specific effects on brain mitochondrial function and consequently on hydrogen peroxide production. In RTT brains treated with CNF1, we observed the reactivation of respiratory chain complexes, the rescue of mitochondrial functionality, and the prevention of brain hydrogen peroxide overproduction. These results provide definitive evidence of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in RTT mouse brain and

  18. Pneumococcal vaccination and chronic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froes F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Froes,1 Nicolas Roche,2 Francesco Blasi3,4 1Chest Department, Hospital Pulido Valente, North Lisbon Hospital Center, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Department of Respiratory and Intensive Care Medicine, Cochin Hospital, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France; 3Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 4Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy Abstract: Patients with COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases are especially vulnerable to viral and bacterial pulmonary infections, which are major causes of exacerbations, hospitalization, disease progression, and mortality in COPD patients. Effective vaccines could reduce the burden of respiratory infections and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, but what is the evidence for this? This article reviews and discusses the existing evidence for pneumococcal vaccination efficacy and its changing role in patients with chronic respiratory diseases, especially COPD. Specifically, the recent Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA showed the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in older adults, many of whom had additional risk factors for pneumococcal disease, including chronic lung diseases. Taken together, the evidence suggests that pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations can prevent community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, while pneumococcal vaccination early in the course of COPD could help maintain stable health status. Despite the need to prevent pulmonary infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and evidence for the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine coverage and awareness are low and need to be improved. Respiratory physicians need to communicate the benefits of vaccination more effectively to their patients who suffer from chronic respiratory diseases

  19. EFFECTS OF A RESPIRATORY PHYSIOTHERAPY PROTOCOL ON PULMONARY CAPACITY, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  20. Effects of a respiratory physiotherapy protocol on pulmonary capacity, functional capacity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  1. [Effect of endotracheal intubation and laryngeal mask airway on perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with upper airway infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua-jun; Fang, Xiang-ming

    2013-12-03

    To investigate the effect of endotracheal intubation (TT) or the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) on the incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with upper respiratory tract infection undergo general anesthesia. From November, 2006 to October, 2012 in the Zhuji People's Hospital, 76 children with upper respiratory tract infection approved by hospital ethic committee were randomly divided into 2 groups:group I (n = 36), children were applied with endotracheal intubation during general anesthesia (TT group), while groupII (n = 40), laryngeal mask airway were used (LMA group).Intraoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP), hear rate (HR), pulse oximetry (SPO2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (P ETCO2) were recorded during the surgery. The incidence of adverse events such as hypoxemia, fidgety, sore throat, and laryngospasm were evaluated in resuscitation room.We also assessed the pre- and postoperative symptoms of respiratory tract infection. There was no significant difference in upper respiratory tract infection symptoms between two groups, and the children in both groups have good tolerance to TT or LMA.However, the hemodynamics status in LMA group were more stable than those in TT group after the LMA insertion or removing (P children with upper respiratory tract infection undergo general anesthesia.

  2. Effective resistance of the respiratory system studied by a quick release technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, B R; Peterson, C V; Otis, A B

    1985-06-01

    A human subject with mouthpiece in place makes inspiratory or expiratory effort against a closed shutter which abruptly opens when a predetermined pressure (PO) is developed. Pressure at the mouth (Pao) and flow (V) are continuously recorded. When the shutter opens, Pao changes toward atmospheric - first abruptly and then gradually, while V rapidly rises to a peak value (Vpeak) and then gradually declines. In any series of trials PO is held constant, but resistance external to the subject (Rext) is changed with each trial. In different series PO is varied. In any series of trials at constant PO the relationship between Pao and V was linear. The slope (K) of the straight line fitted to the experimental points was interpreted as being equal in magnitude to the 'effective resistance' (Reff) of the respiratory system. Reff has two components - a true resistance (Rint) and a virtual one (Rfv) related to the force-velocity characteristic of the respiratory muscles. On the assumption that Rint is independent of PO but that Rfv varies linearly with it, Rint and Rfv can be evaluated.

  3. Effects of surface material, ventilation, and human behavior on indirect contact transmission risk of respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze-To, Gin Nam; Yang, Yang; Kwan, Joseph K C; Yu, Samuel C T; Chao, Christopher Y H

    2014-05-01

    Infectious particles can be deposited on surfaces. Susceptible persons who contacted these contaminated surfaces may transfer the pathogens to their mucous membranes via hands, leading to a risk of respiratory infection. The exposure and infection risk contributed by this transmission route depend on indoor surface material, ventilation, and human behavior. In this study, quantitative infection risk assessments were used to compare the significances of these factors. The risks of three pathogens, influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and rhinovirus, in an aircraft cabin and in a hospital ward were assessed. Results showed that reducing the contact rate is relatively more effective than increasing the ventilation rate to lower the infection risk. Nonfabric surface materials were found to be much more favorable in the indirect contact transmission for RSV and rhinovirus than fabric surface materials. In the cases considered in this study, halving the ventilation rate and doubling the hand contact rate to surfaces and the hand contact rate to mucous membranes would increase the risk by 3.7-16.2%, 34.4-94.2%, and 24.1-117.7%, respectively. Contacting contaminated nonfabric surfaces may pose an indirect contact risk up to three orders of magnitude higher than that of contacting contaminated fabric surfaces. These findings provide more consideration for infection control and building environmental design. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

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    Peri Arbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were 8.4±6.4 times, 5.6±5.8 times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, P>0.05. Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, P=0.046 and 89.9% versus 109.6%, P=0.0004, resp.. % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, P=0.05. Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis.

  5. Effects of saffron supplementation on the cardio-respiratory endurance in the healthy inactive girls

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    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of saffron supplementation on the cardio-respiratory endurance factors in the healthy non-active girls. After filling a health and fitness questionnaire and perform 1-mile run test, 14 non-active female students were selected among the eligible students in the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili (Age: 20.7±1.38 years; BMI: 21.1±1.8 kg/m2 and they performed Bruce test on a computerized treadmill connected to a respiratory gas analyzer in three stages with one week interval. In this study, test has been done on subjects in stage one after placebo consumption. In the second stage, similarly test done after one week consumption of dry saffron stigma (300 mg/day and the results were measured. Analysis of Covariance and Bonferroni pair-wise comparison were used for the data analysis. Results showed that the consumption of 300 mg saffron for one week caused a significant enhancement in VO2, VO2max, and time to exhaustion and significant reduction in the resting blood pressure and resting heart rate as well as significant increase in fat oxidation and a significant reduction in carbohydrate consumption during the Bruce test (p

  6. Second-hand smoke exposure in cars and respiratory health effects in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Z; Manning, P J; Holohan, J; Keogan, S; Goodman, P G; Clancy, L

    2009-09-01

    We examined potential associations of ever asthma, and symptoms of wheeze (past 12 months), hay fever, eczema and bronchitis (cough with phlegm) among school children exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in cars, using a modified Irish International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol. 2,809 children of 13-14 yrs old and who selected randomly from post-primary schools throughout Ireland completed the 2007 ISAAC self-administered questionnaire. Adjusted OR (adjusted for sex, active smoking status of children interviewed and their SHS exposure at home) were estimated for the associations studied, using multivariable logistic regression techniques. Overall, 14.8% (13.9% in young males, 15.4% in young females) of Irish children aged 13-14 yrs old were exposed to SHS in cars. Although there was a tendency towards increased likelihood of both respiratory and allergic symptoms with SHS exposure in cars, wheeze and hay fever symptoms were significantly higher (adjusted OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.08-1.70) and 1.30 (1.01-1.67), respectively), while bronchitis symptoms and asthma were not significant (1.33 (0.92-1.95) and 1.07 (0.81-1.42), respectively). Approximately one in seven Irish schoolchildren are exposed to SHS in cars and could have adverse respiratory health effects. Further studies are imperative to explore such associations across different population settings.

  7. The effect of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system; involvement of phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Bora B; Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Saha, Sikha; Batten, Trevor F; Savci, Vahide; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-05-01

    CDP-choline is an endogenous metabolite in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Exogenous administration of CDP-choline has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular, neuroendocrine neuroprotective actions. On the other hand, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effect. Therefore the current study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cholinergic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway on CDP-choline-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of CDP-choline induced dose- and time-dependent increased respiratory rates, tidal volume and minute ventilation of male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. İ.c.v. pretreatment with atropine failed to alter the hyperventilation responses to CDP-choline whereas mecamylamine, cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, mepacrine, phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and neomycin phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked completely the hyperventilation induced by CDP-choline. In addition, central pretreatment with furegrelate, thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially blocked CDP-choline-evoked hyperventilation effects. These data show that centrally administered CDP-choline induces hyperventilation which is mediated by activation of central nicotinic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The interaction effects of temperature and humidity on emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qin; Liu, Hongsheng; Yuan, Xiaoling; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Xian; Sun, Rongju; Dang, Wei; Zhang, Jianbo; Qin, Yuhong; Men, Baozhong; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Few epidemiological studies have been reported as to whether there was any interactive effect between temperature and humidity on respiratory morbidity, especially in Asian countries. The present study used time-series analysis to explore the modification effects of humidity on the association between temperature and emergency room (ER) visits for respiratory, upper respiratory tract infection (URI), pneumonia, and bronchitis in Beijing between 2009 and 2011. Results showed that an obvious joint effect of temperature and humidity was revealed on ER visits for respiratory, URI, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Below temperature threshold, the temperature effect was stronger in low humidity level and presented a trend fall with humidity level increase. The effect estimates per 1 °C increase in temperature in low humidity level were -2.88 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) -3.08, -2.67) for all respiratory, -3.24 % (-3.59, -2.88) for URI, -1.48 % (-1.93, -1.03) for pneumonia, and -3.79 % (-4.37, -3.21) for bronchitis ER visits, respectively. However, above temperature threshold, temperature effect was greater in high humidity level and trending upward with humidity level increasing. In high humidity level, a 1 °C increase in temperature, the effect estimates were 1.84 % (1.55, 2.13) for all respiratory, 1.76 % (1.41, 2.11) for URI, and 7.48 % (4.41, 10.65) for bronchitis ER visits. But, there was no statistically significant for pneumonia. This suggests that the modifying effects of the humidity should be considered when analyzing health impacts of temperature.

  9. Hemodynamics and Gas Exchange Effects of Inhaled Nitrous Oxide in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitrous oxide (iNO therapy aimed at improving pulmonary oxygenizing function and at decreasing artificial ventilation (AV load has been used in foreign clinical practice in the past decade. The study was undertaken to evaluate the hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of iNO in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that developed after car-diosurgical operations. Fifty-eight (43 males and 15 females patients aged 21 to 76 (55.2±2.4 years were examined. The study has demonstrated that in 48.3% of cases, the early stage of ARDS is attended by the increased tone pulmonary vessels due to impaired NO-dependent vasodilatation. In these patients, iNO therapy is an effective therapeutic method for correcting hemodynamic disorders and lung oxygenizing function.

  10. Effectiveness of Oral Appliances in Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Respiratory Arousals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerfeldt, Pia; Friberg, Danielle

    2016-08-15

    To compare adherence and treatment effects with an oral appliance (OA) in patients with different types of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): those with mainly respiratory arousals ("arousers"), and those with oxygen desaturations ("desaturaters") at polysomnography (PSG). A prospective intervention study on 72 "tired snorers" with "normal" home sleep study (HSS), but later diagnosed as OSA with PSG, who accepted OA treatment. They were offered evaluation with a follow-up PSG and questionnaires, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), general health (GH), satisfaction, and side effects. Sixty-six patients, 33 arousers and 33 desaturaters, were adapted to OA. The 1-year adherence rate was significantly higher among arousers (85%) than desaturaters (55%) (p = 0.034). Thirty-six of 66 patients underwent follow-up PSG; the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly reduced in 22 arousers from a median of 14 to 3 (p Sleep Medicine.

  11. Hemodynamic and respiratory effects of pneumoperitoneum and PEEP during laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, C M; Polarz, H; Böhrer, H; Hundt, G; Dörsam, J; Martin, E

    1994-01-01

    Extended laparoscopic operations are being performed increasingly in high-risk patients. To assess the effects of increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the hemodynamic and respiratory system during extended procedures a carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum was artificially induced in 10 dogs undergoing laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy. An increase in IAP up to 15 mmHg had no negative effect on the cardiovascular system. However, the combination of an increased IAP (10-15 mmHg) with PEEP (8 cmH2O) markedly depressed the hemodynamic variables. Measurement of arterial carbon dioxide and fractional end-tidal carbon dioxide revealed significant CO2 retention. We conclude from the results that laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy should be performed in high-risk patients only under general anesthesia with expanded cardiopulmonary monitoring.

  12. The Role of Caffeine in Non-Invasive Respiratory Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Nicole R.; Patel, Ravi Mangal

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most commonly prescribed medications in preterm neonates and is widely used to treat or prevent apnea of prematurity. Caffeine therapy is safe, effectively decreases apnea and improves short- and long-term outcomes in preterm infants. In this review, we summarize the role of caffeine therapy for preterm infants receiving non-invasive respiratory support. We highlight caffeine’s beneficial effects on reducing bronchopulmonary dysplasia and focus on the role of caffeine in facilitating the transition from invasive to non-invasive respiratory support, reducing the duration of respiratory support and the potential for decreasing failure of non-invasive respiratory support. We review the multiple mechanisms of action of caffeine, including its effect on apnea, respiratory mechanics and lung inflammation. As caffeine is already widely used, we summarize recent data that may guide clinicians in optimizing the use of caffeine therapy, with a review of the timing of initiation, dose and duration of therapy. PMID:27837758

  13. Pharmacological Effects of Lactuca serriola L. in Experimental Model of Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, and Vascular Ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactuca serriola L. has traditionally been used in folkloric medicine to manage respiratory, gastrointestinal, and multiple other ailments. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of methanol extract of L. serriola on isolated rabbit tissue preparations, that is, jejunum, trachea, and aorta in an attempt to validate its folkloric use in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal, respiratory, and vascular ailments. The application of the methanol extract to isolated rabbit jejunum preparations exhibited concentration-dependent spasmogenic effect (0.03 to 3.0 mg/mL, but interestingly further increase in concentration (5.0 mg/mL resulted in complete spasmolytic effect. The pretreatment of the tissue preparations with atropine (0.1 μM caused the suppression of the contractile response. Moreover, the same extract also caused relaxation of K+-(80 mM induced spastic contractions of isolated rabbit jejunum preparations (5.0 mg/mL and shifted the Ca++ dose response curves towards right at concentration range of 0.3–1.0 mg/mL. Similarly, the extract application to isolated rabbit tracheal preparations relaxed the carbachol-(1 μM induced (0.3–1.0 mg/mL as well as K+-(80 mM induced contractions (3.0 mg/mL. Furthermore, it relaxed the phenylephrine (1 μM-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aorta preparations (3.0 mg/mL and K+ (80 mM-induced contractions (1.0 mg/mL. These effects were found comparable to that of dicyclomine, as an antagonist of muscarinic receptors as well as a possible Ca++ channel blocker. The previously mentioned findings may partially justify the folkloric use of Lactuca serriola in the management of conditions pertaining to spasm of intestine, bronchioles, and vasculature.

  14. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  17. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of commercially available vaccines against bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus for mitigation of bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Miles E; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and analyze data from controlled studies on the effectiveness of vaccinating cattle with commercially available viral antigen vaccines for mitigation of the effects of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Systematic review and meta-analysis. 31 studies comprising 88 trials. Studies that reported the effectiveness of commercially available bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3) vaccines for protection of cattle against BRDC or its components were included in the analysis. Studies or trials were categorized as natural exposure or experimental challenge and were further divided by the viral antigen evaluated and vaccine type (modified-live virus [MLV] or inactivated vaccine). Meta-analysis was performed; summary Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios were determined, and Forest plots were generated. In natural exposure trials, beef calves vaccinated with various antigen combinations had a significantly lower BRDC morbidity risk than did nonvaccinated control calves. In trials evaluating BHV-1 and MLV BVDV vaccines in experimental challenge models, vaccinated calves had a lower BRDC morbidity risk than did control calves; however, in experimental challenge trials evaluating MLV BRSV and PI3 vaccines, no significant difference in morbidity or mortality risk was found between vaccinated and control calves. Estimating clinical efficacy from results of experimental challenge studies requires caution because these models differ substantially from those involving natural exposure. The literature provides data but does not provide sufficiently strong evidence to guide definitive recommendations for determining which virus components are necessary to include in a vaccination program for prevention or mitigation of BRDC in cattle.

