WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventing moisture loss

  1. Global Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford Scott; Emmett, Susan D; Robler, Samantha Kleindienst; Tucci, Debara L

    2018-03-07

    Hearing loss is the fourth leading contributor to years lived with a disability worldwide. Most recent estimates indicate that one-half of a billion people suffer from disabling hearing loss worldwide. The social and economic burden is significant. When attributing monetary value to years lived with disability owing to hearing loss, there is greater than $US750 billion lost each year globally. There are numerous contributors to hearing loss, including congenital, infectious, noise exposure, age-related, traumatic, and immune-mediated causes. Understanding the pathophysiology of these factors allows for the development of preventative and treatment strategies specific to the underlying cause. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that fresh melon seeds dried to 7.4% moisture content(wb) lost 539.2 grams of moisture per kilogram dry matter and the percentage shrinkage of the seeds was 33.9%. Graphs of moisture loss in grams per kilogram dry matter were plotted against percentage shrinkage. A straight line relationship was ...

  3. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  4. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  5. Crunchiness Loss and Moisture Toughening in Puffed Cereals and Snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Micha

    2015-09-01

    Upon moisture uptake, dry cellular cereals and snacks loose their brittleness and become soggy. This familiar phenomenon is manifested in smoothing their compressive force-displacement curves. These curves' degree of jaggedness, expressed by their apparent fractal dimension, can serve as an instrumental measure of the particles' crunchiness. The relationship between the apparent fractal dimension and moisture content or water activity has a characteristic sigmoid shape. The relationship between the sensorily perceived crunchiness and moisture also has a sigmoid shape whose inflection point lies at about the same location. The transition between the brittle and soggy states, however, appears sharper in the apparent fractal dimension compared with moisture plot. Less familiar is the observation that at moderate levels of moisture content, while the particles' crunchiness is being lost, their stiffness actually rises, a phenomenon that can be dubbed "moisture toughening." We show this phenomenon in commercial Peanut Butter Crunch® (sweet starch-based cereal), Cheese Balls (salty starch-based snack), and Pork Rind also known as "Chicharon" (salty deep-fried pork skin), 3 crunchy foods that have very different chemical composition. We also show that in the first 2 foods, moisture toughening was perceived sensorily as increased "hardness." We have concluded that the partial plasticization, which caused the brittleness loss, also inhibited failure propagation, which allowed the solid matrix to sustain higher stresses. This can explain other published reports of the phenomenon in different foods and model systems. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  7. Information Security - Data Loss Prevention Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to extend and provide specificity to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Security Policy regarding data loss prevention and digital rights management.

  8. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. A Study of Moisture Induced Material Loss of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Maine Department of Transportation has noticed the partial or complete loss of material within 2-3 years of construction in the traffic wheel path in the presence of moisture in few of their mixes. Regularly used moisture susceptibility tests are una...

  10. Evaporational losses under different soil moisture regimes and atmospheric evaporativities using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, P.; Chaudhary, T.N.; Mookerji, P.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium as tracer was used in a laboratory study to estimate the contribution of moisture from different soil depths towards actual soil water evaporation. Results indicated that for comparable amounts of free water evaporation (5 cm), contribution of moisture from 70-80 cm soil layer towards total soil moisture loss through evaporation increased nearly 1.5 to 3 folds for soils with water table at 90 cm than without water table. Identical initial soil moistures were exposed to different atmospheric evaporativities. Similarly, for a given initial soil moisture status, upward movement of moisture from 70-80 cm soil layer under low evaporativity was nearly 8 to 12 times that of under high evaporativity at 5 cm free water evaporation value. (author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Elevated moisture stimulates carbon loss from mineral soils by releasing protected organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjuan; Hall, Steven J

    2017-11-24

    Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C 3 /C 4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as CO 2 and CH 4 to >150% of the control. Stable C isotopes show that mineralization of older C 3 -derived C released following Fe reduction dominates C losses. Counter to theory, elevated moisture may significantly accelerate C losses from mineral soils over weeks to months-a critical mechanistic deficiency of current Earth system models.

  12. Comparison of standard moisture loss-on-drying methods for the determination of moisture content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileleji, Klein E; Garcia, Arnoldo A; Kingsly, Ambrose R P; Clementson, Clairmont L

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the variability among 14 standard moisture loss-on-drying (gravimetric) methods for determination of the moisture content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The methods were compared with the Karl Fischer (KF) titration method to determine their percent variation from the KF method. Additionally, the thermo-balance method using a halogen moisture analyzer that is routinely used in fuel ethanol plants was included in the methods investigated. Moisture contents by the loss-on-drying methods were significantly different for DDGS samples from three fuel ethanol plants. The percent deviation of the moisture loss-on-drying methods decreased with decrease in drying temperature and, to a lesser extent, drying time. This was attributed to an overestimation of moisture content in DDGS due to the release of volatiles at high temperatures. Our findings indicate that the various methods that have been used for moisture determination by moisture loss-on-drying will not give identical results and therefore, caution should be exercised when selecting a moisture loss-on-drying method for DDGS.

  13. Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-24

    This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  14. Guidelines on the prevention of built-in moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of built-in-moisture, a number of buildings in Denmark were attacked by moulds even before the users moved in. Therefore, the Danish Building Regulations have since 2008 stipulated that building structures and materials must not, on moving in, have a moisture content that is liable...... to increase the risk of mould growth. In some cases, authorities can demand that this should be documented by a moisture specialist. The paper describes a voluntary Danish guideline on how to comply with the requirements and the intentions in the Danish Building Regulations concerning the handling of moisture...... at each stage of the building process spanning from the proposal phase to delivery of the building and the 1-year and 5-year inspections. This includes categorising a specific building in a humidity risk class as the risk for moisture damages is related both to the expected exposure to moisture during...

  15. Blanching and drying period affect moisture loss and vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... The main plot was two drying methods (solar drier and open sun drying), the subplot was two blanching levels (blanched and unblanched). The fruits were measured at three drying periods (0, 1.5 and 3 months). Fruit weight loss during drying. Solar dryers that allow natural circulation or natural convection.

  16. Uncovering effective strategies for hearing loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Thais C.; Meinke, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health agencies, researchers and policy makers have recognized the need for evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce or prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. While many workplaces comply with legal or obligatory requirements and implement recommended interventions, few publications exist documenting the effectiveness of these actions. Additionally, some workplaces have discovered through their own processes, novel ways to reduce the risk of injury. Peer-reviewed information on the effectiveness of the many strategies and approaches currently in use could help correct weaknesses, or further encourage their adoption and expansion. The evaluation of intervention effectiveness would certainly contribute to improved worker health and safety. This need is particularly relevant regarding noise exposure in the workplace and hearing loss prevention interventions. In a 2006 review of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hearing Loss Research Program, the independent National Academies of Sciences recommended that NIOSH place greater emphasis on identifying the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention measures on the basis of outcomes that are as closely related as possible to reducing noise exposure and work related hearing loss (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11721). NIOSH used two different approaches to address that recommendation: the first one was to conduct research, including broad systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. The second was to create an award program, the Safe-In-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award™, to identify and honor excellent real-world examples of noise control and other hearing loss prevention practices and innovations. PMID:27397968

  17. The effects of uncoated paper on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss in bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Soon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Moon, Nam-Kyung; Ahn, Young Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Ok

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to measure skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after application of uncoated paper and to compare skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after use of uncoated paper and disposable underpads. The study was a cross-over, prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial. Bedridden patients aged≥18 years at a medical center in Korea were included. Treatment order was randomly assigned using block randomization, with a block size of 4 and an assignment rate of one-by-one. Skin moisture was measured using a Corneometer 825 and transepidermal water loss was measured using a Tewameter 300. Skin moisture after application of an uncoated paper was significantly lower than observed after application of a disposable underpad (mean 40.6 and SD 13.1 vs. mean 64.6 and SD 23.7, p<0.001). Transepidermal water loss also showed greater health scores after using uncoated paper (mean 11.1 and SD 5.7 g/m2/hour) than after applying a disposable underpad (mean 23.2 and SD 11.1 g/m2 /hour, p<0.001). There were no statistical between-group differences in room temperature, relative humidity, and body temperature. We found that uncoated paper was helpful in avoiding excessive moisture without adverse effects. As indicated by the results of this study, uncoated paper can be applied to bed-ridden patients who required incontinence care. Nurses may consider using uncoated paper as one of nursing methods in the routine care of bed-ridden patients for moisture control. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Policosanol prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mendoza, S; Gámez, R; Mendoza, N; González, J

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, abnormal bone architecture and increased fracture risk. Ovariectomy impairs bone mass and metabolism in rats and ovariectomized rats are considered as a suitable model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mevalonate is required for producing lipoids that are important in osteoclast activity and thus drugs affecting mevalonate production can prevent bone loss in rodents. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis through an indirect regulation of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether policosanol could prevent bone loss in the bones of ovariectomized rats by comparing its effects with those induced by estradiol. Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly distributed in four groups: a sham-operated group treated with Tween/H2O vehicle and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg/day) or policosanol (50 and 200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 3 months. At treatment completion the rats were sacrificed, their bones removed and variables of bone resorption and formation were investigated by histomorphometry. Ovariectomy increased trabecular separation but diminished the number and thickness of trabecules. Estradiol and policosanol prevented these effects compared with ovariectomized controls. Both treatments also prevented an increase in the number of osteoclasts and their surface area induced by ovariectomy. Estradiol, but not policosanol, significantly prevented an increase of osteoblast surface area compared with ovariectomized controls. In conclusion, policosanol prevented bone loss and decreased bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that it should be potentially useful in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  19. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention of perinatal loss: towards personalized medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev M.V.; Davydova Iu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The literature review on the prevention of preterm labor is carried out. Preterm labor is the actual problem of modern obstetrics due to the impact on maternal and child health. It is affects the level of perinatal morbidity, disability and infant mortality. Preterm labor occupies a dominant position in the structure of perinatal losses. Introduction of the prophylactic modern technologies of the preterm labor using micronized progesterone containing preparations allows clearly reduce their f...

  1. Efficacy of gallium in tooth loss prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Milena D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in medicine. Radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human diseases. More recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may also function as antimicrobial agents. In the review, the potential application of gallium in the future treatment of periodontitis and prevention of tooth loss will be discussed. Gingival inflammation, bacterial infection, alveolar bone destruction and subsequent tooth loss are characteristic features of periodontal disease. Surgical techniques, mechanical debridement of the denuded root surface, and local or systemic application of antimicrobial agents are currently used treatments for periodontitis. However, the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has prompted a great need for new and alternative treatment methods for infection. Conclusion: The potential anti-periodontitis benefits of gallium are related to eradicating infection due to bacterial biofilms, increasing bone deposition and downregulating unwanted immune responses. Adjunctive use of gallium laser therapy with mechanical instrumentation in combination with gallium-containing gingival gels, toothpastes and mouth rinses may represent the final solutions for tooth loss prevention.

  2. Prevention of perinatal loss: towards personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev M.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review on the prevention of preterm labor is carried out. Preterm labor is the actual problem of modern obstetrics due to the impact on maternal and child health. It is affects the level of perinatal morbidity, disability and infant mortality. Preterm labor occupies a dominant position in the structure of perinatal losses. Introduction of the prophylactic modern technologies of the preterm labor using micronized progesterone containing preparations allows clearly reduce their frequency in a number of clinics that use the destination progesterone protocol for ultrasound cervical length less than 25 mm, as well as in women with preterm labor in history.

  3. Interacting Effects of Heat Stress and Soil Moisture Stress on Crop Yield Losses in Dryland Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Caylor, K. K.; Estes, L. D.; Chaney, N.; Sheffield, J.

    2012-12-01

    Increased interannual variability and greater frequency of extreme events place new pressures on subsistence farmers as a direct result of climate change. Of particular concern are farmers practicing rainfed agriculture in dryland ecosytems, where food security is closely linked to climate. In these areas, an improved understanding of the occurrence of extreme events as well as their effects on crop yields is essential. The main goals of this research are to identify the relative importance and possible coupling of heat stress and soil moisture stress in determining dryland crop yield losses. In particular, we are interested in determining the extent to which irrigation is an effective buffer against drought and heat stress in dryland regions. While irrigation can protect against soil moisture stress, its ability to mitigate heat stress, or the combined effects of the two stresses, is uncertain. Our study focuses on the Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia as characteristic regions of dryland agriculture. Sites in the study area are identified based on farming type (irrigated versus rainfed). As irrigation is assumed to negate soil moisture stress, this approach enables separate analysis of heat stress and soil moisture stress, as well as their combined effects. To quantify the effects of heat stress, distributions of daily minimum and maximum temperatures are used to identify the frequency and severity of anomalously warm periods and their correlation with resulting crop yield losses. We also utilize Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) data and soil moisture data derived from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model to examine the effects of meteorological drought and hydrological drought, respectively, on crop yields. To quantify crop yield losses, we employ yield estimates derived from the integration of time series of 250 meter resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images collected by the Moderate Resolution

  4. 76 FR 62093 - Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... stakeholder meeting on preventing occupational hearing loss. Every year, between 20,000 and 25,000 workers suffer from preventable hearing loss due to high workplace noise levels. The purpose of this meeting is... nearly 125,000 workers have suffered significant, permanent hearing loss since 2004. Neither surgery nor...

  5. Interventions to prevent occupational noise induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wout; Sorgdrager, Bas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing

  6. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing

  7. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1989-01-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to...

  8. The prevention of losses in cured fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1981-01-01

    The paper reviews problems of the post-harvest losses in cured fish. The importance of this commodity in the tropics and existing methods of its handling, processing, storage and distribution are discussed...

  9. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, Daniel L.

    1989-09-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to assist in the creation of specific prevention plans. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) contains two types of knowledge—domain and tutoring. The domain knowledge for wildfire prevention is structured around several foci: (1) individual concepts used in prevention planning; (2) explicitly specified interrelationships between concepts; (3) deductive methods that contain subjective judgment normally unavailable to less-experienced users; (4) analytical models of fire behavior used for identification of hazard areas; (5) how-to guidance needed for performance of planning tasks; and (6) expository information that provides a rationale for planning steps and ideas. Combining analytical, procedure, inferential, conceptual, and expositional knowledge into a tutoring environment provides the student and/or user with a multiple perspective of the subject matter. A concept network provides a unifying framework for structuring and utilizing these diverse forms of prevention planning knowledge. This network structure borrows from and combines semantic networks and frame-based knowledge representations. The flexibility of this organization facilitates an effective synthesis and organization of multiple knowledge forms.

  10. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... than one variable might cause problems even though these individually variables are in an acceptable region. This paper deals with such a problem. The combination of a high load of the power plant, a large load change and high moisture content in the coal, can force the coal mill into a state where...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  11. Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Compagnoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change threatens to exacerbate the impacts of invasive species. In temperate ecosystems, direct effects of warming may be compounded by dramatic reductions in winter snow cover. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum is arguably the most destructive biological invader in basins of the North American Intermountain West, and warming could increase its performance through direct effects on demographic rates or through indirect effects mediated by loss of snow. We conducted a two-year experimental manipulation of temperature and snow pack to test whether 1 warming increases cheatgrass population growth rate and 2 reduced snow cover contributes to cheatgrass’ positive response to warming. We used infrared heaters operating continuously to create the warming treatment, but turned heaters on only during snowfalls for the snowmelt treatment. We monitored cheatgrass population growth rate and the vital rates that determine it: emergence, survival and fecundity. Growth rate increased in both warming and snowmelt treatments. The largest increases occurred in warming plots during the wettest year, indicating that the magnitude of response to warming depends on moisture availability. Warming increased both fecundity and survival, especially in the wet year, while snowmelt contributed to the positive effects of warming by increasing survival. Our results indicate that increasing temperature will exacerbate cheatgrass impacts, especially where warming causes large reductions in the depth and duration of snow cover.

  12. Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more

  13. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  14. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  15. Diet, Weight Loss, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.; Ryan, Donna H.; Harsha, David W.

    2003-08-01

    Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with a patient should be based on this risk-benefit assessment. The body mass is the basic measurement for this assessment, and should be part of the "vital signs" when a patient is first evaluated by the medical staff. When the body mass index (BMI) is below 25 kg/m(2), there is little risk from the body weight, but because obesity is a "stigmatized" condition, many patients, particularly women, desire to lose weight even within the normal range. For this purpose, a high-quality diet like the Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) diet at a reduced-calorie intake would be our recommendation. When the BMI is above 25 kg/m(2), patients deserve dietary advice, but in addition to a reduced-calorie DASH-like diet, this is a place to consider using "portion-control" strategies, such as the nutrition labels that manufacturers provide on canned and frozen foods to guide patients in reducing calorie intake. In overweight individuals at high risk (ie, those with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, or the metabolic syndrome), the use of orlistat or sibutramine along with diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, and portion control should be considered. When the BMI is above 35 kg/m(2), bariatric surgery should also be discussed as an option for the "at-risk" individual. Evidence reviewed here shows that modest weight losses of 5% to 10% can reduce the risk of conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes and can maintain lower blood pressure over extended periods. All of the approaches described above can produce weight losses of this magnitude.

  16. Non-rinse skin cleansers: the way forward in preventing incontinence related moisture lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, F J; Begg, P A

    2016-05-01

    The use of non-rinse skin cleansers in the care of patients who are at risk of tissue breakdown is not new within the National Health Service (NHS). Back to the Floor Continence Care Rounds (introduced in 2012 to facilitate bedside continence care education) at University Hospitals Birmingham had identified that in the current climate of austerity and efficiency savings, the use of non-rinse cleanser was being randomly rationed. Our objective was to determine whether the introduction of a smaller tube of non-rinse cleanser with targeted education would improve usage and ultimately improve the skin of incontinent patients. There were five clinical areas randomised into two groups. In group 1 three clinical areas were provided with targeted education and new sizes of tubes of non-rinse skin cleanser. In group 2, the two remaining clinical areas acted as control groups, one receiving targeted education only and the remaining had no education or new sized tubes. The incidence of incontinence associated moisture lesions from each clinical area was monitored for 13 weeks pre and post study period. The in-depth study undertaken at University Hospitals Birmingham, over a 6-month period, confirmed a trend in staff committing to the ethos of prudency, and in turn compromising the use of the most effective treatment and prevention of incontinence associated moisture lesions. The ability of the Trust staff to recognise and respond to a change in practice and the responsiveness of a commercial provider to the proposed new methodology has resulted in a significant reduction in incontinence associated moisture lesions across the trust. The clinical areas included in the study demonstrated a 70-76.9% reduction in moisture lesion incidence compared to an 8.3-13.6% reduction in the control groups. The results strongly suggest that a reduction in incontinence associated moisture lesions can be achieved by a simple change in nursing regime. The combination of solid education provision

  17. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion.

  18. Analyses of moisture deficit grain yield loss in drought tolerant maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of drought tolerant maize cultivars is prerequisite to achieving stable grain yield in drought–prone ecologies of Nigeria's Guinea savanna. However, success has been limited mainly due to lack of maize genotypes that show clear differences in response to well defined moisture deficit condition. Two sets of ...

  19. Modeling of the process of moisture loss during the storage of dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G; Berna, A; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2011-10-01

    Moisture content is a reference parameter for dried food because the growth of most microorganisms is inhibited below certain water activity levels. In addition, it has a determining influence on the evolution of important parameters, such as color and flavor, and on other properties and deterioration reactions, such as texture, oxidation processes and nutritional value. During the storage of some dried fruits, moisture is produced due to Maillard reactions and exchanged with the surrounding environment through the packaging. The evolution of dried foods during their shelf life depends on the storage conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the moisture content in dried apricots packaged in different types of containers, namely glass and thermosealed polypropylene trays. The samples were stored at constant temperatures: 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C and were analyzed periodically over a period of 12 months. The sorption isotherms of apricots used in this study were also determined. In order to model how the moisture evolved, an empirical kinetic model was tested. This model considers both water transfer from the fruit and also water production as a result of the Maillard processes. The explained variance was higher than 95% in the samples stored in trays, which were thermosealed with film.

  20. Analyses of moisture deficit grain yield loss in drought tolerant maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Development of drought tolerant maize cultivars is prerequisite to achieving stable grain yield in drought–prone ecologies of Nigeria's Guinea savanna. However, success has been limited mainly due to lack of maize genotypes that show clear differences in response to well defined moisture deficit.

  1. Investigations into the effects of moisture loss and coal blending on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuthaluru, H.B.; Yan, H.M.; Zhang, D.K.; Brooke, J. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Investigations into the effects of moisture and coal blending on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) were carried out on Collie coal of Western Australia. Experiments were conducted in a standard Hardgrove apparatus in two stages comprising three Premier seam coals (namely P2, P4 and Hebe) and several blends (namely Hebe/P2, Hebe/P4, Hebe/P2/P4) prepared at various blending ratios. Stage 1 experiments comprised of five days of air-drying followed by oven drying. Stage 2 experiments followed the procedure of overnight air drying with 2 and 4 hours oven drying at 40{sup o}C on successive days. HGI was found to correlate well with residual moisture in both stages of experiments, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.5-0.9 depending on the type of coal seam or blend. In contrast, moisture measurements on HGI samples (0.6-1.8 mm fraction) showed erratic trends with HGI. Both Stage 1 and Stage 2 experimental results suggest that no relationship exist between HGI sample moisture and HGI.

  2. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Ferrite, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of

  3. Retrospective: Adjusting contaminant concentrations in bird eggs to account for moisture and lipid Loss during their incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Blus, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    By the 1960s, research and monitoring efforts on chlorinated pesticide residues in tissues of wildlife were well underway in North America and Europe. Conservationists and natural resource managers were attempting to resolve whether pesticide exposure and accumulated residues were related to population declines in several species of predatory and scavenging birds (e.g., bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis and osprey Pandion haliaetus). The avian egg was a favored sampling matrix even before the realization that eggshell thinning was linked to population declines (Ratcliffe 1967; Hickey and Anderson 1968) and that the concentration of p,p’-DDE in an egg was associated with the shell thinning phenomenon (e.g., Blus et al. 1972; Wiemeyer et al. 1988). The necessity for making wet-weight concentration adjustments to account for natural moisture loss during incubation of viable eggs was realized. Correction for the more dramatic moisture loss in non-viable decaying eggs was recognized as being paramount. For example, the ∑DDT residues in osprey eggs were reported to vary by as much as eightfold without accounting for moisture loss adjustments (Stickel et al. 1965). In the absence of adjusting concentrations to the fresh wet-weight that was present at the time of egg laying, the uncorrected values exaggerated contaminant concentrations, yielding artifactual results and ultimately incorrect conclusions. The adjustment to fresh wet-weight concentration is equally important for many other persistent contaminants including PCBs, dioxins, furans, and brominated diphenyl ethers.

  4. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R.; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L.; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S.; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C.; Sizer, Nigel C.; Davis, Crystal L.; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km2) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km2, 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001–2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km2) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km2 (x¯=24km2, SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km2). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near–real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion. PMID:27051881

  5. Determination of adequate moisture content for efficient dry-heat viral inactivation in lyophilized factor VIII by loss on drying and by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M; Torres, J; Franks, L; Masecar, B; Hotta, J

    1998-06-01

    A requirement for a minimal threshold level of moisture in order for efficient virus inactivation to occur during dry heat treatment of freeze-dried coagulation factor concentrates is described. Techniques used to determine moisture content during heating were Loss on Drying and Karl Fischer. The Loss on Drying was suspected to have occasional errors as a result of sample preparation being influenced by interference from atmospheric moisture. Therefore, a non-invasive, non-destructive method for determination of residual moisture content using near infrared spectrometry (NIR) was developed for freeze-dried antihaemophilic factor (AHF). Calibration equations were determined against Loss on Drying and Karl Fischer assay methods and these equations evaluated for the predictive efficiency. Both Loss on Drying and NIR were used to evaluate the effect of moisture content on the efficiency of virus inactivation by dry heat at 80 degrees C. A minimum level of moisture of greater than 0.7%, as determined by Loss on Drying, was necessary for a virus reduction in the magnitude of 4 log10 for hepatitis A virus, porcine parvovirus and pseudorabies virus. Copyright 1998 The International Association of Biological Standardization

  6. Intervention to Prevent Child Custody Loss in Mothers with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary V. Seeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on jurisdiction, time period studied, and specifics of the population, approximately 50 percent of mothers who suffer from schizophrenia lose custody of their children. The aim of this paper is to recommend interventions aimed at preventing unnecessary custody loss. This paper reviews the social work, nursing, psychology, psychiatry, and law literature on mental illness and custody loss, 2000–2011. Recommendations to mothers are to (a ensure family health (b prevent psychotic relapse, (c prepare in advance for crisis, (d document daily parenting activities, (e take advantage of available parenting resources, and f become knowledgeable about legal issues that pertain to mental health and custody. From a policy perspective, child protection and adult mental health agencies need to dissolve administrative barriers and collaborate. Access to appropriate services will help mothers with schizophrenia to care appropriately for their children and allow these children to grow and develop within their family and community.

  7. Kinetics of moisture loss and oil uptake during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth) strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S S; Ravi, N; Negi, P S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Investigation was carried out to study kinetics of moisture loss, oil uptake and tristimulus colour during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis kunth) strips. Deep fat frying of Gethi strips of size 6 × 6 × 40 mm was carried out in a laboratory scale fryer at different temperatures ranging from 120 to 180 °C. The investigation showed that the moisture loss and oil uptake followed the first order kinetics equation (r > 0.95, p  0.99, p frying temperature and frying time. The hunter lightness (L) value increased with respect to frying time initially, followed by decline and same trend was observed at higher temperatures of frying with elevated rate, whereas hunter redness (a) value increased significantly (p frying and obeyed zero order rate equation. The temperature dependency kinetic coefficients of Hunter (a) value were described by Arrhenius equation and the energy of activation for change in hunter redness was found to be 42.41 KJ/mol (r > 0.99, p frying temperature as well as frying time.

  8. Does platform switching really prevent crestal bone loss around implants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hagiwara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To maintain long-term implant stability, it is important to minimize bone loss around the implant. Several clinical studies have shown a mean marginal bone loss around dental implants of 1.5–2 mm in the first year after prosthetic restoration. Currently, concepts to prevent bone loss around dental implants have been reported as the platform switching (PLS. This technique use of prosthetic abutments with reduced width in relation to the implant platform diameter seems to have the greatest potential to limit the crestal resorption. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanism of action or the extent of bone loss prevention, and as such, it is difficult to say that the effect of PLS has been thoroughly examined. Excluding case reports, articles on PLS can be broadly categorized into: (1 radiographic evaluation of crestal bone level in humans, (2 histological and histomorphometrical analysis in animals, or (3 finite element analysis. This review revealed a shortage of published data for above three categories related PLS. Researchers have attempted to explain the mechanism of action of PLS; however, it is necessary to conduct further studies, including histological studies using animals, to clarify the mechanism fully.

  9. Amlexanox Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Jing; Fang, Zhong; Chen, Wenjian; Li, Feng

    2015-09-04

    The activity of protein kinases IKK-ε and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases. As an inhibitor of IKK-ε and TBK1, amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulator and used for treatment of ulcer, allergic rhinitis and asthma in clinic. We hypothesized that amlexanox may be used for treatment of osteoclast-related diseases which frequently associated with a low grade of systemic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of amlexanox on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ovariectomy-mediated bone loss in vivo. In primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), amlexanox inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption. At the molecular level, amlexanox suppressed RANKL-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), c-Fos and NFATc1. Amlexanox decreased the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, MMP9, Cathepsin K and NFATc1. Moreover, amlexanox enhanced osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. In ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model, amlexanox prevented OVX-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that amlexanox suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents OVX-induced bone loss. Therefore, amlexanox may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Impact of slurry application method on phosphorus loss in runoff from grassland soils during periods of high soil moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McConnell D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that the trailing shoe application technique reduces phosphorus (P in the runoff postslurry application when compared to the traditional splash-plate application technique. However, the effectiveness of the trailing-shoe technique as a means of reducing P losses has not been evaluated when slurry is applied during periods of high soil moisture levels and lower herbage covers. To address this issue, three treatments were examined in a 3 × 4 factorial design split-plot experiment, with treatments comprising three slurry treatments: control (no slurry, splashplate and trailing-shoe, and four slurry application dates: 7 December, 18 January, 1 March and 10 April. Dairy cow slurry was applied at a rate of 20 m3/ha, while simulated runoff was generated 2, 9 and 16 days later and analysed for a range of P fractions. Dissolved reactive P concentrations in runoff at day two was 41% lower when slurry was applied using the trailing-shoe technique, compared to the splash-plate technique (P < 0.05. In addition, P concentrations in runoff were higher (P < 0.05 from slurry applied in December and March compared to slurry applied in January or April, coinciding with periods of higher soil moisture contents. While the latter highlights that ‘calendar’-based non-spreading periods might not always achieve the desired consequences, the study demonstrated that further field-scale investigations into the trailing shoe as a mitigation measure to reduced P loss from agricultural soils is warranted.

  11. Soil moisture and soil loss study under different cover densities in Ultisolsin Pernambuco State semi-arid (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, T. K. S.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Santos, T. E. M.; Silva Junior, V. P.; Siqueira, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    Throughout Brazil occurs a large loss of soil and water runoff due to soil erosion especially in rural areas. The soil moisture monitoringhas been a practice increasingly important in agriculture, especially in regions where water scarcity is high and rainfed cropping is adopted. The soil cover is one of the factors that minimize these effects of degradation arising from agricultural land use. To monitor the water content in the soil profile, point measurements were performed using an FDR equipment, which is a capacitance probe, Diviner 2000 ® model, the Sentek Pty Ltd, Australia. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics of soil water content under different types of ground cover, using a probe and the Diviner soil loss in the semi-arid Pernambuco. The study was carried out in the Municipality of Pesqueira-PE, located in the State of Pernambuco, in the Alto Ipanema Representative Basin, with average annual rainfall of 730 mm and average annual potential evapotranspiration of 1683 mm. The soil of the study areas is classified as Eutrophic Yellow Ultisol abruptly (Area A) and typical Eutrophic Yellow Ultisol (Area B). For this, study three experimental plots were installed in two different areas, totalling six plots, bounded by brick, with 4.5 m wide and 11 m long in the direction of the slope, under three soil cover conditions. The treatments involved in this study are: bare soil (SD); with cactus (P) and natural cover (CN). The water content in soil was evaluated at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m at the soil profile and sediment sampling were carried out fortnightly between April and July 2011 (rainy season). In this work we used cumulative precipitation for seven and fourteen days before the readings with the Divinerprobe. The highest rainfall is concentrated during the months of May and July of 2011, and May is the month with the highest cumulative rainfall. April received the lowest rainfall, considered the driest. The water content in the soil

  12. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Ferrite, Silvia

    2017-07-07

    This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the CENTRAL; PubMed; Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; and OSH UPDATE to 3 October 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time-series (ITS) of non-clinical interventions under field conditions among workers to prevent or reduce noise exposure and hearing loss. We also collected uncontrolled case studies of engineering controls about the effect on noise exposure. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. We categorised interventions as engineering controls, administrative controls, personal hearing protection devices, and hearing surveillance. We included 29 studies. One study evaluated legislation to reduce noise exposure in a 12-year time-series analysis but there were no controlled studies on engineering controls for noise exposure. Eleven studies with 3725 participants evaluated effects of personal hearing protection devices and 17 studies with 84,028 participants evaluated effects of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs). Effects on noise exposure Engineering interventions following legislationOne ITS study found that new legislation in the mining industry reduced the median personal noise exposure dose in underground coal mining by 27.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) -36.1 to -19.3 percentage points) immediately after the implementation of stricter legislation. This roughly translates to a 4.5 dB(A) decrease in

  13. Design of a vehicle based system to prevent ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sean R.; Bunker, Deborah; Hesbach, Thomas D., Jr.; Howerton, Everett B.; Hreinsson, G.; Mistr, E. Kirk; Palmer, Matthew E.; Rogers, Claiborne; Tischler, Dayna S.; Wrona, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced quantities of ozone in the atmosphere allow greater levels of ultraviolet light (UV) radiation to reach the earth's surface. This is known to cause skin cancer and mutations. Chlorine liberated from Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and natural sources initiate the destruction of stratospheric ozone through a free radical chain reaction. The project goals are to understand the processes which contribute to stratospheric ozone loss, examine ways to prevent ozone loss, and design a vehicle-based system to carry out the prevention scheme. The 1992/1993 design objectives were to accomplish the first two goals and define the requirements for an implementation vehicle to be designed in detail starting next year. Many different ozone intervention schemes have been proposed though few have been researched and none have been tested. A scheme proposed by R.J. Cicerone, Scott Elliot and R.P.Turco late in 1991 was selected because of its research support and economic feasibility. This scheme uses hydrocarbon injected into the Antarctic ozone hole to form stable compounds with free chlorine, thus reducing ozone depletion. Because most polar ozone depletion takes place during a 3-4 week period each year, the hydrocarbon must be injected during this time window. A study of the hydrocarbon injection requirements determined that 100 aircraft traveling Mach 2.4 at a maximum altitude of 66,000 ft. would provide the most economic approach to preventing ozone loss. Each aircraft would require an 8,000 nm. range and be able to carry 35,000 lbs. of propane. The propane would be stored in a three-tank high pressure system. Missions would be based from airport regions located in South America and Australia. To best provide the requirements of mission analysis, an aircraft with L/D(sub cruise) = 10.5, SFC = 0.65 (the faculty advisor suggested that this number is too low) and a 250,000 lb TOGW was selected as a baseline. Modularity and multi-role functionality were selected to be key

  14. Effectiveness of heat moisture exchangers (hmes) in preventing perioperative hypothermia among adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general endotracheal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaegbu, Nc; Olatosi, Oj; Tobi, Ku

    2013-01-01

    Heat Moisture Exchangers (HMEs) conserve heat and moisture during expiration and make this available to inspired gases during subsequent inspiration. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of HMEs in the prevention of perioperative hypothermia in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia relaxant technique with endotrachael intubation (GART.) Lagos University Teaching Hospital, in Modular theatre, Anaesthesia unit. The study was a randomized, controlled, longitudinal, interventional study Methods: 100 ASA I, II and III patients aged 18 to 65 years scheduled for abdominal surgery under GART were randomly assigned to 2 groups, groups H and C. Group H had HMEs, while group C served as controls. Core temperature measured using tympanic probe was every 10 minutes till end of anaesthesia Data from total 99 patients, 49 in group H and 50 in group C were eventually analysed. Although patients in both groups developed hypothermia in the course of anaesthesia, core temperature was significantly lower pHeat Moisture Exchangers, General endotracheal anaesthesia, Hypothermia, abdominal surgery.

  15. Contemporary noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułkowski, Wiesław; Owczarek, Kalina; Olszewski, Jurek

    2017-08-31

    Hearing impairment caused by noise, traditionally called - depending on the duration of exposure - acute or chronic acoustic trauma, includes, in addition to presbyacusis, the most common adult population of hearing impaired. In Poland - according to the report of the Central Statistical Office (GUS, 2011), the number of workers employed in NDN exceeded the noise level (85 dB) is about 200 thousand, the highest in the mining, metal and metal products production, textiles and wood production. According to the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of on June 30, 2009, on the list of occupational diseases (Journal of Laws No. 132, item 1115), it is defined as "bilateral permanent hearing loss of the cochlear or sensory-nerve type, expressed as an increase in hearing threshold of at least 45 dB in the ear better heard, calculated as an arithmetic mean for frequencies 1,2 and 3 kHz. Hearing impairments also occur in the military and police during field training and in combat where the source of acoustic injuries are firearms and pulse-inducing explosions (as in some industries) with high C peak levels (Lc peak) Time to rise to a maximum of <1 ms. The prevalence of loud music listening, particularly by personal stereo players, is also affecting children and adolescents with audiometric hearing loss, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of around 15-20%. The preventive action strategy is defined by the European Union legislation and the national implementing legislation that reduces or eliminates the risk and reduces (if not eliminated), taking into account available technical and organizational solutions to minimize the risk of hearing damage. If you can not reduce the noise levels with technical and organizational methods, you need individual hearing protectors. Ear protectors may be equipped with electronic systems with active noise reduction (which can improve low and medium frequency performance), adjustable attenuation (improves speech

  16. Weight loss in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    The American Diabetes Association nutrition and lifestyle recommendations for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes focus on losing 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150minperweek. This emphasis is largely based on results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trials. DPP demonstrated that a lifestyle intervention aimed at 7% weight loss and 150min of activity per week reduced diabetes incidence by 58% after 2.8years of follow-up and resulted in sustained improvements in hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure and lipid levels. After 15years of follow-up, DPP's lifestyle intervention sustained a 27% risk reduction in progression to diabetes. Look AHEAD's lifestyle intervention significantly reduced hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, and the amount and costs of medications needed to treat these conditions when compared with diabetes support and education. Other clinical and psychological benefits achieved with lifestyle intervention were greater reductions in c-reactive protein, less self-reported retinopathy, reduced risk of nephropathy, less sexual dysfunction, decreased incidence of urinary incontinence and fatty liver, remission of sleep apnea, better physical functioning, less knee pain, more remission of diabetes, reduced incidence of depression, less body image dissatisfaction and improved quality-of-life. A number of DPP translation studies have demonstrated weight losses of 4 to 7% at 6month and 1year follow-up which has led to Medicare coverage for CDC recognized DPP lifestyle programs starting in April 2018. Translation studies of Look AHEAD using a variety of delivery formats are underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1% presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential.

  18. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Giselle; Lobato, Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos, Luciana; Moreira, Aline Carlezzo; Ribas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. PMID:25992146

  19. The efficiency of voluntary incentive policies for preventing biodiversity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Andrew J. Plantinga; Erik Nelson; Stephen. Polasky

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is a primary cause of loss of biodiversity but conserving habitat for species presents challenges. Land parcels differ in their ability to produce returns for landowners and landowners may have private information about the value of the land to them. Land parcels also differ in the type and quality of habitat and the spatial pattern of land use across...

  20. Are specialized endotracheal tubes and heat-and-moisture exchangers cost-effective in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Michael A; Siobal, Mark S

    2010-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious complication of mechanical ventilation via an artificial airway. As with all nosocomial infections, VAP increases costs, morbidity, and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). VAP prevention is a multifaceted priority of the intensive care team, and can include the use of specialized artificial airways and heat-and-moisture exchangers (HME). Substantial evidence supports the use of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that allow subglottic suctioning; silver-coated and antiseptic-impregnated ETTs; ETTs with thin-walled polyurethane cuffs; and HMEs, but these devices also can have adverse effects. Controversy still exists regarding the evidence, cost-effectiveness, and disadvantages and risks of these devices.