  18. The effect of Fasciola hepatica infection on respiratory vaccine responsiveness in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krump, L; Hamilton, C M; Sekiya, M; O'Neill, R; Mulcahy, G

    2014-03-17

    Fasciola hepatica is a common parasite in cattle, and bovine fasciolosis causes significant production losses, as well as being a zoonotic disease of global importance. F. hepatica has been shown to have immunoregulatory effects and the aim of this research was to establish whether F. hepatica infection influences the response to vaccination against respiratory pathogens in calves. A total of 48 calves were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. The experimental group was infected with F. hepatica, while the other group was used as a control. At week 2 and 6 after infection calves from both groups were administered a vaccine containing inactivated PI-3, BRSV and Mannheimia haemolytica, pathogens commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease. Blood samples were taken weekly over 12 weeks to measure specific antibodies against all vaccine antigens and against F. hepatica, as well as IgG1 and IgG2 isotypes for PI-3 and BRSV specific antibodies. Faecal samples were examined for F. hepatica eggs and routine haematology and liver enzyme biochemistry were performed and cytokine production in vitro measured. Liver enzymes (GGT and GLDH) and eosinophils were significantly higher in the experimental group, whereas neutrophil numbers were higher in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of vaccine-specific total responses to PI-3, BRSV and M. haemolytica. IgG1 levels were higher in comparison to IgG2 levels in both PI-3 and BRSV specific antibodies. IL-4 levels from stimulated and unstimulated PBMC were significantly higher in the control group. IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in PBMC from the control group when cultured in medium only. No significant differences were noted in the levels of other cytokines measured. In this work, no effect of early F. hepatica infection on the antibody responses to a range of respiratory vaccine antigens in calves was shown. However, differences in cytokine responsiveness of

  19. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Temperature that modifies the effect of air pollution on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L L; Zhang, Q; Bai, R H; Mi, B B; Yan, H

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To analyze the temperature modification effect on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution, in Beijing. Methods: Data on both circulatory and respiratory diseases in 2010 and 2011 were collected, Both meteorological and air pollutants related data were obtained from the National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health. By using the stratified time-series models, we analyzed the effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases under different temperature zones, from 2010 to 2011, in Beijing. Results: Low temperature (daily average temperatureeffect of air pollution index (API) on emergency room visits for circulatory diseases, Under 10 units of API, the relative risks and confidence interval appeared as 1.067 (1.054-1.080). However, high (daily average temperature between 24.4 ℃ and 28.5 ℃) and extra-high temperature (daily average temperature >28.5 ℃) could enhance the effect of API on emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, Under 10 units of API, the relative risks and confidence interval were 1.021 (1.015-1.028) and 1.006 (1.003-1.008), respectively. Conclusion: Temperature seemed to have modified the association between air pollution and both circulatory and respiratory diseases.

  1. effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... East Africa Medical Journal Vol. ... AND INSECTICIDE TREATED NETS ON THE PREVENTION OF MALARIA IN PREGNANCY IN NON-MALARIAL .... With a population of 18,000 pregnant women annually. Study Duration. The study was conducted between. February and August 2010. Study Area: The ...

  2. Respiratory health effects of ultrafine and fine particle exposure in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strak, Maciej; Boogaard, Hanna; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Zuurbier, Moniek; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2010-02-01

    Monitoring studies have shown that commuters are exposed to high air pollution concentrations, but there is limited evidence of associated health effects. We carried out a study to investigate the acute respiratory health effects of air pollution related to commuting by bicycle. Twelve healthy adults cycled a low- and a high-traffic intensity route during morning rush hour in Utrecht, The Netherlands. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution was characterised by measurements of PM(10), soot and particle number. Before, directly after and 6 h after cycling we measured lung function (FEV(1), FVC, PEF), exhaled NO (FE(NO)) and respiratory symptoms. The association between post- minus pre-exposure difference in health effects and exposure during cycling was evaluated with linear regression models. The average particle number concentration was 59% higher, while the average soot concentration was 39% higher on the high-traffic route than on the low-traffic route. There was no difference for PM(10). Contrary to our hypothesis, associations between air pollution during cycling and lung function changes immediately after cycling were mostly positive. Six hours after cycling, associations between air pollution exposure and health were mostly negative for lung function changes and positive for changes in exhaled NO, although non-significant. We found substantial differences in ultrafine particle number and soot exposure between two urban cycling routes. Exposure to ultrafine particles and soot during cycling was weakly associated with increased exhaled NO, indicative of airway inflammation, and decrements in lung function 6 h after exposure. A limitation of the study was the relatively small sample size.

  3. Effect of misoprostol on patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease undergoing aspirin challenge and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kristen M; Simon, Ronald A; Woessner, Katharine M; Wineinger, Nathan E; White, Andrew A

    2017-07-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is an anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity. Diminished PGE 2 regulation in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) leads to respiratory reactions on cyclooxygenase 1 inhibition. In vitro studies have found that exogenous PGE 2 stabilizes inflammatory mediator release. To examine whether misoprostol (oral prostaglandin E 1 analogue) use during aspirin challenge and desensitization might decrease the severity of aspirin-induced symptoms and make desensitization safer for patients with AERD. Forty-five patients undergoing aspirin challenge and/or desensitization were randomized to misoprostol (n = 30) or placebo (n = 15) and compared with a group of historical controls (n = 31). Misoprostol (200 μg) was administered at 30 minutes, 90 minutes, and 4 hours after the first dose of nasal ketorolac. Measured end points included change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), peak nasal inspiratory flow rate (PNIF), number of treatments received for induced reactions, and adverse gastrointestinal effects. A difference in FEV 1 and PNIF reduction was detected between misoprostol and placebo (P = .03) and misoprostol and historical controls (P = .01), respectively, during nasal ketorolac challenge. No difference was detected among aspirin reactors. Among all reactors, no difference in magnitude was found for FEV 1 (P = .13) or PNIF (P = .07) reduction across all 3 groups. Total treatment requirement was similar (P = .14). Patients receiving misoprostol were more likely to report adverse gastrointestinal effects (P = .02). The addition of misoprostol to current aspirin challenge and/or desensitization protocols reveals no protective effect in reducing the intensity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced symptoms and is not recommended based on the findings in this study. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care (POC) washing of allogeneic RBCs may remove these BRMs, thereby mitigating their impact on post-transfusion respiratory complications. Methods and analysis This is a multicenter randomised clinical trial of standard allogeneic versus washed allogeneic RBC transfusion for adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery testing the hypothesis that POC RBC washing is feasible, safe, and efficacious and will reduce recipient immune and physiologic responses associated with transfusion-related respiratory complications. Relevant clinical outcomes will also be assessed. This investigation will enrol 170 patients at two hospitals in the USA. Simon’s two-stage design will be used to assess the feasibility of POC RBC washing. The primary safety outcomes will be assessed using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables. Standard mixed modelling practices will be employed to test for changes in biomarkers of lung injury following transfusion. Linear regression will assess relationships between randomised group and post-transfusion physiologic measures. Ethics and dissemination Safety oversight will be conducted under the direction of an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). Approval of the protocol was obtained by the DSMB as well as the institutional review boards at each institution prior to enrolling the first study participant. This study aims to provide important information regarding the feasibility of POC

  5. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Carter, Rickey E; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-08-18

    The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care (POC) washing of allogeneic RBCs may remove these BRMs, thereby mitigating their impact on post-transfusion respiratory complications. This is a multicenter randomised clinical trial of standard allogeneic versus washed allogeneic RBC transfusion for adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery testing the hypothesis that POC RBC washing is feasible, safe, and efficacious and will reduce recipient immune and physiologic responses associated with transfusion-related respiratory complications. Relevant clinical outcomes will also be assessed. This investigation will enrol 170 patients at two hospitals in the USA. Simon's two-stage design will be used to assess the feasibility of POC RBC washing. The primary safety outcomes will be assessed using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables. Standard mixed modelling practices will be employed to test for changes in biomarkers of lung injury following transfusion. Linear regression will assess relationships between randomised group and post-transfusion physiologic measures. Safety oversight will be conducted under the direction of an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). Approval of the protocol was obtained by the DSMB as well as the institutional review boards at each institution prior to enrolling the first study participant. This study aims to provide important information regarding the feasibility of POC washing of allogeneic RBCs and its potential impact on ameliorating

  6. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such as ... need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  7. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  8. Effects of zinc and "health belief model" education on upper respiratory infections in hajj travelers: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudian S.A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The common cold is the most prevalent sickness and an important cause of absence from job. Furthermore, it often disturbs travel, including the practice of hajj, causing the use of many inappropriate drugs by these travelers. The health belief model is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of zinc and health belief model based educational intervention on the behavior of hajj travelers with regard to viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled trial was performed among hajj travelers in 2005. Preventive measures were randomly allocated to four groups: 1- education + zinc sulfate. 2- education + placebo. 3- zinc sulfate only 4- placebo only. Data regarding incidence and duration of URTIs, background disorders, vaccination and health behaviors for cold were gathered by questionnaire by physicians and finally analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using chi-square, t-test and independent samples t-test.Results: A total of 646 travelers were studied. The incidence of common cold in groups receiving zinc were significantly less than that for those receiving the placebo. (P=0.05. However, incidence was statistically the same for those who received education versus those who did not. Use of handkerchief was the most prevalent behavior and use of mask was the least prevalent behavior. Mean duration of symptoms was less in those receiving zinc and education (3.7 days comparing to those who received placebo and education (5.6 days.  Conclusions: This study showed that zinc consumption can decrease the incidence and duration of the common cold. Health belief model based education could promote some preventive behaviors although most people do not take advantage of them. We recommend the use of zinc by those attending hajj.

  9. Effects of intermaxillary fixation during orthognathic surgery on respiratory function after general anesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, H.

    2001-01-01

    I examined the relationship between preoperative breathing route (nasal and/or oral) and respiratory status in 29 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery and intermaxillary fixation (IMF) with general anesthesia and in 14 healthy, adult control volunteers who received IMF without surgery or anesthesia. The tidal volume (VT), minute respiratory volume (MV), respiratory rate, and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration were measured for both nasal and oral breathing before and after IMF. Pul...

  10. Preventive effect of shot peening on stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Shinobu; Yoshimura, Toshihiko; Enomoto, Kunio; Saito, Hideyo; Morinaka, Ren; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2002-01-01

    The effect of shot peening (SP) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) prevention was evaluated from the viewpoints of crack initiation and propagation. It was found that the residual stress in a Type-304 stainless-steel specimen is changed - from tensile of 300 MPa to compressive of -800 MPa - by shot peening, and the effective SP depth is 0.35 mm. It was also found that the crack initiation and propagation were prevented by shot peening. The mechanism by which the shot peening prevents these phenomena is explained according to the theory of superposition and loading history. That is, the prevention of crack initiation and propagation results from the fact that the compressive residual stress caused by SP decreases the applied load on the crack surface and prevents rupturing of the oxide film on the surface. Moreover, the effects of SCC prevention were shown to be valid when cyclic loading is applied after peening. (author)

  11. Effects of long-term non-invasive home mechanical ventilation on chronic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Omer Tamer; Turkyilmaz, Suleyman; Berk, Serdar; Epozturk, Kursat; Akkurt, Ibrahim

    2010-09-01

    Chronic respiratory failure (CRF) is a syndrome defined by certain disturbances in arterial blood gases. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is an increasingly used treatment modality in respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of NIMV on pulmonary function and survival of patients with CRF. The study enrolled 170 CRF patients who it was decided should receive long-term home mechanical ventilation. Patients were stratified into two distinct groups - Group I (patients for whom NIMV was recommended and who had used it) and Group II (patients for whom NIMV was recommended at least 1 year ago but who had not used it for various reasons). Best arterial blood gas and pulmonary function test values in the year before the NIMV recommendation were obtained from patient records. The same tests were performed at least 1 year (1-5 years) after initiation of NIMV therapy in Group I patients and at least 1 year (1-5 years) after prescription of the device in Group II. In the assessments performed 1 year after NIMV recommendation, no difference was found between groups in terms of hospital admissions. However, in Group I, intra-group analysis showed a reduction in the number of hospitalizations 1 year after NIMV. A marked reduction in PaCO(2) level was found in Group I patients 1 year after NIMV therapy. Mean survival after NIMV recommendation was 40.27 +/- 3.56 months in Group I, and 27.35 +/- 3.68 months in Group II (log rank = 7.79; p = 0.005). It was found that survival time increased as duration of NIMV usage increased. NIMV therapy has some important and significant benefits in patients with hypercapnic chronic respiratory failure. This study has some limitations in terms of patient selection, power analysis and survival analysis. To assess the effects of NIMV on mortality and pulmonary functions, the authors believe that there is need for prospective, controlled, multicentre studies with longer follow-up periods, improved

  12. Differential Effects of Intraoperative Positive End-expiratory Pressure (PEEP) on Respiratory Outcome in Major Abdominal Surgery Versus Craniotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Melo, Marcos F.; Staehr-Rye, Anne Kathrine; Bittner, Edward A.; Kurth, Tobias; Eikermann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we examined whether (1) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has a protective effect on the risk of major postoperative respiratory complications in a cohort of patients undergoing major abdominal surgeries and craniotomies, and (2) the effect of PEEP is differed by surgery type. Background Protective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP reduces compounded postoperative complications after abdominal surgery. However, data regarding the use of intraoperative PEEP is conflicting. Methods In this observational study, we included 5915 major abdominal surgery patients and 5063 craniotomy patients. Analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression. The primary outcome was a composite of major postoperative respiratory complications (respiratory failure, reintubation, pulmonary edema, and pneumonia) within 3 days of surgery. Results Within the entire study population (major abdominal surgeries and craniotomies), we found an association between application of PEEP ≥5cmH2O and a decreased risk of postoperative respiratory complications compared with PEEP 5cmH2O was associated with a significant lower odds of respiratory complications in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery (odds ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.39 – 0.72), effects that translated to deceased hospital length of stay [median hospital length of stay : 6 days (4–9 days), incidence rate ratios for each additional day: 0.91 (0.84 - 0.98)], whereas PEEP >5cmH2O was not significantly associated with reduced odds of respiratory complications or hospital length of stay in patients undergoing craniotomy. Conclusions The protective effects of PEEP are procedure specific with meaningful effects observed in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Our data suggest that default mechanical ventilator settings should include PEEP of 5–10cmH2O during major abdominal surgery. PMID:26496082

  13. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory health at baseline contributes to the effects of long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of elderly women. Method We analyzed data from 4750 women, aged 55 at the baseline investigation in the years 1985–1994. 2593 of these women had their lung function tested by spirometry. Respiratory diseases and symptoms were asked by questionnaire. Ambient air pollution exposure was assessed by the concentrations of NO2 and total suspended particles at fixed monitoring sites and by the distance of residency to a major road. A mortality follow-up of these women was conducted between 2001 and 2003. For the statistical analysis, Cox' regression was used. Results Women with impaired lung function or pre-existing respiratory diseases had a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes. The impact of impaired lung function declined over time. The risk ratio (RR of women with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of less than 80% predicted to die from cardiovascular causes was RR = 3.79 (95%CI: 1.64–8.74 at 5 years survival time and RR = 1.35 (95%CI: 0.66–2.77 at 12 years. The association between air pollution levels and cardiovascular death rate was strong and statistically significant. However, this association did only change marginally when including indicators of respiratory health into the regression analysis. Furthermore, no interaction between air pollution and respiratory health

  14. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely...... analysis of cell size and membrane integrity) led to 40% reduction in the total number of phagocytozing cells. However, viable/uninfected macrophages in PRRSV-infected cultures exhibited normal phagocytic ability at 48 h, indicating that no soluble phagocytosis-suppressive mediators were induced by PRRSV...... infection in this system. In short, in our minimal system containing only a single cell type, phagocytosis-suppressive effects of PRRSV infection were detected, that acted at the culture level by reducing the total number of alveolar lung macrophages....

  15. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed-Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Salamati, Payman; Safiabadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry results can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respiratory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ultimately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement). There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable.

  16. Effects of euphylline on breathing pattern and chemosensitivity of the respiratory system after activation of GABAb-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, M A; Sanotskaya, N V; Matsievsky, D D

    2010-10-01

    We studied changes in breathing pattern in nembutal-anaesthetized mongrel rats after administration of euphylline against the background of preliminary treatment with lithium hydroxybutyrate. Two types of external respiration responses to euphylline were observed; they depended on the initial blood pressure in systemic circulation and on its drop after euphylline administration. Thus, the reaction of the respiratory system to adenosine receptors blockade against the background of hydroxybutyrate pretreatment was associated with not only the effect of euphylline, but also the state of brain hemodynamics. The effects of euphylline on chemosensitive contour of the respiratory system regulation were also investigated. It was found that euphylline did not abolish desensitization of respiratory system to hypercapnia, but smoothed the response to hypoxia under conditions of GABA(b)-receptor activation.

  17. Comparative studies on the antiallergic effects of kampo medicines used for the therapy of respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, A K; Takeuchi, Y; Yokomuro, K; Miyanaga, Y

    1995-04-01

    Eight kinds of kampo medicines mainly used for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory diseases, whose comparative effects were still unproven, were selected for comparison of their antiallergic activity in the present study. 1) In an experiment on 48-hr PCA reaction in rats passively sensitized with anti egg albumin IgE antisera, inhibitory effects were observed in those groups orally administered with the tested kampo medicines. Among the drugs tested, TJ-19 showed a potent inhibitory activity as effective as that of tranilast (TL). 2) In the study of extraction method, the effects of kampo drugs varied widely according to the extraction method by which they were prepared. This suggests that the routine methods for preparing these extracts should be reconsidered to achieve the optimal efficacy. 3) In the study of histamine release from rat peritoneal cells stimulated with compound 48/80, TJ-55, TJ-19 and TL exerted a strong inhibition, but TJ-119, TJ-29 and TJ-96 had a weak inhibition. 4) TJ-96, TJ-19 and TL exerted a strong inhibitory effect on LTC, release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by calcium (Ca) ionophore A23187, but TJ-95, TJ-55 and TJ-119 exerted only a weak inhibition. To sum up of the results, any of these kampo medicines have unique pharmacological action and antiallergic effects. Besides, the method for extraction affects the efficacy of kampo medicine in vitro.

  18. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancourt, Raymond C., E-mail: raymond.rancourt@ucdenver.edu; Veress, Livia A., E-mail: livia.veress@ucdenver.edu; Ahmad, Aftab, E-mail: aftab.ahmad@ucdenver.edu; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B., E-mail: tara.hendry-hofer@ucdenver.edu; Rioux, Jacqueline S., E-mail: jacqueline.rioux@ucdenver.edu; Garlick, Rhonda B., E-mail: rhonda.garlick@ucdenver.edu; White, Carl W., E-mail: carl.w.white@ucdenver.edu

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  19. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O 2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  20. Effect of Tactile Stimulation on Termination and Prevention of Apnea of Prematurity: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Sophie J E; Dekker, Janneke; Dankelman, Jenny; Pauws, Steffen C; Hooper, Stuart B; Te Pas, Arjan B

    2018-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is one of the most common diagnoses in preterm infants. Severe and recurrent apneas are associated with cerebral injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Despite pharmacotherapy and respiratory support to prevent apneas, a proportion of infants continue to have apneas and often need tactile stimulation, mask, and bag ventilation and/or extra oxygen. The duration of the apnea and the concomitant hypoxia and bradycardia depends on the response time of the nurse. We systematically reviewed the literature with the aim of providing an overview of what is known about the effect of manual and mechanical tactile stimulation on AOP. Tactile stimulation, manual or mechanical, has been shown to shorten the duration of apnea, hypoxia, and or bradycardia or even prevent an apnea. Automated stimulation, using closed-loop pulsating or vibrating systems, has been shown to be effective in terminating apneas, but data are scarce. Several studies used continuous mechanical stimulation, with pulsating, vibrating, or oscillating stimuli, to prevent apneas, but the reported effect varied. More studies are needed to confirm whether automated stimulation using a closed loop is more effective than manual stimulation, how and where the automated stimulation should be performed and the potential side effects.

  1. Effect of Tactile Stimulation on Termination and Prevention of Apnea of Prematurity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J. E. Cramer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most common diagnoses in preterm infants. Severe and recurrent apneas are associated with cerebral injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Despite pharmacotherapy and respiratory support to prevent apneas, a proportion of infants continue to have apneas and often need tactile stimulation, mask, and bag ventilation and/or extra oxygen. The duration of the apnea and the concomitant hypoxia and bradycardia depends on the response time of the nurse. We systematically reviewed the literature with the aim of providing an overview of what is known about the effect of manual and mechanical tactile stimulation on AOP. Tactile stimulation, manual or mechanical, has been shown to shorten the duration of apnea, hypoxia, and or bradycardia or even prevent an apnea. Automated stimulation, using closed-loop pulsating or vibrating systems, has been shown to be effective in terminating apneas, but data are scarce. Several studies used continuous mechanical stimulation, with pulsating, vibrating, or oscillating stimuli, to prevent apneas, but the reported effect varied. More studies are needed to confirm whether automated stimulation using a closed loop is more effective than manual stimulation, how and where the automated stimulation should be performed and the potential side effects.

  2. Effect of Tactile Stimulation on Termination and Prevention of Apnea of Prematurity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Sophie J. E.; Dekker, Janneke; Dankelman, Jenny; Pauws, Steffen C.; Hooper, Stuart B.; te Pas, Arjan B.

    2018-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is one of the most common diagnoses in preterm infants. Severe and recurrent apneas are associated with cerebral injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Despite pharmacotherapy and respiratory support to prevent apneas, a proportion of infants continue to have apneas and often need tactile stimulation, mask, and bag ventilation and/or extra oxygen. The duration of the apnea and the concomitant hypoxia and bradycardia depends on the response time of the nurse. We systematically reviewed the literature with the aim of providing an overview of what is known about the effect of manual and mechanical tactile stimulation on AOP. Tactile stimulation, manual or mechanical, has been shown to shorten the duration of apnea, hypoxia, and or bradycardia or even prevent an apnea. Automated stimulation, using closed-loop pulsating or vibrating systems, has been shown to be effective in terminating apneas, but data are scarce. Several studies used continuous mechanical stimulation, with pulsating, vibrating, or oscillating stimuli, to prevent apneas, but the reported effect varied. More studies are needed to confirm whether automated stimulation using a closed loop is more effective than manual stimulation, how and where the automated stimulation should be performed and the potential side effects. PMID:29552548

  3. Effectiveness of external respiratory surrogates for in vivo liver motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kai-Hsiang; Ho, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Chien; Lian, Feng-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Yen, Jia-Yush; Chen, Yung-Yaw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10041, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10041, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Due to low frame rate of MRI and high radiation damage from fluoroscopy and CT, liver motion estimation using external respiratory surrogate signals seems to be a better approach to track liver motion in real-time for liver tumor treatments in radiotherapy and thermotherapy. This work proposes a liver motion estimation method based on external respiratory surrogate signals. Animal experiments are also conducted to investigate related issues, such as the sensor arrangement, multisensor fusion, and the effective time period. Methods: Liver motion and abdominal motion are both induced by respiration and are proved to be highly correlated. Contrary to the difficult direct measurement of the liver motion, the abdominal motion can be easily accessed. Based on this idea, our study is split into the model-fitting stage and the motion estimation stage. In the first stage, the correlation between the surrogates and the liver motion is studied and established via linear regression method. In the second stage, the liver motion is estimated by the surrogate signals with the correlation model. Animal experiments on cases of single surrogate signal, multisurrogate signals, and long-term surrogate signals are conducted and discussed to verify the practical use of this approach. Results: The results show that the best single sensor location is at the middle of the upper abdomen, while multisurrogate models are generally better than the single ones. The estimation error is reduced from 0.6 mm for the single surrogate models to 0.4 mm for the multisurrogate models. The long-term validity of the estimation models is quite satisfactory within the period of 10 min with the estimation error less than 1.4 mm. Conclusions: External respiratory surrogate signals from the abdomen motion produces good performance for liver motion estimation in real-time. Multisurrogate signals enhance estimation accuracy, and the estimation model can maintain its accuracy for at least 10 min. This

  4. Diapause prevention effect of Bombyx mori by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF and dimethyl sulfide (DMS, did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2 dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs.

  5. Effects of morphine on respiratory load detection, load magnitude perception and tactile sensation in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazini Martins, Rodrigo; Carberry, Jayne C; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E; Eckert, Danny J

    2018-04-26

    Pharyngeal and respiratory sensation is impaired in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Opioids may further diminish respiratory sensation. Thus, protective pharyngeal neuromuscular and arousal responses to airway occlusion that rely on respiratory sensation could be impaired with opioids to worsen OSA severity. However, little is known about the effects of opioids on upper airway and respiratory sensation in people with OSA. This study was designed to determine the effects of 40mg of MS-Contin on tactile sensation, respiratory load detection and respiratory magnitude perception in people with OSA during wakefulness. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over design (1 week wash-out) was used. 21 men with untreated OSA (apnea/hypopnea index=26{plus minus}17events/h) recruited from a larger clinical study completed the protocol. Tactile sensation using von Frey filaments on the back of the hand, internal mucosa of the cheek, uvula and posterior pharyngeal wall were not different between placebo and morphine (e.g. posterior wall=0.16[0.16,0.4]vs. 0.4[0.14,1.8]g, p=0.261). Similarly, compared to placebo, morphine did not alter respiratory load detection thresholds (nadir mask pressure detected=-2.05[-3.37,-1.55] vs. -2.19[-3.36,-1.41]cmH 2 O, p=0.767), or respiratory load magnitude perception (mean Borg scores during a 5 resistive load [range: 5-126cmH 2 O/L/s] protocol=4.5{plus minus}1.6 vs. 4.2{plus minus}1.2, p=0.347) but did reduce minute ventilation during quiet breathing (11.4{plus minus}3.3 vs. 10.7{plus minus}2.6L/min, psensation in men with mild to moderate, untreated, OSA. This suggests that altered respiratory sensation to acute mechanical stimuli is not likely to be a mechanism that contributes to worsening of OSA with a moderate dose of morphine.

  6. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  7. Effect of oxidative stress on respiratory epithelium from children with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Martijn; Lutter, René; Eldering, Eric; Bos, Albert P.; van Woensel, Job B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome. In Down syndrome, both regulation of inflammation and apoptosis, important in acute respiratory distress syndrome pathophysiology, are abnormal. This has been linked to an imbalance in free radical scavengers. We

  8. Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory health of 50-70 yr old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S C; Hoek, G; Boezen, Hendrika; Schouten, Jan; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily changes in respiratory health and air pollution in 489 adults, aged 50-70 yrs, with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and nonurban areas in the Netherlands. Subjects were selected from the general

  9. The economic effect of Planet Health on preventing bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Nichols, Lauren P; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-08-01

    To assess the economic effect of the school-based obesity prevention program Planet Health on preventing disordered weight control behaviors and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of its combined effect on prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors. On the basis of the intervention's short-term effect on disordered weight control behaviors prevention, we projected the number of girls who were prevented from developing bulimia nervosa by age 17 years. We further estimated medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years gained by the intervention over 10 years. As a final step, we compared the intervention costs with the combined intervention benefits from both obesity prevention (reported previously) and prevention of disordered weight control behaviors to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Middle schools. A sample of 254 intervention girls aged 10 to 14 years. The Planet Health program was implemented during the school years from 1995 to 1997 and was designed to promote healthful nutrition and physical activity among youth. Intervention costs, medical costs saved, quality-adjusted life years gained, and cost-effectiveness ratio. An estimated 1 case of bulimia nervosa would have been prevented. As a result, an estimated $33 999 in medical costs and 0.7 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. At an intervention cost of $46 803, the combined prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors would yield a net savings of $14 238 and a gain of 4.8 quality-adjusted life years. Primary prevention programs, such as Planet Health, warrant careful consideration by policy makers and program planners. The findings of this study provide additional argument for integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders.

  10. Effect of pet ownership on respiratory responses to air pollution in Chinese children: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Dong, Guang-Hui; Ren, Wan-Hui; Simckes, Maayan; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Trevathan, Edwin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies examining pet ownership as a risk factor for respiratory conditions have yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about whether or not pet ownership modifies the relationship between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. In order to evaluate the interaction between pet and air pollution on respiratory health in children, we recruited 30,149 children, aged 2-12 years, from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illnesses and associated risk factors. Average ambient annual exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts. The results showed that among children without pets at home, there were statistically significant associations between both recent exacerbations of asthma among physician-diagnosed asthmatics and respiratory symptoms and all pollutants examined. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.26] to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.24-1.61) per 31 μg m-3 for PM10, whereas, among children with pets at home, there were no effects or small effects for either asthma or the symptoms. The interactions between dog ownership and PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 were statistically significant, such that children with a dog at home had lower reporting of both current asthma and current wheeze. In conclusion, this study suggests that pet ownership decreased the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and asthma among Chinese children.

  11. Effects of zero-balanced ultrafiltration on procalcitonin and respiratory function after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L O U; Yinglong, L I U; Jinping, L I U

    2007-09-01

    The abnormal conditions to which blood is subjected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) trigger an activation of the inflammatory response and cause pulmonary dysfunction. It has been suggested that high-volume, zero-balanced ultrafiltration (ZBUF) facilitates clearance of inflammatory mediators and improves post-operative pulmonary function. Procalcitonin, a newly discovered inflammatory mediator, has been found to be increased after CPB and has been proven to be an appropriate parameter for predicting pulmonary dysfunction secondary to CPB. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zero-balanced ultrafiltration (ZBUF) on procalcitonin (PCT) and respiratory function of infants with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) after CPB. Twenty infants with TOF undergoing open-heart total surgical correction were randomly assigned to two groups. The trial group was given ZBUF (50 ml/kg) and conventional ultrafiltration (CUF), while the control group was given CUF only. Plasma PCT and pulmonary function were monitored and compared between the two groups before the operation (T1), before rewarming (T2), at the end of the operation (T3), and at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after the operation (T4-T6). PCT was decreased in the trial group between 12 h and 48 h post-operatively, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The trial group's pulmonary compliance was higher at 12 h post-operatively (p 0.05). Intubation time was shorter in the trial group (P < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between peak PCT concentration and intubation time. ZBUF appeared to improve ventilation and shorten intubation time. The improved respiratory function may be due to the lower plasma PCT.

  12. Effect of acute hypoxia on respiratory muscle fatigue in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verges, Samuel; Bachasson, Damien; Wuyam, Bernard

    2010-08-11

    Greater diaphragm fatigue has been reported after hypoxic versus normoxic exercise, but whether this is due to increased ventilation and therefore work of breathing or reduced blood oxygenation per se remains unclear. Hence, we assessed the effect of different blood oxygenation level on isolated hyperpnoea-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue. Twelve healthy males performed three 15-min isocapnic hyperpnoea tests (85% of maximum voluntary ventilation with controlled breathing pattern) in normoxic, hypoxic (SpO2 = 80%) and hyperoxic (FiO2 = 0.60) conditions, in a random order. Before, immediately after and 30 min after hyperpnoea, transdiaphragmatic pressure (P(di,tw)) was measured during cervical magnetic stimulation to assess diaphragm contractility, and gastric pressure (P(ga,tw)) was measured during thoracic magnetic stimulation to assess abdominal muscle contractility. Two-way analysis of variance (time x condition) was used to compare hyperpnoea-induced respiratory muscle fatigue between conditions. Hypoxia enhanced hyperpnoea-induced P(di,tw) and P(ga,tw) reductions both immediately after hyperpnoea (P(di,tw) : normoxia -22 +/- 7% vs hypoxia -34 +/- 8% vs hyperoxia -21 +/- 8%; P(ga,tw) : normoxia -17 +/- 7% vs hypoxia -26 +/- 10% vs hyperoxia -16 +/- 11%; all P hypoxia -16 +/- 8% vs hyperoxia -8 +/- 7%; P(ga,tw) : normoxia -13 +/- 6% vs hypoxia -21 +/- 9% vs hyperoxia -12 +/- 12%; all P hypoxia compared to normoxia and hyperoxia. These results demonstrate that hypoxia exacerbates both diaphragm and abdominal muscle fatigability. These results emphasize the potential role of respiratory muscle fatigue in exercise performance limitation under conditions coupling increased work of breathing and reduced O2 transport as during exercise in altitude or in hypoxemic patients.

  13. Effect of acute hypoxia on respiratory muscle fatigue in healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verges Samuel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greater diaphragm fatigue has been reported after hypoxic versus normoxic exercise, but whether this is due to increased ventilation and therefore work of breathing or reduced blood oxygenation per se remains unclear. Hence, we assessed the effect of different blood oxygenation level on isolated hyperpnoea-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue. Methods Twelve healthy males performed three 15-min isocapnic hyperpnoea tests (85% of maximum voluntary ventilation with controlled breathing pattern in normoxic, hypoxic (SpO2 = 80% and hyperoxic (FiO2 = 0.60 conditions, in a random order. Before, immediately after and 30 min after hyperpnoea, transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi,tw was measured during cervical magnetic stimulation to assess diaphragm contractility, and gastric pressure (Pga,tw was measured during thoracic magnetic stimulation to assess abdominal muscle contractility. Two-way analysis of variance (time x condition was used to compare hyperpnoea-induced respiratory muscle fatigue between conditions. Results Hypoxia enhanced hyperpnoea-induced Pdi,tw and Pga,tw reductions both immediately after hyperpnoea (Pdi,tw : normoxia -22 ± 7% vs hypoxia -34 ± 8% vs hyperoxia -21 ± 8%; Pga,tw : normoxia -17 ± 7% vs hypoxia -26 ± 10% vs hyperoxia -16 ± 11%; all P di,tw : normoxia -10 ± 7% vs hypoxia -16 ± 8% vs hyperoxia -8 ± 7%; Pga,tw : normoxia -13 ± 6% vs hypoxia -21 ± 9% vs hyperoxia -12 ± 12%; all P di,tw or Pga,tw reductions was observed between normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Also, heart rate and blood lactate concentration during hyperpnoea were higher in hypoxia compared to normoxia and hyperoxia. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hypoxia exacerbates both diaphragm and abdominal muscle fatigability. These results emphasize the potential role of respiratory muscle fatigue in exercise performance limitation under conditions coupling increased work of breathing and reduced O2 transport as

  14. Toxic response of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide, with particular reference to its respiratory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Soleimani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Ethylene oxide is used as a sterilizing agent in health care industries. The present study aimed to assess and recognize the nature of pulmonary reactions, if any, associated with occupational exposure to ethylene oxide and to investigate the prevalence of dermal, visual, neurologic, reproductive, hematologic, hepatic and renal disorders .   Methods  Forty exposed and 47 unexposed employees were evaluated . Subjects were interviewed and standard respiratory symptom questionnaire as well as a questionnaire pertaining to symptoms of intoxication with this chemical were administered to them. Furthermore, parameters of pulmonary function were measured during exposure and a few days after exposure ceased Additionally, blood samples were taken for CBC, liver and kidney function tests . Moreover, atmospheric concentrations of ethylene oxide were determined by gas detector tubes .   Results  Respiratory symptoms such as cough and phlegm as well as dermal, visual and neurologic symptoms in exposed workers were significantly more prevalent P≤0.05 . Furthermore, significant decrements in some parameters of pulmonary function during exposure as compared with the values measured after exposure ceased, were noted . Results of biochemical tests were similar in both groups. Mean atmospheric concentration of ethylene oxide was evaluated to be 1.24±1.5 ppm.   Conclusion  The findings of this study indicate that exposure to ethylene oxide even at low concentrations is associated with significant decreases in pulmonary parameters. However, this effect is acute, temporary and reversible. Conversely, exposure to ethylene oxide was not associated with hematotoxic, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic response, although, dermal, visual and neurologic symptoms were observed.