  1. Effectiveness of heat and moisture exchangers in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Patients may acquire ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) by aspirating the condensate that originates in the ventilator circuit upon use of a conventional humidifier. The bacteria that colonize the patients themselves can proliferate in the condensate and then return to the airways and lungs when the patient aspirates this contaminated material. Therefore, the use of HME might contribute to preventing pneumonia and lowering the VAP incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the use of HME impacts the probability of VAP occurrence in critically ill patients. On the basis of the acronym "PICO" (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome), the question that guided this review was "Do critically ill patients under invasive mechanical ventilation present lower VAP incidence when they use HME as compared with HH?". Two of the authors of this review searched the databases PUBMED/Medline, The Cochrane Library, and Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, LILACS independently; they used the following keywords: "heat and moisture exchanger", AND "heated humidifier", AND "ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention". This review included papers in the English language published from January 1990 to December 2012. This review included ten studies. Comparison between the use of HME and HH did not reveal any differences in terms of VAP occurrence (OR = 0.998; 95% CI: 0.778-1.281). Together, the ten studies corresponded to a total sample of 1077 and 953 patients in the HME and HH groups, respectively; heterogeneity among the investigations was low (I(2) heat and moisture exchangers and VAP. Despite the methodological limitations found in selected clinical trials, the current meta-analysis suggests that HME does not decrease VAP incidence or mortality in critically ill patients.

  2. Reducing security risk using data loss prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow, John

    2015-11-01

    Data loss/leakage protection (DLP) technology seeks to improve data security by answering three fundamental questions: > Where are confidential data stored? > Who is accessing the information? > How are data being handled?

  3. Analysis and Prevention of Usable Fiber Loss from a Fine Paper Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Steven Donald

    1998-01-01

    Reducing losses of usable waste fiber from paper mills conserves valuable resources and has the capacity to produce considerable economic returns to the manufacturer. The purpose of this research effort was to evaluate the potential for the prevention of loss and/or recovery of usable waste fiber from paper machines within a fine paper mill. Further, a preliminary evaluation of fiber loss prevention strategies and fiber recovery technologies was conducted. The paper mill in questio...

  4. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  5. RNA Interference Prevents Autosomal-Dominant Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Seiji B; Ranum, Paul T; Moteki, Hideaki; Pan, Bifeng; Goodwin, Alexander T; Goodman, Shawn S; Abbas, Paul J; Holt, Jeffrey R; Smith, Richard J H

    2016-06-02

    Hearing impairment is the most common sensory deficit. It is frequently caused by the expression of an allele carrying a single dominant missense mutation. Herein, we show that a single intracochlear injection of an artificial microRNA carried in a viral vector can slow progression of hearing loss for up to 35 weeks in the Beethoven mouse, a murine model of non-syndromic human deafness caused by a dominant gain-of-function mutation in Tmc1 (transmembrane channel-like 1). This outcome is noteworthy because it demonstrates the feasibility of RNA-interference-mediated suppression of an endogenous deafness-causing allele to slow progression of hearing loss. Given that most autosomal-dominant non-syndromic hearing loss in humans is caused by this mechanism of action, microRNA-based therapeutics might be broadly applicable as a therapy for this type of deafness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  7. Principal causes and ways of prevention of early reproductive losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebelev В. G.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on principal causes of early abortions and ways of treatment in the first trimester was studied. Reproductive losses in the first trimester were found out to be the most active because of 5 main groups of reasons. In each group the therapeutic way of abortion was considered

  8. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  9. [Efficacy of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Min; Liu, Song-qiao; Yang, Yi

    2011-09-01

    To demonstrate the effects of heat and moisture exchangers (HME) and heated humidifiers(HH) in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched by computer retrieval and manual retrieval to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using HMEs and HHs in preventing VAP from January 1st 1990 to September 1st 2010. Meta-analysis of HME and HH in preventing VAP was conducted using the methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Eleven RCTs were included. 1 121 in HME group and 1 101 in HH group. In total, the rate of VAP in HME group and HH group was 14.2% (159/1 121) and 15.9% (175/1 101) respectively, the total relative risk (RR) was 0.88, and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.72-1.07, P=0.21. Compared with HH group, there was not a reduction in the risk ratio of VAP in the HME group. Even in mechanical ventilation(MV) with a duration of at least 7 days for subgroup analysis (8 RCTs, sample size: 834 in HME group and 859 in HH group), the rate of VAP in HME group and HH group was 15.2% (127/834) and 17.5% (150/859) respectively, the total RR was 0.84, 95%CI 0. 58-1.23, P=0.37, suggesting that in MV with a duration at least 7 days, there was also no reduction in the risk ratio of VAP in the HME group. This study suggests there is not a significant reduction in the incidence of VAP in patients humidified with HMEs during MV, even in patients ventilated for 7 days or longer. This finding is limited by lack of enough RCTs and blinding. Further large sample of high quality RCTs is necessary to examine the wider applicability of HMEs and their extended use.

  10. Investment in paediatric tuberculosis prevention in Pakistan: Loss or gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, E.U.; Ejaz, K.; Lone, S.; Raza, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of paediatric tuberculosis prevention, by reevaluation factors in children exposed to tuberculosis from less privileged strata of Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted at National Institute of Child Health, from January 2004 to December 2005. Paediatric patients under 15 years of either gender, diagnosed with active tuberculosis were enrolled. Interviews were conducted with parents regarding common preventive measures and factors advocating tuberculosis spread. Later factors leading to non-compliance to safety recommendations were also evaluated. Results: Fifty five (70%) children younger than 5 years, had index cases in direct contact within their own house. Fifteen (14%) patients contracted the infection from neighbours, with 11 being older than 5 years. There were 82 (51%) cases with Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PCM). Total of 66(41%) cases of PCM were <5 years age (p <0.005). Data showed 123(77%) children living in a family with 5 or more members. Sixty eight (55%) children of these large families had to live in a single room house. Conclusion: There is a high frequency of direct contact tuberculosis in children belonging to the lower socioeconomic class. This is attributed to poor housing condition and over crowding. The current paediatric tuberculosis prevention strategies as adapted from World Health Organizations' Millennium Development Goals are ineffectual to make changes in children exposed to tuberculosis from less privileged strata of Pakistan. Our societal and demographic factors remain static, continually exposing our children to higher risk of tuberculosis exposure. (author)

  11. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Stokholm, Zara A.

    2017-01-01

    statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). CONCLUSIONS: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which...... insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (-0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only...

  12. Metformin therapy prevents early pregnancy loss in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, J.A.; Anbareen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study was done to compare the early pregnancy loss rate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who received or did not receive metformin in pregnancy. Study type, settings and duration: A case control interventional study carried out at Civil Hospital Karachi, Hamdard University Hospital and Private Gynaecology clinics from January 2005 to July 2008. Subjects and Methods Eighty two non diabetic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome who became pregnant were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled for all patients that included information on basic demography and mean age, parity, weight. Fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were done for all these women. Only patients with raised insulin levels (more than 10 mu/l) were included in the study and all were offered to use oral metformin throughout pregnancy as 500 mg three times a day with folic acid supplements 5 mg once daily. Those who agreed to take the drug throughout pregnancy and to comply with the therapy were taken as cases, while those who did not agree to take the medicine acted as controls. Patients with other causes of recurrent pregnancy loss were excluded from the study. All pregnancies were followed using serial ultrasound examination to see any pregnancy loss in the two groups. Eighty two cases of polycystic ovaries with pregnancy were seen during the study period. All cases had raised serum insulin levels. Fifty patients agreed to take metformin through out pregnancy while, 32 cases did not agree to take metformin during pregnancy and thus acted as controls. The two groups did not differ in mean age, parity, weight and mean fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting insulin levels were high in metformin group (18.40 mu/l ) than in controls (12.53 mu/l). Missed abortion rate was significantly lower (12%) in metformin group than in controls (28%) (p<0.028). No congenital anomalies were found in both the groups on ultrasound at 16-19 weeks. Metformin treatment during

  13. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Effectiveness of Earplugs in Preventing Recreational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Geerte G J; Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Cattani, Guido; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Grolman, Wilko

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of hearing loss has risen in past years. Attendance at music festivals and concerts may contribute to this increasing problem. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of earplugs in preventing temporary hearing loss immediately following music exposure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND

  15. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  16. Storage Losses in Feedstuffs and How to Prevent Them | Eze | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological deterioration of feedstuffs entails losses both in quantity and quality, including deterioration in chemical composition, contamination by mycotoxins, rancidity, loss in nutritive value and change in colour and smell. In this paper, the conditions for the safe storage of feedstuffs and also the methods for the prevention ...

  17. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  18. Adjusting the fairshare policy to prevent computing power loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pra, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    On a typical WLCG site providing batch access to computing resources according to a fairshare policy, the idle time lapse after a job ends and before a new one begins on a given slot is negligible if compared to the duration of typical jobs. The overall amount of these intervals over a time window increases with the size of the cluster and the inverse of job duration and can be considered equivalent to an average number of unavailable slots over that time window. This value has been investigated for the Tier-1 at CNAF, and observed to occasionally grow and reach up to more than the 10% of the about 20,000 available computing slots. Analysis reveals that this happens when a sustained rate of short jobs is submitted to the cluster and dispatched by the batch system. Because of how the default fairshare policy works, it increases the dynamic priority of those users mostly submitting short jobs, since they are not accumulating runtime, and will dispatch more of their jobs at the next round, thus worsening the situation until the submission flow ends. To address this problem the default behaviour of the fairshare have been altered by adding a correcting term to the default formula for the dynamic priority. The LSF batch system, currently adopted at CNAF, provides a way to define its value by invoking a C function, which returns it for each user in the cluster. The correcting term works by rounding up to a minimum defined runtime the most recently done jobs. Doing so, each short job looks almost like a regular one and the dynamic priority value settles to a proper value. The net effect is a reduction of the dispatching rate of short jobs and, consequently, the average number of available slots greatly improves. Furthermore, a potential starvation problem, actually observed at least once is also prevented. After describing short jobs and reporting about their impact on the cluster, possible workarounds are discussed and the selected solution is motivated. Details on the

  19. [FEDERAL CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS IN DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS DUE TO NOISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeninskaya, E E; Bukhtiarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Dayhes, N A; Denisov, E I; Izmerov, N F; Mazitova, N N; Pankova, V B; Preobrazhenskaya, E A; Prokopenko, L V; Simonova, N I; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is a slowly developing hearing impairment, caused by occupational exposure to excessive noise levels, constitutes a lesion of the auditory analyzer and clinically manifested as chronic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Currently, there is not a treatment that provide a cure of sensorineural hearing loss. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and specific clinical symptoms of hearing loss, as well as the prevention of complications. We recommend using non-drug therapies that can improve blood flow in labyrinth, tissue and cellular metabolism.

  20. Oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey decreased transepidermal water loss and prevented the onset of sodium dodecylsulfate-induced dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hidehiko; Masuyama, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Chiaki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Takano, Toshiaki; Ohki, Kohji

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey on the intact and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-exposed skin of Hos:HR-1 hairless mice. The mice were allowed to drink 10% L. helveticus-fermented milk whey in distilled water ad libitum for 5 weeks. SDS solution was topically applied to the dorsal skin at 4 weeks, leading to the development of dermatitis. The skin moisture content, transepidermal water loss, and sizes of the dermatitis areas were periodically measured. Compared with oral intake of water alone, oral intake of water containing L. helveticus-fermented milk whey for 4 weeks significantly lowered transepidermal water loss from intact skin, significantly reduced in size the areas of early SDS-induced dermatitis, and ameliorated both the SDS-induced decrease in moisture content and the increase in transepidermal water loss. These results suggest that oral intake of L. helveticus-fermented milk whey might be effective in promoting the epidermal barrier function and in preventing the onset of dermatitis.

  1. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... most often associated with a hearing loss. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: a group treated with intratympanic betamethasone and 2 control groups treated with either intratympanic or systemic saline. Treatment was initiated 21 hours after infection and repeated once a day...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  2. Mandibular Symphyseal/Parasymphyseal Fracture with Incisor Tooth Loss: Preventing Lower Arch Constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Abdollahpour, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    Mandibular fractures are the second most common fractures of the face after the nasal bone. Mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fracture comprises 15.6 to 29.3% of mandibular fractures. Tooth loss in the fracture line is a known phenomenon, but space loss has not been evaluated comprehensively in the literature. In a retrospective study, patients with mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fractures, who had been treated from 2012 to 2013 in Mashhad University, Iran, Emdadi Hospital, were recalled. Patients with mandibular incisor tooth/teeth loss were included in the study. Space loss, the technique used to replace the lost tooth/teeth, upper and lower dental midline relationship, combination fracture or fractures in other facial skeleton, and type of treatment were evaluated. Of 98 patients with mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fractures, 22.5% had incisor tooth/teeth loss. In this group, 73% had space loss. Only four patients had replaced the lost tooth/teeth. Dental midlines did not match each other in patients whose feature was evaluated. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates were used in symphyseal/parasymphyseal fractures except one. Space loss after mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fracture with incisor tooth loss is a common error. The most important factor to prevent complications related to space loss following mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fracture accompanying incisor tooth loss is space preservation.

  3. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Mischke, Christina

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI - 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed.

  4. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: A Cochrane systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Design We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. Study sample We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. Results One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI – 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Conclusions Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed. PMID:24564697

  5. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preventing bone loss associated with menopause and aging and maintaining the normal micro-architecture of bone provide important opportunities for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate, for ...

  6. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: a Cochrane systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and

  7. Suppression of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the molecular mechanisms through which chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces osteopenia and osteoporosis are largely unknown, potential treatments for prevention of alcohol-induced bone loss remain unclear. We have previously demonstrated that, chronic ethanol (EtOH) treatment leads to...

  8. Non-pharmacological interventions for preventing job loss in workers with inflammatory arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan L.; Lacaille, Diane; Urquhart, Donna M.; Hannu, Timo J.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Work participation of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) is important not only economically but also for physical and psychological health. There is no Cochrane Review to date on studies of non-pharmacological interventions specifically aimed at preventing job loss in people with IA. To

  9. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Up to 3 years of treatment with alendronate, 5 mg/d, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the effect of alendronate is sustained at 4 years of treatment and persists after treatment is discontinued. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: United St...

  10. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  11. Charts for weight loss to detect hypernatremic dehydration and prevent formula supplementing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Boer, Suzanne; Unal, Sevim; van Wouwe, Jacobus P

    2014-06-01

    Most breast-fed newborns get the milk they need. However, very rarely milk intake is insufficient mostly as a result of poor breastfeeding techniques. Dramatic weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration may occur. Our aim was to construct charts for weight loss. A case-control study was performed. Charts with standard deviation score (SDS) lines for weight loss in the first month were constructed for 2,359 healthy breast-fed term newborns and 271 cases with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration with serum sodium level > 149 mEq/L. Day 0 was defined as the day of birth. Many cases with (or who will develop) hypernatremic dehydration (84%; +1 SDS line) fell below the -1 SDS line at day 3, the -2 SDS line at day 4, and the -2.5 SDS line at day 5 in the chart of the healthy breast-fed newborns. Weight loss of cases with permanent residual symptoms was far below the -2.5 SDS. Already at an early age, weight loss differs between healthy breast-fed newborns and those with hypernatremic dehydration. Charts for weight loss are, therefore, useful tools to detect early, or prevent newborns from developing, breastfeeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration, and also to prevent unnecessary formula supplementing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth

  13. How Much Surface Coating of Hydrophobic Azithromycin Is Sufficient to Prevent Moisture-Induced Decrease in Aerosolisation of Hygroscopic Amorphous Colistin Powder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Loh, Zhi Hui; Yu, Jiaqi; Sun, Si-Ping; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A; Li, Jian; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-09-01

    Aerosolisation performance of hygroscopic particles of colistin could be compromised at elevated humidity due to increased capillary forces. Co-spray drying colistin with a hydrophobic drug is known to provide a protective coating on the composite particle surfaces against moisture-induced reduction in aerosolisation performance; however, the effects of component ratio on surface coating quality and powder aerosolisation at elevated relative humidities are unknown. In this study, we have systematically examined the effects of mass ratio of hydrophobic azithromycin on surface coating quality and aerosolisation performance of the co-spray dried composite particles. Four combination formulations with varying drug ratios were prepared by co-spray drying drug solutions. Both of the drugs in each combination formulation had similar in vitro deposition profiles, suggesting that each composite particle comprises two drugs in the designed mass ratio, which is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) data. XPS and ToF-SIMS measurements also revealed that 50% by weight (or 35% by molecular fraction) of azithromycin in the formulation provided a near complete coating of 96.5% (molar fraction) on the composite particle surface, which is sufficient to prevent moisture-induced reduction in fine particle fraction (FPF)recovered and FPFemitted. Higher azithromycin content did not increase coating coverage, while contents of azithromycin lower than 20% w/w did not totally prevent the negative effects of humidity on aerosolisation performance. This study has highlighted that a critical amount of azithromycin is required to sufficiently coat the colistin particles for short-term protection against moisture.

  14. How much surface coating of hydrophobic azithromycin is sufficient to prevent moisture-induced decrease in aerosolisation of hygroscopic colistin powder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi (Tony); Loh, Zhi Hui; Yu, Jiaqi; Sun, Si-ping; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A.; Li, Jian; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-01-01

    Aerosolisation performance of hygroscopic particles of colistin could be compromised at elevated humidity due to increased capillary forces. Co-spray drying colistin with a hydrophobic drug is known to provide a protective coating on the composite particle surfaces against moisture-induced reduction in aerosolisation performance; however, the effects of component ratio on surface coating quality and powder aerosolisation at elevated relative humidities are unknown. In this study, we have systematically examined the effects of mass ratio of hydrophobic azithromycin on surface coating quality and aerosolisation performance of the co-spray dried composite particles. Four combination formulations with varying drug ratios were prepared by co-spray drying drug solutions. Both of the drugs in each combination formulation had similar in vitro deposition profiles, suggesting that each composite particle comprise two drugs in the designed mass ratio, which is supported by XPS and ToF-SIMS data. XPS and ToF-SIMS measurements also revealed that 50 % by weight (or 35 % by molecular fraction) of azithromycin in the formulation provided a near-complete coating of 96.5 % (molar fraction) on the composite particle surface, which is sufficient to prevent moisture-induced reduction in FPFrecovered and FPFemitted. Higher azithromycin content did not increase coating coverage, while contents of azithromycin lower than 20 %w/w did not totally prevent the negative effects of humidity on aerosolisation performance. This study has highlighted that a critical amount of azithromycin is required to sufficiently coat the colistin particles for short-term protection against moisture. PMID:27255350

  15. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  16. Andrographolide prevents human breast cancer-induced osteoclastic bone loss via attenuated RANKL signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zanjing; Qu, Xinhua; Yan, Wei; Li, Haowei; Liu, Guangwang; Liu, Xuqiang; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-02-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and serious complication in advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. Agents that prevent bone loss could be used to develop an alternative therapy for bone metastasis. RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, has been shown to play a significant role in cancer-associated bone loss. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the natural compound andrographolide (AP), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, in reducing breast cancer-induced osteolysis. AP prevented human breast cancer-induced bone loss by suppressing RANKL-mediated and human breast cancer cell-induced osteoclast differentiation. Molecular analysis revealed that AP prevented osteoclast function by inhibiting RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathway in lower dose (20 μM), as well as inducing apoptosis at higher dose (40 μM). Thus, AP is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis.

  17. Complete prevention of blood loss with self-sealing haemostatic needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mikyung; Park, Sung-Gurl; Oh, Byung-Chang; Kim, Keumyeon; Jo, Seongyeon; Lee, Moon Sue; Oh, Seok Song; Hong, Seon-Hui; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kang, Sun-Woong; Lee, Haeshin

    2017-01-01

    Bleeding is largely unavoidable following syringe needle puncture of biological tissues and, while inconvenient, this typically causes little or no harm in healthy individuals. However, there are certain circumstances where syringe injections can have more significant side effects, such as uncontrolled bleeding in those with haemophilia, coagulopathy, or the transmission of infectious diseases through contaminated blood. Herein, we present a haemostatic hypodermic needle able to prevent bleeding following tissue puncture. The surface of the needle is coated with partially crosslinked catechol-functionalized chitosan that undergoes a solid-to-gel phase transition in situ to seal punctured tissues. Testing the capabilities of these haemostatic needles, we report complete prevention of blood loss following intravenous and intramuscular injections in animal models, and 100% survival in haemophiliac mice following syringe puncture of the jugular vein. Such self-sealing haemostatic needles and adhesive coatings may therefore help to prevent complications associated with bleeding in more clinical settings.

  18. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  19. Loss of Control Prevention and Recovery: Onboard Guidance, Control, and Systems Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) is one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. LOC accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. These LOC hazards include vehicle impairment conditions, external disturbances; vehicle upset conditions, and inappropriate crew actions or responses. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. NASA previously defined a comprehensive research and technology development approach for reducing LOC accidents and an associated integrated system concept. Onboard technologies for improved situation awareness, guidance, and control for LOC prevention and recovery are needed as part of this approach. Such systems should include: LOC hazards effects detection and mitigation; upset detection, prevention and recovery; and mitigation of combined hazards. NASA is conducting research in each of these areas. This paper provides an overview of this research, including the near-term LOC focus and associated analysis, as well as preliminary flight system architecture.

  20. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  1. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  2. Improving patient access to prevent sight loss: ophthalmic electronic referrals and communication (Scotland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Mustafa, M Z; Sanders, R

    2015-02-01

    With the number of people with sight loss predicted to double to four million people in the UK by the year 2050, preventable visual loss is a significant public health issue. Sight loss is associated with an increased risk of falls, accidents and depression and evidence suggests that 50% of sight loss can be avoided. Timely diagnosis is central to the prevention of sight loss. Access to care can be a limiting factor in preventable cases. By improving referrals and access to hospital eye services it is possible to treat and minimise the number of patients with preventable sight loss and the impact this has on wider society. In 2005, NHS Fife took part in a flagship pilot funded by the Scottish government e-health department to evaluate the feasibility, safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost of electronic referral with images of patients directly from community optometrists to Hospital Eye Service (HES). The pilot study showed that electronic referral was feasible, fast, safe, and obviated the need for outpatient appointments in 128 (37%) patients with a high patient satisfaction. The results of the pilot study were presented and in May 2007, the electronic referral system was rolled out regionally in southeast Scotland. Referrals were accepted at a single site with vetting by a trained team and appointments were allocated within 48 hours. Following the implementation of electronic referral, waiting times were reduced from a median of 14 to 4 weeks. Significantly fewer new patients were seen (7462 vs 8714 [p communication between community optometry practices and hospital eye departments. Five electronic forms were specifically designed for cataract, glaucoma, macula, paediatric and general ophthalmic disease. A Virtual Private Network was created which enabled optometrists to connect to the Scottish clinical information gateway system and send referrals to hospital and receive referral status feedback. Numerous hurdles have been encountered and overcome in order

  3. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Ding, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P

    2016-09-23

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL.

  4. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  5. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  6. Effect of a heat and moisture exchanger on heat loss in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing single-limb orthopedic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Brainard, Benjamin M; Braun, Christina; Figueiredo, Juliana P

    2011-12-15

    To determine whether a heat and moisture exchange device (HME) prevents a decrease in body temperature in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing orthopedic procedures. Blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. 60 privately owned dogs weighing at least 15 kg (33 lb). Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 20/group): HME placed immediately after anesthetic induction with isoflurane, after transfer to the operating room, or not at all. The device consisted of a hygroscopic filter placed between the endotracheal tube and the Y piece of the anesthesia circuit. Each dog was positioned on a circulating warm water blanket and had a forced-air warming blanket placed over its body. Body temperature was monitored after transfer to the operating room with a probe placed in the thoracic aspect of the esophagus. Study groups did not differ significantly with respect to body weight, body condition score, reproductive status, breed, surgical procedure, preoperative sedative and opioid administration, anesthetic induction drug, local nerve block technique, or operating room assignment. There were no significant differences among groups in esophageal temperature variables, interval between anesthetic induction and surgery, surgery duration, anesthesia duration, or oxygen flow rate. However, the relationship between temperature delta and body weight was significant and relevant (R(2) = 0.23), as was the association between temperature nadir and body weight (R(2)= 0.10). As body weight increased, the temperature delta decreased and temperature nadir increased. No other significant relationships were identified. Inclusion of an HME in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for an elective orthopedic surgery did not facilitate maintenance of body temperature throughout the procedure.

  7. Synthetic PreImplantation Factor (PIF prevents fetal loss by modulating LPS induced inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Di Simone

    Full Text Available Maternal control of inflammation is essential during pregnancy and an exaggerated response is one of the underlying causes of fetal loss. Inflammatory response is mediated by multiple factors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs are central. Activation of TLRs results in NALP-3 mediated assembly of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC and caspase-1 into the inflammasome and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Given that preventing measures are lacking, we investigated PreImplantation Factor (PIF as therapeutic option as PIF modulates Inflammation in pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic PIF (PIF analog protects against multiple immune disorders. We used a LPS induced murine model of fetal loss and synthetic PIF reduced this fetal loss and increased the embryo weight significantly. We detected increased PIF expression in the placentae after LPS insult. The LPS induced serum and placenta cytokines were abolished by synthetic PIF treatment and importantly synthetic PIF modulated key members of inflammasome complex NALP-3, ASC, and caspase-1 as well. In conclusion our results indicate that synthetic PIF protects against LPS induced fetal loss, likely through modulation of inflammatory response especially the inflammasome complex. Given that synthetic PIF is currently tested in autoimmune diseases of non-pregnant subjects (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02239562, therapeutic approach during pregnancy can be envisioned.

  8. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (

  9. Promotion of axonal maturation and prevention of memory loss in mice by extracts of Astragalus mongholicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, C; Tamura, T; Matsuyama, S; Komatsu, K

    2006-11-01

    Neurons with atrophic neurites may remain alive and therefore may have the potential to regenerate even when neuronal death has occurred in some parts of the brain. This study aimed to explore effects of drugs that can facilitate the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses even in severely damaged neurons. We investigated the effects of extracts of Astragalus mongholicus on the cognitive defect in mice caused by injection with the amyloid peptide Abeta(25-35). We also examined the effect of the extract on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in cultured neurons damaged by Abeta(25-35). A. mongholicus extract (1 g kg(-1) day(-1) for 15 days, p.o.) reversed Abeta(25-35)-induced memory loss and prevented the loss of axons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice. Treatment with Abeta(25-35) (10 microM) induced axonal atrophy and synaptic loss in cultured rat cortical neurons. Subsequent treatment with A. mongholicus extract (100 microg/ml) resulted in significant axonal regeneration, reconstruction of neuronal synapses, and prevention of Abeta(25-35)-induced neuronal death. Similar extracts of A. membranaceus had no effect on axonal atrophy, synaptic loss, or neuronal death. The major known components of the extracts (astragalosides I, II, and IV) reduced neurodegeneration, but the activity of the extracts did not correlate with their content of these three astragalosides. A. mongholicus is an important candidate for the treatment of memory disorders and the main active constituents may not be the known astragalosides.

  10. Effect of heat and moisture exchangers on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxiliadora-Martins, M; Menegueti, M G; Nicolini, E A; Alkmim-Teixeira, G C; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Martins-Filho, O A; Basile-Filho, A

    2012-12-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains one of the major causes of infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with the length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We compared the frequency of VAP 10 months prior to (pre-intervention group) and 13 months after (post-intervention group) initiation of the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) filter. This is a study with prospective before-and-after design performed in the ICU in a tertiary university hospital. Three hundred and fourteen patients were admitted to the ICU under mechanical ventilation, 168 of whom were included in group HH (heated humidifier) and 146 in group HME. The frequency of VAP per 1000 ventilator-days was similar for both the HH and HME groups (18.7 vs 17.4, respectively; P = 0.97). Duration of mechanical ventilation (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.48) and length of ICU stay (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.39) did not differ between the HH and HME groups. The chance of developing VAP was higher in patients with a longer ICU stay and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. This finding was similar when adjusted for the use of HME. The use of HME in intensive care did not reduce the incidence of VAP, the duration of mechanical ventilation, or the length of stay in the ICU in the study population.

  11. Effect of heat and moisture exchangers on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxiliadora-Martins, M.; Menegueti, M.G.; Nicolini, E.A.; Alkmim-Teixeira, G.C.; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F.; Martins-Filho, O.A.; Basile-Filho, A.

    2012-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains one of the major causes of infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with the length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We compared the frequency of VAP 10 months prior to (pre-intervention group) and 13 months after (post-intervention group) initiation of the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) filter. This is a study with prospective before-and-after design performed in the ICU in a tertiary university hospital. Three hundred and fourteen patients were admitted to the ICU under mechanical ventilation, 168 of whom were included in group HH (heated humidifier) and 146 in group HME. The frequency of VAP per 1000 ventilator-days was similar for both the HH and HME groups (18.7 vs 17.4, respectively; P = 0.97). Duration of mechanical ventilation (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.48) and length of ICU stay (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.39) did not differ between the HH and HME groups. The chance of developing VAP was higher in patients with a longer ICU stay and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. This finding was similar when adjusted for the use of HME. The use of HME in intensive care did not reduce the incidence of VAP, the duration of mechanical ventilation, or the length of stay in the ICU in the study population. PMID:23044627

  12. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those thatmay exist...

  13. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Systemic Bone Loss in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Manasa G; Kour, Supinder; Piprode, Vikrant; Mittal, Monika; Kumar, Anil; Rani, Lekha; Pote, Satish T; Mishra, Gyan C; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis leading to joint destruction and systemic bone loss. The inflammation-induced bone loss is mediated by increased osteoclast formation and function. Current antirheumatic therapies primarily target suppression of inflammatory cascade with limited or no success in controlling progression of bone destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by virtue of their tissue repair and immunomodulatory properties have shown promising results in various autoimmune and degenerative diseases. However, the role of MSCs in prevention of bone destruction in RA is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on in vitro formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and pathological bone loss in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. We observed that ASCs significantly inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in both a contact-dependent and -independent manner. Additionally, ASCs inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-1β. Furthermore, treatment with ASCs at the onset of CIA significantly reduced clinical symptoms and joint pathology. Interestingly, ASCs protected periarticular and systemic bone loss in CIA mice by maintaining trabecular bone structure. We further observed that treatment with ASCs reduced osteoclast precursors in bone marrow, resulting in decreased osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, ASCs suppressed autoimmune T cell responses and increased the percentages of peripheral regulatory T and B cells. Thus, we provide strong evidence that ASCs ameliorate inflammation-induced systemic bone loss in CIA mice by reducing osteoclast precursors and promoting immune tolerance. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. PREVENTION OF BLOOD LOSS IN THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR BY PLACENTAL BLOOD DRAINAGE- A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Placental cord drainage is a simple, safe and non-invasive method which reduces the duration and blood loss in the third stage of labour thereby preventing PPH. This method is of great use in day to day obstetric practices not requiring any extra effort, cost or equipment, so this type of practice is more relevant in rural areas. The objectives of the study were1. To evaluate the effectiveness of placental blood drainage via umbilical cord in reducing duration and blood loss in third stage of labour. 2. Reducing the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. 3. Decreasing the complications in third stage of labour and reduce maternal mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in 100 full term pregnant women admitted in the labour room in Gauhati medical college and hospital in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology since 1st August 2007 to 30th August 2008. Cases were divided into two. Study group and control group. RESULTS In control group the average duration of third stage was 7.41 minutes and in study group 5.57 minutes and p value was <0.001 which is very highly significant. The blood loss in third stage of labour was more in case of control group, the mean blood loss in control was 169.48 ml and study group was 110.38 ml after delivery of placenta. The post-partum haemorrhage was present in 2% of cases in control group while in study group it was present in 0% case. CONCLUSION Placental blood drainage is one of the additional components in active management of third stage of labour, which is safe, simple and non-invasive method. It reduces the duration of third stage of labour, amount of blood loss and decreases the duration of placental separation time.

  15. Control of soil moisture with radio frequency in a photovoltaic-powered drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; ÖZDEN, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Solar-powered irrigation systems are becoming increasingly widespread. However, the initial setup costs of these systems are very high. To reduce these costs, both the energy usage and the prevention of losses from irrigation systems are very important. In this study, a drip irrigation control system of 1000 dwarf cherry trees was controlled using soil moisture sensors in order to prevent excessive water consumption and energy losses in a solar-powered irrigation system. The control sys...

  16. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  17. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kae; Ito, Osamu; Nagai, Satsuki; Onishi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    To prevent water loss in the early stage of high altitude training, we focused on the effect of electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage (EC). Subjects were 16 male university students who belonged to a ski club. They had ski training at an altitude of 1,800 m. The water (WT) group drank only water, and the EC group drank only an electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage. They arrived at the training site in the late afternoon. The study started at 7 pm on the day of arrival and continued until noon of the 4(th) day. In the first 12 hours, 1 L of beverages were given. On the second and third days, 2.5 L of beverages were given. All subjects ate the same meals. Each morning while in fasting condition, subjects were weighed and blood was withdrawn for various parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium and aldosterone). Urine was collected at 12 hour intervals for a total 60 hours (5 times). The urine volume, gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured during sleep with a pulse oximeter. Liquid intakes in both groups were similar, hence the electrolytes intake was higher in the EC group than in the WT group. The total urine volume was lower in the EC group than in the WT group, respectively (paltitude training may be effective in decreasing urinary output and preventing loss of blood plasma volume.

  18. Dried Root of Rehmannia glutinosa Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa is a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of joint diseases. This study was conducted to investigate prevention of bone loss by a standardized dried root of R. glutinosa in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model of osteoporosis. The OVX groups were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 µg/kg, once daily, i.p and dried root of R. glutinosa extracts (DRGE 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o for eight weeks. We measured the body, organs, and uterus weights, and femur and lumbar vertebrae bone mineral density (BMD, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, estradiol levels. The treatments with DRGE 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited BMD decrease in the femur and lumbar (17.5% and 16.4%, p < 0.05, respectively by OVX without affecting the body, organs, and uterus weights. Also, serum ALP level in the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group was significantly decreased, but the estradiol level did not change in serum of the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group. These results show that DRGE is able to prevent OVX-induced bone loss without influencing hormones such as estrogen.

  19. Eliminating microglia in Alzheimer’s mice prevents neuronal loss without modulating amyloid-β pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Rafael J.; Najafi, Allison R.; Rice, Rachel A.; Elmore, Monica R. P.; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; West, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to amyloid-β plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle deposition, neuroinflammation is considered a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounding amyloid plaques, implicating their role in disease pathogenesis. Microglia in the healthy adult mouse depend on colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signalling for survival, and pharmacological inhibition of this receptor results in rapid elimination of nearly all of the microglia in the central nervous system. In this study, we set out to determine if chronically activated microglia in the Alzheimer's disease brain are also dependent on CSF1R signalling, and if so, how these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis. Ten-month-old 5xfAD mice were treated with a selective CSF1R inhibitor for 1 month, resulting in the elimination of ∼80% of microglia. Chronic microglial elimination does not alter amyloid-β levels or plaque load; however, it does rescue dendritic spine loss and prevent neuronal loss in 5xfAD mice, as well as reduce overall neuroinflammation. Importantly, behavioural testing revealed improvements in contextual memory. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglia contribute to neuronal loss, as well as memory impairments in 5xfAD mice, but do not mediate or protect from amyloid pathology. PMID:26921617

  20. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-determination theory and weight loss in a Diabetes Prevention Program translation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trief, Paula M; Cibula, Donald; Delahanty, Linda M; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2017-06-01

    We examined self-determination theory (SDT) and weight loss, and hypothesized that the Diabetes Prevention Program's (DPP) intervention would result in an increase in autonomous regulation of motivation (AR) in participants. Further, that those with higher AR, and those who perceived educators as supporting SDT-defined needs, would lose more weight. Support, Health Information, Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) Study data (N = 257) were analyzed. SHINE was a randomized, controlled DPP translation trial (2-years, telephonic, primary care staff). Autonomous motivation in males increased significantly, while females showed no change. Males with high AR, but not females, lost more weight. However, the significance of these relationships varied over time. Participants who perceived educators as more supportive of psychological needs lost more weight (especially males). However, effect of support on weight loss was not mediated by AR change. Autonomous motivation and educator support are relevant to male weight loss. Future research might develop interventions to enhance autonomous motivation and educator support, and understand change pathways.

  2. A Preliminary Study of a Spanish Graphic Novella Targeting Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Wakefield, Emily

    2017-09-18

    This preliminary study developed a digital graphic novella targeting hearing protection beliefs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Researchers used pretest-posttest interview surveys to establish if the novella had an immediate influence on the participants' beliefs about noise-induced hearing loss and usage of hearing protection devices. Researchers developed a digital graphic novella directed to increase knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and increase the proper use of hearing protection devices. The novella was tailored to meet the specific linguistic and literacy needs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Thirty-one Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Mexican nationality participated. This study included an interview survey with specific questions on noise-induced hearing loss, myths, and hearing protection device usage. A pretest-posttest design was applied to measure the graphic novella's immediate influence on workers. The posttest scores on Hearing Protection Beliefs statements were significantly better than pretest scores, with a large effect size observed. Digital media may be an effective way to overcome language and literacy barriers with Spanish-speaking workers when providing health education and prevention efforts.