  15. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of safety education based on Health Belief Model (HBM on the workers practice of Borujen industrial town in using the personal protection respiratory equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasanzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Every year 50-158 million occupational diseases and job accidents occur in the world. Studies on the job injuries show that about 150000 injuries occur annually in  Iran. Unhealthy behaviors are important problems in public health. Education is one of the best ways to change unhealthy behaviors. Interventions based on model and theories have many  capacities for behavior change. Health Belief Model is one of the health education models that are  useful for behavior change. This research has been performed in order to assess the effect of health  education program based on health belief model (HBM to prevent occupational respiratory   diseases in workers.   Methods   Aquasi-experimental design was used for this interventional study, in which 88 of workers of Borujen industrial town participated, who were randomly assigned to experimental and control group. Data collecting tool were a self-administered questionnaire including 53 questions based on health belief model that was completed by the workers, in addition to the performance check list which was conducted by researcher via insensible controlling the workers' safety behaviour. Validity and reliability of the tools were examined prior to the study. Educational  intervention was conducted in the first stage following by the second data collection one month  later. The data of both experimental and control group were compared statistically before and  after the intervention.   Results   The results showed that the mean of the grade of all parts of health belief model  (HBM and performance mark of the workers about safety and use of personal respiratory  preventive equipment in experimental group after educational intervention compared to prior the  study and also compared to control group were significantly increased.   Conclusion   The results of this survey showed that by enhancement of health belief model (HBM components including

  17. Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Maja; Arandjelović, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Rationale The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the anal...

  18. Understanding Heroin Overdose: A Study of the Acute Respiratory Depressant Effects of Injected Pharmaceutical Heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Caroline J; Bell, James; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Moxham, John; Strang, John

    2015-01-01

    Opioids are respiratory depressants and heroin/opioid overdose is a major contributor to the excess mortality of heroin addicts. The individual and situational variability of respiratory depression caused by intravenous heroin is poorly understood. This study used advanced respiratory monitoring to follow the time course and severity of acute opioid-induced respiratory depression. 10 patients (9/10 with chronic airflow obstruction) undergoing supervised injectable opioid treatment for heroin addiction received their usual prescribed dose of injectable opioid (diamorphine or methadone) (IOT), and their usual prescribed dose of oral opioid (methadone or sustained release oral morphine) after 30 minutes. The main outcome measures were pulse oximetry (SpO2%), end-tidal CO2% (ETCO2%) and neural respiratory drive (NRD) (quantified using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography). Significant respiratory depression was defined as absence of inspiratory airflow >10s, SpO2% 10s and ETCO2% per breath >6.5%. Increases in ETCO2% indicated significant respiratory depression following IOT in 8/10 patients at 30 minutes. In contrast, SpO2% indicated significant respiratory depression in only 4/10 patients, with small absolute changes in SpO2% at 30 minutes. A decline in NRD from baseline to 30 minutes post IOT was also observed, but was not statistically significant. Baseline NRD and opioid-induced drop in SpO2% were inversely related. We conclude that significant acute respiratory depression is commonly induced by opioid drugs prescribed to treat opioid addiction. Hypoventilation is reliably detected by capnography, but not by SpO2% alone. Chronic suppression of NRD in the presence of underlying lung disease may be a risk factor for acute opioid-induced respiratory depression.

  19. Understanding Heroin Overdose: A Study of the Acute Respiratory Depressant Effects of Injected Pharmaceutical Heroin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J Jolley

    Full Text Available Opioids are respiratory depressants and heroin/opioid overdose is a major contributor to the excess mortality of heroin addicts. The individual and situational variability of respiratory depression caused by intravenous heroin is poorly understood. This study used advanced respiratory monitoring to follow the time course and severity of acute opioid-induced respiratory depression. 10 patients (9/10 with chronic airflow obstruction undergoing supervised injectable opioid treatment for heroin addiction received their usual prescribed dose of injectable opioid (diamorphine or methadone (IOT, and their usual prescribed dose of oral opioid (methadone or sustained release oral morphine after 30 minutes. The main outcome measures were pulse oximetry (SpO2%, end-tidal CO2% (ETCO2% and neural respiratory drive (NRD (quantified using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography. Significant respiratory depression was defined as absence of inspiratory airflow >10s, SpO2% 10s and ETCO2% per breath >6.5%. Increases in ETCO2% indicated significant respiratory depression following IOT in 8/10 patients at 30 minutes. In contrast, SpO2% indicated significant respiratory depression in only 4/10 patients, with small absolute changes in SpO2% at 30 minutes. A decline in NRD from baseline to 30 minutes post IOT was also observed, but was not statistically significant. Baseline NRD and opioid-induced drop in SpO2% were inversely related. We conclude that significant acute respiratory depression is commonly induced by opioid drugs prescribed to treat opioid addiction. Hypoventilation is reliably detected by capnography, but not by SpO2% alone. Chronic suppression of NRD in the presence of underlying lung disease may be a risk factor for acute opioid-induced respiratory depression.

  20. Effects of iron limitation on the respiratory chain and the membrane cytochrome pattern of the Euryarchaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubmacher, Dirk; Matzanke, Berthold F; Anemüller, Stefan

    2003-12-01

    The effects of iron limitation on the electron transport chain of the extremely halophilic Euryarchaeon Halobacterium salinarum were analyzed. When iron was growth-limiting, the respiratory rates as well as the inhibition pattern of the membranes were significantly different from membranes of iron replete cells. Changes in the availability of iron cause the formation of different respiratory pathways including different entry sites for electrons, different terminal oxidases of the respiratory chain, and drastic changes of the cytochrome composition and of the relative amounts of cytochromes. Under iron-limiting conditions, mainly low-potential cytochromes were measured. EPR spectroscopic studies revealed that the amount of proteins containing iron-sulfur clusters is reduced in membranes under iron-limiting growth conditions. Taken together, our results strongly suggest for the first time an important role of iron supply for the bioenergetics of an Archaeon.

  1. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, were instilled into the trachea. Arterial O2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts were evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. PMID:23727623

  2. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  3. Effects of the pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position on respiratory mechanics in the rats by the end-inflation occlusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rubini

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The cranial displacement of the diaphgram occurring as a consequence of Pnp and/or Tnd, for example during laparoscopic surgical procedures, causes an increment of respiratory system elastance and viscoelastic resistance. The analysis of addictive effects show that these are more likely to occur when Pnp + Tnd are compared to isolated Tnd rather than to isolated Pnp.

  4. Effects of Depth of Propofol and Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Upper Airway Collapsibility, Respiratory Genioglossus Activation, and Breathing in Healthy Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Jeroen C P; Pierce, Eric; Diaz-Gil, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics and propofol impair upper airway stability and possibly respiratory upper airway dilator muscle activity. The magnitudes of these effects have not been compared at equivalent anesthetic doses. We hypothesized that upper airway closing pressure is less negative and...

  5. Heat and moisture exchange capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements

  6. HEAT AND MOISTURE EXCHANGE CAPACITY OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT AND THE EFFECT OF TRACHEOTOMY BREATHING ON ENDOTRACHEAL CLIMATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Renske J.; Muller, Sara H.; Vincent, Andrew; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements

  7. Effect of particulate matter, atmospheric gases, temperature, and humidity on respiratory and circulatory diseases’ trends in Lisbon, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the significant effects of both well-known contaminants (particles, gases) and less-studied variables (temperature, humidity) on serious, if relatively common, respiratory and circulatory diseases. The area of study is Lisbon, Portugal, and time series of health outcome (daily

  8. Roflumilast Prevents the Metabolic Effects of Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Milara

    Full Text Available Fibrotic remodeling is a process common to chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pulmonary fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and asthma. Based on preclinical studies phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibitors may exhibit beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling properties for the treatment of these respiratory disorders. Effects of PDE4 inhibitors on changes in the lung metabolome in models of pulmonary fibrotic remodeling have not yet been explored. This work studies the effects of the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast on changes in the lung metabolome in the common murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolic profiling of intact lung tissue. Metabolic profiling reveals strong differences between fibrotic and non-fibrotic tissue. These differences include increases in proline, glycine, lactate, taurine, phosphocholine and total glutathione and decreases in global fatty acids. In parallel, there was a loss in plasma BH4. This profile suggests that bleomycin produces alterations in the oxidative equilibrium, a strong inflammatory response and activation of the collagen synthesis among others. Roflumilast prevented most of these metabolic effects associated to pulmonary fibrosis suggesting a favorable anti-fibrotic profile.

  9. Toxicological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives on respiratory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in ambient aerosols and particulate matter. Experimental studies have shown that PAHs and related chemicals can induce toxicological effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of PAHs and their derivatives on the respiratory and immune systems and the underlying mechanisms. The human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was exposed to PAHs and their derivatives, and the cytotoxicity and proinflammatory protein expression were then investigated. A cytotoxic effect was observed in BEAS-2B exposed to PAH derivatives such as naphthoquinone (NQ), phenanthrenequinone (PQ), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), and 1-aminopyrene (1-AP). In addition, 1,2-NQ and 9,10-PQ showed more effective cytotoxicity than 1,4-NQ and 1,4-PQ, respectively. Pyrene showed a weak cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, naphthalene and phenanthrene showed no significant effects. Pyrene, 1-NP, and 1-AP also increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-6 production in BEAS-2B. The increase was partly suppressed by protein kinase inhibitors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor and nuclear receptor antagonists such as the thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. The present study suggests that the toxicological effects of chemicals may be related to the different activities resulting from their structures, such as numbers of benzene rings and functional groups. Furthermore, the chemical-induced increase in proinflammatory protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells was possibly a result of the activation of protein kinase pathways and nuclear receptors. The increase may partly contribute to the adverse health effects of atmospheric PAHs.

  10. Effect of color on recall in fire prevention signing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1964-01-01

    An exploratory experiment, designed to determine the effect of color on recall in fire prevention signing, was conducted on the San Bernardino National Forest. Background color of usual black on light yellow fire prevention signing, was changed to bright, high intensity orange. The change may have affected impact, but did not improve recall. Frequency of exposure to...

  11. Natural Products Useful in Respiratory Disorders: Focus on Side-Effect Neutralizing Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif-Ullah; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-06-10

    This review summarizes literature related to medicinal plants reputed in traditional medical systems for treatment of asthma and coughs. The plants that are pharmacologically investigated for their effectiveness in such conditions, along with respective experimental protocol details, are also discussed. Some of plant origin compounds, which are considered useful as antitussive and antiasthmatic agents, are described as well. Chrysoeriol, a constituent of Aspalathus linearis (Fabaceae) was observed to be selective for relaxant effect in airways (through K + channel activation), compared with other smooth muscles. We reported that Hypericum perforatum (Hyperieaceae), Andropogon muricatus (Poaceae), Juniper excelsa (Coniferae) and Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae) exhibit bronchodilatory action, mediated through combination of Ca ++ antagonist and phospohodiesrase inhibitory mechanisms, which scientifically explains their medicinal use in asthma. Hyocyamus niger (Solanaceae), Artemisia vulgaris (Compositae), Fumaria parviflora (Fumariaceae) and Terminalia bellerica (Combretaceae) caused bronchodilation via dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca ++ influx. Acorus calamus (Araceae), Carum roxburghianum (Apiaceae), Lens culinaris (Fabaceae) and Lepidium sativum (Cruciferae) mediate bronchodilatation through multiple pathways: anticholinergic and inhibition of Ca ++ channels and PDE enzyme(s). In conclusion, this review presents an analysis of different novel combinations of pharmacological activities in medicinal plants with side effect-neutralizing/synergistic potential, setting new trends in the therapeutic options for hyperactive respiratory disorders such as asthma and cough. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Ameliorating Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Wi, Ga Ram; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. The lack of proper prophylactics and therapeutics for controlling hRSV infection has been of great concern worldwide. Xylitol is a well-known sugar substitute and its effect against bacteria in the oral cavity is well known. However, little is known of its effect on viral infections. In this study, the effect of dietary xylitol on hRSV infection was investigated in a mouse model for the first time. Mice received xylitol for 14 d prior to virus challenge and for a further 3 d post challenge. Significantly larger reductions in lung virus titers were observed in the mice receiving xylitol than in the controls receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, fewer CD3(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes, whose numbers reflect inflammatory status, were recruited in the mice receiving xylitol. These results indicate that dietary xylitol can ameliorate hRSV infections and reduce inflammation-associated immune responses to hRSV infection.

  13. Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. T. Areas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance bands (ERB combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle strength warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10 or the control group (CG, n=10. Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and inspiratory pressure (MIP were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. RESULTS: PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p<0.05. In addition, there were significant differences between the TG and CG regarding ∆MIP (p=0.01 and ∆MEP (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: PNF combined with ERB can have a positive impact on respiratory muscle strength. These results may be useful with respect to cardiopulmonary chronic diseases that are associated with reduced respiratory muscle strength.

  14. Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areas, Guilherme P T; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Lobato, Arianne N; Silva, Alessandra A; Freire, Renato C; Areas, Fernando Z S

    2013-01-01

    Elastic resistance bands (ERB) combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle strength warrant further investigation. The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10) or the control group (CG, n=10). Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and inspiratory pressure (MIP) were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p<0.05). In addition, there were significant differences between the TG and CG regarding ∆MIP (p=0.01) and ∆MEP (p=0.04). PNF combined with ERB can have a positive impact on respiratory muscle strength. These results may be useful with respect to cardiopulmonary chronic diseases that are associated with reduced respiratory muscle strength.

  15. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Hillary A.

    2014-01-01

    Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrat...

  16. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  17. Impact of Statins on Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Medically Attended Acute Respiratory Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Saad B; Phadke, Varun K; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Chamberlain, Allison T; Brosseau, Jennifer L; Orenstein, Walter A

    2016-04-15

    Statins have antiinflammatory effects that may impact vaccine-induced immune responses. We investigated the impact of statin therapy on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). We conducted a retrospective cohort study over nine influenza seasons using research databases of a large managed care organization in the United States. Influenza vaccination and statin prescription statuses of cohort members and MAARI cases were ascertained on a per-season basis. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of MAARI were estimated using Poisson regression and stratified by statin use. Using a ratio of ratios approach, we compared IRRs from periods during to IRRs from periods before influenza circulation and then used relative IRRs to compute VE. After adjustment for multiple prespecified covariates, the influenza VE against MAARI was lower among statin users than nonusers during periods of local (14.1% vs 22.9%; mean difference, 11.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.7% to 26.1%) and widespread (12.6% vs 26.2%; mean difference, 18.4%; 95% CI, 2.9%-36.2%) influenza circulation. In this study, statin therapy was associated with reduced influenza VE against MAARI. Since many cases of MAARI are not caused by influenza, studies of the impact of statins on influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Limited effects of Muc1 deficiency on mouse adenovirus type 1 respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Y; Procario, Megan C; Ashley, Shanna L; O'Neal, Wanda K; Pickles, Raymond J; Weinberg, Jason B

    2011-09-01

    Muc1 (MUC1 in humans) is a membrane-tethered mucin that exerts anti-inflammatory effects in the lung during bacterial infection. Muc1 and other mucins are also likely to form a protective barrier in the lung. We used mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1, also known as MAdV-1) to determine the role of Muc1 in the pathogenesis of an adenovirus in its natural host. Following intranasal inoculation of wild type mice, we detected increased TNF-α, a cytokine linked to Muc1 production, but no consistent changes in the production of lung Muc1, Muc5ac or overall lung mucus production. Viral loads were modestly higher in the lungs of Muc1(-/-) mice compared to Muc1(+/+) mice at several early time points but decreased to similar levels by 14 days post infection in both groups. However, cellular inflammation and the expression of CXCL1, CCL5, and CCL2 did not significantly differ between Muc1(-/-) and Muc1(+/+) mice. Our data therefore suggest that Muc1 may contribute to a physical barrier that protects against MAV-1 respiratory infection. However, our data do not reveal an anti-inflammatory effect of Muc1 that contributes to MAV-1 pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Forest fires prevention and limitation of the greenhouse effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of forest fires to the carbon budget and greenhouse effect is examined at global and national (Italian scale and forest management options directed to preventing fires are briefly outlined.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant feeding strategies to prevent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa. Mandy Maredza, Melanie Y Bertram, Haroon Saloojee, Matthew F Chersich, Stephen M Tollman, Karen J Hofman ...

  1. Effects of Various Kynurenine Metabolites on Respiratory Parameters of Rat Brain, Liver and Heart Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Baran*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3, respiratory control index (RC and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochondria were incubated with glutamate/malate (5 mM or succinate (10 mM and in the presence of L-tryptophan metabolites (1 mM or in the absence, as control. Kynurenic and anthranilic acids significantly reduced RC values of heart mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Xanthurenic acid significantly reduced RC values of brain mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Furthermore, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid decreased RC values of brain, liver and heart mitochondria using glutamate/malate. In the presence of succinate, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid affected RC values of brain mitochondria, whereas in liver and heart mitochondria only 3-hydroxykynurenine lowered RC values significantly. Furthermore, lowered ADP/oxygen ratios were observed in brain mitochondria in the presence of succinate with 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and to a lesser extent with glutamate/malate. In addition, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid significantly lowered the ADP/oxygen ratio in heart mitochondria exposed to glutamate/malate, while in the liver mitochondria only a mild reduction was found. Tests of the influence of L-tryptophan and its metabolites on complex I in liver mitochondria showed that only 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and L-kynurenine led to a significant acceleration of NADH-driven complex I activities. The data indicate that L-tryptophan metabolites had different effects on brain, liver

  2. Effects of ozone exposure on the defense to a respiratory Listeria monocytogenes infection in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loveren H; Rombout PJA; van Soolingen D; Postma GW; de Klerk A; Verlaan APJ; Marra M; Dormans JAMA; Vos JG

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt beschreven dat expositie van ratten aan ozon de ontwikkeling van cellulaire weerstand tegen een respiratoire infectie met Listeria monocytogenes kan verminderen. In het gebruikte rattemodel wordt weestand tegen een respiratorie Listerie infectie gemedieerd door cellulaire

  3. Non-specific Effect of Vaccines: Immediate Protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection by a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young J. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-specific effects (NSEs of vaccines have been discussed for their potential long-term beneficial effects beyond direct protection against a specific pathogen. Cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV induces local innate immune responses that provide a broad range of antiviral immunity. Herein, we examined whether X-31ca, a donor virus for CAIVs, provides non-specific cross-protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. The degree of RSV replication was significantly reduced when X-31ca was administered before RSV infection without any RSV-specific antibody responses. The vaccination induced an immediate release of cytokines and infiltration of leukocytes into the respiratory tract, moderating the immune perturbation caused by RSV infection. The potency of protection against RSV challenge was significantly reduced in TLR3-/- TLR7-/- mice, confirming that the TLR3/7 signaling pathways are necessary for the observed immediate and short-term protection. The results suggest that CAIVs provide short-term, non-specific protection against genetically unrelated respiratory pathogens. The additional benefits of CAIVs in mitigating acute respiratory infections for which vaccines are not yet available need to be assessed in future studies.

  4. Effect of metabolic alkalosis on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, R.; Goldstein, M.; Phillipson, E.; Ho, M.; Hammeke, M.; Feldman, R.; Handelsman, S.; Halperin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven instances of a mixed acid-base disorder consisting of chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis were recognized in eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Correction of the metabolic alkalosis led to substantial improvement in blood gas values and clinical symptoms. Patients with mixed chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis constitute a common subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention; these patients benefit from correction of the metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21028

  5. Effects of prolonged mechanical ventilation on respiratory muscle ultrastructure and mitochondrial respiration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Nathalie; Matecki, Stefan; Py, Guillaume; Lopez, Sandrine; Mercier, Jacques; Capdevila, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    To investigate in rabbits whether prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) leads to ultrastructural changes in respiratory muscles and alters diaphragm mitochondrial respiration. Experimental prospective study in a university laboratory. We studied respiratory muscles of seven rabbits after 49+/-1 h of controlled mechanical ventilation. Ten nonventilated rabbits were used as a control group. After mechanical ventilation electron-microscopic observations of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles revealed disrupted myofibrils, increased number of lipid vacuoles in the sarcoplasm, and smaller mitochondria with focal membrane disruptions. Volumetric and numerical densities of the mitochondria were significantly lower in the PMV group than the control group. Mitochondrial respiration was quantified in isolated diaphragm muscle-cell mitochondria using two respiratory substrates. There was no difference in oxygen consumption values in the three states of mitochondrial respiration between the two groups except for state 2 (basal state) with pyruvate/malate parameter (53.5+/-20 for the ventilated group vs. 33.8+/-10.2 nmol atom O/mg per minute for the control group). There was no significant difference between groups in ADP/O ratio or respiratory control ratio. PMV leads to respiratory muscle cell degeneration and minor changes in oxidative phosphorylation coupling in diaphragmatic mitochondria. These phenomena may mediate part of damage of respiratory muscles after inactivity related to PMV.

  6. The Effects of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Causes of Emergency Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Ali Mohammad; Omraninava, Ali; Goli, Mitra; Soheilarezoomand, Hamid Reza; Mirzaei, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Today, air pollution is one of the critical problems in metropolitans and necessary preparations are needed for confronting this crisis. The present study was based on the goal of determining the relationship of air pollutant levels with the rate of emergency admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular patients. In the present retrospective cross-sectional study, all respiratory and cardiovascular patients, referred to emergency department during 2012, were assessed. The meteorological and air pollution data were collected. Information regarding the numbers and dates (month, day) of admission for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases was achieved from the hospital's electronic registration system. The relation of air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular admissions were analyzed by generalize additive model (GAM). 5922 patients were assessed which included 4048 (68.36%) cardiovascular and 1874 (31.64%) respiratory. Carbon monoxide (CO) level was an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease on the same day (RR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.25- 1.77; Pcauses a rise in respiratory admissions to emergency department.

  7. Effects of respiratory rate and tidal volume on gas exchange in total liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph L; Tredici, Stefano; Fujioka, Hideki; Komori, Eisaku; Grotberg, James B; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of total liquid ventilation (TLV), and in a corresponding theoretical model, we compared nine tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations to identify a ventilator strategy to maximize gas exchange, while avoiding choked flow, during TLV. Nine different ventilation strategies were tested in each animal (n = 12): low [LR = 2.5 breath/min (bpm)], medium (MR = 5 bpm), or high (HR = 7.5 bpm) respiratory rates were combined with a low (LV = 10 ml/kg), medium (MV = 15 ml/kg), or high (HV = 20 ml/kg) tidal volumes. Blood gases and partial pressures, perfluorocarbon gas content, and airway pressures were measured for each combination. Choked flow occurred in all high respiratory rate-high volume animals, 71% of high respiratory rate-medium volume (HRMV) animals, and 50% of medium respiratory rate-high volume (MRHV) animals but in no other combinations. Medium respiratory rate-medium volume (MRMV) resulted in the highest gas exchange of the combinations that did not induce choke. The HRMV and MRHV animals that did not choke had similar or higher gas exchange than MRMV. The theory predicted this behavior, along with spatial and temporal variations in alveolar gas partial pressures. Of the combinations that did not induce choked flow, MRMV provided the highest gas exchange. Alveolar gas transport is diffusion dominated and rapid during gas ventilation but is convection dominated and slow during TLV. Consequently, the usual alveolar gas equation is not applicable for TLV.

  8. The Effects of Plantago major on the Activation of the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Elaine; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Allam, Eman; Gregson, Karen S; Kowolik, Michael; Windsor, L Jack

    2013-10-01

    Plantago major is a common plant that grows worldwide in temperate zones and is found in fields, lawns, and on the roadsides. Its leaves and seeds have been used in almost all parts of the world for centuries as a wound healer, analgesic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, as well as an immune system modulator, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agent. Baicalein and aucubin are the two most biologically active components of P. major, and both have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Neutrophils have a pivotal role in wound healing and inflammation. Their principal mechanism of host defense is the killing of pathogens via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro effects of P. major extract, baicalein, and aucubin on human neutrophil respiratory burst activity. The cytotoxicity of the agents was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. A standard luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay was utilized to monitor the respiratory burst of the neutrophils after exposure to P. major extract and its two active ingredients, baicalein and aucubin. Three replicates per group were included in each of the three runs of the experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis. P. major and baicalein were not toxic to the cells at any of the concentrations examined. Aucubin was toxic to the cells only at the highest concentration tested (P = 0.0081). However, genistein was toxic to the cells at all of the concentrations examined except for the lowest concentration of 16.9 μg/ml (P = 0.985). P. major (-0.10 ± 0.11), aucubin (0.06 ± 0.16), baicalein (-0.10 ± 0.11), and genistein (-0.18 ± 0.07) all significantly (P major extract inhibited neutrophil ROS production, as did aucubin and baicalein. Therefore, these components should be investigated further with relation to the regulation of destructive ROS production in conditions

  9. The Effects of Plantago major on the Activation of the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Reina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantago major is a common plant that grows worldwide in temperate zones and is found in fields, lawns, and on the roadsides. Its leaves and seeds have been used in almost all parts of the world for centuries as a wound healer, analgesic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, as well as an immune system modulator, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agent. Baicalein and aucubin are the two most biologically active components of P. major, and both have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Neutrophils have a pivotal role in wound healing and inflammation. Their principal mechanism of host defense is the killing of pathogens via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro effects of P. major extract, baicalein, and aucubin on human neutrophil respiratory burst activity. The cytotoxicity of the agents was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. A standard luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL assay was utilized to monitor the respiratory burst of the neutrophils after exposure to P. major extract and its two active ingredients, baicalein and aucubin. Three replicates per group were included in each of the three runs of the experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. P. major and baicalein were not toxic to the cells at any of the concentrations examined. Aucubin was toxic to the cells only at the highest concentration tested (P=0.0081. However, genistein was toxic to the cells at all of the concentrations examined except for the lowest concentration of 16.9 μg/ml (P=0.985. P. major (−0.10±0.11, aucubin (0.06±0.16, baicalein (−0.10±0.11, and genistein (−0.18±0.07 all significantly (P<0.0001 inhibited ROS production from the neutrophils. P. major extract inhibited neutrophil ROS production, as did aucubin and baicalein. Therefore, these components should be investigated further with relation to

  10. Prevention of the Portion Size Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAn increase in the portion size leads to an increase in energy intake, a phenomenon which is also referred to as the portion size effect. The increase in portion sizes in recent years is regarded as an important contributor to the increase in the prevalence of obesity. Hence, the aim

  11. [Effect of 2 pesticides indoors on the respiratory function of a Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico Méndez, F G; Ochoa Jiménez, L G; Ocaña Servín, H; Escobedo Arenas, G; Cabrera Ruiz, M A; Jacobo Avila, A

    2000-01-01

    The utilisation of pesticides in the large cities has been increased. Exist few studies that determine the damage in the respiratory appliance. Determined on a healthy population of Mexico City with two known products used for the control of the insecticides in household, with the main objective to determine the clinical and functional manifestations that its use implies. They were included 70 sound volunteers with residence in the City of Mexico that lived in apartments with 100 square meters of construction, tobacco negative and without previous antecedents of cardiovascular disease, without acute infectious process. They were split into 2 groups one that inhaled pesticides for combustion and the group b in electric form, In them I accomplished study espirometric to the beginning and during 3 exposed hours. The analysis by T Student. In group A was observed a meaningful difference of 0.01 in the first hour and of p disnea (57%) cough (43%) and headaches (28%). Group B with a small difference of the VEF-1 in the first hour p < 0.03 and without differences on the following hours. We haven't observed secondary effects according to this group. The analysis en both group we have only differences in the first hours with p < 0.004. The exposition to pesticides our group for combustion produces a lot of clinical and functional alterations than the electric pesticides.

  12. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture

  13. Effectiveness of early clinical exposure in learning respiratory physiology among the newly entrant MBBS students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAS, Piyali; Biswas, Subhradev; Singh, Ramji; Mukherjee, Sanhita; Ghoshal, Sharmistha; Pramanik, Debasis

    2017-01-01

    Early Clinical Exposure has been conceptualized to orient medical students towards actual clinical scenario and help them correlate their theoretical knowledge with real life situations in early years of MBBS courses. In the present study we explored the outcome of early clinical exposure in the context of basic science topics (Physiology) in fresh MBBS entrants and compared their performance with a conventionally taught control group. One hundred fifty voluntary students of 1st year MBBS (2015-16) batch consisted the sample of this study. They were divided into two groups through the simple random method (using computer generated random number table with roll numbers of the students). They were evaluated by MCQ (Multiple Choice Question) and OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) before and after being taught a basic Physiology topic (respiratory system) theoretically. The study group underwent clinical exposure before the post-test while the control group did not. Performance of the students was compared between the two groups by unpaired student's t-test whereas marks of pre and post-test within the same group were compared by paired Student's t-test. Everywhere pEarly clinical exposure may be an effective technique to supplement the traditional theoretical teaching and improve the performance of fresh medical entrants in Physiology. It has better acceptability by the students and may be considered for inclusion in the existing pre-clinical curriculum with proper allocation of time and manpower.

  14. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture.

  15. Altered pathogenesis of porcine respiratory coronavirus in pigs due to immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone: implications for corticosteroid use in treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwonil; Alekseev, Konstantin P; Zhang, Xinsheng; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Saif, Linda J

    2007-12-01

    The pathogenesis and optimal treatments for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are unclear, although corticosteroids were used to reduce lung and systemic inflammation. Because the pulmonary pathology of porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) in pigs resembles SARS, we used PRCV as a model to clarify the effects of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) on coronavirus (CoV)-induced pneumonia. Conventional weaned pigs (n = 130) in one of four groups (PRCV/phosphate-buffered saline [PBS] [n = 41], PRCV/DEX [n = 41], mock/PBS [n = 23], and mock/DEX [n = 25]) were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with the ISU-1 strain of PRCV (1 x 10(7) PFU) or cell culture medium. DEX was administered (once daily, 2 mg/kg of body weight/day, intramuscularly) from postinoculation day (PID) 1 to 6. In PRCV/DEX pigs, significantly milder pneumonia, fewer PRCV-positive cells, and lower viral RNA titers were present in lungs early at PID 2; however, at PID 4, 10, and 21, severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia, significantly higher numbers of PRCV-positive cells, and higher viral RNA titers were observed compared to results for PRCV/PBS pigs. Significantly lower numbers of CD2(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells were also observed in lungs of PRCV/DEX pigs than in those of PRCV/PBS pigs at PID 8 and 10, coincident with fewer gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-secreting cells in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes as determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Our results confirm that DEX treatment alleviates PRCV pneumonia early (PID 2) in the infection but continued use through PID 6 exacerbates later stages of infection (PID 4, 10, and 21), possibly by decreasing cellular immune responses in the lungs (IFN-gamma-secreting T cells), thereby creating an environment for more-extensive viral replication. These data have potential implications for corticosteroid use with SARS-CoV patients and suggest a precaution against prolonged use based on their unproven efficacy in humans

  16. Cardiac rehabilitation: an effective secondary prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Fiona

    A combination of quantitative and qualitative research was used to determine the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme in a cohort of patients referred to the service at a London hospital. Quantitative data analysis provided evidence of effectiveness of participation in CR in reduced hospital readmission rates and use of recognised pharmacological management strategies. Self-reported physical activity levels and quality of life (QOL) in individuals who participated in the cardiac rehabilitation programme were qualitatively measured with questionnaires. Results provided evidence of benefit in continued participation in exercise. However, there was no evidence of benefit to QOL status post participation at 1 year. A p-value of 0.001 provided significant statistical evidence supporting the hypothesis of benefit in continued participation in exercise in participants following attendance at a cardiac rehabilitation programme. QOL status; a statistically significant p-value of 0.001 rejected the hypothesis (H1) of benefit. This would imply that participation CR programmes does not appear to provide sustained benefits in QOL. A number of moderating variables were suggested as explaining the finding such as homogeneity of respondents, age, mood bias and the timeframe of 1 year between participation in rehabilitation and self-reporting. CR appears to be an effective but time-limited intervention in relation to improvements in QOL. Collaborative working partnerships between specialist interventions, such as CR with chronic disease management strategies may provide greater sustainability of benefits gained from participation in cardiac rehabilitation programmes.

  17. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  18. Immediate effects of breathing re-education on respiratory function and range of motion in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeampattanaporn, Orawan; Mekhora, Keerin; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Wongsathikun, Jatuporn

    2014-07-01

    Neck pain is associated with certain breathingpatterns and may lead to altered respiratory function. Moreover the altered breathing patterns may cause neck pain symptoms. This study has determined the effects of respiratory muscle reeducation on neck pain symptoms and respiratory function. Subjects with chronic neck pain (n = 36) were re-educated with three breathing patterns for 30 min. The pain intensity at rest and at the end-of-range of each neck movement, the cervical range of motion (CROM) measured from photographic images and the chest expansion during full inhalation and exhalation recorded using videography were evaluated before and after breathing re-education. Upper trapezius, anterior scalene, and sternocleidomastoid activity were evaluated during normal and deep breathing using surface electromyography, and the respiratory function measured by a spirometer was also evaluated during the same period. The pain intensity and the muscle activity were significantly decreased after re-education. The CROM and chest expansion at lower rib cage were significantly increased after re-education. Breathing re-education can change breathing patterns and increase chest expansion. This change leads to an improvement in CROM Positive consequences may result from the improvement in diaphragm contraction or reduced activity of accessory muscles.

  19. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups means absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space.