  3. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  4. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuyoshi; Enoki, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Yokota, Kazuhiro; Okubo, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Masahito; Hayashi, Naoki; Usui, Michihiko; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Mimura, Toshihide; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Araki, Nobuo; Fukuda, Toru; Okazaki, Yasushi; Suda, Tatsuo; Takeda, Shu; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) targeting the brain, is a common medication for Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, a recent clinical study found that administration of this agent is associated with lower risk of hip fracture independently of falling, suggesting its direct effect on bone tissues as well. AChE has been reported to be involved in osteoblast function, but the role of AChE on osteoclastogenesis still remains unclear. We analyzed the effect of AChE and donepezil on osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Cell-based assays were conducted using osteoclasts generated in cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL). The effect of donepezil was also determined in vivo using a mouse model of RANKL-induced bone loss. Recombinant AChE in BMMs cultured with RANKL further promoted RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast differentiation. RANKL also upregulated AChE expression in BMMs. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AChE significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed gene expression specific for osteoclasts. AChE upregulated expression of RANK, the receptor of RANKL, in BMMs. Donepezil decreased cathepsin K expression in BMMs and the resorptive function of osteoclasts on dentine slices. Donepezil decreased RANK expression in BMMs, resulting in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation with downregulation of c-Fos and upregulation of Id2. Moreover, administration of donepezil prevented RANKL-induced bone loss in vivo, which was associated with the inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts. AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Matrine prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhi, Xin; Pan, Panpan; Cui, Jin; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhou, Qirong; Wang, Lin; Zhai, Xiao; Zhao, Qingiie; Hu, Honggang; Huang, Biaotong; Su, Jiacan

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone density and strength due to excessive loss of bone protein and mineral content. The imbalance between osteogenesis by osteoblasts and osteoclastogenesis by osteoclasts contributes to the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Estrogen withdrawal leads to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Overactivated osteoclasts by inflammation play a vital role in the imbalance. Matrine is an alkaloid found in plants from the Sophora genus with various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here we demonstrate that matrine significantly prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inhibited osteoclastogenesis in vivo with decreased serum levels of TRAcp5b, TNF-α, and IL-6. In vitro matrine significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF in bone marrow monocytes and RAW264.7 cells as demonstrated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and actin-ring formation as well as bone resorption through pit formation assays. For molecular mechanisms, matrine abrogated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB, AKT, and MAPK pathways and suppressed osteoclastogenesis-related marker expression, including matrix metalloproteinase 9, NFATc1, TRAP, C-Src, and cathepsin K. Our study demonstrates that matrine inhibits osteoclastogenesis through modulation of multiple pathways and that matrine is a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis.—Chen, X., Zhi, X., Pan, P., Cui, J., Cao, L., Weng, W., Zhou, Q., Wang, L., Zhai, X. Zhao, Q., Hu, H., Huang, B., Su, J. Matrine prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:28739641

  6. Targeting cellular senescence prevents age-related bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Xu, Ming; Weivoda, Megan M; Monroe, David G; Fraser, Daniel G; Onken, Jennifer L; Negley, Brittany A; Sfeir, Jad G; Ogrodnik, Mikolaj B; Hachfeld, Christine M; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Drake, Matthew T; Pignolo, Robert J; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Tchkonia, Tamara; Oursler, Merry Jo; Kirkland, James L; Khosla, Sundeep

    2017-09-01

    Aging is associated with increased cellular senescence, which is hypothesized to drive the eventual development of multiple comorbidities. Here we investigate a role for senescent cells in age-related bone loss through multiple approaches. In particular, we used either genetic (i.e., the INK-ATTAC 'suicide' transgene encoding an inducible caspase 8 expressed specifically in senescent cells) or pharmacological (i.e., 'senolytic' compounds) means to eliminate senescent cells. We also inhibited the production of the proinflammatory secretome of senescent cells using a JAK inhibitor (JAKi). In aged (20- to 22-month-old) mice with established bone loss, activation of the INK-ATTAC caspase 8 in senescent cells or treatment with senolytics or the JAKi for 2-4 months resulted in higher bone mass and strength and better bone microarchitecture than in vehicle-treated mice. The beneficial effects of targeting senescent cells were due to lower bone resorption with either maintained (trabecular) or higher (cortical) bone formation as compared to vehicle-treated mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that senescent-cell conditioned medium impaired osteoblast mineralization and enhanced osteoclast-progenitor survival, leading to increased osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these data establish a causal role for senescent cells in bone loss with aging, and demonstrate that targeting these cells has both anti-resorptive and anabolic effects on bone. Given that eliminating senescent cells and/or inhibiting their proinflammatory secretome also improves cardiovascular function, enhances insulin sensitivity, and reduces frailty, targeting this fundamental mechanism to prevent age-related bone loss suggests a novel treatment strategy not only for osteoporosis, but also for multiple age-related comorbidities.

  7. Sappanone A inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in BMMs and prevents inflammation-mediated bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Young-Yeon; Tran, Phuong Thao; Min, Byung-Sun; Kim, Okwha; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2017-11-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) is a key factor in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Suppressing osteoclastogenesis is considered an effective therapeutic approach for bone-destructive diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Sappanone A (SPNA), a homoisoflavanone compound isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects; however, the effects of SPNA on osteoclastogenesis have not been investigated. In the present study, we describe for the first time that SPNA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppresses inflammation-induced bone loss in a mouse model. SPNA inhibited the formation of osteoclasts from BMMs, osteoclast actin-ring formation, and bone resorption in a concentration-dependent manner. At the molecular level, SPNA significantly inhibited RANKL-induced activation of the AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signaling pathway without affecting its activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) JNK, p38, and ERK. In addition, SPNA suppressed the induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a crucial transcription factor in osteoclast differentiation. As a result, SPNA decreased osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression, including CtsK, TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), MMP-9 and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). In a mouse inflammatory bone loss model, SPNA significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss by suppressing the number of osteoclasts. Taken together, these findings suggest that SPNA inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by inhibiting the AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway and may be a potential candidate compound for the prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory bone loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure.

  9. Effectiveness of Earplugs in Preventing Recreational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakers, Geerte G J; Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Cattani, Guido; van Zanten, Gijsbert A; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of hearing loss has risen in past years. Attendance at music festivals and concerts may contribute to this increasing problem. To assess the effectiveness of earplugs in preventing temporary hearing loss immediately following music exposure. A randomized, single-blind clinical trial was conducted on September 5, 2015, at an outdoor music festival in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Normal-hearing adult volunteers were recruited via social media. An exclusion criterion was the participants' intention to wear earplugs. Of the 86 volunteers assessed, 51 were included in the study. All analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Participants were randomly assigned to a group using earplugs or an unprotected group during a 4½-hour festival visit. The primary study outcome was a temporary threshold shift (TTS) on the audiogram, primarily for frequencies at 3 and 4 kHz. Secondary study outcomes included distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements and claims of tinnitus using a questionnaire and tinnitus matching experiments. Of 51 participants included, 25 were randomized to the earplug group and 26 to the unprotected group. Nine in each group (36% and 35%, respectively) were men, and the mean (SD) ages were 27.3 (5.6) years in the earplug group and 27.0 (6.2) years in the unprotected group. Baseline demographics were similar in both groups. The time-averaged, equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level experienced was 100 dBA during the festival. A TTS over frequencies at 3 and 4 kHz after exposure was seen in 4 of 50 ears (8%) in the earplug group compared with 22 of 52 ears (42%) in the unprotected group (P preventing 1 TTS was 2.9. The DPOAE amplitudes decreased significantly more over the frequencies 2 to 8 kHz in the unprotected group: the mean (SD) decrease in magnitude was 0.6 (2.8) dB in the earplug group vs 2.2 (1.9) dB in the unprotected group (P = .04). Newly induced tinnitus following sound exposure occurred in 3 of

  10. Surface Acting and Job-Related Affective Wellbeing: Preventing Resource Loss Spiral and Resource Loss Cycle for Sustainable Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwook Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the synergistic negative effect of two kinds of job demand on job-related affective wellbeing (JAW and the accelerating effects of cynicism in the negative relationships between job demands and JAW using a sample of 299 employees in the Chinese banking industry. Job demands include quantitative role overload and surface acting to represent the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job demands. Cynicism is introduced as a state where one’s energy resource is lost. The results of this study show that surface acting has a negative relationship with JAW, but quantitative role overload has no relationship with JAW. High levels of quantitative role overload exacerbate the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW. Cynicism also exacerbates the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW but does not have any moderating effect in the relationship between quantitative role overload and JAW. These results are consistent with the relationships predicted by resource loss spiral and resource loss cycle. The resource loss spiral means that resource loss, caused by handling with a quantitative role overload, lessens the employee’s ability to cope with surface acting. The resource loss cycle represents a vicious circle that amplifies the resource loss caused by surface acting. Surface acting reduces the level of one’s resources. Furthermore, surface acting reduces JAW and resources more strongly when an individual has low levels of previous energy resources than it reduces JAW and resources when he or she has high levels of previous energy resources.

  11. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-07-21

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chondrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histological analysis and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. The BMD value in TGP rabbits was significantly higher compared with that seen in the AIA model rabbits. In addition, the subchondral bone plate was almost completely preserved by TGP treatment, while there was a decrease in bone plate integrity in AIA rabbits. There was less damage to the chondrocytes of the TGP treated group. Immunohistochemical examination of the TGP group showed that a higher percentage of TGP treated chondrocytes expressed OPG as compared to the chondrocytes isolated from AIA treated animals. In contrast, RANKL expression was significantly decreased in the TGP treated group compared to the AIA group. In support of the immunohistochemistry data, the expression of RANKL mRNA was decreased and OPG mRNA expression was enhanced in the TGP group when compared to that of the AIA model group. These results reveal that TGP suppresses juxta-articular osteoporosis and prevents subchondral bone loss. The decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression seen in TGP treated animals could explain how administration of TGP maintains higher BMD.

  12. Diagnosis System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Glaucoma Screening to Prevent Vision Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sundhara Raja DHANUSHKODI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR and glaucoma are two most common retinal disorders that are major causes of blindness in diabetic patients. DR caused in retinal images due to the damage in retinal blood vessels, which leads to the formation of hemorrhages spread over the entire region of retina. Glaucoma is caused due to hypertension in diabetic patients. Both DR and glaucoma affects the vision loss in diabetic patients. Hence, a computer aided development of diagnosis system for Diabetic retinopathy and Glaucoma screening is proposed in this paper to prevent vision loss. Method: The diagnosis system of DR consists of two stages namely detection and segmentation of fovea and hemorrhages. The diagnosis system of glaucoma screening consists of three stages namely blood vessel segmentation, Extraction of optic disc (OD and optic cup (OC region and determination of rim area between OD and OC. Results: The specificity and accuracy for hemorrhages detection is found to be 98.47% and 98.09% respectively. The accuracy for OD detection is found to be 99.3%. This outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion: In this paper, the diagnosis system is developed to classify the DR and glaucoma screening in to mild, moderate and severe respectively.

  13. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  14. A nutritional education program could prevent weight loss and slow cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, S; Gillette-Guyonnet, S; Voisin, T; Reynish, E; Andrieu, S; Lauque, S; Salva, A; Frisoni, G; Nourhashemi, F; Micas, M; Vellas, B

    2001-01-01

    Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). It is a predictive factor of mortality and it decreases patients' and caregivers' quality of life. To determine if a nutritional education program can prevent weight loss in AD patients. 151 AD patients and their caregivers were enrolled to follow the intervention and 74 AD patients and their caregivers constituted a control group. Caregivers in the intervention group followed 9 nutritional sessions of one hour each, over one year. Caregivers in the control group didn't follow any sessions but were offered advice provided in a normal follow-up. Patients weight, nutritional state, cognitive function, autonomy, mood, behaviour disorders at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Caregivers burden, nutritional and AD knowledge at the baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. During the year follow-up, the mean weight increased in the intervention group (0.7+/-3.6 kg) whereas it decreased in the control group (-0.7+/-5.4 kg) (pnutritional status (MNA) was maintained in the intervention group (0.3+/-2.6) whereas it decreased significantly in the control group (-1.0+/-3.4) (pnutritional state, eating behaviour disorders, depression), the weight change between the two groups was not significant (0.6+/-0.4 kg vs. -0.6+/-0. 6 kg respectively in intervention group and control group). However, the percentage of patients with significant weight loss is decreased. The MMSE change became significant between the two groups: -2.3+/-0.3 vs. -3.4+/-0.4 respectively in intervention group and control group (pnutritional educational program intended for caregivers of AD patients could have a positive effect on patients weight and cognitive function.

  15. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  16. Preventive treatment of intrauterine device-induced menstrual blood loss with tranexamic acid in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Gao, E S; Li, D; Zhang, M; Dou, L X; Yuan, W

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether tranexamic acid (Transamin) therapy reduces the amount of menstrual blood loss (MBL) and occurrence of menorrhagia after intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Some 175 Chinese women attending for IUD insertion were equally assigned into 2 Transamin groups (1,000 and 500 mg, twice daily) and a placebo group. Their MBL was recorded with a pictorial chart in 3 subsequent menstrual cycles after insertion, while the MBL of 64 patients, collecting used sanitary towels, was also measured by an alkaline hematin method. A significant decline in post-insertion MBL and occurrence of menorrhagia was found in the 2 Transamin groups compared with the placebo group (p<0.05), whereas the difference in the results from the pictorial chart score was not statistically significant between the 1 g group and placebo group. Transamin treatment with a generally recommended dosage can effectively reduce the amount of IUD-induced MBL and prevent menorrhagia in Chinese women. A lower dosage than recommended (50% of recommended dosage) may have a similar preventive effect.

  17. Bcl-2 prevents loss of mitochondria in CCCP-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Aniek O. de; Heuvel, Lambert P. van den; Dijkman, Henry B.P.M.; Abreu, Ronney A. de; Birkenkamp, Kim U.; Witte, Theo de; Reijden, Bert A. van der; Smeitink, Jan A.M.; Jansen, Joop H.

    2004-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis at the level of mitochondria. To examine the mechanism of Bcl-2 function, we investigated the effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) on two hematopoietic cell lines and Bcl-2 overexpressing transfectants. CCCP directly interferes with mitochondrial function and induces apoptosis. We show that Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis and that the antiapoptotic effect of Bcl-2 takes place upstream of caspase activation and nuclear changes associated with apoptosis, since these were markedly inhibited in cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Bcl-2 does not prevent the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential nor the alterations in cellular ATP content induced by CCCP in FL5.12 and Jurkat cells. A higher number of mitochondria was observed in untreated Bcl-2 transfected cells compared to parental cells, as shown by electron microscopy. Exposure to CCCP induced a dramatic decrease in the number of mitochondria and severely disrupted mitochondrial ultrastructure, with apparent swelling and loss of cristae in parental cells. Bcl-2 clearly diminished the disruption of mitochondrial structure and preserved a higher number of mitochondria. These data suggest that CCCP induces apoptosis by structural disruption of mitochondria and that Bcl-2 prevents apoptosis and mitochondrial degeneration by preserving mitochondrial integrity

  18. Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Iqra

    2015-12-10

    A component of designing a managed aquifer recharge system in a dune aquifer is the control of diffusive evaporative loss of water which is governed by the physical properties of the sediments and the position of the water table. A critical water table position is the “extinction depth”, below which no further loss of water occurs via diffusion. Field experiments were conducted to measure the extinction depth of sediments taken from a typical dune field in the region. The soil grain size characteristics, laboratory porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured. The sand is classified as well-sorted, very fine sand with a mean grain diameter of 0.15 mm. Soil moisture gradients and diffusion loss rates were measured using sensors in a non-weighing lysimeter that was placed below land surface. The sand was saturated carefully with water from the bottom to the top and was exposed to the natural climate for a period of about two months. The moisture gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement until extinction depth was reached at about 100 cm below surface after 56 days. Diurnal temperature changes were observed in the upper 75 cm of the column and were negligible at greater depth.

  19. Biometrological methods to evaluate in vivo the skin hydratation of different commercial moisturizers containing 10.0% urea as the main claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Cecílio Chaves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biometrological measurements of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss are important parameters to evaluate the moisturizing ability of creams and lotions suitable for this purpose. This study analyzed, through biometrological tests, the performance of five different commercial moisturizing creams containing 10.0 % urea. The amount of water in the stratum corneum was analyzed by Corneometer®, equipment that measures the skin hydration by capacitance principle. The transepidermal water loss was analyzed by TEWLmeter®, equipment that measures water evaporation through the skin. Student t-tests were applied to these measures, which demonstrated significant differences between the hydration performances of the moisturizing creams analyzed. The moisturizer identified as "D" showed a better moisturizing ability and better prevented transepidermal water loss. Overall, results showed the importance of testing equivalence for topical products, since, as demonstrated in this study, although certain products may contain the same active substance, differences in their vehicles’ composition can alter the effectiveness.

  20. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  1. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Rossella; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Muto, Paolo; Ravo, Vincenzo; Sammarco, Elena; Calvanese, Maria Grazia; De Natale, Flora; Falivene, Sara; Di Lecce, Ada; Giugliano, Francesca Maria; Murino, Paola; Manzo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to add, to the objective evaluation, an instrumental assessment of the skin damage induced by radiation therapy. A group of 100 patients affected by breast cancer was recruited in the study over one year. Patients were divided into five groups of 20 patients. For each group it was prescribed a different topical treatment. The following products were used: Betaglucan, sodium hyaluronate (Neoviderm®), Vitis vinifera A. s-I-M.t-O.dij (Ixoderm®), Alga Atlantica plus Ethylbisiminomethylguaicolo and Manganese Cloruro (Radioskin1®) and Metal Esculetina plus Ginko Biloba and Aloe vera (Radioskin 2®); Natural triglycerides-fitosterols (Xderit®); Selectiose plus thermal water of Avene (Trixera+®). All hydrating creams were applied twice a day starting 15 days before and one month after treatment with radiations. Before and during treatment patients underwent weekly skin assessments and corneometry to evaluate the symptoms related to skin toxicity and state of hydration. Evaluation of acute cutaneous toxicity was defined according to the RTOG scale. All patients completed radiotherapy; 72% of patients presented a G1 cutaneous toxicity, 18% developed a G2 cutaneous toxicity, 10% developed a G3 toxicity, no one presented G4 toxicity. The corneometry study confirmed the protective role of effective creams used in radiation therapy of breast cancer and showed its usefulness to identify radiation-induced dermatitis in a very early stage. The preventive use of topic products reduces the incidence of skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. An instrumental evaluation of skin hydration can help the radiation oncologist to use strategies that prevent the onset of toxicity of high degree. All moisturizing creams used in this study were equally valid in the treatment of skin damage induced by radiotherapy

  2. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Frisina, Robert D.; Ding, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs fo...

  3. Chlorhexidine Prevents Root Dentine Mineral Loss and Fracture Caused by Calcium Hydroxide over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ranniery Garcia Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the mineral ion loss of root dentine after treatment with 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX and to compare its yield and flexural strength (fs after exposure to calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2]. Materials and Methods. Dentine bars (DB were made from 90 roots of bovine incisors and randomized into three groups: GControl: distilled/deionized water (DDW, GNaOCl: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA, and GCHX: CHX + DDW. The release of phosphate (PO4 and calcium (Ca ions was measured by spectrophotometry. The DB were exposed to Ca(OH2 paste for 0, 30, 90, and 180 days. DB were subjected to the three-point bending test to obtain yield and fs values. The fracture patterns were evaluated (20x. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc tests or one- and two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (α=0.05. Results. GCHX showed lower PO43- and Ca2+ ionic release than GNaOCl (pGNaOCl in all periods (p<0.001, except for yield strength values on 90 days (p=0.791. A larger frequency of vertical fractures was observed in GNaOCl and that of oblique fractures in GCHX (p<0.05. Conclusions. CHX prevented PO43- and Ca2+ loss and showed a tendency to preserve the yield and fs of root dentine over time following exposure to Ca(OH2 paste.

  4. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; So, Hong-Seob; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine 727 . Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser 727 signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  5. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  6. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wojda, Samantha J.; Barlow, Lindsay N.; Drummer, Thomas D.; Castillo, Alesha B.; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W.; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L.; Nelson, O. Lynne; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2009-01-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus a...

  7. Program Sustainability: Hearing Loss and Tinnitus Prevention in American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William Hal; Sobel, Judith L; Griest, Susan E; Howarth, Linda C; Becker, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    An important goal of any health promotion effort is to have it maintained in delivery and effectiveness over time. The purpose of this study was to establish a community-based noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus prevention program in three different types of American Indian communities and evaluate them for evidence of long-term sustainability. The target population was fourth- and fifth-grade students from three different models of American Indian communities. The evidenced-based Dangerous Decibels ® program was adapted to include local media, classroom education, family and community outreach, and web-based activities. Sustainability was attempted by promoting funding stability, political support, partnerships, organizational capacity, program adaptation, program evaluation, communications, public health impacts, and strategic planning. Currently, there is evidence suggesting that the hearing health promotion program is self-sustaining in all three American Indian communities. The intervention was effective at changing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in the target population, but program adoption and self-sustenance faced challenges that required patience, persistence, and creativity by the program team. Components of the intervention continue to be delivered by local members of each community. Critical factors that led to self-sustaining programs included approval of community leaders and engagement of community members in the design, administration, and evaluation of the effort; use of a well-developed, evidence-based intervention; and high-level training of local participants who could confidently and effectively continue delivering the program following a gradual transition to independence. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Andrographolide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and prevents inflammatory bone loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Z J; Li, H W; Liu, G W; Qu, X H; Tian, B; Yan, W; Lin, Z; Tang, T T; Qin, A; Dai, K R

    2014-02-01

    Osteoclasts play a pivotal role in diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumour bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. Here, we examined changes in osteoclastogenesis and LPS-induced osteolysis in response to andrographolide (AP), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. Effects of AP on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were measured in vitro. Western blots and RT-PCR techniques were used to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. The bone protective activity of AP in vivo was assessed in a mouse model of osteolysis. AP concentration-dependently suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptors and cathepsin K. Further molecular analysis revealed that AP impaired RANKL-induced NF-κB signalling by inhibiting the phosphorylation of TGF-β-activated kinase 1, suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and subsequently preventing the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. AP also inhibited the ERK/MAPK signalling pathway without affecting p38 or JNK signalling. AP suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through attenuating NF-κB and ERK/MAPK signalling pathways in vitro, thus preventing bone loss in vivo. These data indicated that AP is a promising natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Extract Prevents Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone resorbing disorders such as osteoporosis, periodontitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, discovery of agents capable of suppressing osteoclast differentiation may aid the development of a therapeutic access for the treatment of pathological bone loss. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata has been used as herbal folk medicine to treat liver diseases and inflammation in Asia. However, its effects on osteoclast differentiation are unknown. We were aimed to investigate the anti-osteoclastogenic activity in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of Ampelopsis brevipedunculata extract (ABE. In this study, ABE inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, the formation of filamentous actin rings and the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. ABE inhibited RANKL-induced p38 and IκB phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Also, ABE suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1 and c-Fos, and the mRNA expression of genes required for cell fusion and bone resorption, such as osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cathepsin K, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, β3-integrin and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP. Furthermore, results of micro-CT and histologic analysis indicated that ABE remarkably prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced bone erosion. These results demonstrate that ABE prevents LPS-induced bone erosion through inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and function, suggesting the promise of ABE as a potential cure for various osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  10. The role of the health system in the prevention of hearing loss among children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, Fayrouz Mohammed; Omar, Mayeh Abu

    2011-01-01

    Around 1.2 million children living in Sub-Saharan Africa have a hearing impairment (HI) or hearing loss (HL). Limited attention and scarce resources dedicated to this condition means that such children often receive no management for their problem. This has substantial negative effects on their development, and ultimately results in poverty. Half of the number of cases of HI in such countries results from preventable causes. Formulation of effective prevention strategies to address the causes...

  11. Modeling soil moisture-reflectance

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Etienne; Decamps, Henri

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Spectral information on soil is not easily available as vegetation and farm works prevent direct observation of soil responses. However, there is an increasing need to include soil reflectance values in spectral unmixing algorithms or in classification approaches. In most cases, the impact of soil moisture on the reflectance is unknown and therefore ignored. The objective of this study was to model reflectance changes due to soil moisture in a real field situation usin...

  12. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  13. Hearing Health in College Instrumental Musicians and Prevention of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna D; Gooding, Lori F; Shikoh, Fara; Graf, Julie

    2016-03-01

    College musicians exhibit greater declines in hearing than the general population and are at particular risk because they rehearse and perform daily in loud environments. Also, they engage in use of personal listening devices which increases the amount of "exposure" time. Despite increased risk, many do not use hearing protection devices (HPD). The purpose of this study was to (1) to identify the present level of education about hearing health, (2) identify the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using HPD, and (3) evaluate results among different musical instrument groups. A mixed-methods group design was used including both quantitative and qualitative instruments. SPSS was used to generate descriptive statistics, and non-parametric statistical analysis was performed on quantitative data. NVivo software was used to evaluate qualitative responses. Of the 90 college instrumental music students who participated, 12% reported a history of hearing loss, and over one-third reported tinnitus. Seventy-seven percent of participants had never received any training about hearing health and only a small percentage of students used HPD. The most cited reason for lack of protection use was its negative impact on sound quality. However, group differences were noted between brass, woodwind, and percussion musicians in terms of HPD uptake. Improving the type of information disseminated to college musicians may reduce the risk of ear-related deficits. Noise dosage information, HPD information, and prevention education grounded in theories like the Health Belief Model may increase awareness and promote greater use of HPDs in this population.

  14. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension

  15. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; So, Hong-Seob; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine(727). Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  17. Schema reliance for developmental goals increases from early to late adulthood: improvement for the young, loss prevention for the old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Riediger, Michaela; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2009-06-01

    People tend to encode and retrieve information in terms of schemata, especially when processing resources are low. This study argues that the life-span schema about developmental goals constitutes a generalized expectation about the life course that associates young adults with growth and older adults with loss prevention. Predictions were that young and older adults possess this schema; that both age groups rely on it when remembering age-associated information about goals; and that this schema reliance is particularly pronounced among older adults, due to age-related difficulties in overcoming schemata. In Experiment 1, participants assigned growth or loss-prevention orientations to young and older faces and adhered to the life-span schema. In Experiment 2, participants were presented young and older faces paired with growth or loss prevention. When later asked to recognize faces and remember goal orientations, participants were more likely to remember young faces with growth and older faces with loss prevention than vice versa. This effect was more pronounced among older adults. Conclusions are that reliance on life-span schemata when remembering developmentally relevant information increases with age. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Feeding blueberry diets during early development is sufficient to prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  19. Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  20. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents: expert opinions from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2009-05-01

    To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth work, music entertainment, and enforcement authorities participated in a qualitative, electronic, 3-round, Web-based Delphi study. Multiple parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents were identified; the most relevant are the adolescents themselves, their parents, manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones, and the authorities. The experts did not expect that adolescents in general would perform the necessary protective behaviors to prevent MP3-induced hearing loss. Two environmental health protection measures were identified as both relevant and feasible to be implemented (ie, authorities encourage manufacturers to produce safer products, and public health campaigns will be held to improve knowledge of the risks of high-volume music, possible protective measures, and consequences of hearing loss). Authorities, the music industry in general, and especially manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones should recognize their responsibility and create a safer MP3-listening environment by taking measures to protect today's youth from the dangers of listening to high-volume music on MP3 players.

  1. Low doses of estradiol in combination with gestodene to prevent early postmenopausal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, N H; Byrjalsen, I; Hassager, C; Haarbo, J; Christiansen, C

    2000-09-01

    Our purpose was to study combinations of estradiol and gestodene for prevention of bone loss in early postmenopausal women. We randomly assigned 278 healthy, early postmenopausal women to receive either 2 mg 17beta-estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 2/25s), 2 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 50 microg gestodene (group 2/50s), 1 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 1/25s), 1 mg estradiol continuously combined with 25 mg gestodene (group 1/25c), or placebo. After 3 years the changes in bone mineral density of the spine were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, 7. 41% +/- 0.72%; group 2/50s, 8.53% +/- 0.90%; group 1.25s, 6.67% +/- 0.88%; group 1/25c, 4.44% +/- 0.59%; and placebo group, -2.03% +/- 0. 64%. The changes in bone mineral density were mirrored in the biochemical bone markers. The average responses for the urinary C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen corrected for creatinine excretion were as follows (mean of baseline +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -68.8% +/- 0.03%; group 2/50s, -72.8% +/- 0.02%; group 1/25s, -60.7% +/- 0.03%; group 1/25c, -52.28% +/- 0.04%; and placebo group, 6.5% +/- 0.09%. Beneficial lipid effects were found in all active groups. The decreases in low-density lipoprotein were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -13.7% +/- 3.0%; group 2/50s, -14.6% +/- 3.2%; group 1/25s, -9.28% +/- 2.2%; group 1/25c, -9.92% +/- 2.4%; and placebo group, 1.53% +/- 1.9%. These results demonstrate that estradiol therapy with 1 mg estradiol is fully protective against early postmenopausal bone loss.

  2. Water extract of Rumex crispus prevents bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and inducing osteoblast mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ki-Shuk; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-10-26

    Rumex crispus root has traditionally been used in Asian medicine for the treatment of hemorrhage and dermatolosis. The aim of this study was to explore the pharmaceutical effects of water extract of Rumex crispus (WERC) on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. We also studied the effect of WERC on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone destruction mice model. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to identify three compounds (emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion) of WERC. The in vivo effect of WERC was examined using an administration of WERC or vehicle on the ICR mice with bone loss induced by intraperitoneal RANKL injection on day 0 and 1. All mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at day 7 and the femurs of mice were isolated for soft X-ray and Micro-CT analysis. The in vitro effect of WERC on osteoblast mineralization or osteoclast differentiation was examined by alizarin red S staining or by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and assay. To determine the transcription level of osteoblast or osteoclast-specific genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used. Western blot analysis was performed to study the effect of WERC on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling molecules. The presence of three compounds in WERC was determined. WERC significantly suppressed RANKL-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing microstructural deterioration. In vitro, WERC increased osteoblast mineralization by enhancing the transcription of runt-related transcription factor 2 and its transcriptional coactivators, and by stimulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Furthermore, WERC significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the activation of the RANKL signalings (MAPK and NF-κB) and the increasing inhibitory factors of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. This study showed that

  3. Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Model-Predictive Automatic Recovery System to Prevent Vehicle Loss of Control on Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Liu, Yuan; Sowers, Thomas S.; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  4. Knowledge of parents from urban and rural areas vs. prevention methods of hearing loss threats seen as challenges for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Danuta Głowacka

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge and awareness of factors that may trigger hearing loss is not synonymous with avoidance of the problem. Main components of hearing loss prevention among children and youths should be administrative actions, extensive education, and proper childcare at home.

  5. Recovering and preventing loss of detailed memory: differential rates of forgetting for detail types in episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults. The study investigated (1) time-dependent loss of “central” and “peripheral” details from episodic memories, (2) the effectiveness of cuing with reminders to reinstate memory details, and (3) the role of retrieval in preventing forgetting. Over the course of 7 d, memory for naturalistic events (film clips) underwent a time-dependent loss of peripheral details, while memory for central details (the core or gist of events) showed significantly less loss. Giving brief reminders of the clips just before retrieval reinstated memory for peripheral details, suggesting that loss of details is not always permanent, and may reflect both a storage and retrieval deficit. Furthermore, retrieving a memory shortly after it was encoded prevented loss of both central and peripheral details, thereby promoting retention over time. We consider the implications of these results for behavioral and neurobiological models of retention and forgetting. PMID:26773100

  6. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C

    1998-01-01

    increases in bone mineral density. Alendronate did not increase bone mineral density of the forearm, but it slowed the loss. The responses to estrogen-progestin were 1 to 2 percentage points greater than those to the 5-mg dose of alendronate. Alendronate was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar...... to that of placebo or estrogen-progestin. CONCLUSIONS: Alendronate prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age to nearly the same extent as estrogen-progestin.......BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS...

  7. The role of the health system in the prevention of hearing loss among children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fayrouz Mohammed; Omar, Mayeh Abu

    2011-01-01

    Around 1.2 million children living in Sub-Saharan Africa have a hearing impairment (HI) or hearing loss (HL). Limited attention and scarce resources dedicated to this condition means that such children often receive no management for their problem. This has substantial negative effects on their development, and ultimately results in poverty. Half of the number of cases of HI in such countries results from preventable causes. Formulation of effective prevention strategies to address the causes requires an understanding of the factors that lead to the causes of HI in Sub-Saharan Africa. A number of preventable causes were shown to significantly contribute to the prevalence of HI. The most significant causes include perinatal problems, middle ear problems, infective diseases, and ototoxic drugs. These causes persist because there are few effective prevention strategies in place, and those which exist are poorly implemented. There is little public and health care worker awareness about HL and its prevention. Few resources are allocated to the prevention of HL, meaning that these issues are not addressed. Evidence have shown that current failings in the prevention of HI from such causes include widespread limited resources, inadequate staff training, and absent or ineffectual prevention guidelines. The burden of HL has been shown to be significantly reduced through effective prevention strategies, both in the developed and developing world, justifying the need for increased attention and more resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Loss of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors during simulated extracorporeal circulation: prevention with prostaglandin E1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachtogel, Y.T.; Musial, J.; Jenkin, B.; Niewiarowski, S.; Edmunds, L.H. Jr.; Colman, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass prolongs bleeding time and increases postoperative blood loss. During in vitro recirculation in an extracorporeal circuit containing a membrane oxygenator and primed with fresh heparinized human blood, the authors previously observed thrombocytopenia, impaired platelet aggregation, and depletion of granular contents, all of which were prevented with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). To investigate these changes further, they studied the number and affinity of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine. Before recirculation, they found 235 alpha 2-adrenergic receptors per platelet, a Kd of 3.37 nmol/L, complete aggregation with 1.04 mumol/L epinephrine, and a platelet count of 281,000 microliters/sup -1/. After 2 minutes of recirculation, 9.44 mumol/L epinephrine was required to produce complete aggregation, and the platelet count was 104,000 microliters-1 (44% of control). After 2 hours of recirculation, the platelet count had increased to 123,000 microliters/sup -1/. However, epinephrine did not induce platelet aggregation even at 100 mumol/L. Moreover, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were not detectable, and affinity for yohimbine could not be calculated. Two minutes after PGE1 0.3 mumol/L was added to the circuit, platelet numbers, response to epinephrine, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites per platelet, and affinity for yohimbine were not significantly different from control values. At 2 hours, the number of alpha 2-adrenergic sites was not significantly changed from control, but the affinity of yohimbine for platelets was significantly decreased 2.5-fold.

  9. Loss of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors during simulated extracorporeal circulation: prevention with prostaglandin E1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtogel, Y.T.; Musial, J.; Jenkin, B.; Niewiarowski, S.; Edmunds, L.H. Jr.; Colman, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass prolongs bleeding time and increases postoperative blood loss. During in vitro recirculation in an extracorporeal circuit containing a membrane oxygenator and primed with fresh heparinized human blood, the authors previously observed thrombocytopenia, impaired platelet aggregation, and depletion of granular contents, all of which were prevented with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). To investigate these changes further, they studied the number and affinity of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by measuring the binding of 3 H-yohimbine. Before recirculation, they found 235 alpha 2-adrenergic receptors per platelet, a Kd of 3.37 nmol/L, complete aggregation with 1.04 mumol/L epinephrine, and a platelet count of 281,000 microliters -1 . After 2 minutes of recirculation, 9.44 mumol/L epinephrine was required to produce complete aggregation, and the platelet count was 104,000 microliters-1 (44% of control). After 2 hours of recirculation, the platelet count had increased to 123,000 microliters -1 . However, epinephrine did not induce platelet aggregation even at 100 mumol/L. Moreover, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were not detectable, and affinity for yohimbine could not be calculated. Two minutes after PGE1 0.3 mumol/L was added to the circuit, platelet numbers, response to epinephrine, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites per platelet, and affinity for yohimbine were not significantly different from control values. At 2 hours, the number of alpha 2-adrenergic sites was not significantly changed from control, but the affinity of yohimbine for platelets was significantly decreased 2.5-fold

  10. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control (sham OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle, and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg−1∙day−1, respectively doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  11. [The concept of loss of chance: A major evolution in the definition of damage or how to prevent litigation for loss of chance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T-D

    2016-07-01

    The concept of medical error in responsibility litigation was based until the past last years on a necessary direct and definite causal link between fault and injury. In France, since the 1960s and increasingly during the last decade, the idea of loss of chance arose, considered as a new and genuine prejudice (practically, a fixable damage); it became the subject of several legal precedents from the Cour de cassation and the Conseil d'État. Thus, plaintiffs may currently demand a compensation for a loss of chance even though a doubt exists on the causal link between the fault and the observed damage. The most frequent litigation circumstances implying a loss of chance are lack of information, lack or delay in diagnosis, delay in action, and default in medical assessment. Based on practical cases, the author presents the most propitious situations where litigation for loss of chance may occur and discusses possible preventive measures. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  13. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied.In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation.These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  14. The knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention among Chinese children with hearing loss in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Buyi; Chen, Jingqi; Jin, Yichen; Zhang, Wenjing; Feng, Yanan; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of any child sexual abuse (CSA) experience before the age of 16 years ranges from 10.2 to 35.2% in China, 1-5 but there has been no research so far exploring the level of awareness of CSA prevention and self-protection skills among Chinese children with hearing loss. The school based survey examines the CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills in Chinese children with hearing loss. Fifty-one students (30 boys, 21 girls) from 10 to 16 years old participated in the study. Children's CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills were tested by using anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was mainly designed based on previous Chinese CSA research questionnaires, the Personal Safety Questionnaire, and the 'What If' Situations Test (WIST). There were ten questions assessing the knowledge of CSA but none of the children could correctly answer all and seventy percent of the students could not answer more than five questions correctly. Only three students got the maximum skills score. If sexual abuse occurs, about fifty two percent of the children would report it to trusted adults and most of them would report it to their relatives. Girls received significantly higher scores than boys. Chinese children with hearing loss lack knowledge regarding child sexual abuse and the way to protect themselves. There is an urgent need to develop CSA prevention programs in the school for children with hearing loss in China. Parental training and parent-child interaction on CSA prevention should be developed and promoted as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  16. Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit: a community health worker program to prevent vision loss and blindness among people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammary-Risch, Neyal J; Aguilar, Marcela; Goodman, Laura Saunders; Quiroz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic eye disease is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness in the United States and disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos. This article provides an overview of the Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit, a culturally and linguistically appropriate resource designed for community health workers to educate people with diabetes about eye health complications. The toolkit provides science-based, easy-to-understand information that can be used to conduct interactive, educational sessions about diabetes and eye health, the importance of comprehensive dilated eye examinations at least once a year for people with diabetes, and other ways to prevent vision loss and blindness.

  17. Preventing Loss of Aircraft Control : Aiding pilots in manual recovery from roll-limited situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of aircraft lateral control can be problem, specifically when multi engine propeller aircraft are faced with an engine failure. Another, less frequent phenomena is the loss of lateral control in case of aircraft damage. In this thesis, a method is developed to determine the minimum required

  18. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...... = 8). The effects of acute running-induced fatigue and training on isokinetic and isometric peak torque, and rate of force development (RFD) were investigated. Before IERT, running-induced eccentric torque loss at 180° s(-1) was -8 %, and RFD loss was -11 %. Longitudinal IERT led to reduced or absent...

  20. Dendrobium alkaloids prevent Aβ25–35-induced neuronal and synaptic loss via promoting neurotrophic factors expression in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Nie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Neuronal and synaptic loss is the most important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and preventing synaptic loss are promising therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this study, we investigate the protective effects of Dendrobium alkaloids (DNLA, a Chinese medicinal herb extract, on β-amyloid peptide segment 25–35 (Aβ25-35-induced neuron and synaptic loss in mice. Method Aβ25–35(10 µg was injected into the bilateral ventricles of male mice followed by an oral administration of DNLA (40 mg/kg for 19 days. The Morris water maze was used for evaluating the ability of spatial learning and memory function of mice. The morphological changes were examined via H&E staining and Nissl staining. TUNEL staining was used to check the neuronal apoptosis. The ultrastructure changes of neurons were observed under electron microscope. Western blot was used to evaluate the protein expression levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Results DNLA significantly attenuated Aβ25–35-induced spatial learning and memory impairments in mice. DNLA prevented Aβ25–35-induced neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex, increased the number of Nissl bodies, improved the ultrastructural injury of neurons and increased the number of synapses in neurons. Furthermore, DNLA increased the protein expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, CNTF and GDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Conclusions DNLA can prevent neuronal apoptosis and synaptic loss. This effect is mediated at least in part via increasing the expression of BDNF, GDNF and CNTF in the hippocampus and cortex; improving Aβ-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice.

  1. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  2. An Ounce of Prevention: Probabilistic Loss Estimation for Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrani-Reiser, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) is a methodology that incorporates desired performance levels into the design process. Performance in PBEE can be expressed in economic terms, or as elapsed downtime, or in terms of life and building safety objectives. These performance objectives are relevant to various types of stakeholders. They should be addressed in building loss estimation procedures because after an earthquake, the repair cost will not be the only "loss" su...

  3. A Novel Therapeutic for the Treatment and Prevention of Hearing Loss from Acoustic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss Toll-like receptor (TLR) MAPK/JNK pathway Reactive oxygen species Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Intra-cellular...compared to one day post noise exposure, indicating some degree of temporary hearing loss. The hearing thresholds measured at 7 weeks post noise were...Nothing to report  Actual or anticipated problems or delays and actions or plans to resolve them Nothing to report  Changes that had a significant

  4. Mandibular Symphyseal/Parasymphyseal Fracture with Incisor Tooth Loss: Preventing Lower Arch Constriction

    OpenAIRE

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Abdollahpour, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular fractures are the second most common fractures of the face after the nasal bone. Mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fracture comprises 15.6 to 29.3% of mandibular fractures. Tooth loss in the fracture line is a known phenomenon, but space loss has not been evaluated comprehensively in the literature. In a retrospective study, patients with mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fractures, who had been treated from 2012 to 2013 in Mashhad University, Iran, Emdadi Hospital, were reca...

  5. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Robert A; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identified that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatej, Simona M; Marino, Victor; Bright, Richard; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Gully, Neville; Zilm, Peter; Gibson, Rachel J; Edwards, Suzanne; Bartold, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone loss and local and systemic inflammation in an in vivo mouse model of experimental periodontitis (PD). Experimental PD was induced in mice by oral inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum over a period of 44 days. The probiotic LGG was administered via oral inoculation or oral gavage prior to, and during disease induction. The antimicrobial activity of LGG on the inoculum was also tested. Alveolar bone levels and gingival tissue changes were assessed using in vivo microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Serum levels of mouse homologues for IL-8 were measured using multiplex assays. Pre-treatment with probiotics either via oral gavage or via oral inoculation significantly reduced bone loss (p Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG effectively suppresses bone loss in a mouse model of induced PD irrespective of the mode of administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  8. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, G.J. de; Spaans, P.; Jansen, B.; Riet, J.P. van 't

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents’ intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of

  9. Prevention of adolescents' music-induced hearing loss due to discotheque attendance: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, van der C.P.B.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant social and public health problem, which is found in increasing numbers of adolescents. Young people are particularly likely to expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds during leisure activities. Visiting discotheques is one of the most popular

  10. The Effect of Earplugs in Preventing Hearing Loss From Recreational Noise Exposure : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Ramakers, Geerte G J; Grolman, Wilko

    Importance: The prevalence of hearing loss among children and adolescents is rising dramatically, caused mainly by increased exposure to recreational noise. Objective: To present a systematic overview of the effectiveness of wearing earplugs to music venues, such as nightclubs and concert halls, to

  11. Testosterone prevents protein loss via the hepatic urea cycle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Teresa; Poljak, Anne; McLean, Mark; Bahl, Neha; Ho, Ken K Y; Birzniece, Vita

    2017-04-01

    The urea cycle is a rate-limiting step for amino acid nitrogen elimination. The rate of urea synthesis is a true indicator of whole-body protein catabolism. Testosterone reduces protein and nitrogen loss. The effect of testosterone on hepatic urea synthesis in humans has not been studied. To determine whether testosterone reduces hepatic urea production. An open-label study. Eight hypogonadal men were studied at baseline, and after two weeks of transdermal testosterone replacement (Testogel, 100 mg/day). The rate of hepatic urea synthesis was measured by the urea turnover technique using stable isotope methodology, with 15 N 2 -urea as tracer. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were calculated. Testosterone administration significantly reduced the rate of hepatic urea production (from 544.4 ± 71.8 to 431.7 ± 68.3 µmol/min; P  Testosterone treatment significantly reduced net protein loss, as measured by percent Lox/LRa, by 19.3 ± 5.8% ( P  testosterone administration ( r 2  = 0.59, P  Testosterone replacement reduces protein loss and hepatic urea synthesis. We conclude that testosterone regulates whole-body protein metabolism by suppressing the urea cycle. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  12. Winter-catastrophies in the reindeer husbandry of Finland: Losses and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Helle

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurreance of disastrous winters to the reindeer industry in Finland with special attention on the winter catastrophies and tje condition of the pastures, the influence of the disasters upon the population dynamic of the reindeer and the methods used to prevent catastrophies. A reindeer catastrophy has been defined as a situation where the number of reindeer stays 20% below the mean of the reindeer numbers during the two preceeding years. During the winter-catastrophies from 1970/71 to 1980/81 4.5% of the total reindeer number was lost. The highest losses were found in the northwesternmost part of Lappland, where there is no alternative to the reindeer lichen as it is in the middle and southern part of the reindeer industry area (arboreal lichens and supplemental feeding. In Kaldoaivi reindeer association (district, which has been studied in detail, the calf percentage is depending upon how the reindeer is able to manage the winter (r=0.62, n=ll, p«0.05. There is also a positive correlation between the slaughterweight of the calves in the early winter and the calf rate (r=0.79, n=7, p«0.05.During severe winters the mortality rate of males exceeds that of the females. Winter-catastrophies may be prevented by deminishing the numer of reindeer and by guiding the harvest to the most risky cohorts of the population. It has been proved that supplementary and emergency feeding are the most effective methods. In a normal year during the 1970s the total use of dry hay was 0.5—1.5 mill, kg., being up to 5.9—12.5 kg. per reindeer/year. In normal winters 10—16% of the total reindeer stock was intensively fed in enclosures. Supplementary feeding in enclosures is most common in the middle and southern parts of the reindeer industry area, where the essential feed is grown on own land.Katotalvet suomen poronhoidossa: menetykset ja Niiden Torjunta.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Artikkeli käsittelee katastrofitalvien

  13. Soil moisture and excavation behaviour in the Chaco leaf-cutting ant (Atta vollenweideri: digging performance and prevention of water inflow into the nest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Pielström

    Full Text Available The Chaco leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is native to the clay-heavy soils of the Gran Chaco region in South America. Because of seasonal floods, colonies are regularly exposed to varying moisture across the soil profile, a factor that not only strongly influences workers' digging performance during nest building, but also determines the suitability of the soil for the rearing of the colony's symbiotic fungus. In this study, we investigated the effects of varying soil moisture on behaviours associated with underground nest building in A. vollenweideri. This was done in a series of laboratory experiments using standardised, plastic clay-water mixtures with gravimetric water contents ranging from relatively brittle material to mixtures close to the liquid limit. Our experiments showed that preference and group-level digging rate increased with increasing water content, but then dropped considerably for extremely moist materials. The production of vibrational recruitment signals during digging showed, on the contrary, a slightly negative linear correlation with soil moisture. Workers formed and carried clay pellets at higher rates in moist clay, even at the highest water content tested. Hence, their weak preference and low group-level excavation rate observed for that mixture cannot be explained by any inability to work with the material. More likely, extremely high moistures may indicate locations unsuitable for nest building. To test this hypothesis, we simulated a situation in which workers excavated an upward tunnel below accumulated surface water. The ants stopped digging about 12 mm below the interface soil/water, a behaviour representing a possible adaptation to the threat of water inflow field colonies are exposed to while digging under seasonally flooded soils. Possible roles of soil water in the temporal and spatial pattern of nest growth are discussed.

  14. Soil Moisture and Excavation Behaviour in the Chaco Leaf-Cutting Ant (Atta vollenweideri): Digging Performance and Prevention of Water Inflow into the Nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielström, Steffen; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    The Chaco leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is native to the clay-heavy soils of the Gran Chaco region in South America. Because of seasonal floods, colonies are regularly exposed to varying moisture across the soil profile, a factor that not only strongly influences workers' digging performance during nest building, but also determines the suitability of the soil for the rearing of the colony's symbiotic fungus. In this study, we investigated the effects of varying soil moisture on behaviours associated with underground nest building in A. vollenweideri. This was done in a series of laboratory experiments using standardised, plastic clay-water mixtures with gravimetric water contents ranging from relatively brittle material to mixtures close to the liquid limit. Our experiments showed that preference and group-level digging rate increased with increasing water content, but then dropped considerably for extremely moist materials. The production of vibrational recruitment signals during digging showed, on the contrary, a slightly negative linear correlation with soil moisture. Workers formed and carried clay pellets at higher rates in moist clay, even at the highest water content tested. Hence, their weak preference and low group-level excavation rate observed for that mixture cannot be explained by any inability to work with the material. More likely, extremely high moistures may indicate locations unsuitable for nest building. To test this hypothesis, we simulated a situation in which workers excavated an upward tunnel below accumulated surface water. The ants stopped digging about 12 mm below the interface soil/water, a behaviour representing a possible adaptation to the threat of water inflow field colonies are exposed to while digging under seasonally flooded soils. Possible roles of soil water in the temporal and spatial pattern of nest growth are discussed. PMID:24748382

  15. Effectiveness of videos improving cancer prevention knowledge in people with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W

    2012-06-01

    Deaf persons have a poorer understanding of cancer prevention, which is felt to be partly due to communication barriers. One hundred ninety-seven d/Deaf persons completed a survey and video on cancer prevention. Half viewed a spoken English program designed for hearing persons (control group); the other half viewed an amended program that had American Sign Language, captions, and printed English options added (experimental group). Knowledge was measured before and after the video, including 1 and 6 months later. Respondents were primarily Caucasian, had low incomes, lost hearing at young ages, and had d/Deaf spouses. Although overall knowledge improved after viewing the video, the presence of culture-specific communications (American Sign Language, captions) did not improve scores compared to the control group, either immediately after the intervention or over time. Moreover, percentage correct on all pretest, and almost all post-test, questions was <50% for both experimental and control groups. For all subjects, regardless of which group they were in, a hearing spouse (p  < 0.001) and more healthcare information sources (p = 0.001) improved knowledge, while African-Americans showed a trend to lesser improvement (p = 0.06). Using culture-specific language did not improve cancer prevention knowledge in this d/Deaf population, and overall knowledge remained low. More study is needed to determine the best way to increase cancer prevention knowledge in this population.

  16. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment Increases Bone Formation and Prevents Bone Loss in Weight-Reduced Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie R; Hartmann, Bolette; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten; Torekov, Signe S

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss-induced bone mass reduction. Randomized control study. Outpatient research hospital clinic. Thirty-seven healthy obese women with body mass index of 34 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) and age 46 ± 2 years. After a low-calorie-diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2 mg/d) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be replaced with a low-calorie-diet product to maintain the weight loss. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone markers [C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] were investigated before and after weight loss and after 52-week weight maintenance. Primary endpoints were changes in BMC and bone markers after 52-week weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance in the control group (P GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low-calorie diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent.

  17. Bee venom ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced memory loss by preventing NF-kappaB pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Sun Mi; Park, Mi Hee; Hwang, Chul Ju; Song, Ho Sueb; Lee, Ung Soo; Han, Sang Bae; Oh, Ki Wan; Ham, Young Wan; Song, Min Jong; Son, Dong Ju; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulation of beta-amyloid and neuroinflammation trigger Alzheimer?s disease. We previously found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused neuroinflammation with concomitant accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides leading to memory loss. A variety of anti-inflammatory compounds inhibiting nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B) activation have showed efficacy to hinder neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis. We also found that bee venom (BV) inhibits NF-?B. Methods A mouse model of LPS-induced me...

  18. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistance Training Prevents Muscle Loss Induced by Caloric Restriction in Obese Elderly Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V. Sardeli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear as to what extent resistance training (RT can attenuate muscle loss during caloric restriction (CR interventions in humans. The objective here is to address if RT could attenuate muscle loss induced by CR in obese elderly individuals, through summarized effects of previous studies. Databases MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were used to perform a systematic search between July and August 2017. Were included in the review randomized clinical trials (RCT comparing the effects of CR with (CRRT or without RT on lean body mass (LBM, fat body mass (FBM, and total body mass (BM, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, on obese elderly individuals. The six RCTs included in the review applied RT three times per week, for 12 to 24 weeks, and most CR interventions followed diets of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 30% fat. RT reduced 93.5% of CR-induced LBM loss (0.819 kg [0.364 to 1.273], with similar reduction in FBM and BM, compared with CR. Furthermore, to address muscle quality, the change in strength/LBM ratio tended to be different (p = 0.07 following CRRT (20.9 ± 23.1% and CR interventions (−7.5 ± 9.9%. Our conclusion is that CRRT is able to prevent almost 100% of CR-induced muscle loss, while resulting in FBM and BM reductions that do not significantly differ from CR.

  20. Choice of an Infusion Agent for the Prevention of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Acute Massive Blood Loss (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Yakovlev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform an experimental study of the effect of sterofundin isotonic on the biochemical parameters characterizing the degree of organ injury after acute massive blood loss (AMBL. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out on 36 male Wistar rats weighing 230—250 g. Hemorrhagic stroke was simulated via AMBL in a volume of 2.5 ml/100 g at a rate of 2 ml/min. An hour after AMBL, there was hypovolemia compensation within 60 minutes in a volume of 200% of the blood loss: by Ringer’s solution in a control group and by sterofundin isotonic in an experimental group. Then blood reinfu-sion was made in a volume of 70% of blood loss. The biochemical parameters of multiple organ dysfunction (glucose, lactate, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total protein, albumin, enzymemia (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, endotoxemia (low- and medium-molecular-weight substances in the plasma and erythrocytes, acid-base condition, electrolytes of venous blood, and animal survival were determined on days 1 and 3 following AMBL. Results. There was a reduction in the time and degree of posthemorrhagic metabolic, biochemical, and electrolyte disorders, enzymemia, and endotoxemia in the experimental animals. Conclusion. The experimental studies suggest that Ringer’s solution is inadequately effective in preventing multiple organ dysfunction due to AMBL. The malate-containing blood substitute sterofundin isotonic that is used during early therapy for AMBL exerts a marked preventive effect on the development of visceral organ injuries when multiple organ dysfunction occurs in the early and late posthemorrhagic period. The experimental findings make it possible to recommend that sterofundin isotonic should be used in intensive care of hypovolemic shock arising from AMBL. Key words: acute massive blood loss, malate, sterofun dinisotonic, lactate, endotoxemia, multiple organ

  1. Melanin precursors prevent premature age-related and noise-induced hearing loss in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Contreras, Julio; Zurita, Esther; Cediel, Rafael; Cantero, Marta; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Montoliu, Lluís

    2010-02-01

    Strial melanocytes are required for normal development and correct functioning of the cochlea. Hearing deficits have been reported in albino individuals from different species, although melanin appears to be not essential for normal auditory function. We have analyzed the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) of two transgenic mice: YRT2, carrying the entire mouse tyrosinase (Tyr) gene expression-domain and undistinguishable from wild-type pigmented animals; and TyrTH, non-pigmented but ectopically expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in melanocytes, which generate the precursor metabolite, L-DOPA, but not melanin. We show that young albino mice present a higher prevalence of profound sensorineural deafness and a poorer recovery of auditory thresholds after noise-exposure than transgenic mice. Hearing loss was associated with absence of cochlear melanin or its precursor metabolites and latencies of the central auditory pathway were unaltered. In summary, albino mice show impaired hearing responses during ageing and after noise damage when compared to YRT2 and TyrTH transgenic mice, which do not show the albino-associated ABR alterations. These results demonstrate that melanin precursors, such as L-DOPA, have a protective role in the mammalian cochlea in age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.

  2. Applications of Solar Technology for Catastrophe Response, Claims Management, and Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deering, A.; Thornton, J.P.

    1999-02-17

    Today's insurance industry strongly emphasizes developing cost-effective hazard mitigation programs, increasing and retaining commercial and residential customers through better service, educating customers on their exposure and vulnerabilities to natural disasters, collaborating with government agencies and emergency management organizations, and exploring the use of new technologies to reduce the financial impact of disasters. In June of 1998, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the National Association of Independent Insurers (NAII) sponsored a seminar titled, ''Solar Technology and the Insurance Industry.'' Presentations were made by insurance company representatives, insurance trade groups, government and state emergency management organizations, and technology specialists. The meeting was attended by insurers, brokers, emergency managers, and consultants from more than 25 US companies. Leading insurers from the personal line and commercial carriers were shown how solar technology can be used in underwriting, claims, catastrophe response, loss control, and risk management. Attendees requested a follow-up report on solar technology, cost, and applications in disasters, including suggestions on how to collaborate with the utility industry and how to develop educational programs for business and consumers. This report will address these issues, with an emphasis on pre-disaster planning and mitigation alternatives. It will also discuss how energy efficiency and renewable technologies can contribute to reducing insurance losses.

  3. Memory enhancing drugs and Alzheimer's disease: enhancing the self or preventing the loss of it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Wim; Rikkert, Marcel Olde

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we analyse some ethical and philosophical questions related to the development of memory enhancing drugs (MEDs) and anti-dementia drugs. The world of memory enhancement is coloured by utopian thinking and by the desire for quicker, sharper, and more reliable memories. Dementia is characterized by decline, fragility, vulnerability, a loss of the most important cognitive functions and even a loss of self. While MEDs are being developed for self-improvement, in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) the self is being lost. Despite this it is precisely those patients with AD and other forms of dementia that provide the subjects for scientific research on memory improvement. Biomedical research in the field of MEDs and anti-dementia drugs appears to provide a strong impetus for rethinking what we mean by 'memory', 'enhancement', 'therapy', and 'self'. We conclude (1) that the enhancement of memory is still in its infancy, (2) that current MEDs and anti-dementia drugs are at best partially and minimally effective under specific conditions, (3) that 'memory' and 'enhancement' are ambiguous terms, (4) that there is no clear-cut distinction between enhancement and therapy, and (5) that the research into MEDs and anti-dementia drugs encourages a reductionistic view of the human mind and of the self.

  4. Noise-induced hearing loss prevention in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available prevention © CSIR 2010 Slide 5 Introduction • Mining industry • use of drilling and rock breaking equipment results in widespread exposure to high levels of noise • USA • 80% of miners exposed above OEL • USA coal miners • stage loaders = 82-103d....4-104.9 dBA • Target: by December 2013 total noise emitted by all equipment not exceed 110 dBA • MHSC baseline project © CSIR 2010 Slide 7 Methodology • Multi-task research design • Adapted from Concawe Health Management Group - gasoline vapour...

  5. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  6. Personal listening devices and the prevention of noise induced hearing loss in children: The cheers for ears pilot program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunay Schmulian Taljaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the Cheers for Ears Program on noise induced hearing loss prevention was effective in improving current knowledge of noise impact of personal listening devices on hearing, and in changing self-reported listening behavior of primary school students aged between 9 years and 13 years. A survey study was implemented at participating primary schools. Schools represented various levels of socio-economic status. Informed consent (parents and teachers and informed assent (pupils were obtained. All pupils participated in two interactive sessions (the second 6 weeks after first and only those who provided assent and consent were surveyed at three points during the study: Prior to the first session (baseline, directly post-session and at 3 months post-session. A total of 318 pupils were surveyed. The median age of the participants was 11 years (nearly 50% of the total cohort. Significant changes are reported in their knowledge about hearing and in listening behavior of the participants as measured by pre- and post-measurement. The changes in behaviors were stable and sustained at 3 months post-intervention survey point and the success of the program can be attributed to the multimodal interactive nature of the sessions, the spacing of the sessions and the survey points. Wide-ranging support from schools and departments also played a role. The pilot Cheers for Ears Program is effective in increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of noise and therefore, it may prevent future noise-induced hearing loss.

  7. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-11

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  8. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Spilmont

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  9. Iguratimod prevents ovariectomy‑induced bone loss and suppresses osteoclastogenesis via inhibition of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Xing; Sun, Yue; Ye, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jia-Chao; Huang, Jun-Ming; Jing, Xing-Zhi; Xiang, Wei; Yu, Shi-Ying; Guo, Feng-Jing

    2017-12-01

    Iguratimod is known for its anti‑inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It has previously been demonstrated that iguratimod attenuates bone destruction and osteoclast formation in the Walker 256 rat mammary gland carcinoma cell‑induced bone cancer pain model. Therefore, it was hypothesized that iguratimod may additionally exhibit therapeutic effects on benign osteoclast‑associated diseases including postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the present study, ovariectomized mice were used to investigate the effects of iguratimod in vivo. Bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured to detect the effects of iguratimod on receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand (RANKL)‑induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and the molecular mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated that iguratimod may prevent ovariectomy‑induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity in vivo. Consistently, iguratimod may inhibit RANKL‑induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in primary bone marrow mononuclear cells. At the molecular level, peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPAR‑γ)/c‑Fos pathway, which is essential in RANKL‑induced osteoclast differentiation, was suppressed by iguratimod. Subsequently, iguratimod decreased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 and downstream osteoclast marker genes. The results of the present study demonstrated that iguratimod may inhibit ovariectomy‑induced bone loss and osteoclastogenesis by modulating RANKL signaling. Therefore, iguratimod may act as a novel therapeutic to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Randomized trial of four noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus prevention interventions for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William Hal; Griest, Susan E; Sobel, Judith L; Howarth, Linda C

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of four NIHL prevention interventions at improving knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors regarding sound exposure and appropriate use of hearing protective strategies in children. A randomized trial of the four interventions with a non-intervention comparison group. Questionnaires were completed prior to, immediately after, and three months after each intervention. Interventions included: (1) A classroom presentation by older-peer educators, (2) A classroom presentation by health professionals, (3). Exploration of a museum exhibition, and (4). Exploration of an internet-based virtual museum. A comparison group received no intervention. Fifty-three fourth grade classrooms (1120 students) participated in the study. All interventions produced significant improvements but the number of improvements decreased over time. In terms of effectiveness, the classroom programs were more effective than the internet-based virtual exhibit, which was more effective than the visit to the museum exhibition. Self-reported exposures indicated that as many as 94.5% of participants were at risk for NIHL. Interpersonal, interactive educational interventions such as the classroom program are more effective and have longer impact than self-directed learning experiences for NIHL and tinnitus prevention, however each may have an important role in promoting hearing health in elementary school students.

  11. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  12. REV-ERBs agonism suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss partially via FABP4 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Wei; Dong, Yonghui; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Huiyong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Feng

    2018-01-22

    REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are transcription repressors and circadian regulators. Previous investigations have shown that REV-ERBs repress the expression of target genes, including MMP9 and CX3CR1, in macrophages. Because MMP9 and CX3CR1 reportedly participate in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis, we inferred that REV-ERBs might play a role in osteoclastogenesis. In the present study, we found that the REV-ERBα level decreased significantly during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). REV-ERBα knockdown by small interfering RNA in BMMs resulted in the enhanced formation of osteoclasts, whereas REV-ERBβ knockdown showed no effect on osteoclast differentiation. Moreover, the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Intraperitoneal SR9009 administration prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss; this effect was accompanied by decreased serum RANKL and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen levels and increased osteoprotegerin levels. Further investigation revealed that NF-κB and MAPK activation and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1, and c-fos expression were suppressed by SR9009. The level of reactive oxygen species was also decreased by SR9009, with NADPH oxidase subunits also being down-regulated. In addition, an expression microarray showed that FABP4, an intracellular lipid-binding protein, was up-regulated by REV-ERB agonism. BMS309403, an inhibitor of FABP4, partially prevented the suppression of osteoclastogenesis by SR9009 through stabilizing phosphorylation of p65. To summarize, our results proved that the REV-ERB agonism inhibited osteoclastogenesis partially via FABP4 up-regulation.-Song, C., Tan, P., Zhang, Z., Wu, W., Dong, Y., Zhao, L., Liu, H., Guan, H., Li, F. REV-ERBs agonism suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss partially via FABP4 upregulation.

  13. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  14. Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Hansen, B; Lee, B S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review the literature on non-pharmacological prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. All identified papers were read by title, abstract and full-length article when...... and outcome measures that could be improved. Five studies on weight-bearing early post-injury are conflicting, but standing or walking may help retain bone mineral. In the chronic phase, there was no effect of weight bearing (12 studies). One study found that an early commencement of sports after SCI improved...... bone mineral, and the longer the period of athletic career, the higher the (leg) bone mineral. Early after SCI, there may be some effects of electrical stimulation (ES) (five studies). Chronic-phase ES studies vary (14 studies, including mixed periods after injury), but improvement is seen with longer...

  15. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Laura M.; Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle interv...

  16. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control remains the leading contributor to aviation accident fatalities, with stall upsets being the leading causal factor. The February 12, 2009. Colgan Air, Inc., Continental Express flight 3407 accident outside Buffalo, New York, brought this issue to the forefront of public consciousness and resulted in recommendations from the National Transportation Safety Board to conduct training that incorporates stalls that are fully developed and develop simulator standards to support such training. In 2010, Congress responded to this accident with Public Law 11-216 (Section 208), which mandates full stall training for Part 121 flight operations. Efforts are currently in progress to develop recommendations on implementation of stall training for airline pilots. The International Committee on Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE) is currently defining simulator fidelity standards that will be necessary for effective stall training. These recommendations will apply to all civil transport aircraft including straight-wing turboprop aircraft. Government-funded research over the previous decade provides a strong foundation for stall/post-stall simulation for swept-wing, conventional tail jets to respond to this mandate, but turboprops present additional and unique modeling challenges. First among these challenges is the effect of power, which can provide enhanced flow attachment behind the propellers. Furthermore, turboprops tend to operate for longer periods in an environment more susceptible to ice. As a result, there have been a significant number of turboprop accidents as a result of the early (lower angle of attack) stalls in icing. The vulnerability of turboprop configurations to icing has led to studies on ice accumulation and the resulting effects on flight behavior. Piloted simulations of these effects have highlighted the important training needs for recognition and mitigation of icing effects, including the reduction of stall margins

  17. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  18. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  19. Evaluation in a Dog Model of Three Antimicrobial Glassy Coatings: Prevention of Bone Loss around Implants and Microbial Assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López-Píriz

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate, in a ligature-induced peri-implantitis model, the efficacy of three antimicrobial glassy coatings in the prevention of biofilm formation, intrasulcular bacterial growth and the resulting peri-implant bone loss.Mandibular premolars were bilaterally extracted from five beagle dogs. Four dental implants were inserted on each hemiarch. Eight weeks after, one control zirconia abutment and three with different bactericidal coatings (G1n-Ag, ZnO35, G3 were connected. After a plaque control period, bacterial accumulation was allowed and biofilm formation on abutments was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Peri-implantitis was induced by cotton ligatures. Microbial samples and peri-implant crestal bone levels of all implant sites were obtained before, during and after the breakdown period.During experimental induce peri-implantitis: colony forming units counts from intrasulcular microbial samples at implants with G1n-Ag coated abutment remained close to the basal inoculum; G3 and ZnO35 coatings showed similar low counts; and anaerobic bacterias counts at control abutments exhibited a logarithmic increase by more than 2. Bone loss during passive breakdown period was no statistically significant. Additional bone loss occurred during ligature-induce breakdown: 0.71 (SD 0.48 at G3 coating, 0.57 (SD 0.36 at ZnO35 coating, 0.74 (SD 0.47 at G1n-Ag coating, and 1.29 (SD 0.45 at control abutments; and statistically significant differences (p<0.001 were found. The lowest bone loss at the end of the experiment was exhibited by implants dressing G3 coated abutments (mean 2.1; SD 0.42.Antimicrobial glassy coatings could be a useful tool to ward off, diminish or delay peri-implantitis progression.

  20. GIS Approach for Preventive Evaluation of Roads Loss of Efficiency in Hydrogeological Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiameli, M.; Mussumeci, G.

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the simulation of hydrogeological risk with GIS technology is analyzed with focus on the modeling of the architecture of a Spatial Data Base to support risk analysis and on the construction of a specialized frame with free and open source software. For this purpose a model of analysis of the vulnerability of roads developed by (Cafiso et al., 2002) has been adopted. The case of study is represented by a seismic land characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. In detail, the area of interest is a mountainous land in Sicily with a city, Enna (about 30 000 people), that lies on the top. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads which are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. The loss of efficiency of these roads for exceptional rainfall events should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been implemented in the specialized GIS appositely constructed in order to forecast the possible damage to roads and the results of some simulations have been related to the effects registered after some extreme events, obtaining useful indications for the validation of the approach.

  1. Naringin prevents bone loss in a rat model of type 1 Diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoira, M; Rodríguez, V; Picotto, G; Battaglino, R; Tolosa de Talamoni, N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to know whether naringin (NA) could prevent the bone complications in a model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Rats were divided in: 1) controls, 2) STZ-rats, 3) STZ-rats treated with 40 mg NA/kg, and 4) STZ-rats treated with 80 mg NA/kg. BMD and BMC were performed by DEXA. Bone histomorphometry and histology as well as TRAP staining were done in tibia. Osteocalcin (OCN) was determined in bone and serum. Glutathione content and SOD and catalase activities were assayed in bone marrow from femur. The data showed that NA80 increased the BMD and BMC from the long bones of STZ-rats. Both NA40 and NA80 normalized the trabecular number and the trabecular separations. An increase in the number of adipocytes and TRAP(+) cells in tibia from STZ-rats was blocked by NA. NA40 treatment increased the number of OCN(+) cells, but only the NA80 treatment allowed to reach the control values. NA normalized the SOD and catalase activities in bone marrow of femur from STZ-rats. In conclusion, NA avoids alterations in the physical properties and microstructure of bone from STZ-rats probably by stimulation of osteoblastogenesis, inhibition of the osteoclastogenesis and adipogenesis via blocking the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Branch migration prevents DNA loss during double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S P Mawer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The repair of DNA double-strand breaks must be accurate to avoid genomic rearrangements that can lead to cell death and disease. This can be accomplished by promoting homologous recombination between correctly aligned sister chromosomes. Here, using a unique system for generating a site-specific DNA double-strand break in one copy of two replicating Escherichia coli sister chromosomes, we analyse the intermediates of sister-sister double-strand break repair. Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, we show that when double-strand breaks are formed in the absence of RuvAB, 4-way DNA (Holliday junctions are accumulated in a RecG-dependent manner, arguing against the long-standing view that the redundancy of RuvAB and RecG is in the resolution of Holliday junctions. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we explain the redundancy by showing that branch migration catalysed by RuvAB and RecG is required for stabilising the intermediates of repair as, when branch migration cannot take place, repair is aborted and DNA is lost at the break locus. We demonstrate that in the repair of correctly aligned sister chromosomes, an unstable early intermediate is stabilised by branch migration. This reliance on branch migration may have evolved to help promote recombination between correctly aligned sister chromosomes to prevent genomic rearrangements.

  3. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  4. Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol. Periodontitis is induced by oral pathogens, where a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress is the major event initiating disease. We investigated how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). We also explored whether resveratrol protects rats against alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced around the first upper molar of the rats by applying ligature infused with LPS. Stimulating hGFs with 5μg/ml LPS augmented the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and Toll-like receptor-4. LPS treatment also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of several protein kinases in the cells. However, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) was inhibited by the addition of LPS. Resveratrol treatment almost completely inhibited all of these changes in LPS-stimulated cells. Specifically, resveratrol alone augmented HO-1 induction via Nrf2-mediated signaling. Histological and micro-CT analyses revealed that administration of resveratrol (5mg/kg body weight) improved ligature/LPS-mediated alveolar bone loss in rats. Resveratrol also attenuated the production of inflammation-related proteins, the formation of osteoclasts, and the production of circulating ROS in periodontitis rats. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed LPS-mediated decreases in HO-1 and Nrf2 levels in the inflamed periodontal tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol protects rats from periodontitic tissue damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses and by stimulating antioxidant defense systems. The aims of this study were to investigate how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in

  5. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  6. Combat, prevention and optimization of commercial losses of power energy; Combate, prevencao e otimizacao das perdas comerciais da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Carlos Alexandre de Sousa

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the problem of NTL using a wide approach, analyze the experience of dealerships in Brazil and abroad, discuss the best practices for mitigation of those losses and propose improvements in the combat and prevention processes, and the legal procedures for recovery of incomes, leaning on a careful regulatory context. This study draws attention to Brazil's socioeconomic diversity, comparing it to various international examples, and intends to identify the most relevant aspects that must be considered on the theme, discussing procedures and methodologies for the equation of the amount of resources to be applied by distributing companies to achieve the appropriate reduction of NTL. (author)

  7. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  8. Preventing Excessive Blood Loss During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy by Using Tranexamic Acid: A Double Blinded Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Siddiq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is most frequently performed procedure for renal stones 2 cm and larger. Perioperative hemorrhage being most common complication, warrants as important predicting factor of adverse outcomes. Prevention with inexpensive and safe drug like tranexamic acid (TA would ultimately turn out to be cornerstone for establishing future guidelines. Aim of this study is to evaluate whether TA is efficacious in preventing blood loss during PCNL. Materials and Methods: Ethical review board approval taken. Sample size calculation yielded 240 patients, comprising 120 in each group. Group A receiving TA and group B receiving placebo. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI, stone size, volume and location, preoperative blood count, creatinine, urine analysis, coagulation profile and necessary radiological investigations done. Randomization through lottery method. Both patient and investigator were blinded. Hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels done at 24 hours postoperatively and fall in values recorded. Results: Both groups were equal in characteristics like age, gender, BMI, stone size, volume and location (p>0.05. Operative variables like calyx punctured, position of puncture and operative time were also found to be similar in both groups. Median change in Hb in placebo group was 1.6 interquartile range (IQR 4, while in TA group was 1.3 (IQR 7.8 (p=0.001. Similarly, median change in Hct level in placebo group was 3.6 (IQR 11.8 and in TA group was 2.4 (IQR 13 (p<0.001. Sixteen patients were transfused after surgery; 12 (75% belonged to placebo group while 4 (25% belonged to TA group (p=0.038. Hospital stay was not significantly different in both groups (p=0.177 with median of 4.0 and IQR of 0 in both groups. Conclusion: TA during PCNL reduces blood loss and minimizes blood transfusion rate.

  9. The normal increase in insulin after a meal may be required to prevent postprandial renal sodium and volume losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsik, Debra L; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L; Staruschenko, Alexander; Brands, Michael W

    2017-06-01

    Despite the effects of insulinopenia in type 1 diabetes and evidence that insulin stimulates multiple renal sodium transporters, it is not known whether normal variation in plasma insulin regulates sodium homeostasis physiologically. This study tested whether the normal postprandial increase in plasma insulin significantly attenuates renal sodium and volume losses. Rats were instrumented with chronic artery and vein catheters, housed in metabolic cages, and connected to hydraulic swivels. Measurements of urine volume and sodium excretion (UNaV) over 24 h and the 4-h postprandial period were made in control (C) rats and insulin-clamped (IC) rats in which the postprandial increase in insulin was prevented. Twenty-four-hour urine volume (36 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2 ml/day) and UNaV (3.0 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 mmol/day) were greater in the IC compared with C rats, respectively. Four hours after rats were given a gel meal, blood glucose and urine volume were greater in IC rats, but UNaV decreased. To simulate a meal while controlling blood glucose, C and IC rats received a glucose bolus that yielded peak increases in blood glucose that were not different between groups. Urine volume (9.7 ± 0.7 vs. 6.0 ± 0.8 ml/4 h) and UNaV (0.50 ± 0.08 vs. 0.20 ± 0.06 mmol/4 h) were greater in the IC vs. C rats, respectively, over the 4-h test. These data demonstrate that the normal increase in circulating insulin in response to hyperglycemia may be required to prevent excessive renal sodium and volume losses and suggest that insulin may be a physiological regulator of sodium balance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  11. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen; Chen, Fulin

    2013-05-03

    Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Partial prevention of long-term femoral bone loss in aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomme, M; Geusens, P; Demeester, N; Behets, G J; D'Haese, P; Sindambiwe, J B; Van Hoof, V; Vanden Berghe, D

    2006-04-01

    Silicon (Si) deficiency in animals results in bone defects. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) was found to have a high bioavailability compared to other Si supplements. The effect of ch-OSA supplementation was investigated on bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 58, age 9 months) were randomized in three groups. One group was sham-operated (sham, n = 21), and bilateral OVX was performed in the other two groups. OVX rats were supplemented orally with ch-OSA over 30 weeks (OVX1, n = 20; 1 mg Si/kg body weight daily) or used as controls (OVX0, n = 17). The serum Si concentration and the 24-hour urinary Si excretion of supplemented OVX rats was significantly higher compared to sham and OVX controls. Supplementation with ch-OSA significantly but partially reversed the decrease in Ca excretion, which was observed after OVX. The increase in bone turnover in OVX rats tended to be reduced by ch-OSA supplementation. ch-OSA supplementation increased significantly the femoral bone mineral content (BMC) in the distal region and total femoral BMC in OVX rats, whereas lumbar BMC was marginally increased. Femoral BMD was significantly increased at two sites in the distal region in OVX rats supplemented with ch-OSA compared to OVX controls. Total lumbar bone mineral density was marginally increased by ch-OSA supplementation. In conclusion, ch-OSA supplementation partially prevents femoral bone loss in the aged OVX rat model.

  13. Evaluation of vaccination with Neospora caninum protein for prevention of fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Tuo, Wenbin; Dubey, J P

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the immunologic response of a killed tachyzoite vaccine against Neospora caninum and its effectiveness in preventing fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep. 30 Dorset ewes. Ewes were randomly allocated to receive vaccination on days 1 and 60 of the study with a killed N caninum tachyzoite preparation in a commercially available adjuvant or a saline-adjuvant mixture. A ram was placed on pasture with the ewes from days 15 to 60. Blood was collected from ewes before primary and booster vaccinations and prior to experimental challenge with N caninum tachyzoite performed on day 90; sera were assessed via Neospora agglutination (NA) and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assays. Blood was collected from lambs before they suckled, and sera were tested for antibodies against N caninum. Of the 14 vaccinated ewes that became pregnant, 12 gave birth to live-born lambs; in contrast, 5 of 11 pregnant control ewes gave birth to live-born lambs. Whereas vaccination improved fetal survival in pregnant ewes challenged with N caninum tachyzoites, it did not appear to have any appreciable effect on transmission of N caninum to offspring, as indicated by results of NA and IFA assays. The N caninum tachyzoite vaccine used in this study appeared to provide protection against fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in a high proportion of pregnant ewes.

  14. Challenges in measuring moisture content of feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiex, N; Richardson, C R

    2003-12-01

    Accurate determination of the moisture (water) content in individual feed ingredients and mixed feeds is critical throughout the feed industry. Most analytical methods used to determine apparent water content of feedstuffs are empirical, estimating water by evaporation and loss of weight on drying (oven drying methods). These methods differ greatly in effectiveness, resulting in bias. Bias associated with measuring the water content of feedstuffs is a concern not only because of the lack of confidence in the moisture value itself, but also because moisture determinations affect accurate quantification and expression of other nutrient values. Methods for determining moisture in feeds have frequently been borrowed from the cereal, forage, or other applications without validating the extension of the method. Methods such as Karl Fischer titration measure water by direct comparison to a calibration standard for water and can be used as reference methods for the evaluation of empirical methods. The objective of this paper is to review methods for determining moisture, review comparisons among moisture methods for various feedstuffs, make recommendations for a reference method, and make general recommendations toward improving the results of moisture testing. The need to evaluate and improve moisture methods and standardize practices in laboratories is evident from this study. It also is evident that the methods appropriate for a specific feed ingredient or feed should not be extended to all feeds without proper validation to the new matrices. Part of the validation for empirical methods should be comparison to Karl Fischer or other the direct methods. It also is recommended that the results obtained using oven methods not be termed "moisture;" rather, they should be termed "loss on drying," and the drying conditions should become part of the term.