  20. The effect of domestic factors on respiratory symptoms and FEV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, H R; Corey, P; Robertson, J M

    1989-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether indoor air pollution factors affected respiratory function and symptoms in 1357 non-smoking Caucasian children. Interviews were conducted to determine: exposure to pets and to gases, vapours and dusts from hobbies; the use of gas stoves; fireplaces, air conditioners and humidifiers; type of heating systems; and the number of residents, and the number of smokers in the home. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was obtained from maximum expiratory flow volume curves, and symptoms from the application of a standardized questionnaire. Indoor pets and the use of fireplaces and humidifiers had no consistent relationships with FEV1 when considered individually or in combination with the other factors. Hobbies, the use of gas stoves, the absence of air conditioning, the use of hot water heating, crowded homes, and the presence of smokers in the home all had negative relationships with FEV1. The largest effect on lung function was observed in children from homes with hot water heating systems, whereas the smallest effect was observed in children with smokers in the home. Children who lived in homes with hot water heating systems with no air conditioning had mean FEV1 of up to 0.4 litres lower than did their counterparts who lived in homes with forced air heating and air conditioning. Pets, heating systems, cooking fuel, crowding and passive smoking showed no consistent effects on the reporting of any of the symptoms. Girls who were exposed to the emissions from indoor hobbies reported more phlegm, wheeze and dyspnoea.

  1. Effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses, ibuprofen and caffeine on reaction time and alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Nutt, David J

    2014-05-01

    Compared with healthy individuals, those with upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) report reduced alertness and have slower reaction times. It is important to evaluate medication that can remove this behavioural malaise. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a combination of ibuprofen plus caffeine with ibuprofen and caffeine alone, and placebo on malaise associated with URTIs, as measured by psychomotor performance and mood testing. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four medication conditions as follows: 200 mg ibuprofen and 100 mg caffeine; 200 mg ibuprofen; 100 mg caffeine; placebo. A single oral dose was given and testing followed for 3 h. Efficacy variables were based on the volunteers' performance, measured by psychomotor performance and mood. The pre-drug results confirmed that those with an URTI had a more negative mood and impaired performance. Results from the simple reaction time task, at both 55- and 110-min post-dosing, showed that a single-dose of caffeinated products (I200/C100 and CAF100) led to significantly faster reaction times than IBU200 and placebo. These effects were generally confirmed with the other performance tasks. Subjective measures showed that the combination of ibuprofen and caffeine was superior to the other conditions. There were no serious adverse events reported, and study medication was well tolerated. The results from the post-drug assessments suggest that a combination of ibuprofen and caffeine was the optimum treatment for malaise associated with URTIs in that it had significant effects on objective performance and subjective measures.

  2. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  3. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  4. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  5. Effects of the combination of respiratory muscle training and abdominal drawing-in maneuver on respiratory muscle activity in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Kim, In-Seob

    2015-08-01

    No study has examined the effects of the combination of respiratory muscle training (RMT) and abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) on respiratory muscle activity and function in stroke patients during early pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RMT combined with ADIM on decreased respiratory muscle activity and function in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia. Thirty-seven subjects with post-stroke hemiplegia were randomly allocated to three groups; integrated training group (ITG), respiratory muscle training group (RMTG), and control group (CG). All of the subjects received routine therapy for stroke rehabilitation for 1 hour, five times a week for 6 weeks. Especially, the ITG received RMT using an incentive respiratory spirometer and ADIM using a Stabilizer, and the RMTG only received RMT using incentive respiratory spirometer for 15  minutes a day, five times a week for 6 weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry for measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC) and force expiratory volume in 1  second (FEV1). Additional surface electromyography (sEMG) analysis was included by measuring the respiratory muscle activity. Our results showed that changes between the pre- and post-test values of FVC (F = 12.50, P = 0.02) and FEV1 (F = 12.81, P = 0.01) (P activation of the diaphragm (F = 13.75, P = 0.003) and external intercostal (F = 14.33, P = 0.002) (P muscles of patients in the ITG during maximal static inspiratory efforts were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those in patients of the RMTG and the CG at post-test. Our findings suggested that RMT combined with ADIM could improve pulmonary function in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.

  6. Investigating the influence of respiratory motion on the radiation induced bystander effect in modulated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Aidan J.; McGarry, Conor K.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McMahon, Stephen J.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory motion introduces complex spatio-temporal variations in the dosimetry of radiotherapy and may contribute towards uncertainties in radiotherapy planning. This study investigates the potential radiobiological implications occurring due to tumour motion in areas of geometric miss in lung cancer radiotherapy. A bespoke phantom and motor-driven platform to replicate respiratory motion and study the consequences on tumour cell survival in vitro was constructed. Human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines H460 and H1299 were irradiated in modulated radiotherapy configurations in the presence and absence of respiratory motion. Clonogenic survival was calculated for irradiated and shielded regions. Direction of motion, replication of dosimetry by multi-leaf collimator (MLC) manipulation and oscillating lead shielding were investigated to confirm differences in cell survival. Respiratory motion was shown to significantly increase survival for out-of-field regions for H460/H1299 cell lines when compared with static irradiation (p < 0.001). Significantly higher survival was found in the in-field region for the H460 cell line (p < 0.030). Oscillating lead shielding also produced these significant differences. Respiratory motion and oscillatory delivery of radiation dose to human tumour cells has a significant impact on in- and out-of-field survival in the presence of non-uniform irradiation in this in vitro set-up. This may have important radiobiological consequences for modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer.

  7. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, D; Fally, S; De Vuyst, P; Wollast, R; Yernault, J C

    1995-11-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fogs with physical and chemical characteristics similar to those of natural fogs assessed in this urban area. Fogwater was sampled using a screen collector where droplets are collected by inertial impaction and chemical content of fogwater was assessed by measurement of conductivity, pH, visible colorimetry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a period of one year. The fogwater composition was dominated by NH4+ and SO4- ions. First we evaluated the possible effect of fog acidity alone. For this purpose 14 subjects with asthma were exposed at rest for 1 hr [mass median aerodynamic diameter to a large-particle (MMAD), 9 microns] aerosol with H2SO4 concentration of 500 micrograms/m3 (pH 2.5) and osmolarity of 300 mOsm. We did not observe significant change in pulmonary function or bronchial responsiveness to metacholine. In the second part of the work, 10 asthmatic subjects were exposed to acid fog (MMAD, 7 microns) containing sulfate and ammonium ions (major ions recovered in naturally occurring fogs) with pH 3.5 and osmolarity 30 mOsm. Again, pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity were not modified after inhalation of this fog. It was concluded that short-term exposure to acid fog reproducing acidity and hypoosmolarity of natural polluted fogs does not induce bronchoconstriction and does not change bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics.

  8. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases in Yichang city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewei; Xie, Shuguang; Yu, Qing; Huo, Xixiang; Ming, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Zhe; Zhang, Hai; Cui, Xiuqing; Xiang, Hua; Huang, Xiji; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Weihong; Shi, Tingming

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with pediatric hospital admissions and emergency room visits for certain respiratory diseases; however, there is limited evidence on the association between short-term air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits. Our aim was to quantitatively assess the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases. We conducted a time-series study in Yichang city, China between Jan 1, 2014 and Dec 31, 2015. Daily counts of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits were collected from 3 large hospitals, and then linked with air pollution data from 5 air quality monitoring stations by date. We used generalized additive Poisson models to conduct linear and nonlinear exposure-response analyses between air pollutant exposures and pediatric respiratory outpatient visits, adjusting for seasonality, day of week, public holiday, temperature, and relative humidity. Each interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM 2.5 (lag 0), PM 10 (lag 0), NO 2 (lag 0), CO (lag 0), and O 3 (lag 4) concentrations was significantly associated with a 1.91% (95% CI: 0.60%, 3.23%), 2.46% (1.09%, 3.85%), 1.88% (0.49%, 3.29%), 2.00% (0.43%, 3.59%), and 1.91% (0.45%, 3.39%) increase of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits, respectively. Similarly, the nonlinear exposure-response analyses showed monotonic increases of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits by increasing air pollutant exposures, though the associations for NO 2 and CO attenuated at higher concentrations. These associations were unlikely modified by season. We did not observe significant association for SO 2 exposure. Our results suggest that short-term exposures to PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , CO, and O 3 may account for increased risk of pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases, and emphasize the needs for reduction of air pollutant exposures for children. Copyright © 2017

  9. SU-E-J-89: Motion Effects On Organ Dose in Respiratory Gated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T; Zhu, L [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Georgia); Khan, M; Landry, J; Rajpara, R; Hawk, N [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Existing reports on gated radiation therapy focus mainly on optimizing dose delivery to the target structure. This work investigates the motion effects on radiation dose delivered to organs at risk (OAR) in respiratory gated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A new algorithmic tool of dose analysis is developed to evaluate the optimality of gating phase for dose sparing on OARs while ensuring adequate target coverage. Methods: Eight patients with pancreatic cancer were treated on a phase I prospective study employing 4DCT-based SBRT. For each patient, 4DCT scans are acquired and sorted into 10 respiratory phases (inhale-exhale- inhale). Treatment planning is performed on the average CT image. The average CT is spatially registered to other phases. The resultant displacement field is then applied on the plan dose map to estimate the actual dose map for each phase. Dose values of each voxel are fitted to a sinusoidal function. Fitting parameters of dose variation, mean delivered dose and optimal gating phase for each voxel over respiration cycle are mapped on the dose volume. Results: The sinusoidal function accurately models the dose change during respiratory motion (mean fitting error 4.6%). In the eight patients, mean dose variation is 3.3 Gy on OARs with maximum of 13.7 Gy. Two patients have about 100cm{sup 3} volumes covered by more than 5 Gy deviation. The mean delivered dose maps are similar to plan dose with slight deformation. The optimal gating phase highly varies across the patient, with phase 5 or 6 on about 60% of the volume, and phase 0 on most of the rest. Conclusion: A new algorithmic tool is developed to conveniently quantify dose deviation on OARs from plan dose during the respiratory cycle. The proposed software facilitates the treatment planning process by providing the optimal respiratory gating phase for dose sparing on each OAR.

  10. Respiratory and other health effects reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center disaster of 11 September 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pauline A; Brackbill, Robert; Thalji, Lisa; DiGrande, Laura; Campolucci, Sharon; Thorpe, Lorna; Henning, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Effects of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on children's respiratory health have not been definitively established. This report describes respiratory health findings among children who were < 18 years of age on 11 September 2001 (9/11) and examine associations between disaster-related exposures and respiratory health. Children recruited for the WTC Health Registry (WTCHR) included child residents and students (kindergarten through 12th grade) in Manhattan south of Canal Street, children who were south of Chambers Street on 9/11, and adolescent disaster-related workers or volunteers. We collected data via computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2003-2004, with interview by adult proxy for children still < 18 years of age at that time. We compared age-specific asthma prevalence with National Health Interview Survey estimates. Among 3,184 children enrolled, 28% were < 5 years of age on 9/11; 34%, 5-11 years; and 39%, 12-17 years. Forty-five percent had a report of dust cloud exposure on 9/11. Half (53%) reported at least one new or worsened respiratory symptom, and 5.7% reported new asthma diagnoses. Before 9/11, age-specific asthma prevalence in enrolled children was similar to national estimates, but prevalence at interview was elevated among enrollees < 5 years of age. Dust cloud exposure was associated with new asthma diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.5). Asthma prevalence after 9/11 among WTCHR enrollees < 5 years of age was higher than national estimates, and new asthma diagnosis was associated with dust cloud exposure in all age groups. We will determine severity of asthma and persistence of other respiratory symptoms on follow-up surveys.

  11. Evaluation the Antibacterial Effects of Two Commercial Products of Eucalyptus globulus Against Common Microbial Causes of Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nahaei, Mahsa Kalejahi 1, Parisa Rahbarfam 1, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj 2, Farzaneh Lotfipour *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants have attained once more importance due to drug resistance of microbial isolates to common antibiotics as well as fewer side effects and low cost of herbal products comparing to chemical drugs. Eucalyptus globules (E. globulus has been widely applied as a natural remedy in respiratory tract infections. The present study focused on the evaluation of antibacterial effect of two commercial products of E. globulus against common microbial causes of respiratory tract infections. To this end, two commercial products of E. globules including inhaler and oral soft capsule with standard expiration date, (in three different batch numbers were purchased from the pharmacy stores of Tabriz city. Methods: The antibacterial efficiency of these products were investigated using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC and disk diffusion methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomona aeruginosa. Results: Based on the obtained results, these commercial products of E. globules showed significant inhibitory effects against Gram-positive bacteria. The findings also indicated that the Eucalyptus inhaler products had more inhibitory effects than Eucalyptus oral soft capsule, however batch to batch variations were of concern. Conclusion: This research presents optimistic result on using the Eucalyptus as an alternative antibacterial agent against respiratory tract pathogenic microorganisms.

  12. Long-Term Effects of Breastfeeding on Children's Hospitalization for Respiratory Tract Infections and Diarrhea in Early Childhood in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Inoue, Sachiko; Tokinobu, Akiko; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Whether or not the protective effects of breastfeeding last during or after a shift to a weaning diet is not clear. In the present study, we examined the effects of breastfeeding on hospitalization for respiratory tract infections and diarrhea in early childhood in Japan. Data were extracted from a nationwide longitudinal survey of Japanese children. We restricted the study participants to singleton children who were born after 37 gestational weeks and whose information on feeding practice during infancy were included (n = 43,367). We used logistic regression models to evaluate the associations of breastfeeding with hospitalization for the two diseases among young children (i.e., between ages 6 and 18 months, between ages 18 and 30 months, and between ages 30 and 42 months, respectively), adjusting for children's factors (sex, birth weight, childcare attendance and presence of siblings) and maternal factors (educational attainment and smoking status). Breastfeeding compared with infant formula was not associated with reduced risk of hospitalization for diarrhea during the periods we examined. Although breastfeeding was not associated with reduced risk of hospitalization for respiratory tract infections between ages 6 and 18 months, breastfeeding showed protective effects after that period: the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of exclusive breastfeeding were 0.82 (0.66-1.01) between ages 18 and 30 months and 0.76 (0.58-0.99) between ages 30 and 42 months. Breastfeeding may have long-term protective effects on hospitalization for respiratory tract infections after infancy, but not for diarrhea.

  13. Effects of Exercise on Cervical Angle and Respiratory Function in Smartphone Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Kyung; Jung, Sang In; Lee, Do Youn; Kang, Kyung Woo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether exercises can change the cervical angle and respiratory function in smartphone users. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into an exercise group and a control group. All participants used a smartphone for 1 hour while maintaining a sitting posture. Then, each group performed their assigned activity. The exercise group performed two types of exercises and the control group maintained routine activities for 20 minutes. To investigate the changes in cervical angle and respiratory function, we measured the craniovertebral angle by using a spirometer. Statistically significant differences were noted in the craniovertebral angle, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure of the two groups ( p exercise could be a good method of improving the cervical angle and respiratory function in smartphone users.

  14. The effect of smartphone usage time on posture and respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang In; Lee, Na Kyung; Kang, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Do Youn

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in posture and respiratory functions depending on the duration of smartphone usage. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 (subjects who used smartphones for smartphones for >4 hours/day, n=25). The craniovertebral angles of all participants were measured and scapular indices were calculated to assess the change in posture and forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow were measured to assess changes in respiratory function. [Results] There were significant differences in the craniovertebral angle, scapular index, and peak expiratory flow depending on the duration of smartphone usage. [Conclusion] The result of this study showed that prolonged use of smartphones could negatively affect both, posture and respiratory function.

  15. Predicting the effect of prevention of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Priority setting in public health policy must be based on information on the effectiveness of alternative preventive and therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this study is to predict the effect on mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Denmark of reduced exposure to the risk factors...

  16. Effectiveness and reliability analysis of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    During flood events emergency measures are used to prevent breaches in flood defences. However, there is still limited insight in their reliability and effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to develop a method to determine the reliability and effectiveness of emergency measures for flood

  17. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  18. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  19. The acute effects of body position strategies and respiratory therapy in paralyzed patients with acute lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kenneth; Johannigman, Jay A; Campbell, Robert S; Marraccini, Ann; Luchette, Fred A; Frame, Scott B; Branson, Richard D

    2001-01-01

    Background: Routine turning of critically ill patients is a standard of care. In recent years, specialized beds that provide automated turning have been introduced. These beds have been reported to improve lung function, reduce hospital-acquired pneumonia, and facilitate secretion removal. This trial was designed to measure the physiological effects of routine turning and respiratory therapy in comparison with continuous lateral rotation (CLR). Methods: The study was a prospective, quasi-expe...

  20. Investigations to the supporting effect of Meloxicam in combination with an antibiotic therapy on calves with acute respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bardella, Irene

    2010-01-01

    The supporting effect of Meloxicam in combination with an antibiotic therapy was investigated by a controlled clinical study on 200 calves with acute respiratory disease. In two trials 100 calves at times were treated with Enrofloxacin respectively Florfenicol (dose and time of treatment by the indication of producer). At times 50 calves received additional Meloxicam by a single application. All the calves have been examinated for a period of 14 days on these parameters: Behavi...