  15. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  16. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee eWong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age‐related increases in intraocular pressure, retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 ‐12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo‐spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the sensory impairment hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic‐XE, 0.00, 0.25 or 0.50% daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50% maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00% exhibited impaired performance in visually‐dependent, but not non‐visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  17. Potassium citrate prevents increased osteoclastogenesis resulting from acidic conditions: Implication for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    Full Text Available The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells. OC and OB were maintained in neutral (pH 7.4 versus acidic (pH 6.9 culture medium, and treated with different K citrate concentrations. We evaluated the OC differentiation at seven days, by counting of multinucleated cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the activity of mature OC at 14 days, by quantifying of collagen degradation. To evaluate the effects on OB, we analyzed proliferation, mineralization, and expression of bone-related genes. We found that the low pH increased OC differentiation and activity and decreased OB function. The osteoclastogenesis was also promoted by RANKL concentrations ineffective at pH 7.4. Non-cytotoxic K citrate concentrations were not sufficient to steadily neutralize the acidic medium, but a inhibited the osteoclastogenesis, the collagen degradation, and the expression of genes involved in RANKL-mediated OC differentiation, b enhanced OB proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas it did not affect the in vitro mineralization, and c were effective also in OC cultures resistant to alendronate, i.e. the positive control of osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In conclusion, K citrate prevents the increase in OC activity induced by the acidic microenvironment, and the effect does not depend exclusively on its alkalizing capacity. These data provide the biological basis for the use of K citrate in preventing the osteopenia progression resulting from low

  18. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taro; Yoneyama, Masanori; Onaka, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h), hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days), there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin ® , a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Literature Review on the Study of Moisture in Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    This literature review covers the main chemical and physical interactions between moisture and the polymer matrix. Fickian versus Non-Fickian diffusion behaviors are discussed in approximating the characteristics of moisture sorption. Also, bound water and free water sorbed in polymers are distinguished. Methods to distinguish between bound and free water include differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between moisture sorption and water sorption is considered, as well as the difficulties associated with preventing moisture sorption. Furthermore, specific examples of how moisture sorption influences polymers include natural fiber-polymer composites, starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics, and thermoset polyurethane and epoxies.

  20. Bcl-2 over-expression fails to prevent age-related loss of calretinin positive neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Mingbo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive performance declines with increasing age. Possible cellular mechanisms underlying this age-related functional decline remain incompletely understood. Early studies attributed this functional decline to age-related neuronal loss. Subsequent studies using unbiased stereological techniques found little or no neuronal loss during aging. However, studies using specific cellular markers found age-related loss of specific neuronal types. To test whether there is age-related loss of specific neuronal populations in the hippocampus, and subsequently, whether over-expression of the B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2 in these neurons could delay possible age-related neuronal loss, we examined calretinin (CR positive neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus during aging. Result In normal mice, there was an age-related loss of CR positive cells in the dentate gyrus. At the same region, there was no significant decrease of total numbers of neurons, which suggested that age-related loss of CR positive cells was due to the decrease of CR expression in these cells instead of cell death. In the transgenic mouse line over-expressing Bcl-2 in neurons, there was an age-related loss of CR positive cells. Interestingly, there was also an age-related neuronal loss in this transgenic mouse line. Conclusion These data suggest an age-related loss of CR positive neurons but not total neuronal loss in normal mice and this age-related neuronal change is not prevented by Bcl-2 over-expression.

  1. [Effect of timber moisture content and terrain conditions on the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-yong; Wang, Li-hai; Hou, Jie-jian; Ge, Xiao-wen

    2015-02-01

    Vast loss of timber resources can be reduced by preventing and controlling the decay of standing trees in forest management. Therefore, research concerning the effect of site conditions on decay of standing trees is particularly important for decay prevention and cure. A relevant study was carried out in Xiaoxing'anling Mountains on October, 2013, and thirty decayed and ten normal mature or postmature Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) live standing trees were selected as sample trees, respectively. Two increment core samples were selected from the basal trunk of each sample tree to measure the mass loss ratio of rotted increment core samples. Meanwhile, moisture content of the soil near sample trees' roots and the gradient, exposure, slope position and elevation of the site where sample trees located were tested or measured. Analysis was made upon the relationship between factors such as sapwood and heartwood moisture contents and the decay of sample trees by correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The results indicated that moisture content of the sapwood negatively correlated with the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees at a very significant level, so did the heartwood moisture content. Soil moisture content had a positive correlation with the decay degree at a highly significant level. Significant differences in the moisture contents of sapwood, heartwood and soils were observed between decayed and normal sample trees. Slope position was the only factor that had a significant effect on the decay degree among all the three slope factors. The decay degree of live standing trees on the middle part of slopes was significantly higher than that on the upper part of slope, mainly due to the significantly higher soil moisture content on the middle part of slope. Elevation of the site where sample trees located had no significant correlation with the decay degree of Korean pine.

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  3. Evidence for the prevention of bone loss in elderly and old early non-metastatic breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunmalm, V.; Jørgensen, N. R.; Abrahamsen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer amongst women worldwide. Bone health is emerging as an important issue for BC survivors. In this literature study, we focus on agents for preventing bone loss in early non-metastatic estrogen receptor positive BC in treatment with aromatase inhibitors...... (AI) and to assess the evidence for antiresorptive treatment of bone loss in early non-metastatic breast cancer. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's) comparing: (a) bisphosphonates and control; (b) different bisphosphonates; (c) denosumab and control and (d) bisphosphonates vs. denosumab...... in early non-metastatic BC women in AI treatment. Among antiresorptives, zoledronic acid currently has the highest evidence for prevention of AI associated bone loss in early non-metastatic BC. Data on fracture prevention among all patients, elderly and old is sparse. More randomized controlled studies...

  4. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  5. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  6. Bone loss during long term space flight is prevented by the application of a short term impulsive mechanical stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodship, A. E.; Cunningham, J. L.; Oganov, V.; Darling, J.; Miles, A. W.; Owen, G. W.

    In long term space flight, the mechanical forces applied to the skeleton are substantially reduced and are altered in character. This reduced skeletal loading results in a reduction in bone mass. Exercise techmques currently used in space can maintain muscle mass but the mechanical stimulus provided by this exercise does not prevent bone loss. By applying an external impulsive load for a short period each day, which is intended to mimic the heel strike transient, to the lower limb of an astronaut during a long term space flight (5 months), this study tests the hypothesis that the bone cells can be activated by an appropriate external mechanical stimulus to maintain bone mass throughout prolonged periods of weightlessness. A mechanical loading device was developed to produce a loading of the os-calcis similar to that observed during the heel strike transient. The device is activated by the astronaut to provide a transient load to the heel of one leg whilst providing an equivalent exercising load to the other leg. During the EUROMIR95 mission on the MIR space station, an astronaut used this device for a short period daily throughout the duration of the mission. Pre- and post-flight measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) of the os-calcis and femoral neck of the astronaut were made to determine the efficacy of the device in preventing loss of bone mineral during the mission. On the os-calcis which received the mechanical stimulus, BMD was maintained throughout the period of the flight, while it was reduced by up to 7% on the os-calcis which received no stimulus. Post-flight, BMD in both the stimulated and non-stimulated os-calcis reduces, the extent of this reduction however is less in the stimulated os-calcis. For the femoral neck, the mechanical Stimulation does not produce a positive effect. On the os-calcis which received the mechanical stimulus, BMD was maintained throughout the period of the flight, while it was reduced by up to 7% on the os-calcis which

  7. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  8. Lipoxin A4 suppresses osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changyu; Guan, Hanfeng; Cai, Cong; Li, Feng, E-mail: lifengmd@hust.edu.cn; Xiao, Jun, E-mail: jun_xiao@hust.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4; 5S, 6R, 15Strihydroxy- 7,9,13-trans-11-eicosatetraenoic acid) is a metabolic product of arachidonic acid under the action of lipoxidase. This lipid molecule plays important roles in several biological functions, especially inflammatory processes. In vivo, LXA4 regulates the inflammatory response through several signaling pathways. Its mechanism suggests that it might have an effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, it was here observed that LXA4 could significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts and these effects could be blocked by Boc-2, the specific inhibitor of FPR2/ALX (the receptor of LXA4). Meanwhile, LXA4 reduce the amount of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These protective effects was found to be associated with inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), PI3K-AKT, and p-38, ERK, and JNK in MAPKs. The expression of the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratio and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were decreased by LXA4. Moreover, LXA4 prevented the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (CK), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, RANK, and osteoclastic related transcription factors of c-Fos, NFATc1 could also be significantly inhibited by LXA4 in a dose-dependent manner. Studies have demonstrated that LXA4 can inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts through modulation of several pathways both upstream and downstream of RANKL signaling and FPR2/ALX was involved in the procedures. This shows that LXA4 may be used as a new strategy for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. - Highlights: • Lipoxin A4 can significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts. • Several pathways both upstream and downstream of RANKL signaling can be inhibit by Lipoxin A4. • Lipoxin A4 can

  9. Investigation and Determination of Corn Combine Harvester Losses to Introduce Appropriate Methods to Reduce Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Mostofi Sarkari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Corn harvesting involves some losses. These losses result in decreased benefits. It is almost impossible to lower losses to zero percent but it can be controlled in an acceptable level. As a result of this research, appropriate methods are introduced to decrease losses and reduce waste. In this project, losses in different part of combine were measured and evaluated according to the available standard method (ASAE S396.2 & S343.3. Harvesting losses include preharvest and during harvest losses comprising ear loss and kernal loss in the header, cylinder and cleaning losses. This project was conducted on farmers’ lands in Gazvin province. Some assessments related to yield factors were evaluated in different parts of farm with specified area, e.g. Plant height, ear number, stem diameter, ear diameter, cob diameter, row/ear and seed/row. All losses evaluated in three treatments which they were: seed moisture content (w.b. in three levels of 19%, 23% and 27%, ground speed in three levels of 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 ms-1 and cylinder speed of 400, 600 and 800 rpm. The split plot experimental design based on the randomised complete block design (RCBD was used to evaluate treatments. Measured losses compared with standard values to introduce the proper methods to decrease losses and proper adjustments. The results show that appropriate seed moisture content, cylinder and ground speed were 23%, 400 rpm and 1.2 ms-1, respectively. They had minimum total loss which WAS 1.55%, 2.65% and 2.34%, respectivily. The results also show that there was an ear loss in preharvest loss (because of bad weather condition that was 0.95-5.42%, also kernal loss on the header and cylinder loss which all related to improper adjustment of combine but total loss was in an acceptable level and standard. It was variable from 1.55% to 4.02%. Other parameters such as using inexperienced driver, improper combine adjustment, and also nonuniformity of field and ear moisture content in

  10. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  11. A Matrine Derivative M54 Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by Targeting Ribosomal Protein S5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhi; Jin, Cui; Chao, Liu; Zheng, Zhang; Liehu, Cao; Panpan, Pan; Weizong, Weng; Xiao, Zhai; Qingjie, Zhao; Honggang, Hu; Longjuan, Qin; Xiao, Chen; Jiacan, Su

    2018-01-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. The over-activated osteoclastogenesis, which plays an important role in osteoporosis, has become an important therapeutic target. M54 was a bioactive derivative of the Chinese traditional herb matrine. We found that M54 could suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow mononuclear cells and RAW264.7 cells through suppressing NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and MAPKs pathways activity in vitro , and prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo . Our previous study has proved that ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5) was a direct target of M19, based on which M54 was synthesized. Thus we deduced that M54 also targeted RPS5. During osteoclastogenesis, the RPS5 level in RAW264.7 cells was significantly down-regulated while M54 could maintain its level. After RPS5 was silenced, the inhibitory effects of M54 on osteoclastogenesis were partially compromised, indicating that M54 took effects through targeting RPS5. In summary, M54 was a potential clinical medicine for post-menopause osteoporosis treatment, and RPS5 is a possible key protein in PMOP.

  12. A Matrine Derivative M54 Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by Targeting Ribosomal Protein S5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMOP is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. The over-activated osteoclastogenesis, which plays an important role in osteoporosis, has become an important therapeutic target. M54 was a bioactive derivative of the Chinese traditional herb matrine. We found that M54 could suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow mononuclear cells and RAW264.7 cells through suppressing NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and MAPKs pathways activity in vitro, and prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. Our previous study has proved that ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5 was a direct target of M19, based on which M54 was synthesized. Thus we deduced that M54 also targeted RPS5. During osteoclastogenesis, the RPS5 level in RAW264.7 cells was significantly down-regulated while M54 could maintain its level. After RPS5 was silenced, the inhibitory effects of M54 on osteoclastogenesis were partially compromised, indicating that M54 took effects through targeting RPS5. In summary, M54 was a potential clinical medicine for post-menopause osteoporosis treatment, and RPS5 is a possible key protein in PMOP.

  13. The ROCK Inhibitor Fasudil Prevents Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Dendritic Spine Loss in Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Gonzalo; Fresno, Cristóbal; Vilches, Natalia; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Aguayo, Felipe; Pacheco, Aníbal; Parra-Fiedler, Nicolás; Parra, Claudio S; Rojas, Paulina S; Tejos, Macarena; Aliaga, Esteban; Fiedler, Jenny L

    2017-04-01

    Dendritic arbor simplification and dendritic spine loss in the hippocampus, a limbic structure implicated in mood disorders, are assumed to contribute to symptoms of depression. These morphological changes imply modifications in dendritic cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are regulators of actin dynamics through their effector Rho kinase. We have reported that chronic stress promotes depressive-like behaviors in rats along with dendritic spine loss in apical dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, changes associated with Rho kinase activation. The present study proposes that the Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil may prevent the stress-induced behavior and dendritic spine loss. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline or Fasudil (i.p., 10 mg/kg) starting 4 days prior to and maintained during the restraint stress procedure (2.5 h/d for 14 days). Nonstressed control animals were injected with saline or Fasudil for 18 days. At 24 hours after treatment, forced swimming test, Golgi-staining, and immuno-western blot were performed. Fasudil prevented stress-induced immobility observed in the forced swimming test. On the other hand, Fasudil-treated control animals showed behavioral patterns similar to those of saline-treated controls. Furthermore, we observed that stress induced an increase in the phosphorylation of MYPT1 in the hippocampus, an exclusive target of Rho kinase. This change was accompanied by dendritic spine loss of apical dendrites of pyramidal hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, increased pMYPT1 levels and spine loss were both prevented by Fasudil administration. Our findings suggest that Fasudil may prevent the development of abnormal behavior and spine loss induced by chronic stress by blocking Rho kinase activity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  14. Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ): qualitative analysis of a clinical trial in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eveline; Barnes, Deborah E; Ackerman, Sara L; Lee, Jennifer; Chesney, Margaret; Mehling, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ) is a novel, integrative exercise program for individuals with dementia that combines elements of different conventional and complementary exercise modalities (e.g. tai-chi, yoga, Feldenkrais, and dance movement therapy) and focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand) while increasing mindful body awareness and facilitating social connection. This study presents analyses of qualitative data collected during a 36-week cross-over pilot clinical trial in 11 individuals. Qualitative data included exercise instructors' written notes, which were prepared after each class and also following biweekly telephone calls with caregivers and monthly home visits; three video-recorded classes; and written summaries prepared by research assistants following pre- and post-intervention quantitative assessments. Data were extracted for each study participant and placed onto a timeline for month of observation. Data were coded and analyzed to identify themes that were confirmed and refined through an iterative, collaborative process by the entire team including a qualitative researcher (SA) and the exercise instructors. Three overarching themes emerged: (1) Functional changes included increasing body awareness, movement memory and functional skill. (2) Emotional changes included greater acceptance of resting, sharing of personal stories and feelings, and positive attitude toward exercise. (3) Social changes included more coherent social interactions and making friends. These qualitative results suggest that the PLIÉ program may be associated with beneficial functional, emotional, and social changes for individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Further study of the PLIÉ program in individuals with dementia is warranted.

  15. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  16. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  17. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth

    2017-04-01

    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  19. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  20. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  1. Effects of various asphalt binder additives/modifiers on moisture susceptible asphaltic mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as the loss of strength and stability caused by the active presence of : moisture. The most common technique to mitigate moisture damage is using additives or modifiers with the asphalt binder or : the a...

  2. Predicting root zone soil moisture with satellite near-surface moisture data in semiarid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, S.; Baldwin, D. C.; Keller, K.; Smithwick, E. A. H.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most critical variables in semiarid environment is the soil water content that represents a controlling factor for both ecological and hydrological processes. Soil moisture monitoring over large scales may be extremely useful, but it is limited by the fact that most of the available tools provides only surface measurements not representative of the effective amount of water stored in the subsurface. Therefore, a methodology able to infer root-zone soil moisture starting from surface measurements is highly desirable. Recently a new simplified formulation has been introduced to provide a formal description of the mathematical relationship between surface measurements and root-zone soil moisture (Manfreda et al., HESS 2014). This is a physically based approach derived from the soil water balance equation, where different soil water loss functions have been explored in order to take into account for the non-linear processes governing soil water fluxes. The study highlighted that the soil loss function is the key for such relationship that is therefore strongly influenced by soil type and physiological plant types. The new formulation has been tested on soil moisture based on measurements taken from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) and the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) databases. The method sheds lights on the physical controls for soil moisture dynamics and on the possibility to use such a simplified method for the description of root-zone soil moisture. Furthermore, the method has been also couple with an Enasamble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in order to optimize its performances for the large scale monitoring based the new satellite near-surface moisture data (SMAP). The optimized SMAR-EnKF model does well in both wet and dry climates and across many different soil types (51 SCAN locations) providing a strategy for real-time soil moisture monitoring.

  3. Calibration of neutron moisture meters on stony soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory methods (Greacen, 1981), as well as field methods (Watt and Jackson, 1981) for calibrating neutron moisture meters in stone-free soils have been described. None of these methods is practical in soils stony enough to prevent augering or repacking of the soil. This note describes a technique to calibrate neutron moisture meters in soils with stone content up to 60%. The slope of the relationship between neutron count ratio and soil water content of a neutron moisture meter varies by up to 10% for a range of Canterbury stony-soil types. This variation means that calibrations are site specific. The method of calibration is to measure the count ratio on an in situ soil and then to determine the volumetric moisture content of the measured soil.This is repeated over a range of soil moistures to derive a linear regression between soil moisture and count ratio

  4. A Lifestyle Program of Exercise and Weight Loss is Effective in Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Why Are Programs Not More Available?

    OpenAIRE

    Ades, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (< 1 year) can go into remission after weight loss and exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care ins...

  5. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  6. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  7. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS...

  8. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svendsen, Niels G; Kalita, Prasanta K; Gebhart, Dick L; Denight, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    ... for military training requirements. This report proposes several new range structure designs to begin the iterative process of developing new range edifices that reduce soil loss, control erosion, promote sustainability, and enhance training...

  9. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) this effect seems to be independent of attachment system and 3) mandibular osteoporosis prior to implant treatment may be a risk factor for bone loss around implants. However, this treatment can be recommended also in osteoporotic persons.......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar...

  10. Memory enhancing drugs and Alzheimer?s Disease: Enhancing the self or preventing the loss of it?

    OpenAIRE

    Dekkers, Wim; Rikkert, Marcel Olde

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyse some ethical and philosophical questions related to the development of memory enhancing drugs (MEDs) and anti-dementia drugs. The world of memory enhancement is coloured by utopian thinking and by the desire for quicker, sharper, and more reliable memories. Dementia is characterized by decline, fragility, vulnerability, a loss of the most important cognitive functions and even a loss of self. While MEDs are being developed for self-improvement, in Alzheimer?s Disease ...

  11. Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-02-01

    During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

  12. Global atmospheric moisture variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; James, Bonnie F.; Chi, Kay; Huang, Huo-Jin

    1989-01-01

    Research efforts during FY-88 have focused on completion of several projects relating to analysis of FGGE data during SOP-1 and on expanded studies of global atmospheric moisture. In particular, a revised paper on the relationship between diabatic heating and baroclinicity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) was submitted. A summary of completed studies on diagnostic convective parameterization was presented at the Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography Convergence last February. These investigations of diabatic heating in the SPCZ have demonstrated the requirement for a more quantitative description of atmospheric moisture. As a result, efforts were directed toward use of passive remote microwave measurements from the Nimbus-7 SMMR and the DOD's Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI/I) as critical sources of moisture data. Activities this year are summarized.

  13. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  14. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  15. Tensor tenopexy: a clinical study to assess its effectiveness in improving Eustachian tube function and preventing hearing loss in patients with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Raja; Sharma, Ramesh K; Panda, Naresh K; Munjal, Sanjay; Makkar, Surinder

    2013-09-01

    There is a consensus about the occurrence of otitis media in children with cleft palate before repair. However, controversy continues regarding the recovery of Eustachian tube function and level of hearing loss in the patients after cleft palate repair. Levator sling palatoplasty is an important component of the cleft repair. Most surgeons would routinely transect the tensor tendon (tensor tenotomy) during the course of palatoplasty. However, this procedure may pose a risk to Eustachian tube function. Some authorities feel that addition of tensor tenopexy during palatoplasty would maintain the Eustachian tube in an open conformation, thereby improving middle ear ventilation. The present study assesses the effectiveness of tensor tenopexy in improving Eustachian tube function and preventing hearing loss in cleft palate patients treated with palatoplasty. A prospective randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery at a tertiary care institute in India. A total of 17 children in the age group of 9-24 months were assigned to one of two groups: palatoplasty with either tensor tenotomy (n = 8) or tensor tenotomy with tensor tenopexy (n = 9). All patients were subjected to tympanometry, otoscopy and brainstem evoked response audiometry before surgery and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery. Of these, 52.9% of patients already had hearing loss at the time of presentation. Hearing loss and middle ear effusion persisted even after palatoplasty. There was no significant difference in hearing loss and middle ear effusion between the two groups of patients. Thus, tensor tenopexy was not found to be helpful in maintaining Eustachian tube function or preventing hearing loss in cleft palate patients. However, further long-term studies are needed to confirm this study. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Moisture monitoring in waste disposal surface barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Alex; Huebner, Christof

    2003-05-01

    Surface barriers for waste disposal sites should prevent waste water and gas emission into the environment. It is necessary to assess their proper operation by monitoring the water regime of the containment. A set of three new water content measuring devices has been developed that provide an economical solution for monitoring the moisture distribution and water dynamic. They will give an early warning service if the barrier system is at risk of being damaged. The cryo soil moisture sensor 'LUMBRICUS' is an in situ self-calibrating absolute water content measuring device. It measures moisture profiles at spot locations down to 2.5 m depth with an accuracy of better than 1.5% and a depth resolution of 0.03 m. The sensor inherently measures density changes and initial cracks of shrinking materials like clay minerals. The large area soil moisture sensor 'TAUPE' is a moisture sensitive electric cable network to be buried in the mineral barrier material of the cover. A report will be given with results and experiences on an exemplary installation at the Waste Disposal Facility Karlsruhe-West. 800 m2 of the barrier construction have been continuously monitored since December 1997. Volumetric water content differences of 1.5% have been detected and localised within 4 m. This device is already installed in two other waste disposal sites. A modified 'TAUPE' was constructed for the control of tunnels and river dams as well. Thin sheet moisture sensor 'FORMI' is specifically designed for moisture measurements in liners like bentonite, textile and plastic. Due to its flexibility it follows the curvature of the liner. The sensor measures independently from neighbouring materials and can be matched to a wide range of different thickness of the material. The sensors are patented in several countries.

  17. High litter moisture content suppresses litter ammonia volatilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D M; Rowe, D E; Cathcart, T C

    2011-07-01

    With global food demand expected to increase by 100% in the next 50 yr, urgency to combine comprehensive strategies for sustainable, efficacious, and environmentally sensible agronomic practices has never been greater. One effort for US meat bird management is to reduce NH(3) volatilization from litter to create a better growing environment for the birds, improve production efficiency, retain N in litter for fertilizer value, and negate the detrimental environmental impacts of NH(3) loss to the air. To derive the fundamental effects of temperature and moisture on litter NH(3) volatilization over the range of conditions found in commercial houses, experiments were conducted using commercial broiler litter that had moisture contents of approximately 20 to 55% while controlling temperatures ranging from 18.3 to 40.6°C. Litter samples (100 g) were placed in 1-L containers that received humidified air at approximately 113 mL/min. Volatilized NH(3) in exhaust air was captured in H(3)BO(3) traps. Ammonia loss (log(10) transformation) was modeled via an equation using linear coefficients for temperature and moisture, an interaction term for temperature × moisture, and a quadratic term for moisture. The surface responses resembled parabolic cylinders, indicating a critical moisture level at which NH(3) no longer increases but is diminished as moisture continues to increase. The critical moisture level lies between 37.4 and 51.1% litter moisture, depending on the temperature. An increase in temperature consistently increased NH(3) generation. When the temperature extremes were compared, the maximum NH(3) was up to 7 times greater at 40.6 vs. 18.3°C. The upper moisture limit at which NH(3) release is maximized and subsequently arrested as moisture continues to increase had not been defined previously for commercial broiler litter. The poultry industry and researchers can use these results as a decision tool to enable management strategies that limit NH(3) production.

  18. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 Diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penn, L.; White, M.; Lindström, J.; Boer, den A.Th.; Blaak, E.E.; Eriksson, J.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Walker, M.; Mathers, J.C.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial

  19. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment......CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss induced...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...

  20. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  1. The urban moisture climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas L. Sisterson

    1977-01-01

    Data collected on 26 July 1974 as a part of project METROMEX in St. Louis show the three-dimensional structure of the urban moisture field. Mesoscale dry regions at the urban surface, corresponding to large residential and light industrial land-use characterization, were responsible for a reduction in specific humidity in the urban mixing layer. Anthropogenic sources...

  2. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure. Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from. Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  3. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  4. Fish oil combined with SCFA synergistically prevent tissue accumulation of NEFA during weight loss in obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Based on their proposed metabolic effects, we examined whether fish oil (FO) and SCFA, alone or in combination, accelerate weight loss and the resultant metabolic improvements. Obesity was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by high-energy feeding for 10 weeks. The mice were transferred to a low-fat diet...

  5. Moisture-induced solid state instabilities in α-chymotrypsin and their reduction through chemical glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solá Ricardo J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein instability remains the main factor limiting the development of protein therapeutics. The fragile nature (structurally and chemically of proteins makes them susceptible to detrimental events during processing, storage, and delivery. To overcome this, proteins are often formulated in the solid-state which combines superior stability properties with reduced operational costs. Nevertheless, solid protein pharmaceuticals can also suffer from instability problems due to moisture sorption. Chemical protein glycosylation has evolved into an important tool to overcome several instability issues associated with proteins. Herein, we employed chemical glycosylation to stabilize a solid-state protein formulation against moisture-induced deterioration in the lyophilized state. Results First, we investigated the consequences of moisture sorption on the stability and structural conformation of the model enzyme α-chymotrypsin (α-CT under controlled humidity conditions. Results showed that α-CT aggregates and inactivates as a function of increased relative humidity (RH. Furthermore, α-CT loses its native secondary and tertiary structure rapidly at increasing RH. In addition, H/D exchange studies revealed that α-CT structural dynamics increased at increasing RH. The magnitude of the structural changes in tendency parallels the solid-state instability data (i.e., formation of buffer-insoluble aggregates, inactivation, and loss of native conformation upon reconstitution. To determine if these moisture-induced instability issues could be ameliorated by chemical glycosylation we proceeded to modify our model protein with chemically activated glycans of differing lengths (lactose and dextran (10 kDa. The various glycoconjugates showed a marked decrease in aggregation and an increase in residual activity after incubation. These stabilization effects were found to be independent of the glycan size. Conclusion Water sorption leads to

  6. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  7. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  8. Trimegestone in a low-dose, continuous-combined hormone therapy regimen prevents bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Spielman, Danièle

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of estrogen + progestogen therapy with 1 mg 17beta-estradiol and 0.125 mg trimegestone in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. DESIGN: For this study, 360 healthy, postmenopausal women with osteopenia [lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) between -1...

  9. Caffeine prevents sleep loss-induced deficits in long-term potentiation and related signaling molecules in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2010-04-01

    We have previously reported that caffeine prevented sleep deprivation-induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) of area CA1 as well as hippocampus-dependent learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze. In this report we examined the impact of long-term (4-week) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on synaptic plasticity (Alhaider et al., 2010) deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) area of acutely sleep-deprived rats. The sleep deprivation and caffeine/sleep deprivation groups were sleep-deprived for 24 h by using the columns-in-water technique. We tested the effect of caffeine and/or sleep deprivation on LTP and measured the basal levels as well as stimulated levels of LTP-related molecules in the DG. The results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented the impairment of early-phase LTP (E-LTP) in the DG of sleep-deprived rats. Additionally, chronic caffeine treatment prevented the sleep deprivation-associated decreases in the basal levels of the phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as in the stimulated levels of P-CaMKII in the DG area. The results suggest that chronic use of caffeine prevented anomalous changes in the basal levels of P-CaMKII and BDNF associated with sleep deprivation and as a result contributes to the revival of LTP in the DG region.

  10. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... of bone height around implants was measured on periodically identical intraoral radiographs. The fixed parts of the implant-system were stable during the trial in all patients. In conclusion: 1) the increased function after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation which minimizes...

  11. Loss of microRNA-22 prevents high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia and increases energy expenditure without affecting cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Liu, Jianming; Chen, Jinghai; Ding, Jian; Fonseca, Renata Inzinna; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Donato, Jose; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2017-12-15

    Obesity is associated with development of diverse diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. MiRNA-22 (miR-22) is a critical regulator of cardiac function and targets genes involved in metabolic processes. Previously, we generated miR-22 null mice and we showed that loss of miR-22 blunted cardiac hypertrophy induced by mechanohormornal stress. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-22 in the cardiac and metabolic alterations promoted by high-fat (HF) diet. We found that loss of miR-22 attenuated the gain of fat mass and prevented dyslipidemia induced by HF diet, although the body weight gain, or glucose intolerance and insulin resistance did not seem to be affected. Mechanistically, loss of miR-22 attenuated the increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation mediated by HF diet. Similarly, we found that miR-22 mediates metabolic alterations and inflammation induced by obesity in the liver. However, loss of miR-22 did not appear to alter HF diet induced cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis in the heart. Our study therefore establishes miR-22 as an important regulator of dyslipidemia and suggests it may serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  13. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (pHawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  14. Brg1 loss attenuates aberrant wnt-signalling and prevents wnt-dependent tumourigenesis in the murine small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei Z Holik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumourigenesis within the intestine is potently driven by deregulation of the Wnt pathway, a process epigenetically regulated by the chromatin remodelling factor Brg1. We aimed to investigate this interdependency in an in vivo setting and assess the viability of Brg1 as a potential therapeutic target. Using a range of transgenic approaches, we deleted Brg1 in the context of Wnt-activated murine small intestinal epithelium. Pan-epithelial loss of Brg1 using VillinCreERT2 and AhCreERT transgenes attenuated expression of Wnt target genes, including a subset of stem cell-specific genes and suppressed Wnt-driven tumourigenesis improving animal survival. A similar increase in survival was observed when Wnt activation and Brg1 loss were restricted to the Lgr5 expressing intestinal stem cell population. We propose a mechanism whereby Brg1 function is required for aberrant Wnt signalling and ultimately for the maintenance of the tumour initiating cell compartment, such that loss of Brg1 in an Apc-deficient context suppresses adenoma formation. Our results highlight potential therapeutic value of targeting Brg1 and serve as a proof of concept that targeting the cells of origin of cancer may be of therapeutic relevance.

  15. The Efficacy of Supportive Peri-Implant Therapies in Preventing Peri-Implantitis and Implant Loss: a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Ramanauskaite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the efficacy of supportive peri-implant therapies in preventing clinical and radiological signs of peri-implantitis and implant loss. Material and Methods: Longitudinal human studies, published between January 1, 2006, and February 1, 2016, were included based on an electronic search using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and complemented by a manual search. Articles were included only if 1 they comprised a group of patients involved in/adhering to regular supportive peri-implant therapies (SPTs and a control group without such therapies or with poor adherence to them, 2 the protocol of the SPTs was clearly described and 3 the outcome was indicated by means of clinical/radiological changes or implant loss. Results: After initially identifying a total of 710 titles and abstracts, 12 full text articles were selected for eligibility assessment. Seven studies, three prospective and four retrospective, fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. The frequency of recall visits varied between the studies from a minimum of one visit every three months to an individually tailored regimen. In all the studies a lack of SPTs or poor adherence to them resulted in significantly higher frequencies of sites with mucosal bleeding, deepened peri-implant pockets or alveolar bone loss. In line with the above, a lack of/poor adherence to SPTs was associated with higher implant loss. Conclusions: To prevent peri-implantitis, an individually tailored supportive programme based on patient motivation and re-instruction in oral hygiene measures combined with professional implant cleaning seem to be crucial.

  16. Moisture Metrics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  17. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  18. A perda da visão: estratégias de prevenção Visual loss: prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edméa Rita Temporini

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A perda visual representa conseqüências adversas para o indivíduo e sociedade. O aumento da população mundial, com proporção maior de idosos, acarreta aumento de indivíduos com perda visual. A identificação e tratamento precoces de distúrbios oculares na infância constituem prioridades de programas de prevenção da cegueira. Medidas preventivas para doenças oculares devem ser planejadas e estabelecidas. COMENTÁRIOS: Apresentam-se estimativas referentes à prevalência da cegueira e de baixa visão realizadas pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Discutem-se aspectos relacionados à problemática e estratégias com vistas ao planejamento de programas preventivos. Ressalta-se a necessidade de realizar pesquisas epidemiológicas e operacionais para conhecimento da realidade, formação de recursos humanos e aperfeiçoamento da infra-estrutura de serviços especializados. Destaca-se a importância de identificar fatores psicossocioculturais para direcionar tais intervenções.INTRODUCTION: Visual loss represents an adversity for the affected person and society as a whole. As the world's population increases and as a greater proportion survives into late adulthood, the number of people with visual loss will inexorably rise. The control of blindness in children is a priority within any blindness prevention programme. Preventive measures have to be planned and established. COMMENTS: The World Health Organization estimates on blindness and low vision are discussed and some strategies and planning of preventive programs are pointed out. Epidemiological and operational researches would contribute to health system needs, assessment and program management. Identifying social and cultural factors would better direct interventional efforts of blindness prevention.

  19. AMSR2 Soil Moisture Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.; Koike, T.; Fuiji, X.; de Jeu, R.; Chan, S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A.; Bosch, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is part of the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) mission. AMSR2 fills the void left by the loss of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) after almost 10 years. Both missions provide brightness temperature observations that are used to retrieve soil moisture. Merging AMSR-E and AMSR2 will help build a consistent long-term dataset. Before tackling the integration of AMSR-E and AMSR2 it is necessary to conduct a thorough validation and assessment of the AMSR2 soil moisture products. This study focuses on validation of the AMSR2 soil moisture products by comparison with in situ reference data from a set of core validation sites. Three products that rely on different algorithms were evaluated; the JAXA Soil Moisture Algorithm (JAXA), the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), and the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA). Results indicate that overall the SCA has the best performance based upon the metrics considered.

  20. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  1. Partial prevention of long-term femoral bone loss in aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Calomme, M.; GEUSENS, Piet; Demeester, N.; Behets, G.; D'Haese, P.; Sindambiwe, J.; Van Hoof, V.; VAN DEN BERGHE, David

    2006-01-01

    Silicon (Si) deficiency in animals results in bone defects. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) was found to have a high bioavailability compared to other Si supplements. The effect of ch-OSA supplementation was investigated on bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 58, age 9 months) were randomized in three groups. One group was sham-operated (sham, n = 21), and bilateral OVX was performed in the other two groups. OVX rats were supplemented orally with...

  2. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  3. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  4. Soil moisture responses to vapour pressure deficit in polytunnel-grown tomato under soil moisture triggered irrigation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Dick

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work has been to investigate soil-to-atmosphere water transport in potted tomato plants by measuring and processing high-resolution soil moisture data against the environmental driver of vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Whilst many researchers have successfully employed sap flow sensors to determine water uptake by roots and transport through the canopy, the installation of sap flow sensors is non-trivial. This work presents an alternative method that can be integrated with irrigation controllers and data loggers that employ soil moisture feedback which can allow water uptake to be evaluated against environmental drivers such as VPD between irrigation events. In order to investigate water uptake against VPD, soil moisture measurements were taken with a resolution of 2 decimal places - and soil moisture, air temperature and relative humidity measurements were logged every 2 minutes. Data processing of the soil moisture was performed in an Excel spread sheet where changes in water transport were derived from the rate of change of soil moisture using the Slope function over 5 soil moisture readings. Results are presented from a small scale experiment using a GP2-based irrigation controller and data logger. Soil moisture feedback is provided from a single SM300 soil moisture sensor in order to regulate the soil moisture level and to assess the water flow from potted tomato plants between irrigation events. Soil moisture levels were set to avoid drainage water losses. By determining the rate of change in soil moisture between irrigation events, over a 16 day period whilst the tomato plant was in flower, it has been possible to observe very good correlation between soil water uptake and VPD - illustrating the link between plant physiology and environmental conditions. Further data is presented for a second potted tomato plant where the soil moisture level is switched between the level that avoids drainage losses and a significantly lower level. This data

  5. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  6. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miin Roh

    Full Text Available Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. Age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP are the main risk factors for glaucomatous loss of vision. Several studies have implicated the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as a link between elevated IOP and RGC death, but the cellular source of TNF-α and its causative role in RGC death remain uncertain. Here, using a rat model of glaucoma, we investigated the source of elevated TNF-α and examined whether Etanercept, a TNF-α blocker that is in common clinical use for other indications, is protective against RGC death.Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC caused intraocular pressure (IOP to be elevated for at least 28 days. IOP elevation resulted in a dramatic increase in TNF-α levels within a few days, axonal degeneration, and a 38% loss of RGCs by 4 weeks. Immunostaining coupled with confocal microscopy showed that OHT induced robust induction of TNF-α in Iba-1-positive microglia around the optic nerve head (ONH. Despite persistent elevation of IOP, Etanercept reduced microglial activation, TNF-α levels, axon degeneration in the optic nerve, and the loss of RGCs.Ocular hypertension (OHT triggers an inflammatory response characterized by the appearance of activated microglia around the ONH that express TNF-α. Blocking TNF-α activity with a clinically approved agent inhibits this microglial response and prevents axonal degeneration and loss of RGCs. These findings suggest a new treatment strategy for glaucoma using TNF-α antagonists or suppressors of inflammation.

  7. A Single-dose Zoledronic Acid Infusion Prevents Antiretroviral Therapy–induced Bone Loss in Treatment-naive HIV-infected Patients: A Phase IIb Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Titanji, Kehmia; Lahiri, Cecile D.; Vunnava, Aswani; Foster, Antonina; Sanford, Sara E.; Sheth, Anandi N.; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Knezevic, Andrea; Ward, Laura; Easley, Kirk A.; Powers, Philip; Weitzmann, M. Neale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with bone loss leading to increased fracture rate among HIV-infected individuals. ART-induced bone loss is most intense within the first 48 weeks of therapy, providing a window for prophylaxis with long-acting antiresorptives. Methods. In a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 63 nonosteoporotic, ART-naive adults with HIV initiating ART with atazanavir/ritonavir + tenofovir/emtricitabine to a single zoledronic acid (ZOL) infusion (5 mg) vs placebo to determine the efficacy of ZOL in mitigating ART-induced bone loss. Plasma bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) were performed at weeks 0, 12, 24, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome was change in C-terminal telopeptide of collagen at 24 weeks. Repeated-measures analyses using mixed linear models were used to estimate and compare study endpoints. Results. The ZOL arm had a 65% reduction in bone resorption relative to the placebo arm at 24 weeks (0.117 ng/mL vs 0.338 ng/mL; P < .001). This effect of ZOL occurred as early as 12 weeks (73% reduction; P < .001) and persisted through week 48 (57% reduction; P < .001). The ZOL arm had an 8% higher lumbar spine BMD at 12 weeks relative to the placebo arm (P = .003), and remained 11% higher at 24 and 48 weeks. Similar trends were observed in the hip and femoral neck. Conclusions. A single dose of ZOL administered at ART initiation prevented ART-induced bone loss through the first 48 weeks of ART, the period when ART-induced bone loss is most pronounced. Validation of these results in larger multicenter randomized clinical trials is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01228318. PMID:27193748

  8. Photoprotection in moisturizers and daily-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seite, S; Fourtanier, A; Rougier, A

    2010-10-01

    During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. In skin areas regularly exposed to sun, UV-damage is superimposed to tissue degeneration resulting from chronological aging. It is, therefore, important to know if moisturizers and daily-care products containing UVA absorbers combined with UVB ones are able to prevent these skin damages. This review will summarize clinical studies evaluating this topic. These studies demonstrate that broad-spectrum protection in moisturizers or daily-care products can prevent the "silent" sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  9. A Study on the Application of Near Infrared Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging for Monitoring Moisture Content and Water Activity in Low Moisture Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achata, Eva; Esquerre, Carlos; O'Donnell, Colm; Gowen, Aoife

    2015-01-01

    Moisture content and water activity are key parameters in predicting the stability of low moisture content products. However, conventional methods for moisture content and water activity determination (e.g., loss on drying method, ‎Karl Fischer titration, dew point method) are time consuming, demand specialized equipment and are not amenable to online processing. For this reason they are typically applied at-line on a limited number of samples. Near infrared hyperspectral chemical imaging is ...

  10. Putting the Diabetes Prevention Program into practice: a program for weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction for patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, P E; Einerson, J A; Grant, H; Sargent, C; Underbakke, G; Vitcenda, M; Zeller, L; Stein, J H

    2008-12-01

    The increasing incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have significant implications on health world-wide. Large clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle program with a goal of moderate weight loss (5-7%) and regular exercise (150 minutes/week), resulting in a significant decrease in the incidence of type 2 DM and cardiovascular risk. This study reports on the translation of the multi-center Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) into a cardiac rehabilitation program, utilizing the expertise and experience of a cardiac rehabilitation program staff. The study adapted materials from the DPP to develop a program that fit local needs for diabetes prevention. Most participants completed the program (11 months) and their moderate weight loss was maintained for 11-12 months. At 11-12 months, waist circumference was reduced by approximately 2 inches, percent body fat was reduced by 5% (11% relative decrease, pExercise, nutrition, glucose, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were all were significantly improved at 11-12 months (pdiabetes. This program demonstrates that an intensive effort can significantly improve lifestyle and reduce body weight in patients with DM or at risk for DM. A program that simulates cardiac rehabilitation, translated from a successful clinical trial into practice, resulted in significant reduction and improvement in metabolic outcomes and cardiovascular risk. Support for cardiac rehabilitation from insurers to develop similar programs is encouraged and deserves further study.

  11. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Ferri, Sarah L; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object-location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object-location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415715-07$15.00/0.

  12. Moisture Re-distribution in Concrete Under Impermeable Coverings

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Niall

    2003-01-01

    It is normally considered safe to apply an impermeable floor covering to concrete surfaces when the surface relative humidity reaches 75% as determined by a surface hygrometer. However, over time, defects can appear on the covering such as blistering of vinyl and rising of tiles from the surface. One cause is the on-going diffusion of the residual moisture deep within the slab to the surface. The covering traps this residual moisture, thus preventing evaporation to the ambient air and gradual...

  13. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Beluzi

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re

  14. Comparison of three different methods to prevent heat loss in healthy dogs undergoing 90 minutes of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Jones, Katherine R; Otto, Angela N; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-05-01

    To compare a towel under, a warm water pad under or a forced warm air blanket over dogs as techniques to reduce heat loss during a standardized anesthetic. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Eight, healthy, mixed breed dogs weighing 16.3-19.6 kg. Dogs were anesthetized four times for 90 minutes. Dogs were placed on a steel table (treatment TA), with a cotton towel (treatment TO) or a circulating warm water pad (treatment WP) between the dog and the table, or with, a towel under the dog and covered with a forced warm air blanket (treatment WAB). Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals. Changes in temperature (ΔRT) were calculated as the RT at a given point subtracted from the RT before anesthesia (baseline) and compared over time. After 90 minutes of anesthesia, the ΔRT was 3.42 °C ± 0.29 for TA, 2.78 °C ± 0.43 for TO, 1.98 °C ± 0.29 for WP, and 0.91 °C ± 0.27 for WAB. Significant differences in ΔRT occurred between TA and WAB at 20 minutes (0.94 °C ± 0.42, p = 0.0206), between TO and WAB at 30 minutes (1.16 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0063), between WP and WAB at 50 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.98, p = 0.0249), between TA and WP at 35 minutes (1.19 °C ± 0.54, p = 0.0091), between TO and WP at 70 minutes (1.12 °C ± 0.56, p = 0.0248), and between TA and TO at 75 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0313). These differences in ΔRT between each treatment persisted from the times indicated until the end of the anesthesia. During anesthesia, forced warm air blankets were superior to other methods tested for limiting heat loss. An efficient heat loss technique should be used for anesthesia longer than 20 minutes duration in medium sized dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  15. A standardized Humulus lupulus (L.) ethanol extract partially prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in the rat without induction of adverse effects in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Annekathrin M; Helle, Janina; Bader, Manuela I; Ehrhardt, Tino; Nestler, Kristin; Kretzschmar, Georg; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Vollmer, Günter; Nikolić, Dejan; Bolton, Judy L; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong; Dietz, Birgit M; van Breemen, Richard B; Zierau, Oliver

    2017-10-15

    Hops (Humulus lupulus (L.)) dietary supplements are of interest as herbal remedies to alleviate menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes, depression and anxiety. So far, the evidence regarding estrogenic and related properties of hops preparations has been considered insufficient for a market authorization for menopausal indications. The study aims to investigate a chemically standardized hops extract regarding its safety in the uterus, as wells as its efficacy to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized rat model. Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and divided into a control group receiving phytoestrogen-free diet, a group treated with E 2 benzoate (0.93 mg/kg body weight/d) and a group treated with the standardized hops extract (60 mg/kg body weight/d) for 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography of the tibiae and vertebrae, as wells as histological changes in the uterus and tibia were analyzed. Neither uterotrophic nor proliferative effects were observed in the endometrium in response to the oral 8-week administration of the hops extract. However, site-dependent skeletal effects were observed. The hops extract significantly decreased the number of osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis and prevented reduction of the trabecular thickness that resulted from estradiol depletion. In contrast, the hops extract did not prevent the ovariectomy-induced micro-architectural changes in the lumbar vertebra. Certain parameters (e.g. thickness and number of trabeculae) were even found to be below the values determined in the ovariectomized control group. Taken together, the results provide evidence for the safety of the standardized hops extract and point to a weak bone type-specific, protective effect on bone loss following estradiol depletion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  17. Age-related epigenetic drift and phenotypic plasticity loss: implications in prevention of age-related human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2016-12-01

    Aging is considered as one of the most important developmental processes in organisms and is closely associated with global deteriorations of epigenetic markers such as aberrant methylomic patterns. This altered epigenomic state, referred to 'epigenetic drift', reflects deficient maintenance of epigenetic marks and contributes to impaired cellular and molecular functions in aged cells. Epigenetic drift-induced abnormal changes during aging are scantily repaired by epigenetic modulators. This inflexibility in the aged epigenome may lead to an age-related decline in phenotypic plasticity at the cellular and molecular levels due to epigenetic drift. This perspective aims to provide novel concepts for understanding epigenetic effects on the aging process and to provide insights into epigenetic prevention and therapeutic strategies for age-related human disease.

  18. Short-term blueberry-enriched diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Lee, David R; Goyarzu, Pilar; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Ennis, Lalanya J; Beckett, Elizabeth; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2011-03-01

    Previously, 4 mo of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aging rats. Experiment 1 determined whether 1- and 2-mo BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the diets. Experiment 2 determined whether a 1-mo BB diet could subsequently reverse existing object memory impairment in aging rats. In experiment 1, Fischer-344 rats were maintained on an appropriate control diet or on 1 or 2 mo of the BB diet before testing object memory at 19 mo postnatally. In experiment 2, rats were tested for object recognition memory at 19 mo and again at 20 mo after 1 mo of maintenance on a 2% BB or control diet. In experiment 1, the control group performed no better than chance, whereas the 1- and 2-mo BB diet groups performed similarly and significantly better than controls. The 2-mo BB-diet group, but not the 1-mo group, maintained its performance over a subsequent month on a standard laboratory diet. In experiment 2, the 19-mo-old rats performed near chance. At 20 mo of age, the rats subsequently maintained on the BB diet significantly increased their object memory scores, whereas the control diet group exhibited a non-significant decline. The change in object memory scores differed significantly between the two diet groups. These results suggest that a considerable degree of age-related object memory decline can be prevented and reversed by brief maintenance on BB diets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental on moisture migration and pore pressure formation of concrete members subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kakuhiro; Nakane, Sunao

    1993-01-01

    The experimental studies concerning temperature, moisture migration, and pore pressure of mass concrete mock-up specimens heated up to high temperature at 110degC to 600degC, were performed, so as to correctly estimate the moisture migration behaviour of concrete members subjected to high temperature, which is considered significantly influenced on physical properties of concrete. As a results, it is confirmed that the moisture migration behavior of concrete members can be explained by temperature and pore pressure, and indicate the characteristics both sealed condition (dissipation of moisture is prevented) and unsealed condition (dissipation of moisture occur). (author)

  20. Cost-effectiveness of preventing loss to follow-up in HIV treatment programs: a Côte d'Ivoire appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings show extensive rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU ranging from 5% to 40% within 6 mo of antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation. Our objective was to project the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent LTFU from HIV care in West Africa.We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC International model to project the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of LTFU-prevention programs from a payer perspective. These programs include components such as eliminating ART co-payments, eliminating charges to patients for opportunistic infection-related drugs, improving personnel training, and providing meals and reimbursing for transportation for participants. The efficacies and costs of these interventions were extensively varied in sensitivity analyses. We used World Health Organization criteria of <3x gross domestic product per capita (3x GDP per capita = US$2,823 for Côte d'Ivoire as a plausible threshold for "cost-effectiveness." The main results are based on a reported 18% 1-y LTFU rate. With full retention in care, projected per-person discounted life expectancy starting from age 37 y was 144.7 mo (12.1 y. Survival losses from LTFU within 1 y of ART initiation ranged from 73.9 to 80.7 mo. The intervention costing US$22/person/year (e.g., eliminating ART co-payment would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 12%. An intervention costing US$77/person/year (inclusive of all the components described above would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 41%.Interventions that prevent LTFU in resource-limited settings would substantially improve survival and would be cost-effective by international criteria with efficacy of at least 12%-41%, depending on the cost of intervention, based on a reported 18% cumulative incidence of LTFU at 1 y after ART initiation. The commitment to start ART and treat HIV in these settings should

  1. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening of Long Q-T Syndrome in Patients with Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Loss (Jervell and Lange Neilesen Syndrome: Prevention of Fatal Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Matin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The idiopathic long Q-T syndrome is an infrequently occurring disorder in which affected individuals have an unusual electrocardiographic repolarization abnormality presenting as syncope or loss of consciousness related to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Congenital long Q-T prolongation can be associated with congenital deafness in an autosomal recessive manner (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome. The purpose of this stuff was to screen this electrocardiographic abnormality in deaf-mute school children in our population, which has not been yet performed. Materials & Methods:  Of 1190 patients with hearing loss, 779 had congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD, aged 13±3.8 years (4-24, 63% female and 37% male. The family history of deafness was as follows: Cardiac axis deviation was found in 56 (7% patients. Electrical conduction abnormalities were found in 12 (15% patients, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, sinus bradycardia, and sinus arrhythmia were found in 2 (0.25%, 4 (0.5%, and 3 (0.38% patients, respectively. The Q-T interval, and Q-Tc duration were 312.6±28.9 ms (200-500 ms, median 320 ms, and 383.6±29.3 ms (232-527 ms, median 413ms, respectively. Long Q-T syndrome was found in 4 (0.5% patients (3F and 1M. Results: Two of these 4 patients had total deafness and 2 had profound hearing loss. None of the patients with mild deafness had Q-T prolongation. Only one of these patients was symptomatic, and had been treated as a case of epilepsy for several years. Conclusion: This data supports the presence of long Q-T syndrome in patients with sensorineural hearing loss in our population, so routine electrocardiographic screening of anyone with congenital deafness is warranted to prevent subsequent associated cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

  3. Bone Loss Prevention of Bisphosphonates in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates in improving bone mineral density (BMD and decreasing the occurrence rate of fractures and adverse events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs which use bisphosphonates in IBD patients were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE database, EMBASE database, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Databases between 1990 and June 2016. People received bisphosphonate or placebos with a follow-up of at least one year were also considered. STATA 12.0 software was used for the meta-analysis. Results. Eleven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The data indicated that the percentage change in the increased BMD in the bisphosphonates groups was superior to that of the control groups at the lumbar spine and total hip. At the femoral neck, there was no significant difference between the two groups. The incidence of new fractures during follow-up showed significant reduction. The adverse event analysis revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that bisphosphonates therapy has an effect on bone loss in patients with IBD but show no evident efficiency at increasing the incidence of adverse events.

  4. Role of estrogen replacement therapy in memory enhancement and the prevention of neuronal loss associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, J W; Green, P S; Gridley, K E; Singh, M; de Fiebre, N C; Rajakumar, G

    1997-09-22

    Recent evidence supports a role for estrogens in both normal neural development and neuronal maintenance throughout life. Women spend 25-33% of their life in an estrogen-deprived state and retrospective studies have shown an inverse correlation between dose and duration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting a role for estrogen in the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. To explore these observations further, an animal model was developed using ovariectomy (OVX) and ovariectomy with estradiol replacement (E2) in female Sprague-Dawley rats to mimic postmenopausal changes. Using an active-avoidance paradigm and a spatial memory task, the effects of estrogen deprivation were tested on memory-related behaviors. OVX caused a decline in avoidance behavior, and estrogen replacement normalized the response. In the Morris water task of spatial memory, OVX animals showed normal spatial learning but were deficient in spatial memory, an effect that was prevented by estrogen treatment. Together these data indicate that OVX in rats results in an estrogen-reversible impairment of learning/memory behavior. Because a plethora of information has been generated that links decline in memory-related behavior to dysfunction of cholinergic neurons, the effects of estrogens on cholinergic neurons were tested. We demonstrated that OVX causes a decrease in high affinity choline uptake and choline acetyltransferase activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex; ERT reverses this effect. Further, we showed that estrogens promote the expression of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), 2 neurotrophic substances that have been shown to ameliorate the effects of age and injury on cholinergic neurons. Tissue culture models were used to evaluate whether estrogen treatment increases the survival of neurons when exposed to a variety of insults. 17-beta-Estradiol (beta-E2) protects

  5. Auditoria dos programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas em Curitiba (PPPA Hearing loss prevention programs control of Curitiba (HLPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C.M. Cavalli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo examinar se medidas práticas de prevenção de perdas auditivas, adotadas por indústrias de Curitiba e região metropolitana, atendem às exigências da legislação trabalhista vigente e recomendações científicas que abordam este tema. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um questionário elaborado pelo instituto americano National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH em 1996, para auditoria de programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas (PPPA, nos serviu de instrumento para a coleta de dados. O instrumento original possui 89 questões divididas em oito temas relacionados à prática dos programas: treinamento e educação, envolvimento do supervisor, medição do ruído, controle de Engenharia e Administrativo, monitoração audiométrica e manutenção dos registros, encaminhamentos, equipamento de proteção individual e questões administrativas. A coleta de dados foi realizada com Médicos do Trabalho, Engenheiros e/ou Técnicos de Segurança das indústrias. As empresas foram divididas em dois grupos: o das empresas que possuem um PPPA e o das que não possuem. CONCLUSÃO: Com base nos dados obtidos concluímos que não houve diferença significativa de conduta entre os grupos e que ambos cumprem parcialmente a legislação trabalhista relacionada à prevenção dos efeitos do ruído. Quanto às questões que abordam aspectos que se excedem às exigências legais, concluímos que as empresas que possuem PPPA dedicam maiores esforços à prevenção de perdas auditivas. Com estes dados identificamos pontos fortes e fracos das medidas que vêm sendo adotadas pelas indústrias da região, os quais poderão nos direcionar à elaboração de medidas preventivas mais efetivas e de propostas para revisão da legislação vigente.AIM: The objective of this study is to examine if the hearing loss prevention practices in industries located in the greater

  6. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  7. Prevention of anastrozole-induced bone loss with monthly oral ibandronate during adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, James E; Dodwell, David; Purohit, Omprakash P; Gutcher, Sandra A; Ellis, Susan P; Thorpe, Ruth; Horsman, Janet M; Brown, Janet E; Hannon, Rosemary A; Coleman, Robert E

    2008-10-01

    The aromatase inhibitor anastrozole is a highly effective well-tolerated treatment for postmenopausal endocrine-responsive breast cancer. However, its use is associated with accelerated bone loss and an increase in fracture risk. The ARIBON trial is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the impact of bisphosphonate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in women taking anastrozole. BMD was assessed in 131 postmenopausal, surgically treated women with early breast cancer at two U.K. centers. Of these, 50 patients had osteopenia (T score -1.0 to -2.5) at either the hip or lumbar spine. All patients were treated with anastrozole 1 mg once a day and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In addition, osteopenic patients were randomized to receive either treatment with ibandronate 150 mg orally every month or placebo. After 2 years, osteopenic patients treated with ibandronate gained +2.98% (range -8.9, +19.9) and +0.60% (range -9.0, +6.9) at the lumbar spine and hip, respectively. Patients treated with placebo, however, lost -3.22% (range -16.0, +4.3) at the lumbar spine and -3.90% (range -12.3, +7.2) at the hip. The differences between the two treatment arms were statistically significant at both sites (P < 0.01). At 12 months, urinary n-telopeptide, serum c-telopeptide, and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels declined in patients receiving ibandronate (30.9%, 26.3%, and 22.8%, respectively) and increased in those taking placebo (40.3%, 34.9%, and 37.0%, respectively). Monthly oral ibandronate improves bone density and normalizes bone turnover in patients treated with anastrozole.

  8. TRAF6 Mediates Suppression of Osteoclastogenesis and Prevention of Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by a Novel Prenylflavonoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Min; Li, Lei; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Chew, Nicholas; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2017-04-01

    Given the limitations of current therapeutic options for postmenopausal osteoporosis, there is a need for alternatives with minimal adverse effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of icaritin (ICT), a natural prenylflavonoid, on osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model and investigated its underlying molecular mechanism(s) of action. ICT inhibited osteoclast formation in two osteoclast precursor models, RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte cell line and human PBMC. ICT also inhibited sealing zone and resorption pit formation in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, ICT inhibited RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 pathways to suppress gene expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)c1, the master transcription regulator of osteoclast differentiation. ICT, by inhibiting the TRAF6/c-Src/PI3K pathway, suppressed NADPH oxidase-1 activation to attenuate intracellular ROS production and downregulate calcineurin phosphatase activity. As a result, NFATc1 nuclear translocation and activity was suppressed. Crucially, ICT promoted proteasomal degradation of TRAF6, the critical adaptor protein that transduces RANKL/RANK signaling, and the inhibitory effect of ICT on osteoclastogenesis was reversed by the proteasomal inhibitor MG 132. ICT administration inhibited OVX-induced bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast formation and activity. Consistent with cellular studies, ICT downregulated TRAF6 and NFATc1 protein expression in CD11b + /Gr-1 -/low osteoclast precursors isolated from OVX rats. Put together, we present novel findings that ICT, by downregulating TRAF6, coordinates inhibition of NF-κB, MAPK/AP-1, and ROS signaling pathways to reduce expression and activity of NFATc1. These results demonstrate the potential of ICT for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and point to TRAF6 as a promising target for novel anti-osteoporotic drugs. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American

  9. Corrosion of Embedded Metals in Wood: An Overview of Recent Research with Implications for building moisture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    ASHRAE Standard 160, Criteria for Moisture-Control Design Analysis in Buildings, specifies moisture design criteria in buildings to prevent moisture damage such as fungal activity and corrosion. While there has been much research on mold and decay fungi in wood buildings, it is often overlooked that wet wood is corrosive to the metal screws...

  10. Mapping surface soil moisture with L-band radiometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James R.; Shiue, James C.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Engman, Edwin T.

    1989-01-01

    A NASA C-130 airborne remote sensing aircraft was used to obtain four-beam pushbroom microwave radiometric measurements over two small Kansas tall-grass prairie region watersheds, during a dry-down period after heavy rainfall in May and June, 1987. While one of the watersheds had been burned 2 months before these measurements, the other had not been burned for over a year. Surface soil-moisture data were collected at the time of the aircraft measurements and correlated with the corresponding radiometric measurements, establishing a relationship for surface soil-moisture mapping. Radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture variation is higher in the burned than in the unburned watershed; surface soil moisture loss is also faster in the burned watershed.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  12. Oxygen ultra-fine bubbles water administration prevents bone loss of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in mice by suppressing osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T; Ebina, K; Hirao, M; Morimoto, T; Koizumi, K; Kitaguchi, K; Matsuoka, H; Iwahashi, T; Yoshikawa, H

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUB) saline injection prevents bone loss of glucocorti\\coid-induced osteoporosis in mice, and OUB inhibit osteoclastogenesis via RANK-TRAF6-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and RANK-p38 MAPK signaling in vitro. Ultra-fine bubbles (osteoporosis (GIO) model mice. Prednisolone (PSL, 5 mg) was subcutaneously inserted in 6-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, and 200 μl of saline, OUB-diluted saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUB)-diluted saline was intraperitoneally injected three times per week for 8 weeks the day after operations. Mice were divided into four groups; (1) control, sham-operation + saline; (2) GIO, PSL + saline; (3) GIO + OUB, PSL + OUB saline; (4) GIO + NUB, PSL + NUB saline. The effects of OUB on osteoblasts and osteoclasts were examined by serially diluted OUB medium in vitro. Bone mass was significantly decreased in GIO [bone volume/total volume (%): control vs. GIO 12.6 vs. 7.9; p suppressed in GIO + OUB (GIO vs. GIO + OUB 11.6 vs. 7.5; p osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting RANK-TRAF6-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling, RANK-p38 MAPK signaling, and TRAP/Cathepsin K/DC-STAMP mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. OUB did not affect osteoblastogenesis in vitro. OUB prevent bone loss in GIO mice by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  13. Comparison of Oven-drying Methods for Determination of Moisture Content in Feed Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, J. Y.; Kil, D. Y.; Kong, C.; Kim, B. G.

    2014-01-01

    An accurate assessment of moisture content in feed ingredients is important because moisture influences the nutritional evaluation of feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to evaluate various methods for moisture content determination. In Exp. 1, the weight loss on drying (LOD) of corn, soybean meal (SBM), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), whey permeate, whey powder, spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), fish meal, and a mixed diet of these 7 ingredients were measured by oven d...

  14. Licochalcone A Prevents the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons by Inhibiting Microglial Activation in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxu Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective effects of Licochalcone A (Lico.A, a flavonoid isolated from the herb licorice, in Parkinson’s disease (PD have not been elucidated. The prominent pathological feature of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons. The crucial role of neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia in dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been validated. In this study, we explore the therapeutic effects of Lico.A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced PD models in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lico.A significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial activation by blocking the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB p65 in BV-2 cells. In addition, through cultured primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cell experiments, we illustrate that Lico.A attenuates the decrease in [3H] dopamine (DA uptake and the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir neurons in LPS-induced PD models in vitro. Furthermore, LPS intoxication in rats results in microglial activation, dopaminergic neurodegeneration and significant behavioral deficits in vivo. Lico.A treatment prevents microglial activation and reduction of dopaminergic neuron and ameliorates PD-like behavioral impairments. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that the neuroprotective effects of Lico.A are associated with microglia and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models.

  15. Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinbauer, Hayo A; Anabalón, Jose L; Gutierrez, Daniela; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Olivares, Carla; Caro, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Our goal was to assess the impact of personal music players, earphones, and music styles on output, the subject's preferred listening levels, and outline recommendations for the prevention of music-induced hearing loss. Experimental study. Personal music players' output capabilities and volunteers' preferred output levels were assessed in different settings. Based on current noise-induced hearing loss exposure limits, recommendations were outlined. On three different devices and earphone types and 10 music styles, free field equivalent sound pressure output levels were assessed by applying a microphone probe inside the auditory canal. Forty-five hearing-healthy volunteers were asked to select preferred listening levels in different background noise scenarios. Sound pressure output reached 126 dB. No difference was found between device types, whereas earbud and supra-aural earphones showed significantly lower outputs than in-ear earphones (P music style groups were identified with as much as 14.4 dB difference between them. In silence, 17.8% of volunteers spontaneously selected a listening level above 85 dB. With 90 dB background noise, 40% selected a level above 94 dB. Earphone attenuation capability was found to correlate significantly with preferred level reductions (r = 0.585, P help in reducing comfortable listening levels and should be preferred. A risk table was elaborated, presenting time limits before reaching a risky exposure. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Salvia plebeia R.Br. inhibits signal transduction of IL-6 and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hwa; Jung, Kyungsook; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Jang, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Seung Woong; Kim, Yesol; Park, Chan Sun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Park, Jee Hun; Choi, Jung Ho; Rho, Mun-Chual; Oh, Hyun-Mee

    2016-12-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis through the regulation of bone formation and resorption. In this study, it was observed that ethanol extract of Salvia plebeia R.Br. (S.P-EE) inhibited IL-6-induced signaling cascade including phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 and ERK. Subsequently, it was examined whether S.P-EE treatment could recover bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Indeed, S.P-EE exhibited both preventive and therapeutic effect on OVX-induced bone loss in trabecular microarchitecture along with significant increase in bone mineral density and content. To understand the mechanism of action of S.P-EE in bone metabolism, the effect of S.P-EE on osteoclast differentiation and activity was investigated. S.P-EE significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by suppressing phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt, and expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast marker genes. S.P-EE also inhibited bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. Furthermore, isolation and identification of the active compounds which are responsible for the inhibitory effect of S.P-EE on osteoclast differentiation was carried out. Six major flavonoids and plebeiolide A-C were isolated and examined their effects on osteoclast differentiation. Luteolin and hispidulin, and plebeiolide A and C, not B exhibited potent inhibitory activity on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation.

  17. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s

  18. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    Moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate peaks in the relative humidity (RH) of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. This can help to ensure healthier indoor environments by preventing many processes...... that are harmful such as growth of house dust mites, surface condensation and mould growth. Therefore a series of experiments has been carried out in a full scale test facility to determine the moisture buffer effect of interior walls of cellular concrete and plaster board constructions. For the cellular concrete...... of the changes of moisture content in specimens of the wall composites exposed to the same environment. It was found that the finishes had a big impact on the buffer performance of the underlying materials. Even though the untreated cellular concrete had a very high buffer capacity, the effect was strongly...

  19. The method of predicting the process of condensation of moisture and hydrate formation in the gas pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Хвостова, Олена Вікторівна

    2014-01-01

    The problem of ensuring the required value of one of the natural gas quality indicators during its transportation to the consumer - moisture content is considered in the paper. The method for predicting possible moisture condensation and hydrate formation processes in gas pipelines considering mixing gas flows with different moisture content was developed.Predicting the moisture condensation and hydrate formation in gas pipelines is an actual task since a timely prevention of these processes ...

  20. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moist......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  1. Neutron moisture measurement in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thony, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This method is generally used for soil moisture determination but also for moisture in building materials. After a review of neutron interaction with matter (elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture and absorption with emission of charged particles) and of the equipment (source, detector and counting), gravimetric and chemical calibration are described and accuracy of measurement is discussed. 5 refs [fr

  2. Numerical Analysis of Moisture Flow and Concrete Cracking by means of Lattice Type Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, D.; Küntz, M.; Van Mier, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Modelling of fluid-flow and the resulting effects on shrinkage and microcracking by means of a combination of two lattice models are presented. For the moisture transport, a Lattice Gas Automaton (LGA) is adopted since it can effectively model moisture loss, whereas for cracking simulation a Lattice

  3. Volatilization of EPTC as affected by soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liqun

    Volatilization is an important process that controls the dissipation of pesticides after field application. Soil moisture plays an important role in controlling the volatilization of pesticides. However, the extent of this role is unclear. This study was conducted to determine how soil moisture affects the sorption capacity and vapor loss of EPTC (S-ethyl dipropyl carbamothioate) from two soils, Weswood clay loam (fine- silty, mixed, thermic fluventic ustochrepts) and Padina loamy sand (loamy, siliceous, thermic grossarenic paleustalfs). Soil samples with different moisture contents were exposed to saturated EPTC vapor for 1, 2, 5, or 12 days and sorbed concentrations were measured. Sorption capacity of Weswood after 12 days exposure was about 12 times higher with air-dry soil than at the wilting point (-1500 kPa). For Padina, after 12 days exposure, the sorption capacity was about 18 times higher at air- dry than at -1500 kPa. The maximum sorption extrapolated from the partitioning coefficients determined with an equilibrium batch system and Henry's law were similar to the sorption capacities when moisture content was close to the wilting point for both soils. Desorption of EPTC vapor from soils with different moistures was determined by a purge and trap method. EPTC vapor losses strongly depended on the soil moisture and/or the humidity of the air. If the air was dry, volatilization of EPTC was much larger when the soil was wet. If humidity of the air was high, the effect of soil moisture on volatilization was not as great. No significant correlation at a confidence level of 95% was found between water and EPTC vapor losses for either soil when water saturated air was used as a purge gas. When purged with dry air, losses of water and EPTC vapor were strongly correlated at a confidence level of 99%. This study indicates that decreasing soil moisture significantly increases EPTC sorption and decreases volatilization. Simulation of volatilization with a one

  4. A Class I UV-Blocking (senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVA-induced Yellow Fluorescence and NADH loss in the Rabbit Lens Nucleus in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J.; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Fick, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm2 on the cornea) for 1 hour using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 hour. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  5. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  6. Determination of moisture in cheese and cheese products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R L; Vanderwarn, M A

    2001-01-01

    Variables related to oven-drying samples of cheese and cheese products to determine moisture content were examined to provide more efficient and reproducible methods. Over 6500 samples of cheese were analyzed in an effort to modify the current AOAC procedure. The gravity atmospheric oven was unsuitable for use in accurate moisture analysis because of wide temperature differentials within the oven cavity. Use of this for oven moisture determination resulted in higher variance, which corresponded to the high temperature variation within the oven. Cheese sample preparation using an Oster blender yielded consistently lower variance in final moisture content than did preparation of cheese samples with a hand grater, rotary grater, and plug and plunger. Sample size of 3 +/- 0.25 g maximized surface area-to-volume ratios and yielded a lower error in final moisture content because of better control of ambient weight loss rates. Use of combination of disposable 5.5 cm diameter aluminum sample pans with 5.5 cm diameter glass fiber filter pads for covers produced a smaller standard deviation for moisture analysis than did the AOAC pan and insert cover and filter paper covers. All pans must be pre-dried for at least 3 h at 100 degrees C, and the glass fiber covers should be pre-dried for 1 h under the same conditions. All dried pans and covers must be stored in a desiccator with active desiccant. Equipment upgrades from the existing AOAC standard methods provide safer more efficient methods of analysis.

  7. Preventing Catastrophes from Data Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    What's the worst thing that can happen to your computer? Worse than a hard disk crash, virus infection, spam assault, denial-of-service attack, hacker take-over, fire, flood, or other human, mechanical or natural disaster is a faulty backup when you really need it. If the computer blows up, as long as your data is backed up securely, you can…

  8. A randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss in overweight and obese women: Health In Pregnancy and Postpartum (HIPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Addy, Cheryl L; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Burgis, Judith T; Wingard, Ellen; Dahl, Alicia A; Whitaker, Kara M; Schneider, Lara; Boutté, Alycia K

    2018-03-01

    Interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss have yielded modest results, particularly in overweight and obese women. To examine the impact of a theory-based lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain, postpartum weight loss, and related maternal and child outcomes and to examine race differences in these outcomes. A randomized controlled trial (target N=400; 200 intervention, 200 standard care; 200 African American, 200 white). Overweight and obese African American and white women ≤16weeks gestation are recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in South Carolina. Intervention participants receive two in-depth counseling sessions (early pregnancy and postpartum), telephone counseling, behavioral podcasts, and social media support that target weight self-monitoring and increasing physical activity and healthy dietary behavior practices, guided by Social Cognitive Theory. Standard care participants receive monthly mailings and a matched number of podcasts on non-weight related topics. All intervention activities last from ≤18weeks gestation to 6months after delivery. Gestational weight gain is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are meeting gestational weight gain guidelines (inadequate, adequate, excessive), weekly rate of gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, physical activity and dietary behaviors, health-related quality of life, and offspring adiposity. Participants are assessed at baseline (≤16weeks gestation), 32weeks gestation, and 6 and 12months postpartum, and offspring are assessed at 6 and 12months. HIPP is an innovative study that addresses significant gaps in the literature. Primary outcome results are expected in 2019. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of the cost-effectiveness and suitability of mitigation strategies to prevent phosphorus loss from dairy farms in New Zealand and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Richard W; Nash, David

    2012-01-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) from land to water is detrimental to surface water quality in many parts of New Zealand and Australia. Farming, especially pasture-based dairying, can be a source of P loss, but preventing it requires a range of fully costed strategies because little or no subsidies are available and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies varies with different farm management systems, topography, stream density, and climate. This paper reviews the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies for New Zealand and Australian dairy farms, grouping strategies into (i) management (e.g., decreasing soil test P, fencing streams off from stock, or applying low-water-soluble P fertilizers), (ii) amendments (e.g., alum or red mud [Bauxite residue]), and (iii) edge-of-field mitigations (e.g., natural or constructed wetlands). In general, on-farm management strategies were the most cost-effective way of mitigating P exports (cost range, $0 to $200 per kg P conserved). Amendments, added to tile drains or directly to surface soil, were often constrained by supply or were labor intensive. Of the amendments examined, red mud was cost effective where cost was offset by improved soil physical properties. Edge-of-field strategies, which remove P from runoff (i.e., wetlands) or prevent runoff (i.e., irrigation runoff recycling systems), were generally the least cost effective, but their benefits in terms of improved overall resource efficiency, especially in times of drought, or their effect on other contaminants like N need to be considered. By presenting a wide range of fully costed strategies, and understanding their mechanisms, a farmer or farm advisor is able to choose those that suit their farm and maintain profitability. Further work should examine the potential for targeting strategies to areas that lose the most P in time and space to maximize the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies, quantify the benefits of multiple strategies, and identify changes to

  10. Inline real-time near-infrared granule moisture measurements of a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chablani, Lipika; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Rameas, Patrick; Stagner, William C

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to use inline real-time near-infrared (NIR) to measure the moisture content of granules manufactured using a commercial production scale continuous twin-screw granulator fluid-bed dryer milling process. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to study the effect of inlet air temperature and dew point on granule moisture content. The NIR moisture content was compared to Karl Fischer (KF) and loss on drying (LOD) moisture determinations. Using multivariate analysis, the data showed a statistically significant correlation between the conventional methods and NIR. The R(2) values for predicted moisture content by NIR versus KF and predicted moisture values by NIR versus LOD were 0.94 (p moisture content as measured by predicted NIR (adjusted R(2) = 0.84, p moisture measurements.

  11. The prevention and reduction of weight loss in an acute tertiary care setting: protocol for a pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial (the PRoWL project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition, with accompanying weight loss, is an unnecessary risk in hospitalised persons and often remains poorly recognised and managed. The study aims to evaluate a hospital-wide multifaceted intervention co-facilitated by clinical nurses and dietitians addressing the nutritional care of patients, particularly those at risk of malnutrition. Using the best available evidence on reducing and preventing unplanned weight loss, the intervention (introducing universal nutritional screening; the provision of oral nutritional supplements; and providing red trays and additional support for patients in need of feeding) will be introduced by local ward teams in a phased way in a large tertiary acute care hospital. Methods/Design A pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial with repeated cross section design will be conducted. The unit of randomisation is the ward, with allocation by a random numbers table. Four groups of wards (n = 6 for three groups, n = 7 for one group) will be randomly allocated to each intervention time point over the trial. Two trained local facilitators (a nurse and dietitian for each group) will introduce the intervention. The primary outcome measure is change in patient’s body weight, secondary patient outcomes are: length of stay, all-cause mortality, discharge destinations, readmission rates and ED presentations. Patient outcomes will be measured on one ward per group, with 20 patients measured per ward per time period by an unblinded researcher. Including baseline, measurements will be conducted at five time periods. Staff perspectives on the context of care will be measured with the Alberta Context Tool. Discussion Unplanned and unwanted weight loss in hospital is common. Despite the evidence and growing concern about hospital nutrition there are very few evaluations of system-wide nutritional implementation programs. This project will test the implementation of a nutritional intervention across one hospital system using a

  12. Soil moisture-soil temperature interrelationships on a sandy-loam soil exposed to full sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Marquis

    1967-01-01

    In a study of birch regeneration in New Hampshire, soil moisture and temperature were found to be intimately related. Not only does low moisture lead to high temperature, but high temperature undoubtedly accelerates soil drying, setting up a vicious cycle of heating and drying that may prevent seed germination or kill seedlings.