  1. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on subsequent Pasteurella multocida challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L F; Segalés, J; Pijoan, C

    1997-04-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) on a subsequent challenge with Pasteurella multocida in pigs. Sixteen, 3-4 week-old piglets, from a PRRSv and Aujeszky disease virus (ADV) free herd were used. Animals were equally and randomly allocated in four groups which were treated according the following schedule: Group I: negative controls; Group II: inoculation with only PRRSV; Group III: inoculation with PRRSV and P. multocida; Group IV: inoculation with ADV and P. multocida (positive controls). PRRSV and ADV were inoculated intranasally, at the doses of 10(4.6) and 10(4.5) TCID50/ml, respectively. Five days later, pigs from groups III and IV were inoculated intranasally, with two ml of a 10(9) CFU/ml suspension of equal parts of P. multocida, strains A52 and A24. No lesions were observed in piglets of group I. Microscopically, interstitial pneumonia was identified in all piglets of groups II and III and 3/4 piglets from group IV. Bronchopneumonia was detected in 3/4 of the piglets from group III and in all animals of group IV which, additionally, showed meningo-encephalitis and purulent rhinitis. Macroscopically, only piglets of groups III and IV had lung consolidation. However, much lower pneumonic scores (2.3%) were observed in group III, where 3 of 4 piglets were affected. On the other hand, all piglets of group IV showed some degree of pulmonary consolidation, with a mean score of 13.7%. Based on these results, it appears that the role of PRRSV as a initiator of secondary diseases is still undefined, but is probably mild. There was no clear interaction between PRRSv and Pasteurella multocida under the conditions and strains tested here.

  3. Antibiotic exposure and interpersonal variance mask the effect of ivacaftor on respiratory microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Anton Y; Choo, Jocelyn M; Langan, Katherine M; Edgeworth, Deirdre; Keating, Dominic; Wilson, John; Rogers, Geraint B; Kotsimbos, Tom

    2018-01-01

    G551D is a class III mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that results in impaired chloride channel function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Ivacaftor, a CFTR-potentiating agent improves sweat chloride, weight, lung function, and pulmonary exacerbation rate in CF patients with G551D mutations, but its effect on the airway microbiome remains poorly characterised. Twenty CF patients with at least one G551D mutation from a single centre were recruited to a 4month double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of ivacaftor with 28days of active treatment. Sputum microbiota composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR at five key time points, along with regular clinical review, respiratory function assessment, and peripheral blood testing. No significant difference in microbiota composition was observed in subjects following ivacaftor treatment or placebo (PERMANOVA P=0.95, square root ECV=-4.94, 9479 permutations). Microbiota composition variance was significantly greater between subjects, than within subjects over time (Pmicrobiota similarity was therefore performed. Again, change in microbiota composition was not significantly greater during treatment with ivacaftor compared to placebo (Wilcoxon test, P=0.51). A significant change in microbiota composition was however associated with any change in antibiotic exposure, regardless of whether ivacaftor or placebo was administered (P=0.006). In a small, subgroup analysis of subjects whose antibiotic exposure did not change within the study period, a significant reduction in total bacterial load was observed during treatment with ivacaftor (P=0.004, two-tailed paired Student's t-test). The short-term impact of ivacaftor therapy on sputum microbiota composition in patients with G551D mutations are modest compared to those resulting from antibiotic exposure, and may be masked by changes in antibiotic treatment regimen. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis

  4. Respiratory health effects and exposure to superabsorbent polymer and paper dust - an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Mathias; Dahlman-Höglund, Anna; Torén, Kjell

    2011-07-13

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to dust from absorbent hygiene products containing superabsorbent polymer is related to symptoms from the airways and from the eyes. The secondary aim was to estimate the current exposure to superabsorbent polymer among production and maintenance workers in a plant producing hygiene products. The cohort comprised 1043 workers of whom 689 were exposed to super absorbent polymer and 804 were exposed to paper dust (overlapping groups). There was 186 workers not exposed to either superabsorbent polymer or to paper dust They were investigated with a comprehensive questionnaire about exposure, asthma, rhinitis and symptoms from eyes and airways. The results were analyzed with logistic regression models adjusting for sex, age, atopy and smoking habits. An aerosol sampler equipped with a polytetrafluoroethylene filter with 1 μm pore size was used for personal samplings in order to measure inhalable dust and superabsorbent polymer. The prevalence of nasal crusts (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-2.0) and nose-bleeding (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4) was increased among the paper dust exposed workers (adjusted for superabsorbent polymer exposure). There were no significant effects associated with exposure to superabsorbent polymer (adjusted for paper dust exposure). The average exposure to inhalable levels of total dust (paper dust) varied between 0.40 and 1.37 mg/m³. For superabsorbent polymer dust the average exposure varied between 0.02 and 0.81 mg/m³. In conclusion, our study shows that workers manufacturing diapers in the hygiene industry have an increased prevalence of symptoms from the nose, especially nose-bleeding. There was no relation between exposure to superabsorbent polymer and symptoms from eyes, nose or respiratory tract, but exposure to paper dust was associated with nose-bleeding and nasal crusts. This group of workers had also a considerable exposure to superabsorbent polymer dust.

  5. Effect of parenterally L-arginine supplementation on the respiratory distress syndrome in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Murat; Akin, Mustafa Ali; Akcakus, Mustafa; Ozcan, Alper; Gunes, Tamer; Ozturk, Adnan; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    L-Arginine (L-Arg) is the precursor of nitric oxide which plays an important role on pulmonary circulation and pulmonary vascular tone. Earlier studies suggested that L-Arg levels in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were low due to its consumption and L-Arg supplementation may reduce the severity of RDS. Our aim was detect the effect of the parenterally L-Arg supplementation on RDS severity. The subjects were chosen between preterm newborns (gestational age supplementation was started end of the first day, and continued at end of fifth day. The others of the subjects diagnosed with RDS was take routine RDS treatment and assumed as "Group 2". Healthy preterm newborns assumed as "Group 3". Blood collections for L-Arg levels via tandem mass spectrometry were made in first day and repeated on the seventh days. Oxygenation index was used to determine severity of RDS. L-Arg consentrations in Group 1 were 8.7 ± 4.1 μM/L and 11.9 ± 5.0 μM/L in first and seventh day, respectively. L-Arg consentrations were 12.6 ± 4.5 μM/Land 10.9 ± 5.4 μM/L in Group 2 and 8.6 ± 5.1 μM/L and 9.4 ± 4.1 μM/L in Group 3. There is no correlation between L-Arg concentrations and OI also duration of the mechanical ventilation of the subjects in patient groups (Group 1 and 2).

  6. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT), was administered. The children were assigned to two groups: those who lived close to the oil spill area and those who lived far from the oil spill area. Results The children who lived close to the oil spill area showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), an increased prevalence of 'asthma ever' (based on a questionnaire), and 'airway hyperresponsiveness' (based on the MBPT) than those who lived far from the oil spill area (FEV1; P=0.011, prevalence of 'asthma ever' based on a questionnaire; P=0.005, prevalence of 'airway hyperresponsiveness' based on the MBPT; P=0.001). The onset of wheezing after the oil spill was significantly higher in children who lived close to the oil spill area than in those who lived far from the oil spill area among the 'wheeze ever' group (P=0.002). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, family history of asthma, and residence near the oil spill area were significant risk factors for asthma (sex [male/female]: odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.91; family history of asthma [No/Yes]: OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.83-7.75; exposure group [low/high]; OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.27-4.65). Conclusions This study suggests that exposure to an oil spill is a risk factor for asthma in children. PMID:24179682

  7. [Effects of baicalin on the changes in hemorheology of acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z M; Zheng, Y M; Zhang, Y L; Li, S Q

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of baicalin on the changes in hemorheology and its mechanism during the development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome(ARDS) induced by oleic acid (OA) in rats. Methods: Rats were randomized into 3 groups: control, ARDS (OA induction, 0.12 mg/kg) and ba-icalin-treated group (300 mg/kg). The blood samples were collected at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 6 h after OA injection. The whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, Maximum erythrocyte deformability index (DImax) were detected. Meanwhile, blood gas analysis and Routine blood test were also performed. Results: The level of arte-rial oxygen partial pressure and oxygenation index decreased (P<0.01 vs. control) and oxygenation index (178 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) reached the diagnostic standard of ARDS at 2 h in ARDS group. In baicalin-treated group, the level of arterial oxygen partial pressure and oxygenation index increased versus the ARDS group. The platelet count (PLT) decreased in baicalin-treated and ARDS groups. Compared with the ARDS group, the level of PLT increased significantly in baicalin-treated group at 30min, 1, 2, and 3 h. Hematocrit (HCT) increased in baicalin-treated and ARDS groups. Compared with the ARDS group, the level of HCT de-creased significantly in baicalin-treated group at 2, 3, 6 and 12 h. Meanwhile, all the index of hemorheology improved in baicalin-treated group. Conclusion: Baicalin may improve hypoxemia of ARDS induced by OA in rats. It may be due to the Improvement of microcirculation of lung.

  8. Effect of environmental exposure to hydrogen sulfide on central nervous system and respiratory function: a systematic review of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunjung; Mbowe, Omar; Lee, Angela S W; Davis, James

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the health effects of low-level exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on humans through experiments, industrial, and community studies has shown inconsistent results. To critically appraise available studies investigating the effect of H2S on the central nervous system (CNS) and on respiratory function. A search was conducted in 16 databases for articles published between January 1980 and July 2014. Two researchers independently evaluated potentially relevant papers based on a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 experimental, 12 industry-based studies, and 10 community-based studies (one article included both experimental and industry-based studies). The results of the systematic review varied by study setting and quality. Several community-based studies reported associations between day-to-day variations in H2S levels and health outcomes among patients with chronic respiratory conditions. However, evidence from the largest and better-designed community-based studies did not support that chronic, ambient H2S exposure has health effects on the CNS or respiratory function. Results from industry-based studies varied, reflecting the diversity of settings and the broad range of H2S exposures. Most studies did not have individual measurements of H2S exposure. The results across studies were inconsistent, justifying the need for further research.

  9. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a condition marked by a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood due to breathing excessively. ... aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing ... dioxide -- sometimes helps reduce symptoms when anxiety is the ...

  10. Effect of aerial ammonia on porcine infection of the respiratory tract with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the experimental study was to examine whether aerial ammonia alone could predispose the respiratory system of pigs to infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type A. Two groups of 5 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 ppm ammonia and less than 5 ppm ammonia...

  11. Effects of inspiratory muscle training in elderly women on respiratory muscle strength, diaphragm thickness and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Helga; Rocha, Taciano; Pessoa, Maíra; Rattes, Catarina; Brandão, Daniella; Fregonezi, Guilherme; Campos, Shirley; Aliverti, Andrea; Dornelas, Armele

    2014-12-01

    Aging results in a decline in the function of the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory muscle training is emerging as a possible intervention to attenuate the decline of respiratory muscles in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory strength, diaphragm thickness, and diaphragmatic mobility in elderly women. This was a controlled, randomized, and double-blind clinical trial, performed on 22 elderly women distributed in two groups, training (TG) and control (CG). Over an 8-week period a moderate intensity inspiratory muscle training protocol was followed in the TG, while CG followed a sham protocol. In addition maximum expiratory and inspiratory pressure, mobility of the diaphragm and diaphragmatic thickness were evaluated by ultrasound. After training, in TG maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, diaphragm thickness, and mobility increased by 37%, 13%, 11%, and 9% respectively, and their values were significantly higher than CG (p Inspiratory muscle training of moderate intensity improves respiratory muscle strength, diaphragm thickness, and diaphragm mobility in elderly women and it should be considered to minimize changes associated with senescence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The effect of breathing irregularities on quantitative accuracy of respiratory gated PET/CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Boon-Keng; Saboury, Babak; Munbodh, Reshma; Scheuermann, Joshua; Torigian, Drew A.; Zaidi, Habib; Alavi, Abass

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: 4D positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) can be used to reduce motion artifacts by correlating the raw PET data with the respiratory cycle. The accuracy of each PET phase is dependent on the reproducibility and consistency of the breathing cycle during acquisition.

  13. The effects of respiratory physiotherapy after lung resection : Protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, Karoline Stentoft; Skoffer, Birgit; Oestergaard, Lisa Gregersen; Van Tulder, Maurits; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    2017-01-01

    Background The main treatment of lung cancer (stage 1 and 2) is lung resection surgery. The risk of postoperative pulmonary complications is high and therefore standard postoperative care involves respiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this systematic review is to create an overview of the

  14. Implementation of smoke-free legislation in Malaysia: are adolescents protected from respiratory health effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aziemah; Abidin, Najihah Zainol; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Rahman, Anita Abd; Rasdi, Irniza; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Semple, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation. A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8). Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

  15. Isocyanate exposure and respiratory health effects in the spray painting industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis exposure-response relationships between isocyanate exposure and respiratory health end-points and specific sensitization in spray painters were investigated. Isocyanates, a group of compounds characterized by reactive N=C=O groups, are among the most frequently identified causes of

  16. Effects of nephrectomy on respiratory function and quality of life of living donors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Karen; Paisani, Denise M; Pacheco, Nathália C T; Chiavegato, Luciana D

    2015-01-01

    A living donor transplant improves the survival and quality of life of a transplant patient. However, the impact of transplantation on postoperative lung function and respiratory muscular strength in kidney donors remains unknown. To evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. This prospective cohort enrolled 110 consecutive kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. Subjects underwent pulmonary function (using spirometry) and respiratory muscular strength (using manovacuometry) assessments on the day prior to surgery and 1, 2, 3 and 5 days postoperatively. Quality of life (measured by the SF-36) was evaluated preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. PPCs were assessed daily by a blinded assessor. Donors exhibited a decrease of 27% in forced vital capacity, 58% in maximum inspiratory capacity and 51% in maximum expiratory pressure on the 1stpostoperative day (pfunctional capacity, physical role, pain, vitality and social functioning (pfunction, respiratory muscular strength and quality of life, most of which were improving toward pre-surgical levels.

  17. The effects of workload on respiratory variables in simulated flight: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Lehrer, Paul M; Lu, Shou-En; Vaschillo, Evgeny; Vaschillo, Bronya; Cheng, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated respiratory activity and end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)) during exposure to varying levels of work load in a simulated flight environment. Seven pilots (age: 34-60) participated in a one-session test on the Boeing 737-800 simulator. Physiological data were collected while pilots wore an ambulatory multi-channel recording device. Respiratory variables, including inductance plethysmography (respiratory pattern) and pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)), were collected demonstrating change in CO(2) levels proportional to changes in flight task workload. Pilots performed a set of simulation flight tasks. Pilot performance was rated for each task by a test pilot; and self-report of workload was taken using the NASA-TLX scale. Mixed model analysis revealed that respiration rate and minute ventilation are significantly associated with workload levels and evaluator scores controlling for "vanilla baseline" condition. Hypocapnia exclusively occurred in tasks where pilots performed more poorly. This study was designed as a preliminary investigation in order to develop a psychophysiological assessment methodology, rather than to offer conclusive findings. The results show that the respiratory system is very reactive to high workload conditions in aviation and suggest that hypocapnia may pose a flight safety risk under some circumstances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Work-Related Health Effects in Swine Building Workers After Respiratory Protection Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Veillette, Marc; Mériaux, Anne

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare inflammation and lung function in swine workers after periods with and without respiratory protection during work. METHODS:Twenty-three workers were examined before and after two nonprotected work shifts. One shift was preceded by a period with diminished exposure by use...

  19. Effects of oxidant air pollution on resistance to respiratory infection a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loveren H; Rombout PJA; Fischer PH; Lebret E; van Bree L

    1993-01-01

    This literature survey suggests that ambient levels of exposure to oxidant gases increases susceptibiliy to respiratory infections. This notion is primarily based on available animal data. Since the basic biological mechanisms of action of the human and the animal pulmonary defenses are similar,

  20. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety ...

  1. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and nitric oxide (NO X ) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (PAir pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  2. Comparing effects of Beractant and Poractant alfa in decreasing mortality rate due to respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Exogenous natural and synthetic surfactants is a rescue treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The goals of the study were to compare the clinical response and side-effects of two frequently used surfactants, poractant alfa (Curosurf and beractant (Survanta, for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants."n "nMethods: This clinical trial study was performed during a two-year period in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Sample size calculated by a 95% confidence and power of 80, included 104 premature neonates, 74 in survanta and 30 in curosurf groups. The level of statistical significance was considered to be < 0.05."n "nResults: There were no statistically significant differences between the infants treated by survanta or cursurf groups regarding their mean gestational age (30.58 Vs. 29.00 weeks and birth weight (1388 Vs. 1330 g, (p=0.3 There were also no significant differences between the two groups regarding incidences of broncho- pulmonary dysplasia (BPD (40.5% Vs. 40%, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH grades III/IV (13.5% Vs. 13.3%, pneumothorax (both 20%, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (28/3% Vs. 20% or death (28% Vs. 26.6% on the 28th day postpartum."n "nConclusion: This study showed that survanta and curosurf had similar therapeutic effects in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  3. Effective Partnership is an underpinning of ANSI/ASSE Z88.2-2015 Practices for Respiratory Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Richard W; Spelce, David; Johnson, James S; Rehak, Timothy R

    In the U.S., respiratory protection is broadly supported by a system of coordinated efforts among governmental organizations, professional associations, researchers, industrial hygienists, manufacturers, and others who produce knowledge, best practice guidance, standards, regulations, technologies, and products to assure workers can be effectively protected. Ultimately, the work of these partners is applied by employers in establishing and implementing an effective ANSI/ASSE Z88.2-2015 conforming respirator program. This article describes key partners and their activities and/or responsibilities to assure an effective respirator program.