  13. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 μm. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  14. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Sepi-Esime, Zacatenco. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' . Col. Lindavista. Mexico D.F., CP 07738 (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther, E-mail: fartur@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV - IPN, A. P. 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 {mu}m. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  15. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernández Aguilar, Claudia; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Martínez Ortiz, Efraín; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 μm. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  16. Loss of Nek11 Prevents G2/M Arrest and Promotes Cell Death in HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells Exposed to Therapeutic DNA Damaging Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Sabir

    Full Text Available The Nek11 kinase is a potential mediator of the DNA damage response whose expression is upregulated in early stage colorectal cancers (CRCs. Here, using RNAi-mediated depletion, we examined the role of Nek11 in HCT116 WT and p53-null CRC cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR or the chemotherapeutic drug, irinotecan. We demonstrate that depletion of Nek11 prevents the G2/M arrest induced by these genotoxic agents and promotes p53-dependent apoptosis both in the presence and absence of DNA damage. Interestingly, Nek11 depletion also led to long-term loss of cell viability that was independent of p53 and exacerbated following IR exposure. CRC cells express four splice variants of Nek11 (L/S/C/D. These are predominantly cytoplasmic, but undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mediated through adjacent nuclear import and export signals in the C-terminal non-catalytic domain. In HCT116 cells, Nek11S in particular has an important role in the DNA damage response. These data provide strong evidence that Nek11 contributes to the response of CRC cells to genotoxic agents and is essential for survival either with or without exposure to DNA damage.

  17. A multi-ingredient dietary supplement abolishes large-scale brain cell loss, improves sensory function, and prevents neuronal atrophy in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, J A; Aksenov, V; Samigullina, R; Aksenov, S; Rodgers, W H; Rollo, C D; Boreham, D R

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic growth hormone mice (TGM) are a recognized model of accelerated aging with characteristics including chronic oxidative stress, reduced longevity, mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, muscle wasting, and elevated inflammatory processes. Growth hormone/IGF-1 activate the Target of Rapamycin known to promote aging. TGM particularly express severe cognitive decline. We previously reported that a multi-ingredient dietary supplement (MDS) designed to offset five mechanisms associated with aging extended longevity, ameliorated cognitive deterioration and significantly reduced age-related physical deterioration in both normal mice and TGM. Here we report that TGM lose more than 50% of cells in midbrain regions, including the cerebellum and olfactory bulb. This is comparable to severe Alzheimer's disease and likely explains their striking age-related cognitive impairment. We also demonstrate that the MDS completely abrogates this severe brain cell loss, reverses cognitive decline and augments sensory and motor function in aged mice. Additionally, histological examination of retinal structure revealed markers consistent with higher numbers of photoreceptor cells in aging and supplemented mice. We know of no other treatment with such efficacy, highlighting the potential for prevention or amelioration of human neuropathologies that are similarly associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular dysfunction. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:382-404, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Diapocynin, a dimer of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, reduces ROS production and prevents force loss in eccentrically contracting dystrophic muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M Ismail

    Full Text Available Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches.

  19. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  20. Curcumin inhibition of JNKs prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease through suppressing mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.

  1. Recurrent thrombosis prevention with intravenous immunoglobulin and hydroxychloroquine during pregnancy in a patient with history of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome and pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Nataliya; Kosowicz, Rebecca; Hook, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 36-year old patient with prior history of thrombosis in a setting of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) as well as pregnancy-associated catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), resulting in multi-organ infarction and pregnancy loss. The episode of CAPS occurred while she was receiving antepartum low-dose aspirin and therapeutic-dose enoxaparin. This patient presented again at 6 weeks gestation and ultrasounds were consistent with fetal growth restriction, concerning for placental insufficiency and thrombosis. This time, hydroxychloroquine and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions were added to her prophylaxis regimen, resulting in a successful delivery. Platelet count and antiphospholipid antibody titers were routinely monitored throughout pregnancy as markers of disease activity for APS. Current thromboprophylaxis guidelines do not address therapeutic options to prevent further pregnancy morbidity in women who develop recurrent episodes of thrombosis or CAPS despite receiving adequate anti-thrombotic treatment. Use of hydroxychloroquine and IVIG has been associated with good outcomes in this subset of patients.

  2. Mechanisms of deterioration of intermediate moisture food systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A study of shelf stability in intermediate moisture foods was made. Major efforts were made to control lipid oxidation and nonenzymatic browning. In order to determine means of preventing these reactions, model systems were developed having the same water activity content relationship of intermediate moisture foods. Models were based on a cellulose-lipid and protein-lipid system with glycerol added as the humectant. Experiments with both systems indicate that lipid oxidation is promoted significantly in the intermediate moisture range. The effect appeared to be related to increased mobility of either reactants or catalysts, since when the amount of water in the system reached a level where capillary condensation occurred and thus free water was present, the rates of oxidation increased. With added glycerol, which is water soluble and thus increases the amount of mobile phase, the increase in oxidation rate occurs at a lower relative humidity. The rates of oxidation were maximized at 61% RH and decreased again at 75% RH probably due to dilution. No significant non-enzymatic browning occurred in the protein-lipid systems. Prevention of oxidation by the use of metal chelating agents was enhanced in the cellulose system, whereas, with protein present, the lipid soluble chain terminating antioxidants (such as BHA) worked equally as well. Preliminary studies of foods adjusted to the intermediate moisture range bear out the results of oxidation in model systems. It can be concluded that for most fat containing intermediate moisture foods, rancidity will be the reaction most limiting stability.

  3. Study on the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during germination by using segmented moisture conditioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yinping; Jia, Fuguo; Han, Yanlong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during the process of germination. The process of water addition in brown rice could be divided into three stages according to different water absorption speeds in soaking process. Water was added with three different speeds in three stages to get the optimal water adding rate in the whole process of germination. Thus, the technology of segmented moisture conditioning which is a method of adding water gradually was put forward. Germinated brown rice was produced by using segmented moisture conditioning method to reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients and was beneficial to the accumulation of gamma aminobutyric acid. The effects of once moisture adding amount in three stages on the gamma aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice and germination rate of brown rice were investigated by using response surface methodology. The optimum process parameters were obtained as follows: once moisture adding amount of stage I with 1.06 %/h, once moisture adding amount of stage II with 1.42 %/h and once moisture adding amount of stage III with 1.31 %/h. The germination rate under the optimum parameters was 91.33 %, which was 7.45 % higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (84.97 %). The content of gamma aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice under the optimum parameters was 29.03 mg/100 g, which was more than two times higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (12.81 mg/100 g). The technology of segmented moisture conditioning has potential applications for studying many other cereals.

  4. Characterization of Soil Moisture Level for Rice and Maize Crops using GSM Shield and Arduino Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gines, G. A.; Bea, J. G.; Palaoag, T. D.

    2018-03-01

    Soil serves a medium for plants growth. One factor that affects soil moisture is drought. Drought has been a major cause of agricultural disaster. Agricultural drought is said to occur when soil moisture is insufficient to meet crop water requirements, resulting in yield losses. In this research, it aimed to characterize soil moisture level for Rice and Maize Crops using Arduino and applying fuzzy logic. System architecture for soil moisture sensor and water pump were the basis in developing the equipment. The data gathered was characterized by applying fuzzy logic. Based on the results, applying fuzzy logic in validating the characterization of soil moisture level for Rice and Maize crops is accurate as attested by the experts. This will help the farmers in monitoring the soil moisture level of the Rice and Maize crops.

  5. Effect of oil films on moisture vapor absorption on human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keis, K; Huemmer, C L; Kamath, Y K

    2007-01-01

    In this paper sorption and desorption of water vapor on hair fibers treated with various oils is investigated, using a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) apparatus. Results show lower "equilibrium" sorption of moisture for various oil-treated samples compared to the untreated sample. Coconut oil-treated hair had a higher regain than mineral oil-treated hair. Although treating the hair samples with oil reduced moisture pickup, a considerable amount of moisture vapor was still able to penetrate into hair fibers. Calculated hysteresis plots show that the samples treated with different oils have slightly higher moisture retention at low relative humidities compared to that of the untreated sample, which suggests a beneficial effect. The calculated moisture diffusion coefficients for oil-treated samples were much lower compared to the untreated hair fibers, suggesting that surface oil films and penetrated oil molecules form a diffusion barrier. A moisture diffusion model is discussed in terms of the possible role of fiber swelling on restrictive narrowing of the cell membrane complexes (CMCs), which form the diffusion pathways in the fiber. The effect of film thickness on moisture absorption and the reverting of the sorption isotherm to that of the untreated hair after removal of the oil film shows that oil film is the main resistance to moisture diffusion. The lowering of the diffusion coefficient of water vapor by oil films will slow the loss of moisture, an effect similar to "moisturization" of hair.

  6. Measurement of final container residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J C; Wheeler, R M; Etz, N; Del Grosso, A

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research has changed its regulations pertaining to residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products as published in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations for Food and Drugs. The new regulation requires that each lot of dried product be tested for residual moisture and meet and not exceed established limits as specified by an approved method on file in the product license application. The gravimetric or loss-on-drying method is no longer listed as the required method; the 1.0% moisture limit is no longer specifically stated in the regulation. These revisions were made to bring the regulation into line with changes in residual moisture testing methods and the results obtained when new testing methods were applied to the determination of residual moisture. This is illustrated with data for Measles Virus Vaccine Live and Haemophilus b Polysaccharide Vaccine using final container residual moisture test results obtained by the gravimetric, coulometric Karl Fischer, thermogravimetric and thermogravimetric/mass spectrometric methods. Guidelines for the determination of residual moisture in dried biological products have been issued to describe residual moisture test methods and procedures used to set product residual moisture limits. For most products levels of residual moisture should be low, usually from less than 1.0% to 3.0%, so that the viability, immunologic potency and therefore the stability of the product is not compromised over time.

  7. Does massage postapplication improve moisturizer's efficacy? A 2-week regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saja H; Assakir, Intesar; Almalty, Abdul-Majeed; Bweir, Salameh

    2012-09-01

    Combining massage with moisturizer application is a popular technique in beauty spa sessions. The subjective positive psychological effects of massage with moisturizer application in hand and face beauty treatment are documented by many people attending spa sessions. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the effect of local effleurage massage as an external intervention on moisturizer efficacy. In a regression-type study of 2-week, twice-daily application followed by 1 week of regression, 13 female subjects applied "off the shelf" moisturizer twice daily on both forearms followed by 1 min superficial massage for one forearm randomized among subjects. The influence of massage after moisturizer application on skin barrier properties was evaluated by noninvasive measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, and skin elasticity at baseline, day 7, and day 14 during the treatment phase, and day 21 following a 1-week regression period, in which no moisturizer and no massage were performed on forearms. The tested "off the shelf" moisturizer in both "massage" and "no-massage" application protocols caused a comparable progressive improvement in skin hydration level and barrier permeability over the 2-week treatment period, which was maintained during the 1-week regression (no moisturizer) period. In addition, skin elasticity was similarly improved by both application protocols. In this long-term study, the daily performance of massage after moisturizer application was not an effective external intervention for enhancing moisturizer efficacy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Influence of soil moisture on uptake and utilization of applied nitrogen in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, S.; Raj Kumar, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with pot-grown young tea plants to study N uptake under different soil moisture regime. Labelled urea nitrogen was found effectively utilized under rainfed conditions. However, N loss through percolation/leaching in response to saturated moisture was as high as 33.3%. Plants grown under controlled conditions utilized less amount of applied N and the rest was retained in the soil. Unaccounted loss, in both the cases, was approximately 9%. Fertilizer-use efficiency of young tea plants under rain fed conditions was about 35% while it was 15% under moisture deficient conditions. Results on N balance in tea soils are discussed. (author)

  9. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  10. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  11. Process for improving moisture resistance of epoxy resins by addition of chromium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.clair, A. K.; Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, T. L.; Singh, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A process for improving the moisture resistance properties of epoxidized TGMDA and DGEBA resin system by chemically incorporating chromium ions is described. The addition of chromium ions is believed to prevent the absorption of water molecules.

  12. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  13. A Study on the Application of Near Infrared Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging for Monitoring Moisture Content and Water Activity in Low Moisture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content and water activity are key parameters in predicting the stability of low moisture content products. However, conventional methods for moisture content and water activity determination (e.g., loss on drying method, ‎Karl Fischer titration, dew point method are time consuming, demand specialized equipment and are not amenable to online processing. For this reason they are typically applied at-line on a limited number of samples. Near infrared hyperspectral chemical imaging is an emerging technique for spatially characterising the spectral properties of samples. Due to the fast acquisition of chemical images, many samples can be evaluated simultaneously, thus providing the potential for online evaluation of samples during processing. In this study, the potential of NIR chemical imaging for predicting the moisture content and water activity of a selection of low moisture content food systems is evaluated.

  14. A study on the application of near infrared hyperspectral chemical imaging for monitoring moisture content and water activity in low moisture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achata, Eva; Esquerre, Carlos; O'Donnell, Colm; Gowen, Aoife

    2015-02-03

    Moisture content and water activity are key parameters in predicting the stability of low moisture content products. However, conventional methods for moisture content and water activity determination (e.g., loss on drying method, ‎Karl Fischer titration, dew point method) are time consuming, demand specialized equipment and are not amenable to online processing. For this reason they are typically applied at-line on a limited number of samples. Near infrared hyperspectral chemical imaging is an emerging technique for spatially characterising the spectral properties of samples. Due to the fast acquisition of chemical images, many samples can be evaluated simultaneously, thus providing the potential for online evaluation of samples during processing. In this study, the potential of NIR chemical imaging for predicting the moisture content and water activity of a selection of low moisture content food systems is evaluated.

  15. Synergistic role of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy to prevent bone loss in rats following exposure to simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Prakash

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available D Prakash, J BehariSchool of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to use capacitive coupling of pulsed electromagnetic field (CC-PEMF and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp as a countermeasure to prevent osteoporosis induced by simulated microgravity. We used the hind-limb suspension (HLS rat model to simulate microgravity-induced bone losses for 45 days. In order to compare the resulting changes, mineralogical (bone mineral density [BMD], calcium [Ca], and phosphorus [P], biochemical (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and type I collagen, and histological (scanning electron microscopy parameters were adopted. As a countermeasure to the above, the effect of PEMF and HAp application were examined. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (n = 8, HLS (n = 8, HLS with PEMF (n = 8, HLS with HAp nanoparticles (n = 8, and HLS with HAp and PEMF (n = 8. We observed: 1 significant decrease (p < 0.01 in BMD, Ca, P, type I collagen, and ALP activity in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin in HLS rats as compared with the ground control. 2 Nonsignificant increase in BMD (p < 0.1, Ca (p < 0.1, P (p < 0.5, type I collagen (p < 0.1, and ALP activity (p < 0.5 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin (p < 0.5 in HLS + PEMF rats compared with HLS rats. 3 Significant increase in BMD (p < 0.02, Ca (p < 0.05, P (p < 0.05, type I collagen (p < 0.02, and ALP activity (p > 0.02 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone with a nonsignificant increase in serum osteocalcin (p > 0.1 in HLS + HAp rats compared to HLS rats. 4 Significant increase in BMD (p > 0.01. Ca (p > 0.01. P (p > 0.01. type I collagen (p > 0.01. and ALP activity (p > 0.01 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin (p > 0.02 were also observed. Results suggest that a combination of low level PEMF and Hap nanoparticles has potential to control

  16. Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-08

    Uncontrolled excess moisture in buildings is a common problem that can lead to changes in fungal communities. In buildings, moisture parameters can be classified by location and include assessments of moisture in the air, at a surface, or within a material. These parameters are not equivalent in dynamic indoor environments, which makes moisture-induced fungal growth in buildings a complex occurrence. In order to determine the circumstances that lead to such growth, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of in situ moisture measurement, the influence of building factors on moisture parameters, and the levels of these moisture parameters that lead to indoor fungal growth. Currently, there are disagreements in the literature on this topic. A literature review was conducted specifically on moisture-induced fungal growth on gypsum drywall. This review revealed that there is no consistent measurement approach used to characterize moisture in laboratory and field studies, with relative humidity measurements being most common. Additionally, many studies identify a critical moisture value, below which fungal growth will not occur. The values defined by relative humidity encompassed the largest range, while those defined by moisture content exhibited the highest variation. Critical values defined by equilibrium relative humidity were most consistent, and this is likely due to equilibrium relative humidity being the most relevant moisture parameter to microbial growth, since it is a reasonable measure of moisture available at surfaces, where fungi often proliferate. Several sources concur that surface moisture, particularly liquid water, is the prominent factor influencing microbial changes and that moisture in the air and within a material are of lesser importance. However, even if surface moisture is assessed, a single critical moisture level to prevent fungal growth cannot be defined, due to a number of factors, including variations in fungal genera and

  17. Gain-Framed Messages Do Not Motivate Sun Protection: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Trials Comparing Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Appeals for Promoting Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Daniel J.; Wu, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain—with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage. PMID:22829794

  18. Skin moisturizing effects of panthenol-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Flávio B; Gaspar, Lorena R; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the skin moisturizing efficacy of formulations containing different concentrations of panthenol. Formulations supplemented with or without 0.5%, 1.0%, or 5.0% panthenol were applied daily to the forearms of healthy subjects. Skin conditions in terms of moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were analyzed before and after 15- and 30-day periods of application. The formulations were also applied after skin washing with sodium laureth sulphate (SLES) to evaluate the immediate effects on TEWL and skin moisture. Panthenol-containing formulations (1.0% and 5.0%) produced significant decreases in TEWL after 30-day applications. In skin washed with SLES, significant reduction of TEWL was evident two hours after application of formulations loaded with panthenol when compared with control and vehicle. It is concluded that skin integrity is maintained by the improved protective effect of 1.0% panthenol added to the formulation.

  19. Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) causes peripheral remodeling and does not prevent photoreceptor loss in canine RPGR mutant retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, William A; Wen, Rong; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2007-04-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) rescues photoreceptors in several animal models of retinal degeneration and is currently being evaluated as a potential treatment for retinitis pigmentosa in humans. This study was conducted to test whether CNTF prevents photoreceptor cell loss in XLPRA2, an early onset canine model of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa caused by a frameshift mutation in RPGR exon ORF15. Four different treatment regimens of CNTF were tested in XLPRA2 dogs. Under anesthesia, the animals received at different ages an intravitreal injection of 12 microg of CNTF in the left eye. The right eye served as a control and was injected with a similar volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Ocular examinations were performed regularly during the treatment periods. At termination, the dogs were euthanatized, eyes collected and the retinas were processed for embedding in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) medium. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was evaluated on H&E sections and values in both CNTF- and PBS-treated eyes were compared. Morphologic alterations in the peripheral retina were characterized by immunohistochemistry using cell-specific markers. Cell proliferation in the retinas was examined on semi-thin plastic sections, and by BrdU pulse-labeling and Ki67 immunohistochemistry on cryosections. All CNTF-treated eyes showed early clinical signs of corneal epitheliopathy, subcapsular cataracts and uveitis. No statistically significant difference in ONL thickness was seen between the CNTF- and PBS-injected eyes. Prominent retinal remodeling that consisted in an abnormal increase in the number of rods, and in misplacement of some rods, cones, bipolar and Müller cells, was observed in the peripheral retina of CNTF-treated eyes. This was only seen when CNTF was in injected before the age at which the canine retina reaches full maturation. In XLPRA2 dogs, intravitreal injections of CNTF failed to prevent photoreceptors from undergoing cell death in the

  20. Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) causes peripheral remodeling and does not prevent photoreceptor loss in canine RPGR mutant retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, William A.; Wen, Rong; Acland, Gregory M.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2009-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) rescues photoreceptors in several animal models of retinal degeneration and is currently being evaluated as a potential treatment for retinitis pigmentosa in humans. This study was conducted to test whether CNTF prevents photoreceptor cell loss in XLPRA2, an early onset canine model of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa caused by a frameshift mutation in RPGR exon ORF15. Four different treatment regimens of CNTF were tested in XLPRA2 dogs. Under anesthesia, the animals received at different ages an intravitreal injection of 12 μg of CNTF in the left eye. The right eye served as a control and was injected with a similar volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Ocular examinations were performed regularly during the treatment periods. At termination, the dogs were euthanatized, eyes collected and the retinas were processed for embedding in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) medium. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was evaluated on H&E sections and values in both CNTF- and PBS-treated eyes were compared. Morphologic alterations in the peripheral retina were characterized by immunohistochemistry using cell-specific markers. Cell proliferation in the retinas was examined on semi-thin plastic sections, and by BrdU pulse-labeling and Ki67 immunohistochemistry on cryosections. All CNTF-treated eyes showed early clinical signs of corneal epitheliopathy, subcapsular cataracts and uveitis. No statistically significant difference in ONL thickness was seen between the CNTF- and PBS-injected eyes. Prominent retinal remodeling that consisted in an abnormal increase in the number of rods, and in misplacement of some rods, cones, bipolar and Müller cells, was observed in the peripheral retina of CNTF-treated eyes. This was only seen when CNTF was in injected before the age at which the canine retina reaches full maturation. In XLPRA2 dogs, intravitreal injections of CNTF failed to prevent photoreceptors from undergoing cell death in the

  1. Blanching and drying period affect moisture loss and vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the effect of pre-drying treatment, drying method and the subsequent duration of storage on the quality attributes of Z. mauritiana fruits harvested from the Zambezi Valley. The vitamin C content was high at the beginning of the drying period and progressively decreased as the drying increased, and was lowest at ...

  2. Crib orientation and initial moisture content effects on storage loss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les indices de stockage étudiés étaient le pourcentage cumulatif de la perte de poids, la vitesse de séchage, l'insecte, les dégâts fongiques et les changements de contenus d'acide gras libre. Il n'y avait pas de différences considérables (P > 0.001) entre le pourcentage cumulatif de la perte de poids du maos dans les deux ...

  3. Model Based Control of Moisture Sorption in a Historical Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel scheme for microclimate control in historical exhibition rooms, inhibiting moisture sorption phenomena that are inadmissible from the preventive conservation point of view. The impact of air humidity is the most significant harmful exposure for a great deal of the cultural heritage deposited in remote historical buildings. Leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, the proposed non-linear model-based control protects exhibits from harmful variations in moisture content by compensating the temperature drifts with an adequate adjustment of the air humidity. Already implemented in a medieval interior since 1999, the proposed microclimate control has proved capable of permanently maintaining constant a desirable moisture content in organic or porous materials in the interior of a building. 

  4. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    pressure and weight data can be "translated" to pore geometry by known physical relationships. In this context, analytical descriptions are important which can relate moisture condensation in pore structures to ambient vapor pressure. Such a description, the extended BET-relation, is presented...... physical parameters, the so-called BET-parameters: The heat property factor, C, and the pore surface, SBET (derived from the so-called uni-molecular moisture content uBET). A software ‘SORP07’ has been developed to handle any calculations made in the paper. For readers who have a special interest...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  5. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  6. Two randomized, controlled, comparative studies of the stratum corneum integrity benefits of two cosmetic niacinamide/glycerin body moisturizers vs. conventional body moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Jeremy C; Fix, Deborah K; Lucus, Sawanna C; Watson, Debrah; Desmier, Emma; Wilkerson, Rolanda J Johnson; Fixler, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous body moisturizers being available, cosmetic xerosis continues to be a leading skin problem for consumers. We performed two 35-day studies to evaluate the ability of a variety of body moisturizers containing various levels of oils/lipids, humectants, as well as other ingredients (e.g., niacinamide) to improve stratum corneum integrity. 63 and 58 female subjects were enrolled and randomized in an incomplete block design to six of nine products (eight moisturizers or no treatment control) in studies 1 and 2, respectively. The primary endpoints included visual dryness by a qualified skin grader, skin hydration as measured by Corneometer, and barrier integrity as measured by transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The primary comparisons for the two niacinamide/glycerin moisturizers were to the other six moisturizers and to the no treatment control for each endpoint. The two niacinamide/glycerin moisturizers demonstrated an overall better solution towards rapid and prolonged improvement of cosmetic xerosis due to functional improvement of stratum corneum barrier function compared to no treatment and the other moisturizers tested. These studies establish the benefit of including niacinamide in a body moisturizer to improve the integrity of the stratum corneum and thus reduce cosmetic xerosis over time.

  7. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...... the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account...

  8. Determination of moisture content of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Ralph E; Lam, Joseph W; Windust, Anthony; Grinberg, Patricia; Zeisler, Rolf; Oflaz, Rabia; Paul, Rick L; Lang, Brian E; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Simard, Benoit; Kingston, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    Several techniques were evaluated for the establishment of reliable water/moisture content of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Karl Fischer titration (KF) provides a direct measure of the water content and was used for benchmarking against results obtained by conventional oven drying, desiccation over anhydrous magnesium perchlorate as well as by thermogravimetry and prompt gamma-ray activation analysis. Agreement amongst results was satisfactory with the exception of thermogravimetry, although care must be taken with oven drying as it is possible to register mass gain after an initial moisture loss if prolonged drying time or elevated temperatures (120 °C) are used. Thermogravimetric data were precise but a bias was evident that could be accounted for by considering the non-selective loss of mass as volatile carbonaceous components. Simple drying over anhydrous magnesium perchlorate for a minimum period of 8-10 days is recommended if KF is not available for this measurement.

  9. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  10. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Conductive hearing loss (CHL) occurs because of a mechanical problem in the outer or middle ear. This may be ...

  11. Liraglutide and obesity in elderly: efficacy in fat loss and safety in order to prevent sarcopenia. A perspective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Guido, Davide; Bologna, Chiara; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Guerriero, Fabio; Isu, Antonio; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-12-01

    For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue (liraglutide) appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Given this background, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the liraglutide treatment, at doses up to 3.0 mg per day, on the body composition, focusing on sarcopenia, in overweight and obese elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A perspective study was carried out in overweight and obese T2DM patients with HbA1c equal to 7.0 % (53 mmol/mol) ~10.0 % (86), under 3-month treatment (at least) of maximal dose of metformin at stable regime, and additional liraglutide at doses up to 3.0 mg per day. Body composition markers such as skeletal muscle index (SMI), android and gynoid fat mass, and arms and legs fat free mass, was measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA) at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was also carried out by glucose and HbA1c. Nine subjects (male/female 6/3, mean age 68.22 ± 3.86 years, BMI 32.34 ± 4.89 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated. We noted a median decrease in BMI (-0.78 kg/m 2 ), weight (-2000 g), fat mass (-1498 g) and android fat (-0.9 %), and a increase in SMI (+0.03 kg/m 2 ) from baseline. Glycemic control also improved, with a median change HbA1c of -0.80 %. Twenty-four weeks of liraglutide treatment was associated with reductions in fat mass and android fat. In addition, in order to prevent sarcopenia, it preserved the muscular tropism.

  12. Predictors of loss to follow-up among children registered in an HIV prevention mother-to-child transmission cohort study in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Pedro Alves da Cruz; da Silva, Gerlane Alves Pontes; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fatima Pessoa Militão

    2014-11-27

    Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) is the major form of acquiring the disease among children. The loss to follow-up (LTF) of mothers and their children is a problem that affects the effectiveness of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). The aim of this study is to identify risk factors associated with the LTF of HIV-exposed children in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 1200 HIV-exposed children born between 2000 and 2009, registered up to the age of 2 months in a public health PMTCT program. Children were considered LTF if they did not return for scheduled visits to monitor infection status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for LTF. A total of 185 children (15.4%; CI: 95%: 13.4-17.4%) met the case definition of LTF before the determination of serological HIV status. Risk factors independently associated with LTF were mother-child pairs who reside in rural and remote areas (OR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.30-2.66) and mothers who use illicit drugs (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.08-3.0). Initiation of the PMTCT during pregnancy was a protective factor for LTF (OR 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96). The decentralization of support services for HIV-exposed children to other cities in the state seems to be crucial for the accurate monitoring of outcomes. It is also important to introduce additional measures addressing mothers who are drug users so that they remain in the program: an intensive follow-up program that actively searches for absentee mother-child pairs, support from social services and treatment for drug-dependency. The findings of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing mothers as early as possible in order to conduct a more complete follow-up period of the children. Solving the above-mentioned problems is a challenge, which must be overcome so as to improve the quality of PMTCT.

  13. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  14. A randomized phase III prospective trial of bethanechol to prevent mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. A secondary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jham, B.C.; Chen, H.; Carvalho, A.L.; Freire, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bethanechol administration concomitant to radiotherapy (RT) on oral mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss. We performed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective randomized trial which evaluated the effect of bethanechol on salivary gland dysfunction before, during, and after RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), in comparison to artificial saliva. Mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss were analyzed in 36 patients. Mucositis was scored using the World Health Organization (WHO) method; candidiasis was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, whereas taste loss was assessed by the patients' subjective report of absence of taste. No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to frequency and severity of mucositis or frequency of candidiasis and taste loss. In conclusion, bethanechol does not appear to reduce the incidence of mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss when administered during RT. (author)

  15. Moisture migration in concrete. Final report. Technical report C-75-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.E.

    1975-05-01

    In an effort to obtain information regarding the nature of moisture movement and rate of moisture loss in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), an experimental study of moisture migration in a pie-shaped specimen representing the flow path through a cylindrical wall of a PCRV was initiated. After casting of the test specimen, temperature distribution, shrinkage, and moisture distribution were monitored for approximately 510 days. After this initial monitoring, a temperature difference of 80 0 F was applied to the specimen, and the above-mentioned measurements were continued for an additional test period of one year. Results indicate that moisture migration in thick sections of concrete, such as a PCRV, is a slow process and is not likely to be a significant factor with temperature differences of 80 0 F or less. 15 references. (auth)

  16. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  17. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humidifiers: Air moisture eases skin, breathing symptoms Humidifiers can ease problems caused by dry air. But they need regular maintenance. Here ... that emit water vapor or steam to increase moisture levels in the air (humidity). There are several ...

  18. Physically plausible prescription of land surface model soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, René; Thiery, Wim; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Land surface hydrology is an important control of surface weather and climate, especially under extreme dry or wet conditions where it can amplify heat waves or floods, respectively. Prescribing soil moisture in land surface models is a valuable technique to investigate this link between hydrology and climate. It has been used for example to assess the influence of soil moisture on temperature variability, mean and extremes (Seneviratne et al. 2006, 2013, Lorenz et al., 2015). However, perturbing the soil moisture content artificially can lead to a violation of the energy and water balances. Here we present a new method for prescribing soil moisture which ensures water and energy balance closure by using only water from runoff and a reservoir term. If water is available, the method prevents soil moisture decrease below climatological values. Results from simulations with the Community Land Model (CLM) indicate that our new method allows to avoid soil moisture deficits in many regions of the world. We show the influence of the irrigation-supported soil moisture content on mean and extreme temperatures and contrast our findings with that of earlier studies. Additionally, we will assess how long into the 21st century the new method will be able to maintain present-day climatological soil moisture levels for different regions. Lorenz, R., Argüeso, D., Donat, M.G., Pitman, A.J., den Hurk, B.V., Berg, A., Lawrence, D.M., Chéruy, F., Ducharne, A., Hagemann, S. and Meier, A., 2015. Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on temperature and precipitation extremes in the GLACE-CMIP5 ensemble. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. Seneviratne, S.I., Lüthi, D., Litschi, M. and Schär, C., 2006. Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443(7108), pp.205-209. Seneviratne, S.I., Wilhelm, M., Stanelle, T., Hurk, B., Hagemann, S., Berg, A., Cheruy, F., Higgins, M.E., Meier, A., Brovkin, V. and Claussen, M., 2013. Impact of soil moisture

  19. HIV-positive pregnant women attending the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS (PMTCT) services in Ethiopia: economic productivity losses across urban-rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Mbonigaba, Josue; Kaye, Sylvia Blanche

    2018-06-01

    HIV/AIDS impacts significantly on pregnant women and on children in Ethiopia. This impact has a multiplier effect on household economies and on productivity losses, and is expected to vary across rural and urban settings. Applying the human capital approach to data collected from 131 respondents, this study estimated productivity losses per HIV-positive pregnant woman-infant pair across urban and rural health facilities in Ethiopia, which in turn were used to estimate the national productivity loss. The study found that the annual productivity loss per woman-infant pair was Ethiopian birr (ETB) 7,433 or United States dollar (US$) 378 and ETB 625 (US$ 32) in urban and rural settings, respectively. The mean patient days lost per year due to inpatient admission at hospitals/health centres was 11 in urban and 22 in rural health facilities. On average, urban home care-givers spent 20 (SD = 21) days annually providing home care services, while their rural counterparts spent 23 days (SD = 26). The productivity loss accounted for 16% and 7% of household income in urban and rural settings, respectively. These high and varying productivity losses require preventive interventions that are appropriate to each setting to ensure the welfare of women and children in Ethiopia.

  20. Study on the behavior of moisture droplets in low pressure steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Y.; Kuramoto, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Etsu, M.

    1978-01-01

    Low pressure stages of fossil turbines and almost all stages of nuclear and geothermal turbines operate on wet steam. Turbine operating on wet steam have the following two disadvantages: decrease of efficiency and erosion of blades. Decrease of efficiency results from an increase in profile loss caused by water films on the blade surface; loss of steam energy in breaking up the films and accelerating moisture droplets; undercooling and condensation shocks associated with it; velocity difference between water and steam phases and consequent decelerating action of moisture droplets in the rotating blades, etc. Impingement of moisture droplets on the rotating blades also causes quick erosion of the blades. In this paper, the behavior of moisture droplets in wet steam flow is described and the correlation between their behavior and the abovementioned two disadvantages of turbines operating on wet steam is clarified. (author)

  1. Moisture migration and drying properties of hardened cement paste and mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numao, T.; Fukuzawa, K.; Mihashi, H.

    1993-01-01

    Moisture content and movement have a significant influence on mechanical properties of concrete. Therefore, many studies have been done on the migration or loss of water in concrete mostly without any external loads. Concrete in actual structures, however, is usually under stresses. As the microstructure of concrete is changed by the load, the observed moisture movement phenomena may be changed. Hence it is necessary to study the moisture migration in concrete under compressive stress in order to estimate rationally the mechanical behavior such as creep and shrinkage in actual concrete structures. In this paper, the influence of compressive stress on moisture migration and water loss of hardened cement paste were studied experimentally and analytically. Furthermore, comparing them with the results of mortar specimens, the influence of containing aggregates was also discussed

  2. Effect of a moisturizer on skin susceptibility to NiCl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Claus; Held, Elisabeth; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a moisturizer used on normal skin can increase skin response to allergens. Twelve nickel-allergic volunteers applied a lipid-rich moisturizer on the upper arm 3 times daily for 7 days, while the other upper arm served as a control. A control group...... followed the same treatment protocol. Following treatment with moisturizer, patch tests with 1% NiCl2 aqueous solution were applied on each upper arm. After 24 and 72 h, skin reactions were evaluated blinded by clinical scoring, and by bioengineering methods measuring transepidermal water loss, skin colour...... and skin thickness. In the nickel-allergic group the strength of patch-test reactions was increased on the moisturizer-treated arm as evaluated by clinical scoring after 24 h and by measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin thickness after 72 h. In the control group, no significant differences were...

  3. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  4. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  5. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1715 - Moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moisture control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping... § 154.1715 Moisture control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a... a cargo tank carrying sulfur dioxide during discharging or tank breathing has a moisture content...

  7. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  8. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  9. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  10. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  11. The soil moisture velocity equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Allen, Myron B.; Lai, Wencong; Zhu, Jianting; Seo, Mookwon; Douglas, Craig C.; Talbot, Cary A.

    2017-06-01

    Numerical solution of the one-dimensional Richards' equation is the recommended method for coupling groundwater to the atmosphere through the vadose zone in hyperresolution Earth system models, but requires fine spatial discretization, is computationally expensive, and may not converge due to mathematical degeneracy or when sharp wetting fronts occur. We transformed the one-dimensional Richards' equation into a new equation that describes the velocity of moisture content values in an unsaturated soil under the actions of capillarity and gravity. We call this new equation the Soil Moisture Velocity Equation (SMVE). The SMVE consists of two terms: an advection-like term that accounts for gravity and the integrated capillary drive of the wetting front, and a diffusion-like term that describes the flux due to the shape of the wetting front capillarity profile divided by the vertical gradient of the capillary pressure head. The SMVE advection-like term can be converted to a relatively easy to solve ordinary differential equation (ODE) using the method of lines and solved using a finite moisture-content discretization. Comparing against analytical solutions of Richards' equation shows that the SMVE advection-like term is >99% accurate for calculating infiltration fluxes neglecting the diffusion-like term. The ODE solution of the SMVE advection-like term is accurate, computationally efficient and reliable for calculating one-dimensional vadose zone fluxes in Earth system and large-scale coupled models of land-atmosphere interaction. It is also well suited for use in inverse problems such as when repeat remote sensing observations are used to infer soil hydraulic properties or soil moisture.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummarySince its original publication in 1922, the so-called Richards' equation has been the only rigorous way to couple groundwater to the land surface through the unsaturated zone that lies between the water table and land surface. The soil

  12. A simulation test of the impact on soil moisture by agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... 500 cm2 separately by calculating the length and width of its tires in case of tires' variant for pressure (Chen 1981), and thus their respective ground pressure ratios are 201.9 kPa and 121.5 ... cm depth, which is for the measure error and the low impaction by load on soil moisture. The loss of soil moisture ...

  13. Instrumentation to Estimate the Moisture Content in Bread Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chintan M. BHATT; J. NAGARAJU

    2008-01-01

    Bread undergoes several physicochemical, sensory and microbial changes during storage that results in a rapid loss of freshness. These changes depend on the moisture content present in the bread product. An instrument based on impedance spectroscopy technique has been designed to estimate moisture content in bread during storage. It is a portable low cost instrument with multichannel ring electrodes suitable for simultaneous measurement of impedance at different zones of bread loaf. A dedicat...

  14. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  15. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  16. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... and with the cracking behaviour of Norway spruce discs. The spruce was dried from green moisture content down to equilibrium moisture content at 23°C and 64% relative humidity. Moisture-related strains and crack development were measured using a digital image correlation system, Aramis. The moisture gradient...

  17. Heat and moisture exchanger: importance of humidification in anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vandana

    2008-08-01

    Adequate humidification is vital to maintain homeostasis of the airway. Heat and moisture exchangers conserve some of the exhaled water, heat and return them to inspired gases. Many heat and moisture exchangers also perfom bacterial/viral filtration and prevent inhalation of small particles. Heat and moisture exchangers are also called condenser humidifier, artificial nose, etc. Most of them are disposable devices with exchanging medium enclosed in a plastic housing. For adult and paediatric age group different dead space types are available. Heat and moisture exchangers are helpful during anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system. To reduce the damage of the upper respiratory tract through cooling and dehydration inspiratory air can be heated and humidified, thus preventing the serious complications.

  18. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; McEwen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    Context: For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. Objective: To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Methods: Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Results: Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Conclusions: Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that

  19. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Tudor, Jennifer C.; Ferri, Sarah L.; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the

  20. SMAP Radiometer Soil Moisture Downscaling in CONUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.; Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing technology has been providing soil moisture observations for the study of the global hydrological cycle for land-air interactions, ecology and agriculture. Passive microwave sensors that have provided operational products include AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System), AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2), SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), as and SMAP (Soil Moisture Active/Passive). The SMAP radiometer provides soil moisture with a grid resolution of 9 km. However, higher spatial resolution soil moisture is still required for various applications in weather, agriculture and watershed studies. This study focuses on providing a higher resolution product by downscaling the SMAP soil moisture over CONUS (Contiguous United States). This algorithm is based on the long term thermal inertia relationship between daily temperature variation and average soil moisture modulated by vegetation. This relationship is modeled using the variables from the NLDAS (North America Land Data Assimilation System) and LTDR (Land Long Term Data Record) from 1981-2016 and is applied to calculate 1 km soil moisture from MODIS land data products and then used to downscale SMAP Level-3 9 km radiometer soil moisture to 1 km over CONUS. The downscaled results are evaluated by comparison with in situ observations from ISMN (International Soil Moisture Network), SMAPVEX (SMAP Validation Experiment), MESONET (Mesoscale Network), Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) and other established networks.