  4. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  5. Value of supplemental interventions to enhance the effectiveness of physical exercise during respiratory rehabilitation in COPD patients. A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schünemann Holger J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a controversy about the additional benefit of various supplemental interventions used in clinical practice to further enhance the effectiveness of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this research was to assess randomised controlled trials (RCTs testing the additional benefit of supplemental interventions during respiratory rehabilitation in COPD patients. Methods Systematic review with literature searches in six electronic databases, extensive hand-searching and contacting of authors. Two reviewers selected independently eligible RCTs, rated the methodological quality and extracted the data, which were analyzed considering the minimal important difference of patient-important outcomes where possible. Findings We identified 20 RCTs whereof 18 provided sufficient data for analysis. The methodological quality was low and sample sizes were too small for most trials to produce meaningful results (median total sample size = 28. Data from five trials showed that supplemental oxygen during exercise did not have clinically meaningful effects on health-related quality of life while improvements of exercise capacity may be even larger for patients exercising on room air. RCTs of adding assisted ventilation, nutritional supplements or a number of anabolically acting drugs do not provide sufficient evidence for or against the use any of these supplemental interventions. Interpretation There is insufficient evidence for most supplemental interventions during respiratory rehabilitation to estimate their additional value, partly due to methodological shortcomings of included RCTs. Current data do not suggest benefit from supplemental oxygen during exercise, although the methodological quality of included trials limits conclusions. To appropriately assess any of the various supplemental interventions used in clinical practice, pragmatic trials on respiratory

  6. Effect of flow-resistive inspiratory loading on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in sub-elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Ren J; Lindley, Martin; Chatham, Ken; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week swim training and inspiratory muscle training program on respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in competitively trained sub-elite swimmers. A double-blind, parallel-group experimental design was employed to compare the effects of swim training alone, swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training, and swim training with true inspiratory muscle training. Twenty-four competitively trained sub-elite swimmers combined swim training with either flow-resistive inspiratory muscle training set at 80% sustained maximal inspiratory pressure with progressively increased work-rest ratios until task failure for 3 days/week (swim training with inspiratory muscle training, N.=8), or swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training (N.=8), or acted as controls (swim training only, N.=8). Measures of pulmonary and respiratory muscle function were assessed at the beginning and end of the 12-week study period. At baseline, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in respiratory muscle and pulmonary function between groups. Following the 12-week training period, the swim training with inspiratory muscle training group demonstrated improvements in maximal inspiratory pressure, sustained maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal inspiratory muscle power output, inspiratory muscle work capacity, inspiratory time of contraction, time to fatigue, maximal voluntary ventilation in 12 seconds, and forced inspiratory volume in 1-second (Prespiratory muscle function were observed in the swim training only or swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training groups (P>0.05). Inspiratory muscle training in conjunction with swim training improves respiratory muscle function in sub-elite swimmers when compared to swim training only.

  7. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  8. Indoor exposures and acute respiratory effects in two general population samples from a rural and an urban area in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Scognamiglio, Antonio; Carrozzi, Laura; Baldacci, Sandra; Angino, Anna; Pistelli, Francesco; Di Pede, Francesco; Viegi, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    A study of indoor air exposures and acute respiratory effects in adults was conducted in the Po Delta (rural) and Pisa (urban) areas of Italy. Indoor exposures were monitored for nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter <2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) for 1 week during the winter or summer in a total of 421 houses (2/3 in Pisa). Information on house characteristics, subjects' daily activity pattern and presence of acute respiratory symptoms was collected by a standardized questionnaire. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) maneuvers were performed by adult subjects four times daily; maximum amplitude and diurnal variation were taken into account. Indices of NO(2) and PM(2.5) exposures were computed as the product of weekly mean pollutant concentration by the time of daily exposure. Mean levels of pollutants were significantly higher in winter than in summer, regardless of the area. The relationship between exposure indices and acute respiratory symptoms was investigated only in winter. In spite of a slightly lower indoor level in the urban than in the rural area in winter (NO(2): 15 vs. 22 ppb; PM(2.5): 67 vs. 76 microg/m(3)), prevalence rates of acute respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in the urban than in the rural area. Acute respiratory illnesses with fever were significantly associated with indices of NO(2) (odds ratio (OR)=1.66; 95% CI=1.08-2.57) and PM(2.5) exposures (OR=1.62; 95% CI=1.04-2.51), while bronchitic/asthmatic symptoms were associated only with PM(2.5) (OR=1.39; 95% CI=1.17-1.66). PEF variability was positively related only to PM(2.5) exposure index (OR=1.38; 95% CI=1.24-1.54, for maximum amplitude; OR=1.37; 95% CI=1.23-1.53, for diurnal variation). In conclusion, indoor pollution exposures were associated with the presence of acute respiratory symptoms and mild lung function impairment in a rural and an urban area of Northern-Central Italy.

  9. [Effect of lung strain on pulmonary edema in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zheng, Hui; Li, Wen; Zeng, Qingsi; Cheng, Zhe; Chen, Rongchang

    2015-09-22

    To explore the effect of lung strain on pulmonary edema in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) preliminarily. Twenty dogs were recruited to induct ARDS models by venous injection of oleic acid and grouped into Group S1.0, S1.5, S2.0, S2.5 randomly, the lung strain was previously designated as 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 for each group. The ventilation was used to support the dogs for 24 hours with tidal volume calculated from lung strain, functional residual capacity and the volume recruitment by positive end expiratory pressure. Extra vascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were tested by thermodilution technique and wet to dry ratio of lung tissue was evaluated by weighing method. The tidal volume of Group S1.0, S1.5, S2.0, S2.5 was (7.5 ± 1.7), (13.9 ± 5.8), (17.9 ± 4.7) and (20.3 ± 7.9) ml/kg, respectively. After ventilation for 4 h, EVLWI in Group S2.0 and Group S2.5 were higher than them in Group S1.0 and Group S1.5 ((38.9 ± 6.5), (40.1 ± 7.7) vs (26.6 ± 5.2), (28.8 ± 5.4) ml/kg; F = 5.627, P = 0.009). At the end of study, PVPI of Group S2.5 increased significantly versus Group S1.0, S1.5 and S2.0 (16.7 ± 5.4 vs 7.0 ± 2.3, 9.2 ± 2.2, 11.5 ± 6.0; F = 4.329, P = 0.022). Wet to dry ratios of lung tissue in Group S2.0 and Group S2.5 were significantly higher than Group S1.0 and Group S1.5 (10.4 ± 1.2, 10.8 ± 1.5 vs 8.3 ± 1.2, 8.0 ± 2.2; F = 5.627, P = 0.009) after ventilation. Lung strain above 2.0 aggravates pulmonary edema dramatically and the effect might be slight if lung strain was smaller than 1.5.

  10. Respiratory effects of air pollutants among nonsmoking traffic policemen of Patiala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and thus the persons who are continuously exposed, may be at an increased risk. Although several studies have confirmed the ill effects of air pollutants on the lung function of traffic policemen, only a few have investigated the relationship between respiratory health and duration of exposure in this category of occupationally exposed persons. Aim: The study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic policemen in respect to an unexposed control group having the same age group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which the spirometric parameters of a group of 100 nonsmoking traffic policemen, aged 20-55 years, working in and around Patiala city, were compared with those obtained in an age-matched control group, consisting of 100 healthy males, serving in the Punjab Police, who have never done traffic duty and are thus not exposed to traffic pollution. Lung function was done with MEDSPIROR. The data on the overall health status of the subjects was collected using the standard Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire. The statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS PC software version 13. Results: Traffic policemen recorded a significant decline in various parameters, such as forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 , and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR when compared with controls, and is probably due to exposure to vehicular pollution. It was also observed that in traffic policemen with >8 years of exposure, the values of FVC (2.7 L, FEV 1 (1.8 L, and PEFR (7.5 L/s were significantly lower than those obtained in traffic policemen with <8 years of exposure, in whom the values were 2.9 L, 2.3 L, and 7.7 L/s for FVC, FEV 1, and PEFR, respectively. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function

  11. Respiratory failure in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevransky, Jonathan E; Haponik, Edward F

    2003-02-01

    Elderly individuals comprise an increasing proportion of the population and represent a progressively expanding number of patients admitted to the ICU. Because of underlying pulmonary disease, loss of muscle mass, and other comorbid conditions, older persons are at increased risk of developing respiratory failure. Recognition of this vulnerability and the adoption of proactive measures to prevent decompensation requiring intrusive support are major priorities together with clear delineation of patients' wishes regarding the extent of support desired should clinical deterioration occur. Further, the development of coordinated approaches to identify patients at risk for respiratory failure and strategies to prevent the need for intubation, such as the use of NIV in appropriate patients, are crucial. As soon as endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are implemented strategies that facilitate the liberation of elderly patients from the ventilator are especially important. The emphasis on a team approach, which characterizes geriatric medicine, is essential in coordinating the skills of multiple health care professionals in this setting. Respiratory failure can neither be effectively diagnosed nor managed in isolation. Integration with all other aspects of care is essential. Patient vulnerability to nosocomial complications and the "cascade effect" of these problems such as the effects of medications and invasive supportive procedures all impact on respiratory care of elderly patients. For example, prolonged mechanical ventilation may be required long after resolution of the underlying cause of respiratory failure because of unrecognized and untreated delirium or residual effects of small doses of sedative and/or analgesic agents or other medications in elderly patients with altered drug metabolism. The deleterious impact of the foreign and sometimes threatening ICU environment and/or sleep deprivation on the patient's course are too often overlooked because

  12. High-Dose Monthly Vitamin D for Prevention of Acute Respiratory Infection in Older Long-Term Care Residents: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginde, Adit A; Blatchford, Patrick; Breese, Keith; Zarrabi, Lida; Linnebur, Sunny A; Wallace, Jeffrey I; Schwartz, Robert S

    2017-03-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of high-dose vitamin D supplementation for prevention of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in older long-term care residents. Randomized controlled trial investigating high-dose vs standard-dose vitamin D from 2010 to 2014. Colorado long-term care facilities. Long-term care residents aged 60 and older (n = 107). The high-dose group received monthly supplement of vitamin D 3 100,000 IU, the standard-dose group received a monthly placebo (for participants taking 400-1,000 IU/d as part of usual care) or a monthly supplement of 12,000 IU of vitamin D 3 (for participants taking <400 IU/d as part of usual care). The primary outcome was incidence of ARI during the 12-month intervention. Secondary outcomes were falls and fractures, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones. Participants (55 high dose, 52 standard dose) were randomized and included in the final analysis. The high-dose group had 0.67 ARIs per person-year and the standard-dose group had 1.11 (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.38-0.94, P = .02). Falls were more common in the high-dose group (1.47 per person-year vs 0.63 in standard-dose group; IRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.49-3.63, P < .001). Fractures were uncommon and similar in both groups (high dose 0.10 vs standard dose 0.19 per person-year; P = .31). Mean trough 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels during the trial were 32. ng/mL in the high-dose group and 25.1 ng/mL in the standard-dose group. There was no hypercalcemia or kidney stones in either group. Monthly high-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation reduced the incidence of ARI in older long-term care residents but was associated with a higher rate of falls without an increase in fractures. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Respiratory transfusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Marić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory transfusion-related reactions are not very frequent, partly also because recognition and reporting transfusion reactions is still underemphasized. Tis article describes the most important respiratory transfusion reactions, their pathophysiology, clinical picture and treatment strategies. Respiratory transfusion related reactions can be primary or secondary. The most important primary transfusion-related reactions are TRALI - transfusion-related acute lung injury, TACO – transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and TAD - transfusion-associated dyspnea. TRALI is immuneassociated injury of alveolar basal membrane, which becomes highly permeable and causes noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment of TRALI is mainly supportive with oxygen, fluids (in case of hypotension and in cases of severe acute respiratory failure also mechanic ventilation. TACO is caused by volume overload in predisposed individuals, such as patients with heart failure, the elderly, infants, patients with anemia and patients with positive fluid balance. Clinical picture is that of a typical pulmonary cardiogenic edema, and the therapy is classical: oxygen and diuretics, and in severe cases also non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. TAD is usually a mild reaction of unknown cause and cannot be classified as TACO or TRALI, nor can it be ascribed to patient’s preexisting diseases. Although the transfusion-related reactions are not very common, knowledge about them can prevent serious consequences. On the one hand preventive measures should be sought, and on the other early recognition is beneficial, so that proper treatment can take place.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): an Approach to Effective Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, Sylvia; Black, Diane; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Nijhuis, Jan; Koek, Ger; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Recent Findings Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of

  15. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgert, L.A.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was

  16. REBAMIPIDE: EFFECTIVE DRUG PREVENTION OF NSAID ENTEROPATHY IS POSSIBLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Moroz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of gastrointestinal tract (GIT complications is the most important element for the rational use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin (LDA. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs have long been the only medication to prevent these complications. However, PPIs are only effective in preventing and treating upper GIT diseases (NSAID gastropathy rather than small intestinal injury (NSAID enteropathy. Rebamipide has emerged as a novel agent to protect the gastrointestinal mucosa today. The effect of the drug differs from that of PPIs: it is a typical gastroand enteroprotector that enhances the synthesis of endogenous prostaglandins and possesses a significant anti-inflammatory potential. Rebamipide has long been widely used by doctors inJapan,South Korea, andChinaas an effective and safe agent for the treatment of many diseases of the digestive system. There is a strong evidence base for the efficacy of rebamipide in preventing and treating NSAID gastropathy and NSAID enteropathy (including LDA-induced injuries. Controlled studies have found that the drug is not inferior to the classic gastroprotective agent misoprostol, significantly outperforming the latter in its tolerability. This review describes the mechanism of action of rebamipide and main clinical trials of its therapeutic effect in NSAID gastropathy and NSAID enteropathy. 

  17. Household Barriers to Effective Malaria Prevention and Control in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is endemic throughout Nigeria. Majority of Nigerians live in rural areas where subsistence farming is their main occupation. Most of them live below poverty line, earning less than $1.25 a day. In rural communities, many household factors constitute barriers to effective malaria prevention and control.

  18. Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis infection among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state. ... Based on these findings, the study recommended that health education/ health campaign should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices ...

  19. Modeling and Cost-Effectiveness in HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Margo M; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2016-02-01

    With HIV funding plateauing and the number of people living with HIV increasing due to the rollout of life-saving antiretroviral therapy, policy makers are faced with increasingly tighter budgets to manage the ongoing HIV epidemic. Cost-effectiveness and modeling analyses can help determine which HIV interventions may be of best value. Incidence remains remarkably high in certain populations and countries, making prevention key to controlling the spread of HIV. This paper briefly reviews concepts in modeling and cost-effectiveness methodology and then examines results of recently published cost-effectiveness analyses on the following HIV prevention strategies: condoms and circumcision, behavioral- or community-based interventions, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. We find that the majority of published studies demonstrate cost-effectiveness; however, not all interventions are affordable. We urge continued research on combination strategies and methodologies that take into account willingness to pay and budgetary impact.

  20. Effect of Serotonin 1A Agonists and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Behavioral and Nighttime Respiratory Symptoms in Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Koyo; Saito, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Riyo; Togawa, Masami; Ohmae, Takanori; Matsuda, Eriko; Fujiyama, Misato; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Rett syndrome is characterized by psychomotor regression during early childhood, autistic-like behaviors, and aberrant breathing patterns. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system has been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of these symptoms. We present an 11-year-old girl with Rett syndrome who exhibited marked respiratory symptoms, including frequent apneic events during sleep. She had been treated for these respiratory symptoms using noninvasive positive pressure ventilation since age six years. Treatment with serotonin 1A receptor agonist was initiated at age eight years, whereas treatment using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor began at age nine years. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy was effective in reducing symptoms of sleep apnea, and administration of serotonergic agents resulted in amelioration of sleep apneic events even in the absence of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. In addition, improvements in hand stereotypy and social skills were observed after initiation of serotonin-based therapy. The respiratory difficulties our patient experienced during non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are characteristic of post-sigh central apnea. Exaggerated activity of expiratory neurons during such apneic events has been observed in mouse models of Rett syndrome. We suggest that prescribed serotonergic agents might serve to inhibit such activity, attenuating the imbalance between inspiratory and expiratory neurons. These agents might also be useful in the treatment of autistic-like behaviors caused by impaired serotonergic transmission in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of salbutamol combined with ulinastatin on respiratory function, inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD patients with laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effects salbutamol combined with ulinastatin on respiratory function, inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD patients with laparoscopic surgery. Methods: A total of 76 cases of COPD patients were brought into the study. They were randomly divided into observation group (n=38 who accepted salbutamol combined with ulinastatin treatment and the control group (n=38 who accepted single salbutamol treatment. All patients’ respiratory function and inflammation levels and different levels of oxidative stress were tested. Results: After the treatment, the observation group patients’ in-surgery SpO2 and Compl levels were higher than the control group’s, while PETCO2, Paw and Raw levels were lower than those of the control group. The in-surgery AAT, ESR, NPT, AAG and SAA levels of the observation group patients were significantly lower than those of the control group