  1. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  2. Estimation of Soil Moisture Under Vegetation Cover at Multiple Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadghuber, Thomas; Hajnsek, Irena; Weiß, Thomas; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture under vegetation cover was estimated by a polarimetric, iterative, generalized, hybrid decomposition and inversion approach at multiple frequencies (X-, C- and L-band). Therefore the algorithm, originally designed for longer wavelength (L-band), was adapted to deal with the short wavelength scattering scenarios of X- and C-band. The Integral Equation Method (IEM) was incorporated together with a pedo-transfer function of Dobson et al. to account for the peculiarities of short wavelength scattering at X- and C-band. DLR's F-SAR system acquired fully polarimetric SAR data in X-, C- and L-band over the Wallerfing test site in Lower Bavaria, Germany in 2014. Simultaneously, soil and vegetation measurements were conducted on different agricultural test fields. The results indicate a spatially continuous inversion of soil moisture in all three frequencies (inversion rates >92%), mainly due to the careful adaption of the vegetation volume removal including a physical constraining of the decomposition algorithm. However, for X- and C-band the inversion results reveal moisture pattern inconsistencies and in some cases an incorrectly high inversion of soil moisture at X-band. The validation with in situ measurements states a stable performance of 2.1- 7.6vol.% at L-band for the entire growing period. At C- and X-band a reliable performance of 3.7-13.4vol.% in RMSE can only be achieved after distinct filtering (X- band) leading to a loss of almost 60% in spatial inversion rate. Hence, a robust inversion for soil moisture estimation under vegetation cover can only be conducted at L-band due to a constant availability of the soil signal in contrast to higher frequencies (X- and C-band).

  3. Thinking of change in terms of gains or losses Promotion versus prevention focus as a moderator in the job demands-resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Petrou

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The study aimed to test moderating effects of promotion and prevention focus within the job demands-resources model in a context of organisational change. Predictors included job demands and resources whilst outcomes included emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change. Motivation for the study: The study intended to understand whether individual differences in promotion and prevention focus play an important role during the experience of organisational change. Research design, approach and method: A sample of 164 teachers from the Netherlands participated in a quantitative survey design before a new governmental policy was implemented in their schools and 189 different teachers working in the same schools participated in the survey after the implementation of the policy. Cross-sectional moderated regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Main findings: Promotion focus moderated the relationship between job demands and openness to change, whilst both promotion and prevention focus moderated many of the relationships between job resources on the one hand and emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change on the other hand. Practical/managerial implications: Knowing that organisational change can have different meanings for promotion and prevention focused employees, managers can facilitate employee adaptation to change. Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework that incorporates self-regulation as a moderator in the job demands-resources model. At the same time, implications for organisational change were co-examined.

  4. Transplantation of osteoporotic bone marrow stromal cells rejuvenated by the overexpression of SATB2 prevents alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongyao; Fu, Zongyun; Liu, Xue; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Jiang, Hongbing

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen-deficient osteoporosis is an aging-related disease with high morbidity that not only significantly increases a woman's risk of fragility fracture but is also associated with tooth and bone loss in the supporting alveolar bone of the jaw. Emerging evidence suggests that the aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contributes to the development of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a stemness and senescence regulator of craniofacial BMSCs, in rat ovariectomy-induced alveolar osteoporosis. We also sought to determine whether transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs could ameliorate estrogen deficient alveolar bone loss. Our data revealed that BMSCs from ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone exhibited typical senescence phenotypes such as diminished stemness and osteogenic capacity, increased expression of senescence or osteoclastic markers and enhanced adipogenic potential. These phenotypic changes are a result of SATB2-mediated senescence dysregulation as evidenced by nuclear γH2AX foci formation. Moreover, overexpression of SATB2 significantly alleviated the senescence of osteoporotic BMSCs in vitro. Importantly, transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs significantly attenuated ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo. Together, our results revealed that SATB2 is a critical regulator of alveolar BMSC senescence, and its overexpression decreases these senescent changes both in vitro and in vivo. SATB2-modified BMSC delivery could be a viable and promising therapeutic strategy for alveolar bone loss induced by estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14...duration of its effects and the value of using biomarkers to guide therapy. Data collection ( bone imaging and biomarkers) occurs at baseline and after 3...the durability of response to zoledronic acid and the utility of serum bone markers to guide therapeutic decision making. DXA imaging, CT imaging

  6. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of

  7. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić; Vesna Lelas; Zoran Herceg; Marija Badanjak

    2010-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food) and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as...

  8. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  9. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation.

  10. Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Analysis by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C. Y.; Lin, H. R.; Chen, Y. L.; Huang, S. Y.; Wen, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    times a day) data to verify the relation between the image hue and the soil moisture for reliable moisture estimated model. And it is better to use the digital single lens reflex camera to prevent the deformation of the image and to have a better auto exposure. Keywords: soil, moisture, remote sensing

  11. Centromere-associated protein-E is essential for the mammalian mitotic checkpoint to prevent aneuploidy due to single chromosome loss

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Beth A.A.; Bonday, Zahid Q.; Putkey, Frances R.; Kops, Geert J.P.L.; Silk, Alain D.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2003-01-01

    Centromere-associated protein-E (CENP-E) is an essential mitotic kinesin that is required for efficient, stable microtubule capture at kinetochores. It also directly binds to BubR1, a kinetochore-associated kinase implicated in the mitotic checkpoint, the major cell cycle control pathway in which unattached kinetochores prevent anaphase onset. Here, we show that single unattached kinetochores depleted of CENP-E cannot block entry into anaphase, resulting in aneuploidy in 25% of divisions in p...

  12. Cassia tora leaves modulates selenite cataract by enhancing antioxidant status and preventing cytoskeletal protein loss in lenses of Sprague Dawley rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-02-03

    Cataract is the clouding or opacity that develops in the eye's lens and is considered to be an unavoidable consequence of aging due to irreversible lens damage. Free radicals and oxidant species are reported to be the major factor responsible for the onset and pathology of cataract. No pharmacological measures are formulated to treat cataract blindness and surgical removal of the opaque lens is the only remedy till date. Boosting of antioxidant potential of the lens is proved to prevent cataract and many indigenous plants have been screened for anticataractogenic potential in the last decades. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Cassia tora leaves; the plant employed in traditional medicine for eye rejuvenation and ailments, can prevent cataract in neonatal rats. Cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite at a dose of 4 μg/g body weight on the 10th day and Cassia tora leaves was administered orally from 8th day upto 12th day at a concentration of 5 μg/g body weight. After 30 days; lens morphology, oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium, glutathione metabolism, cytoskeletal protein/gene expressions were monitored. Lens morphology, biochemical analysis and expression studies supported the anticataractogenic effect of Cassia tora leaves. In summary, it can be suggested that the consumption of these leaves afford protection to the lens with its antioxidant action and seems to be a new therapeutic approach against cataract by preventive protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Portable neutron moisture gage for the moisture determination of structure parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisch, M.

    1985-01-01

    For determining the moisture of structure parts during building or before repairing a portable neutron moisture gage consisting of a neutron probe and pulse analyzer has been developed. The measuring process, calibration, and prerequisites of application are briefly discussed

  14. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A; Grynderup, Matias B; Hansen, Åse M; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper M; Bonde, Jens P; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2017-01-01

    To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. In 2001-2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009-2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A) to 82.8 dB(A), and for workers exposed >85 dB(A), the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (-0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  15. The unsuitability of implantable Doppler probes for the early detection of renal vascular complications - a porcine model for prevention of renal transplant loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdisen, Chris; Jespersen, Bente; Møldrup, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Vascular occlusion is a rare, but serious complication after kidney transplantation often resulting in graft loss. We therefore aimed to develop an experimental porcine model for stepwise reduction of the renal venous blood flow and to compare an implantable Doppler probe....../3 (66%) reduction in renal blood flow. The implantable Doppler probe was not able to detect flow changes until there was total venous occlusion. Microdialysis detected changes in local metabolism after both arterial and venous occlusion; the implantable Doppler probe could only detect vascular...

  16. Experimental study of moisture-driven distortion and fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2010-01-01

    Moisture-induced fracture and lack of shape stability in solid wood products are well known problems to the saw-milling and building industries. Cracks that initiate during the drying process may cause severe material losses and the building industry may be forced to use alternative building...... materials. The cracking caused by kiln-drying of solid timber (and round wood) is extremely difficult to predict due to the strong orthotropic and non-homogeneous characteristics of the material in combination with considerable amounts of microscopic defects which may act as crack initiators....... An experimental study has been performed to reveal the cracking behaviour of Norway spruce during drying from green moisture content down to equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at a temperature of 22-24°C and a RH of 64%. The moisture related strains and crack widths were measured with a digital image correlation...

  17. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions can cause hair loss, including: Hormonal changes. Hormonal changes and imbalances can cause temporary hair loss. This could be due to pregnancy, childbirth or the onset of menopause. Hormone levels are also affected by the thyroid ...

  18. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as ... in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread ...

  19. Moisture ingress prediction in polyisobutylene-based edge seal with molecular sieve desiccant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Nobles, Dylan L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Postak, Lori [Quanex IG Systems, Inc., Cambridge OH 43725 USA; Calderon, Jose Alonzo [First Solar, Inc., Perrysburg OH 43551 USA

    2017-10-26

    Often photovoltaic modules are constructed with materials that are sensitive to water. This is most often the case with thin film technologies, including perovskite cells, where the active layers are a few microns thick and can be sensitive to moisture, liquid water or both. When moisture or liquid water can ingress, a small amount of water can lead to corrosion and depending on the resulting reactions, a larger local detrimental effect is possible. To prevent moisture from contacting photovoltaic components, impermeable frontsheets and backsheets are used with a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based edge seal material around the perimeter. Here, we evaluate the ability of a PIB-based edge seal using a molecular sieve desiccant to keep moisture out for the expected module lifetime. Moisture ingress is evaluated using test coupons where the edge seal is placed between 2 pieces of glass, one of which has a metallic calcium film on it, and monitoring the moisture ingress distance as a function of time. We expose samples to different temperature and humidity conditions to create permeation models useful for extrapolation to field use. This extrapolation indicates that this PIB material is capable of keeping moisture out of a module for the desired lifetime.

  20. Validation of soil moisture ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface soil moisture state controls the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. High-resolution observations of soil moisture will lead to improved flood forecasts, especially for intermediate to large watersheds where most flood damage occurs. Soil moisture is also key in d...

  1. The international soil moisture network: A data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land co...

  2. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss – A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Frederiksen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. Materials and Methods: In 2001–2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009–2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%. Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Results: Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A to 82.8 dB(A, and for workers exposed >85 dB(A, the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (−0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.36; 0.16. The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22. Conclusions: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  3. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss – A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Stokholm, Zara A.; Grynderup, Matias B.; Hansen, Åse M.; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper M.; Bonde, Jens P.; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. Materials and Methods: In 2001–2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009–2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Results: Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A) to 82.8 dB(A), and for workers exposed >85 dB(A), the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (−0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). Conclusions: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs. PMID:29192620

  4. Loss of PINK1 attenuates HIF-1α induction by preventing 4E-BP1-dependent switch in protein translation under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, William; Wadlington, Natasha L; Chen, Linan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Brorson, James R; Kang, Un Jung

    2014-02-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has multiple proposed etiologies with implication of abnormalities in cellular homeostasis ranging from proteostasis to mitochondrial dynamics to energy metabolism. PINK1 mutations are associated with familial PD and here we discover a novel PINK1 mechanism in cellular stress response. Using hypoxia as a physiological trigger of oxidative stress and disruption in energy metabolism, we demonstrate that PINK1(-/-) mouse cells exhibited significantly reduced induction of HIF-1α protein, HIF-1α transcriptional activity, and hypoxia-responsive gene upregulation. Loss of PINK1 impairs both hypoxia-induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation and increase in the ratio of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent to cap-dependent translation. These data suggest that PINK1 mediates adaptive responses by activating IRES-dependent translation, and the impairments in translation and the HIF-1α pathway may contribute to PINK1-associated PD pathogenesis that manifests under cellular stress.

  5. MONITORING SOIL MOISTURE IN A COAL MINING AREA WITH MULTI-PHASE LANDSAT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Kong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coal development zone of Northern Shaanxi, China is one of the eight largest coal mines in the world, also the national energy and chemical bases. However, the coal mining leads to ground surface deformation and previous studies show that in collapse fissure zone soil water losses almost 50% compared with non-fissure zone. The main objective of this study is to develop a retrieval model that is reliable and sensitive to soil moisture in the whole coal mining zone of Northern Shaanxi based upon the soil sample parameters collected from in situ site investigation, spectral data gathered simultaneously and the images of Landsat7 ETM. The model uses different phases of Landsat data to retrieve soil moisture and analyze the patterns of spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture caused by ground deformation in the coal mining areas. The study indicated that band4 of Landsat7 ETM is the most sensitive band for soil moisture retrieval using the spectrum method. The quadratic model developed by remote sensing reflectance (Rrs4 (corresponding to the band4 is the best pattern with the correlation coefficient of 0.858 between the observed and the estimated soil moisture. Two-phase Landsat7 ETM data of 2002 and 2009 and one phase Landsat8 OLI data of 2015 for the study area were selected to retrieve soil moisture information. The result showed that the mean relative error was 35.16% and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE was 0.58%. The changes of the spatial distribution of inversed soil moisture revealed that the trend of soil moisture contents of the study area was in general being gradually reduced from 2002 to 2015. The study results can serve as the baseline for monitoring environmental impacts on soil moisture in the regions due to coal mining.

  6. Estimation of soil moisture and its effect on soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil moisture is an important parameter of the earth's climate system. Regression model for estimation of soil moisture at various depths has been developed using the amount of moisture near the surface layer. The estimated values of soil moisture are tested with the measured moisture values and it is found that the ...

  7. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  8. 7 CFR 868.307 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.307 Section 868.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Application of Standards § 868.307 Moisture. Water content in milled rice as determined by an FGIS approved...

  9. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  10. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...

  11. Moisture detection in composites by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Paweł; Pałka, Norbert; Opoka, Szymon; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-07-01

    The application of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) in many branches of industry has been increasing steadily. Many research works focus on damage identification for structures made out of such materials. However, not only delaminations, cracks or other damage can have a negative influence of GFRP parts performance. Previous research proved that fluid absorption influences the mechanical performance of composites. GFRP parts can be contaminated by moisture or release agent during manufacturing, while fuel, hydraulic fluid and moisture ingression into the composite can be the in-service treats. In the reported research authors focus on moisture detection. There are numerous sources of moisture such as post manufacturing NDT inspection with ultrasonics coupled by water or exposition to moisture during transportation and in service. An NDT tool used for the research is a terahertz (THz) spectrometer. The device uses an electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range (0.1-3 THz) and allows for reflection and transmission measurements. The spectrometer is equipped with moving table that allows for XY scanning of large objects such as GFRP panels. In the conducted research refractive indices were experimentally extracted from the materials of interest (water and GFRP). Time signals as well as C-scans were analysed for samples with moisture contamination. In order to be sure that the observed effects are related to moisture contamination reference measurements were conducted. The obtained results showed that the THz NDT technique can detect moisture hidden under a GFRP with multiple layers.

  12. Comparison of moisture management methods for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different moisture management methods were compared for biodegradation efficiency in sandy and organic soils. The conventional method consisted in maintaining the soil moisture at approximately 50 to 75% field capacity accompanied by daily aeration and mixing. In the test method, the soil was allowed to dry out ...

  13. Soil moisture from operational meteorological satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; De Jeu, R.A.M.; Fernandez, M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  14. Soil moisture from Operational Meteorological Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  15. Multiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Baker, Brett; Renzullo, Luigi; Searle, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in land surface processes and as such there has been a recent increase in the number and resolution of satellite soil moisture observations and the development of land surface process models with ever increasing resolution. Despite these developments, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. A recently developed mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the rover, offers opportunities to overcome this scale issue. This paper describes methods, results and testing of soil moisture estimates produced using rover surveys on a range of scales that are commensurate with model and satellite retrievals. Our investigation involved static cosmic-ray neutron sensors and rover surveys across both broad (36 × 36 km at 9 km resolution) and intensive (10 × 10 km at 1 km resolution) scales in a cropping district in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. We describe approaches for converting rover survey neutron counts to soil moisture and discuss the factors controlling soil moisture variability. We use independent gravimetric and modelled soil moisture estimates collected across both space and time to validate rover soil moisture products. Measurements revealed that temporal patterns in soil moisture were preserved through time and regression modelling approaches were utilised to produce time series of property-scale soil moisture which may also have applications in calibration and validation studies or local farm management. Intensive-scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution while broad-scale surveys produced soil moisture estimates at 9 km resolution. We conclude that the multiscale soil moisture products produced in this study are well suited to future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer-scale soil moisture models.

  16. Development of an Aquarius Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.; Zhao, T.; Cosh, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Aquarius observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to land applications through the retrieval of soil moisture. This research increases the value and impact of the Aquarius mission by including a broader scientific community, allowing the exploration of new algorithm approaches that exploit the active-passive observations, and will contribute to a better understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle. The first stage of our Aquarius soil moisture research focused on the use of the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage that this type of observations has in soil moisture applications. The calibration of the Aquarius radiometer over the entire dynamic range is a key element for the successful implementation of the soil moisture algorithm. Results to date indicate that the Aquarius observations are well calibrated for ocean targets but have a warm bias over land. This bias needed to be addressed if the Aquarius observations are to be used in land applications. Our approach was to use the gain and offsets computed using the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) comparisons to adjust the Aquarius brightness temperatures. The Single Channel Algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations. SCA is also the baseline algorithm for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture product. Aquarius radiometer observations from the three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) surface temperature model forecast were then used to estimate soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters derived based on land cover. The spatial patterns of the soil moisture estimates are consistent with the climatology

  17. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  18. Moisture management properties of Cupro knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durur, G.; Oner, E.; Gunduz, G.

    2017-10-01

    On the purpose of analysing the moisture management behaviour of Cupro blend knitted fabrics made of Ne 40/1 and Ne 56/1 cotton/Cupro blend yarns, which have single jersey, 1x1 rib and interlock knitting types were systematically produced. Multi-dimensional liquid transport properties of the produced fabric were measured on the Moisture Management Tester (MMT). The air permeability and some structural properties of the fabrics were also measured, and the results were evaluated taking into account moisture management properties. According to results, it is observed that moisture management capacity and permeability of Cupro blends produced from finer yarns were higher than those of fabrics from coarse count yarns. Generally, Cupro blend knitted fabrics showed good moisture management properties.

  19. Calibration of Soil Moisture Measurement Using Pr2 Moisture Meter and Gravimetric-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research study strongly focused on creating strong mechanism for measuring and evaluating soil moisture content comparing PR2 capacitance moisture meter and gravimetric approach. PR2 moisture meter shows a better performance accuracy of ± 6%; 0.06 m 3 /m 3 and intercept a0 =1.8; indicating the field is heavy clay. It measures to 1000 mm depth with high precision; while realistic result could not be obtained from gravimetric method at this measuring depth. Therefore, effective soil moisture measuring, monitoring and evaluation can be achieved with PR2 moisture meter.

  20. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  1. Loss of Kdm5c Causes Spurious Transcription and Prevents the Fine-Tuning of Activity-Regulated Enhancers in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Scandaglia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During development, chromatin-modifying enzymes regulate both the timely establishment of cell-type-specific gene programs and the coordinated repression of alternative cell fates. To dissect the role of one such enzyme, the intellectual-disability-linked lysine demethylase 5C (Kdm5c, in the developing and adult brain, we conducted parallel behavioral, transcriptomic, and epigenomic studies in Kdm5c-null and forebrain-restricted inducible knockout mice. Together, genomic analyses and functional assays demonstrate that Kdm5c plays a critical role as a repressor responsible for the developmental silencing of germline genes during cellular differentiation and in fine-tuning activity-regulated enhancers during neuronal maturation. Although the importance of these functions declines after birth, Kdm5c retains an important genome surveillance role preventing the incorrect activation of non-neuronal and cryptic promoters in adult neurons.

  2. Using vitamin E to prevent the impairment in behavioral test, cell loss and dendrite changes in medial prefrontal cortex induced by tartrazine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Ali; Nourzei, Nasrin; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Tartrazine is a food color that may adversely affect the nervous system. Vitamin E is a neuro-protective agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tartrazine and vitamin E on the performance of rats in memory and learning tests as well as the structure of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). The rats were first divided into seven groups which received the followings for a period of seven weeks: distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), a low dose (50mg/kg/day) and a high dose (50mg/kg/day) of tartrazine with and without vitamin E. Behavioral tests were conducted and the brain was extracted for stereological methods The high dose of tartrazine decreased the exploration time of novel objects (Ptartrazine led into an increase in working and reference memory errors in acquisition and retention phases (eight-arm radial maze) compared to distilled water group (Ptartrazine induced a reduction in the volume of mPFC (∼13%) and its subdivision. Not only that, but the number of neurons and glial cells (∼14%) as well as the mushroom and thin spines per dendrite length declined. The length of dendrites per neuron also reduced in comparison to the distilled water group (Ptartrazine prevented the above-mentioned changes. An acceptable daily dose of tartrazine could induce impairment in spatial memory and dendrite structure. Moreover, a high dose of tartrazine may defect the visual memory, mPFC structure, the spatial memory and also cause dendrite changes. Vitamin E could prevent the behavioral and structural changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

  4. MoisturEC: A New R Program for Moisture Content Estimation from Electrical Conductivity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Werkema, Dale; Lane, John W

    2018-03-06

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data-analysis tools are needed to "translate" geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user-friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil-moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two- and three-dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. In-line moisture monitoring in fluidized bed granulation using a novel multi-resonance microwave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Johanna; Bartscher, Kathrin; Döscher, Claas; Taute, Wolfgang; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Microwave resonance technology (MRT) is known as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed granulation. It offers a great potential for wet granulation processes even where the suitability of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is limited, e.g. colored granules, large variations in bulk density. However, previous sensor systems operating around a single resonance frequency showed limitations above approx. 7.5% granule moisture. This paper describes the application of a novel sensor working with four resonance frequencies. In-line data of all four resonance frequencies were collected and further processed. Based on calculation of density-independent microwave moisture values multiple linear regression (MLR) models using Karl-Fischer titration (KF) as well as loss on drying (LOD) as reference methods were build. Rapid, reliable in-process moisture control (RMSEP≤0.5%) even at higher moisture contents was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin receptor substrate 1 gene variation modifies insulin resistance response to weight-loss diets in a 2-year randomized trial: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qibin; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2011-08-02

    Common genetic variants in the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene have been recently associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. We examined whether the best-associated variant modifies the long-term changes in insulin resistance and body weight in response to weight-loss diets in Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial. We genotyped IRS1 rs2943641 in 738 overweight adults (61% were women) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient contents for 2 years. We assessed the progress in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and weight loss by genotypes. At 6 months, participants with the risk-conferring CC genotype had greater decreases in insulin (P=0.009), HOMA-IR (P=0.015), and weight loss (P=0.018) than those without this genotype in the highest-carbohydrate diet group whereas an opposite genotype effect on changes in insulin and HOMA-IR (P≤0.05) was observed in participants assigned to the lowest-carbohydrate diet group. No significant differences were observed across genotypes in the other 2 diet groups. The tests for genotype by intervention interactions were all significant (P<0.05). At 2 years, the genotype effect on changes in insulin and HOMA-IR remained significant in the highest-carbohydrate diet group (P<0.05). The highest carbohydrate diet led to a greater improvement of insulin and HOMA-IR (P for genotype-time interaction ≤0.009) in participants with the CC genotype than those without this genotype across 2-year intervention. Individuals with the IRS1 rs2943641 CC genotype might obtain more benefits in weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance than those without this genotype by choosing a high-carbohydrate and low-fat diet. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00072995.

  7. Genetic variation of habitual coffee consumption and glycemic changes in response to weight-loss diet intervention: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liyuan; Ma, Wenjie; Sun, Dianjianyi; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Duan, Donghui; Bray, J George A; Champagne, Catherine M; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2017-11-01

    Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention. Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used general linear models to test changes in glycemic traits in groups randomly assigned to high- and low-fat diets according to tertiles of the GRS. Results: We observed significant interactions between the GRS and low compared with high dietary fat intake on 6-mo changes in fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( P -interaction = 0.023 and 0.022, respectively), adjusting for age, sex, race, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, seasonal variation, and baseline values of the respective outcomes. Participants with a higher GRS of habitual coffee consumption showed a greater reduction in fasting insulin and a marginally greater decrease in HOMA-IR in the low-fat diet intervention group. Conclusions: Our data suggest that participants with genetically determined high coffee consumption may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet in improving fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in a short term. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995 and NCT03258203. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.

    2011-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted notion that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at a given relative humidity (RH) is highest during initial desorption of green wood due to an irreversible loss of hygroscopicity during the 1st desorption. The basis for this notion is investigated by assessing...

  9. Using soil temperature and moisture to predict forest soil nitrogen mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of N in forest productivity ecosystem and nutrient cycling research often includes measurement of soil N transformation rates as indices of potential availability and ecosystem losses of N. We examined the feasibility of using soil temperature and moisture content to predict soil N mineralization rates (Nmin) at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory...

  10. NOAA Soil Moisture Products System (SMOPS) Daily Blended Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) combines soil moisture retrievals from multiple satellite sensors to provide a global soil moisture map with...

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid and L-Carnitine prevent ATP loss in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joey Wee-Shan; Ho, Christabel Fung-Yih; Ng, Yee-Kong; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most commonly used nanomaterials, but thus far, little is known about ways to mitigate against potential toxic effects of exposure. In this study, we examined the potential effects of AgNPs on mitochondrial function and cellular ATP levels, and whether these could be prevented by treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and L-carnitine (LC). Acute exposure of AgNPs for 1 h to SH-SY5Y cells resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased ATP and ADP levels, indicating mitochondrial damage and reduced production of ATP. Incubation of cells with DHA partially reduced, while treatment with LC and DHA completely abolished the AgNP induced decreases in ATP and ADP levels. This could be due to a LC-facilitated entry of DHA to mitochondria, for repair of damaged phospholipids. It is postulated that DHA and LC may be useful for treatment of accidental environmental exposure to AgNPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sialoglycoproteins prepared from the eggs of Carassius auratus prevent bone loss by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanghua; Wang, Jingfeng; Sun, Shuhong; Zhao, Yanlei; Wang, Yiming; Yu, Zhe; Wang, Shanshan; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the improvement of osteoporosis by sialoglycoproteins isolated from the eggs of Carassius auratus (Ca-SGP) in ovariectomized rats. Ca-SGP was supplemented to ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. The results showed that Ca-SGP treatment remarkably prevented the reduction of bone mass, improved cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties. Ca-SGP also significantly decreased the serum contents of TRAP, Cath-K, MMP-9, DPD, CTX-1, Ca, and P. Mechanism investigation revealed that Ca-SGP significantly increased the OPG/RANKL ratio in mRNA expression, protein expression and serum content. Further research suggested that NF-κB signaling pathways were inhibited by suppressing the mRNA and protein expressions of NFATc1 and TRAF6, diminishing the mRNA expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, three key transcription factors in NF-κB pathways. These results suggest that Ca-SGP can improve osteoporosis by inhibiting bone resorption via suppressing the activation of osteoclastogenesis related NF-κB pathways.

  13. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangying; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xinkai; Guo, Wenshan; Ding, Jinfeng; Li, Chunyan

    2018-01-01

    Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June) had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November) and the over-wintering stage (December-February). Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  14. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Xu

    Full Text Available Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November and the over-wintering stage (December-February. Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  15. In-feed bambermycin medication induces anti-inflammatory effects and prevents parietal cell loss without influencing Helicobacter suis colonization in the stomach of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Chloë; Taminiau, Bernard; Flahou, Bram; Hautekiet, Veerle; Daube, Georges; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2018-04-10

    The minimum inhibitory concentration of bambermycin on three porcine Helicobacter suis strains was shown to be 8 μg/mL. The effect of in-feed medication with this antibiotic on the course of a gastric infection with one of these strains, the host response and the gastric microbiota was determined in mice, as all of these parameters may be involved in gastric pathology. In H. suis infected mice which were not treated with bambermycin, an increased number of infiltrating B-cells, T-cells and macrophages in combination with a Th2 response was demonstrated, as well as a decreased parietal cell mass. Compared to this non-treated, infected group, in H. suis infected mice medicated with bambermycin, gastric H. suis colonization was not altered, but a decreased number of infiltrating T-cells, B-cells and macrophages as well as downregulated expressions of IL-1β, IL-8M, IL-10 and IFN-γ were demonstrated and the parietal cell mass was not affected. In bambermycin treated mice that were not infected with H. suis, the number of infiltrating T-cells and expression of IL-1β were lower than in non-infected mice that did not receive bambermycin. Gastric microbiota analysis indicated that the relative abundance of bacteria that might exert unfavorable effects on the host was decreased during bambermycin supplementation. In conclusion, bambermycin did not affect H. suis colonization, but decreased gastric inflammation and inhibited the effects of a H. suis infection on parietal cell loss. Not only direct interaction of H. suis with parietal cells, but also inflammation may play a role in death of these gastric acid producing cells.

  16. CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of p19INK4d avoids DNA damage-induced neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus and prevents loss of cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, María Florencia; Belluscio, Laura M; de la Fuente, Verónica; Berardino, Bruno G; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Byk, Laura; Marazita, Mariela; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2014-07-01

    DNA damage, which perturbs genomic stability, has been linked to cognitive decline in the aging human brain, and mutations in DNA repair genes have neurological implications. Several studies have suggested that DNA damage is also increased in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanisms connecting DNA damage with neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. CDK5, a critical enzyme in the development of the central nervous system, phosphorylates a number of synaptic proteins and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. In addition to these physiological roles, CDK5 has been involved in the neuronal death initiated by DNA damage. We hypothesized that p19INK4d, a member of the cell cycle inhibitor family INK4, is involved in a neuroprotective mechanism activated in response to DNA damage. We found that in response to genotoxic injury or increased levels of intracellular calcium, p19INK4d is transcriptionally induced and phosphorylated by CDK5 which provides it with greater stability in postmitotic neurons. p19INK4d expression improves DNA repair, decreases apoptosis and increases neuronal survival under conditions of genotoxic stress. Our in vivo experiments showed that decreased levels of p19INK4d rendered hippocampal neurons more sensitive to genotoxic insult resulting in the loss of cognitive abilities that rely on the integrity of this brain structure. We propose a feedback mechanism by which the neurotoxic effects of CDK5-p25 activated by genotoxic stress or abnormal intracellular calcium levels are counteracted by the induction and stabilization of p19INK4d protein reducing the adverse consequences on brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  18. Moisture-induced stresses in glulam frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Gislason, Oskar V

    2016-01-01

    Wood is a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive material that seeks to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC) with its surrounding environment. For softwood timber structures exposed to variations in climate throughout their service life, this behaviour results in variable moisture-content gradi......Wood is a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive material that seeks to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC) with its surrounding environment. For softwood timber structures exposed to variations in climate throughout their service life, this behaviour results in variable moisture...... by hand. Accordingly, there is a need for advanced computer tools to study how the long-term stress behaviour of timber structures is affected by creep and cyclic variations in climate. A beam model to simulate the overall hygro-mechanical and visco-elastic behaviour of (inhomogeneous) glulam structures...... is presented. A two-dimensional transient, non-linear moisture transport model for wood is also developed and linked with this beam model. The combined models are used to study the long-term deformations and stresses in a curved frame structure exposed to both mechanical loading and cyclic climate conditions...

  19. Development of a neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron moisture gauge fabricated for measuring the moisture content of coke is described. It has an americium-beryllium source placed beside a boron coated neutron counter which is a slow neutron detector. The fast neutrons emitted by the radioactive source are slowed down by the hydrogen nuclei present in the material either as bound hydrogen or as a hydrogen of the water. Measure of the slowed down i.e. thermal neutrons (their density) is proportional to the total hydrogen content of the material. The instrument is installed as an ''on-line'' measuring device to estimate the moisture content of coke at the weighing hopper feeding the skip car. The accuracy of measurement is dependent on the moisture content, i.e. higher accuracy is obtained for higher moisture content. At low moisture content, the effect of the bound hydrogen other than that of the water on low moisture readings is pronounced. Effect of bulk density on the accuracy of measurement is not very significant as long as the coke size is constant. The error is in the range of +- 1.1%. (M.G.B.)

  20. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms' underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940's. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination

  1. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide enhances salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox homeostasis and preventing salt-induced K⁺ loss in seedlings of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Diwen; Mao, Yu; Zhou, Heng; Li, Feng; Wu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jing; He, Ziyi; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie

    2014-08-01

    Despite the external application of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conferring plant tolerance against various environmental cues, the physiological significance of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES)-associated endogenous H2S production involved in salt-stress signaling was poorly understood. To address this gap, the participation of in planta changes of H2S homeostasis involved in alfalfa salt tolerance was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl (from 50 to 300 mM) progressively caused the induction of total l-DES activity and the increase of endogenous H2S production. NaCl-triggered toxicity symptoms (175 mM), including seedling growth inhibition and lipid peroxidation, were alleviated by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; 100 μM), a H2S donor, whereas aggravated by an inhibitor of l-DES or a H2S scavenger. A weaker or negative response was observed in lower or higher dose of NaHS. Further results showed that endogenous l-DES-related H2S modulated several genes/activities of antioxidant defence enzymes, and also regulated the contents of antioxidant compounds, thus counterbalancing the NaCl-induced lipid peroxidation. Moreover, H2S maintained K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis by preventing the NaCl-triggered K(+) efflux, which might be result form the impairment of SKOR expression. Together, our findings indicated that endogenous H2S homeostasis enhance salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox balance and restraining K(+) efflux in alfalfa seedlings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal–moisture dynamics of embankments with asphalt pavement in permafrost regions of central Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhi; Zhang, Mingli; Ma, Wei; Wu, Qingbai; Niu, Fujun; Yu, Qihao; Fan, Zhaosheng; Sun, Zhizhong

    2014-09-01

    Subsurface moisture content is one of the critical factors that control the thermal dynamics of embankments. However, information on the subsurface moisture movement and distribution in embankments is still limited. To better understand the coupled water and heat transport within embankments, subsurface temperature and moisture of an asphalt pavement highway were extensively measured from 2009 to 2011. Collected data indicate that pure heat conduction is the overall main mechanism of heat transport in the embankment and heat convection plays a relatively unimportant role in heat transport. The results also indicate that subsurface moisture and temperature dynamics in the asphalt layer is strongly related to the rainfall events, while the subsurface moisture content below the road base course maintains relatively constant. Rainfall in summer leads to rapid cooling of the subsurface soil. Our results suggest that frequent and small rainfall events favour the thermal stability of the embankment due to the loss of latent heat of water evaporation. Moisture migration during freezing still occurred in the gravel fill and the water infiltrated into the active layer during thawing period. Freezing-induced water migration may result in the increase in water content of the embankment and the decrease in compactness of gravel fill.

  3. SMEX03 Little Washita Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains volumetric soil moisture, soil temperature, soil conductivity, soil salinity, and surface temperature data collected during the Soil Moisture...

  4. Soil moisture content with global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, K.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The potential greenhouse-gas-induced changes in soil moisture, particularly the desiccation of the Northern Hemisphere contents in summer, are discussed. To check the conclusions based on climate models the authors have used long-term measurements of contemporary soil moisture in the USSR and reconstructions of soil moisture for the last two epochs that were warmer than the present, namely, the Holocene optimum, 5,000-6,000 years ago, and the last interglacial, about 125,000 years ago. The analysis shows that there is a considerable disagreement between the model results and the empirical data

  5. Cone penetrometer moisture probe acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1996-04-23

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer moisture probe and the verification method used (Appendix C).

  6. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  7. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  8. Quality Improvement of the Satellite Soil Moisture Products by Fusing In Situ and GNSS-R Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q.; Xu, H.; Li, T.; Shen, H.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a fundamental role in the hydrological cycle as well as in the energy partitioning. On this basis, it is of great concern to derive a long-term soil moisture time series on a global scale and monitor its temporal and spatial variations for practical applications. Although passive and active microwave satellites have been shown to provide useful retrievals of near-surface soil moisture at regional and global scales, the limitations in retrieval accuracy prevent them from high-quality applications in specific areas. On the other hand, measuring soil moisture straightly through in situdevices, such as soil moisture probes, is high accuracy, but is not able to derive global soil moisture maps. Recently, the ground-based GNSS-R method is emerging in monitoring near-surface soil moisture variations but still over limited spatial scales. In this paper, a multi-source data fusion method was applied to synthesize regional high-quality soil moisture products from 2015 to 2017 in western parts of the continental United States. Firstly, we put all the three soil moisture datasets into the generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model. The input signals of the model are SMOS and SMAP satellite-derived passive level 3 soil moisture daily products combined with date and latitude and longitude information, while the in situ measured and GNSS-R retrieved soil moisture are used as target. Finally, we apply the model to all the soil moisture time series in the experiment area and obtain two high-quality regional soil moisture products for SMOS and SMAP, respectively. The results before fusion show that the correlation coefficients between site-specific soil moisture and satellite-derived soil moisture are 0.39 for SMOS and 0.27 for SMAP and that unbiased root-mean-square errors (ubRMSE) are 0.113 for SMOS and 0.128 for SMAP, respectively. After applying the GRNN-R, the model fitted correlation coefficients have reached 0.72 for SMOS and 0.75 for SMAP and the

  9. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  10. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Lukka, Himu; Cheung, Patrick; Corbett, Tom; Briones-Urbina, Rosario; Vieth, Reinhold; Ehrlich, Lisa; Kiss, Alex; Danjoux, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT

  11. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  12. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  13. Tillage Effect on Soil Moisture Storage and Wheat Yield on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    2008. 1 Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. fassil@ethionet.et. 2District Disaster Prevention and preparedness Commission, North Wello Zone, Delanta Dawunt Woreda, Ethiopia. 49. Tillage Effect on Soil Moisture Storage and Wheat Yield on the ...

  14. Does Greenland need a guideline on how to deal with moisture in the construction phase?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2012-01-01

    Damage to buildings seen in Denmark tends with some delay to turn up in Greenland. This makes it relevant to study buildings with moisture-related problems in Denmark and how they are dealt with in the Danish Building Regulations to prevent the problems from being copied in Greenland. As the requ...

  15. Site Averaged Neutron Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the neutron probe soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  16. CLPX-Ground: ISA Soil Moisture Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of in-situ point measurements of soil moisture within three 25-km by 25-km Meso-cell Study Areas (MSAs) in northern Colorado (Fraser, North...

  17. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  18. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  19. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  20. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...